Manichaean Chronology
Order of Nazorean Essenes
Timeline Compiled by Abba Yesai Nasrai, O:N:E:

216 A.D.  Mar Mani was born in 216 A.D. in Mardinu, a little village in southern Iraq, along the Euphrates river. The date of Mani's birth was probably on the eighth day of the lunar month of Nisan, corresponding to April 14.

228 AD The angel At-Taum appears unto Mani in a vegetarian Elchasite monastery.

240 Mani separated from the Elkasite community in his 24th year, at the end of King Ardashir's reign. In early April of 240, or 241 AD, the angel At-Taum again appeared unto Mani and commanded him, saying: "Now the time has come for you to go out and proclaim your authority. Peace be on you, Mani, from myself and from the Lord who sent me to you and who has chosen you for His Message. He has now bidden you to invite to your truth, and to proclaim the good news of the Truth from before Him,a dn to persevere in that with all your zeal."

242   On the second Sunday after Easter, 20 March, A.D. (or perhaps April 9, 243) Mani first proclaimed  his gospel in the city of the King, Gundesapor, on the coronation day of Sapor I, when vast crowds from all parts were gathered together.

240 or 241 A.D. Mar Mani sailed to India, specifically to the Indus valley which is today's Beluchistan, where he converted a Buddhist King, the Turan Shah of India.

245  Mani traveled to Shapur's court. It is said that the King saw  two torches of light over Mani's shoulders at their first meeting which influenced him to accept the prophetic calling of Mani. There Mani requested and was able to obtain certain royal letters to all the Persian governors telling them not to hinder his mission and to allow him free roam within the kingdom.

255  Zarathustrian magi led by Kartir persuaded Shapur to break with Mani and promote their religion in the empire, causing Mani to go into exile. In the next eighteen years the prophet returned to Khorasan and traveled in central Asia as far as western China, returning by way of Tibet and Kashmir.

272   Zazai immigrated from Media into the Euphrates Valley of Iraq and Iran about 272A.D. Zazai represent one of two branches of the ancient Nazorean followers of John the Baptist and Yeshu.

273 When Shapur died In 273 and was succeeded by his son Hormizd I, governor of Khorasan, the royal Persain court once again supported the Manichaeans; but this support was short lived since he died after reigning but one year.

274   After Hormizd, his  younger brother Vahram then took the throne. He was not a kind king toward Mani and ended the period of toleration Mani and other sects had received. It was a time when the Zarathustrian Priesthood, under Karter, took control of the country and began a period of bitter persecution. Mani tried to meet with the new king at his winter palace in Ctesiphon but failed to do so. Mani was later accused and brought before King Vahram.

274    Zakwa taught in Syria and southern Palestine in 274 while Mani was still teaching.

276   Mani was arrested at Gundev Shapur in 276A.D., was kept in chains until he died 26 days later.

276   Mani died in prison on February 26 in 277A.D. His death was told by two of his disciples - Amu and Ozei, in Mir.

276-289   Four years of persecution occurred after Mani's crucifixion before Sisin could fully re-organize the church.  Manichaeans told AnNadim that "when Mani was taken up to the Gardens of the Light, Sisin arose after him as the Imam before his taking up, and until he too received God's Religion and His Revelation were standing firm." Bahram I is said to have buried 200 Manichaeans with their heads downward in pits and their feet tied to stakes." This evil king is reported to have then said: "See the garden that Bahram the king has planted!"

280   Psattiq carried the teachings of the Light Land to Rome by 280 A.D.  He was in Egypt in 244 and 251 when the Fundamental Epistle was sent to him.

281   Sisin reigned as Imam from 281 to 291, according to the "Book of Crucifixion". During the early years of Sisin Amu went on a missionary journey to central Asia and Addai taught and edited writings in Africa.

287   In 287 the African proconsul Julian warned Diocletian that this strange religion's ideas on sex, war, agriculture, and civic duties endangered Roman society. Diocletian issued a decree.

290   Manichaeism was flourishing in the Fayyum district of Egypt, and the Syrian Psalms of Thomas would soon be translated into Coptic.

291   Terrible persecution arose once again in the Persian empire in 291. Vahram II killed Sisin himself, and many Manichaeans were slaughtered.

291-303   Innai reigned as Imam from 291 to 303. He was known as a great healer. Soon after the murder of Sisin, the King took seriously ill and resorted to Innai's medical expertise to heal him. After his recovery he issued proclamations of tolerance for the Manichaeans and the faith again began to spread easily.

296 The fifth year of Innai's Imamship, Diocletian extended the Christian persecution to the Manichaeans, resulting in numerous martyrs in Egypt and North Africa. During the Persian king Narsi rule, which extended from this same time of 296 to 303, the Manichaeans were left in peace in Persia. This peaceful period resulted in at least two commentaries being written, one on the Mysteries, and the other on the Treasure of Life.

296   On the 30th of march, 296 Diocletian decreed against the Manichaeans that: "We order that their organizers and leaders be subject to the final penalties and condemned to the fire with their abominable scriptures.
298   The religion spread to Lydia and the Balkanss where Manichaean burials were taking place as early as 298.

300   By 300 A.D, a village in India was known as Mani-grama, or Mani's Town.

303 The new king Hormizd II ascended the throne and immediately executed Innai. The next four Manichaean leaders were also killed.

305  Anthony was establishing the first orthodox Christian monastery in Egypt. He is considered by them to be the father of the monastic movement, yet the Manichaean Church had been establishing monasteries all over the known world for decades before this time. Anthony was known for forbidding his monks to have any contact with Manichaeans since so many of them were being converted by the Manichaean Psalms which are so much more beautiful and inspiring than the poorer and meaner Jewish Christian Psalms.

306  Synod of Elvira the growing gentile Pauline church prohibits eating, marriage, sex between Christians & Semetic peoples,  which entailed exclusion of all Essene Nazarene Christians from the growing gentile church.

312 Manichaean monasteries were existent in Rome itself during the time of the Christian Pope Miltiades.

320 Apostle Thomas had died in Egypt and a new enemy of Mani, Hegemonius, was spreading slander and lies in a supposed portrayal of Mani's life called the Acts of Archelaus.

325  Pachomius was founding his form of monasteries on the Nile and Constantine was convening the Nicene Council which would eventually empower Roman Christians with state support. They would later use this power to continue to persecute and ridicule the Manichaean movement.

336   Council of Nicaea, called by Constantine against Arianism (336), called  "1st great Christian council" by Jerome, 318 non-Nazorean bishops attend. Nazarenes and Manichaeans were purposely excluded and legislated against.

340   Coptic translations of Mani's  Kephalia, the Psalm Book and the Homilies had been published.

345   Serapion of Tmuis in Egypt and Titas of Bostra in Iraq were attacking the faith.

348 African accusers were attacking the faith.

350   The Manichaean scholar Aphtonius published his famous Commentary at Alexandria in 350, soon followed by Hierakas' Hexameron Commentary.

354 Hilary of Poitiers would write that the Manichaean faith was a force to be reckoned with in southern France where it would survive far into the middle ages and give birth to later Manichaean like faiths such as the Cathars.

364-388 a Manichaean named Constantius was disguised as a Christian and helping  the Martari to secretly organize Manichaean monasteries there.

366   Mogao caves started in Dunhuang. A Tang Dynasty inscription records that the first cave in the Mogao Grottoes was made in 366 A.D. Despite erosion and man-made destruction, the 492 caves are well preserved, with frescoes covering an area of 45,000 square metres, more than 2,000 colored sculptured figures and five wooden eaves overhanging the caves.

370   Manichaean monasteries were being created in Anatolia by Eustathius.

372 Valentinian I prohibited all Manichaean meetings, and during this period the famous Augustine adopted the Manichaean faith for a decade.

377 Herakleides was writing of their dualistic doctrine in Egypt.  In Alexandria Egypt one Didymus was opposing  two Manichaean sects there - the vegetarian Saddikini and the Sammakini who were said to be immune to poison.

38l Christians urged Theodosius I to take away Manichaean civil rights in 381.

381-389 Theodosius I was decreeing more laws against the Manichaeans, that their monks be put to death in 382, that the remaining be exiled in 384, and in 389 all their property was to be confiscated in Rome.  The decree of death to all Manichaean monks in 382 may have been why Augustine abandoned the faith in that same year.

382   Theodosius I decreed Manichaean elders put to death.

383   Theodosius banished all Manichaeans. Exile was again decreed by Valentinian II.

385   Manichaean Bishop Faustus of Carthage is exiled to an island for his faith.

389 In Rome Manichaean  property was confiscated.

399 By the end of the century the Treasure was being taught in Spain, Portugal and Galacia by Mark of Memphis despite the persecutions of Christian Bishops like Evodius of Uzzala, and the Manichaean movement was continuing to spread veganism and the worship of the Hidden Living Ones throughout the western and eastern empires. During the last century Buddhist cave temples, the world's largest, are carved into the mountainsides in Dunhuang, China. The secret of silk-making leaks out along the Silk Road's westward route. Bamiyan, 240 kilometers northwest of Kabul, Afghanistan, had become one of the greatest Buddhist monastic communities in all Central Asia by the 4th century.

404  Julia of Antioch converted the whole city of Gaza to Mani's Religion of Light with her teachings, and Philon was converting souls in the Sinai where the Treasure and the Mysteries were being circulated.

405  Augustine wrote against the Manichaeans and against one of their priests named Felix who had been captured with five of Mani's  scriptures.

407   Manichaean texts could only be circulated secretly. If found with them, one would be tried for heresy and possibly burned along with them.  Ado of Adiabene was teaching the faith near the Karun River of Iraq and the elect were known to be numerous at that time in Armenia.

440   Mani's texts were still being circulated in Syria, Palestine and in North Africa, according to Rabboulas of Edessa.

443   Pope Leo searched out clandestine Manichaeans,a nd burned their beautiful books at the doors of his churches. He then banished all Manichaeans from Italy. His ways inspired another rash of persecution in Gaul, Sicily, Galacia,  and North Africa.

443  Valentinian III refreshed the older Honorian Law against the Manichaeans from 405.

446   Persecution of Buddhism by Toba Turkic king

448  Decree by Theodosius to exile the Manichaeans and a harsh persecution in Persian lands by Yesdijerd II. During the reign of Feroz a certain Battai, known as a Kantean Gnostic, became a Manichaean and edited the scriptures and established a new sect in the Church.

450-494   Yunkang cave temples begun.

450-750  Buddhist caves started in Kizil, Xinjiang

495   Pope Gelasius repeated Pope Leo's cruel torture against the Religion of Light in Rome. This was offset somewhat by great Manichaean growth and success in the courts and lands of Constantinople to the east. Thus the faith of Mani continued to spread despite bitter persecution.

494-524  Mazdak created an unusual expression of our Order that lasted about 30 years. Under the pretext of arranging a debate, they gathered Mazdak and his followers in the royal garden and buried them there alive. The King then had  80,000 Mazdakians and orthodox Manichaeans killedl. Mazdak's  teachings survived his death  and later inspired movements like Abu-Muslim Khorasani, Babak Khoramdin, and Sarbedaran in later years.

510  Pope of Rome had again found enough Manichaean books to again burn them in public.

515-528   Queen Hu of Toba sent the Buddhist pilgrim Sung Yun to northwestern India.

520   Another public burning happened in 520.

525 Justin I again ordered death for anyone refusing to denounce Mani and his religion.

526 Defection of one Prosper in 526.  His "Abjuration" became a model denouncement for all Manichaeans who converted downward to Catholicism.

529   Benedict founded Cassino and began a thrust of Catholic style monasticism. His Rule was based on the older Rule of the Master, which itself was greatly dependent on far older and truer Rules of our Order.  During this same period  Eustathius was accusing Severus of being a crypto-Manichaean.  Two copies of the Manichaean "Two Roots" were discovered in a Constantinople library  and one Zarachias wrote seven refutations of them while a fellow herisiologist named Paul the Persian was attacking the Manichaean preacher Photinus.

543  Persian translation of the CMT existed.

563-567   Turks took over Soghdiana between 563 and 567, and showed tolerance for the many followers of Mani who lived in that land.

570 No overt expressions of Mani's teachings could exist in the western world then being dominated by the Popes and Pauline Christian bigotry. Certainly such exited, but not openly or overtly.  It could exist more openly in the near east in places like Antioch.

584 A supposed miracle of a self lighting candle whilst a Manichaean priest sought permission of the Turks to teach the Religion of Light created an atmosphere where the doctrines of Mani were freely taught for many centuries under their tolerant rule.

590  Turks conquered Tokharistan, Balkh, Heart and other provinces, opening the door for them to become Manichaean. Syrian Nestorians brought into Armenia copies of an "Explanation of Mani's Gospel" at this time period.

591-604   As the century grew to a close, Pope Gregory I who sat on the papal throne from 590 to 604, again found it pleasurable to persecute and kill Mani's children and books who were again appearing in great numbers in Africa, Sicily and Calabria.

601 - 636 Isidore waged a hardened attack against all things Manichaean in Seville from 601 to 636

618  Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) is established in China. Receptive to foreign cultural influences, Buddhism continues to flourish

620  Manichaeanism had spread eastward over the Silk Road and had penetrated China. The Denawar expression of Manichaeanism which developed in these eastern lands along the Silk Road was being called T'i-na-pa in China.  The vegan philosophy of Mani was gaining ground all over the known world and defenders of Roman Christianity were working hard to destroy it by persecution, torture and propaganda.

630 Theodore of Raithai was condemning Manichaeanism  near Arabia in 630. Hiouen-tsang reports the followers of Mani were the dominant faith near Merv in western Turkestan.

638  Through the work of Christian missionaries, Christianity begins to take root in China.

640   In about 640 A.D. a Ramuia  edited and interpolated texts, forming the present body of scriptures used by the Mandai. in the Haran Gawaitha it speaks of this Zazai and six others who transcribed texts about 272 A.D., thus creating an apostate branch of our Order that turned into the modern Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran.

650-699  During at least part of the last half of this seventh century an Abu Yahya arRais, or Abba John of Raid, was the known by Islam as the Imam, or Arkhegos,  of the Manichaeans.

651  Islamic Jihad under Khalid took Persia and became the state religion there, wiping out the old Mazdean enemy of the Manichaeans. Islam was tolerant of Manichaeanism  and considered it a religion of the book, protected by Quranic law. Islam even understood Manichaeanism to be a faith that worshipped one God,d espite the many titles of angels and divine beings utilized by the faith of Mani.

645  Tibet Buddhism was established in Llasa where it mixed with Manichaeanism which had entered into Tibet from the west and north, creating the Path of Vajrayana, or Tibetan Tantric Buddhism. The main center of Manichaeanism was more east and north of the Oxus, extending out into the Pamir plain. Many Chinese mercenaries who had come to that region to fight in the Persian wars embraced this faith of Mani.

650   Manichaeanism had entered China proper and would be a force to be reckoned with there for more than a thousand years. At this same time a Paul and his brother John of Callinice founded the Manichaean-like sect of the Paulicians in Armenia. Constans II immediately began waging war against them.

658  Kucha developed to be a leading center of Hinayana Buddhism and the paintings were found at the cave temples of Kizil (near Kucha).

661    Ummaiyad dynasty took power in 661, Manichaeanism was again branded as a heresy because of its past associations with the previous toppled government. The sect of Zandiqs, or Tsaddigin Elect, were labled a pernicious heresy and its books were burned.

668   Taoist Book Hwa-hu-king was banned in China. This work was Manichaean and spoke of the "Three Times" and the "Two Sources". It also taught  that Lao-Tzu, the founder of Taoism, later reincarnated as Mo-Moni, or Mar Mani (Mani the Lord) and as Buddha.

670-692   Manichaeanism existed in eastern Turkestan where the Uighur Turks were intermixing with Iranians and Scyths. Manichaeanism, along with Buddhism, became extremely prevalent in this area. Manichaeanism tended to express itself in Buddhist terminology in this land. This Buddhist Manichaeanism mix, of which Mani would have been proud, had a profound influence of Mahayana Buddhism which would soon become the dominant form of Buddhism. Manichaean elements are especially discernable in Buddhist schools such as the pure land sect and continued to influence the unique development of Vajrayana Buddhism in Tibet.

682-745   Kok Turks abandoned Buddhism and returned to nomadic religion.

690 Manichaean sect of the Denewar had crept back into Iraq to some degree.

694-700   Aftadan, or Fu-tuo-tan, one of the 70 Overseers of the Manichaean Church, had translated the "Two Sources" into Chinese and had taken it to the Chinese Court by 700. On his way to China he traveled through Kashgar, Kucho and Karashahr where Manichaeanism was strong. The land of Maralbashi and the Sassian Kingdom, east of Kashgar, was totally Manichaean. The Religion of Mani was the state religion there. It  also had translations of Manichaean texts in its own tongue by this time. In this Manichaean land a whole month was known as a month of fasting, and Manichaean terms from Sogdia were found in the official state Calendar.

699   At Constantinople a Leontius stated near the close of the century that the Manichaean canon of scripture included the Gospel of Thomas, Philip, the Gnostic Infancy, and the Heptalogue of Agapius.

705-715 a Manichaean elect named Zad-hormizd founded a new sect of Manichaeanism at Ctesiphon, Iraq that was even more strict than the eastern Denewar sect. This new sect of Zad-hormizd  attracted many from the Media Hills and from Kurdistan.

715-731   The Roman Church, under Pope Gregory II was still actively persecuting Manichaeans in Sicily and in the west during his tenure.

719  Ti-sho, King of Tokharistan, sent one of the Manichaean 12 Apostles to China with letters of recommendation that the Emporer build a Manichaean temple there. Within two years at least some Manichaean Temples existed in China, being known as the Ming-kiao, or Religion of Light.

722   Zad-hormizd  successor was Miqlas who took leadership in 722.

727   Hadda was a center of Hinayana (Small Vehicle). Bamiyan, described by Xuan Zang in the 7th century, practiced Hinayana Buddhism whereas by 727 AD, another visitor Hui-chao described the monastery devoting to Mahayana (Big Vehicle) Buddhism.

729 The planetary week of the Manichaeans was established in China with Manichaean names.

730   The Paulicians of Armenia continued to grow, being led by Constantine and Simeon about 730, who were succeeded by Paul II, then Gegnasius and Theodore.

731 CMT was translated into Chinese by imperial order.

732 An edict restricted the worship of the Buddha Mani to foreigners known as the "Masters of the Hu of the West". Other texts circulated also. The Denewar sect was officially allowed into Bagdad during this period provided they kept separate from the stricter Miqlasis sect and remained loyal to the Mihr sect and Imam in Babylonia who were officially recognized by the Islamic government. By the middle of the century the Miqlasis were led by their Imam Buzurmihr, whilst the Mihriyand were led by Abu Sa-id Raha from Rai and then Abu Hillal adDehuri from Africa. These two sects had at least some influence on the teachings of various Sufi orders which began to arise about this time.

747   The eighth century saw the glorious rise of Padmasambhava and Yeshay Tzogyal in the land of Tibet where they vivified the Manichaean and Buddhist mixture that came to be known as Vajrayana, the third and highest vehicle of Buddhism. Their particular expression became so strong by 747 that more outward and traditional forms of Manichaeanism no longer prevailed in the more southern portions of their land of snows.

757   Manichaeanism  was still the strongest religion and was the state religion of the Uighur Kingdom which by 757 stretched from northern Tibet all the way to the Yellow River in China.

759   Chinese Buddhist monk Wu-kung visited Gandhara between 759-764, he found there Buddhist temples, which as he believed, were built by the Turkish kings

760-780 Manichaean texts were being translated into Turkish by such Manichaean scholars as Jouei-si. This scholar, and three other monks, were sent to Turfan near Kocho by the Uighur King. The eastern capital of the Tang dynasty was reading  the Shapur-aqan, the Gospel, and the Epistle to Hata at this same time.

762   Uighur King converts to Manichaeanism.

762  Pehlevi Book of Prayers was begun in Turfan where the Manichaean Leader, or "King of the Religion", resided within the Uighar State that had embraced and championed Manichaeanism. Thousands of Buddhists are known to have converted to it at this time.

765    Permission to build temples in four other provincial capitals in Tangtseu wre granted. These were designated to be built according to Manichaean standards at Hou-pei, Kiang-su, Kiang-si, and Tcho-Kiang. These were built for the "Light of the Great Clouds" which was the name of the monastic Order of Manichaean monks and nuns known for their white robes and coiffures.

c765   Constantine V brought many of these Paulicians from Melitene to Thrace where they flourished and would later influence the Bogomile sect.

768   Temples of Mani arose in Lo-yang and Tch'ang-ngan.

772 Exact and literal translations of Manichaean texts began to surface in Arabic around Bagdad and many were converted.

775   Paul II's grandson Zacharias was their leader, followed by Joseph and Baaness his disciple

775-785   AlMahdi killed thousands of these during his reign from 775 to 785 and secret Manichaeans were being accused or hunted throughout this Islamic state.

781  During the Tang dynasty (618-906), Dunhuang surrendered to the Tibetans after ten years' resistance.

790-795 translations and new creations of Manichaean texts were finished at Turfan and Kocho under the auspice of the Master Yazd-Mari-Aryansha at Turfan.

799  Manichaean "Masters" were being ordered by Chinese authorities to pray for rain, indicating their prestige, numbers  and renown in that land.

800  Manichaean skill and reverence for their texts was still being admired even by their enemies who would complain of their great beauty and precious metal and jewel inlays.

806   The Manichaean presence in the Uighur kingdom had continued unabated. By 806 it was reported that the Manichaeans there drank only water and used no milk or meat in any form. They were also said to not eat until evening.

807   The Chinese government built many temples for the Manichaeans as acts of piety. Two were requested of them on 22nd of February, 807. Also in 807 the Paulicians were given full civil rights under Sergius and Theodotus their leaders.

809   There was a rebellion in the area of Samarqand, in central Uzbekistan, where Manichaeans were calling themselves Sabaeans so as to fall under the Quranic toleration afforded this group, By calling themselves  Sabaeans the Manichaeans were being truthful inasmuch as the roots of their order went back to the Sabbaean Baptists sects of the middle east.  All were forced to spit on an icon of Mani or be put to death. The Miqlasi Imam of that period was Iazdanbakht, He was known for his dreams and criticized for them in Mihrite Manichaean criticisms.

812   A brutal persecution arose under one Michael which resulted in 10,000 Manichaeans being slain who would not curse Mani's name.

815  Paulicians rebelled and had to flee the country to escape persecution which would last another 10 years. They returned to Melitene.

820    Manichaeans were at peace in a dynasty of Turks at Khorassan.

830   Mani's writings were still being read in Constantinople in 830 by Nicephorus and others.

841  Uighar Kingdom of Manichaeans was overrun and by the next year China had begun to pass laws against them forbidding them to live anywhere except Kansu and Uighur. Uighur Turks were driven out from Mongolia and many settled in the area of the northern Tarim oases, mainly Turfan from 850 to 1250.

842   Two of five Manichaean Temples  in Yangtesu were closed in 842 and the monks were driven northward.

843  Religion of Light of Mani was declared totally forbidden, all her books and images were to be burned, her shrines closed, and her members property confiscated. The Manichaeans continued to meet at night and in disguise.  During the next seven years the Uighurs scattered south, south west and south east and the kingdoms of Khocho, Kantcheou, Khotan and Yurfan were created, all Manichaean states.

843  70 Manichaeans were killed in Bagdad which caused them to go incognito in the dress of their Muslim neighbors.

845  As the Tang Dynasty declines further, the Imperial government suppresses Buddhism, concerned about the religion's growing power. They destroy 4600 temples and persecute almost 300,000 monks and nuns.

848   Dunhuang taken back from the  Tibetans when Chinese rule was restored in 848

860's or 870's a great collection of Manichaean texts were deposited at Turfan whilst these same texts were be condemned and burned in the west under Basil I.

872 A history of the Zandiqs was written by one AlYaqubi. By then end of this century the Manichaean texts were no longer available or known in the west.

900-902   At the beginning of the tenth century there were at least 300 Manichaeans in Bagdad. All these, and other Manichaeans were exiled out of Iraq in 902. Some went to Khorassan and some went to Samarqand with their Imam, only to have 500 of their number arrested.

907  China's enlightened Tang Dynasty collapses (907 A.D.). Buddhism declines further, and Central Asia loses its preeminence as the crossroads of Indian and Chinese culture. The Chinese government bans foreign religions. The Uigher people of Xinjiang, who ironically were responsible for the spread of Buddhism into parts of central Asia, now embrace Islam. Kirghiz Turks establish kingdoms in the nearby trading cities of Dunhuang and Turfan.

910  Cathar movement had arisen in the west.

920   Manichaeans supported an unsuccessful revolt in China, and were accused of celebrated vile nocturnal rites.

In 930 the Manichaeans had a powerful and successful state in Toghuzghuz with its king Nsar among their converts.  This state forced the Khorassan government to cease exiling Manichaeans from its borders, and instead accept a tax from them.  Four of Mani's books were known in Bagdad at this time, including Giants, Mysteries, Treasure and Shapur-aqan.

940  AnNadim found them still in the public library there, together with the Pragmateiq, Precepts, and 76 Epistles.

950   Manichaeans were also being accused of using their books for sorcery.

951   On April 4th, 951 a delegation of Manichaeans set out from Kansu with gifts to appease the Chinese government.

960   Cathari type Manichaean movement  grew greatly in 960 due to the preaching in Thrace, Bosnia and Bulgaria by "Bogo-mil", "the friend of God". Such spread into Istria and Venetia as well. Cathars or Albigensians was the name given this particular heretical sect which flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries, mainly in Italy and regions of southern France.

961 Manichaean King of Religion sent more gifts from western Tibet. These attempts were apparently successful since by 971 they were again exorcising demons in China.

971   Manichaeans were again exorcising demons in China

981   Manichaean Temples were also reported in Turkish areas and Khorassan in 981-984.

987  Gardizi the Arab found that most in the capital city were still Manichaean and that 300 or 400 would meet daily at the house of the Prefect to recite Mani's books, salute him, and then return home.

988   AnNadim, utilizing the records extant there, published his account of Mani in his Fihrist. He knew only 5 Manichaeans in Baghdad then, called Achari, but others lived as Sabbaeans in smaller villages.

988   Manichaean haven in Khorassan destroyed by political upheaval.

999   As the century drew to a close, the writer Biruni claimed that it took him 14 years to acquire a copy of Mani's Mysteries. Western Uighur was still mostly Manichaean, as were many in Tibet and Turkestan, but few could be found further west outside of Samarqand.

1008   Emperor Lin-she-tch'and put two Manichaean books into the Taoist canon of scripture.

1019 Revised Taoist canon was secretly ciculating in Fukien and was put into Lao-Tzu's great temple in Honan.

1022   New Manichaeans were first discovered in Aquitania and Orleans, in 1022, in Arras, 1025, in Monteforte near Turin, 1030, in Goslar, 1025. They taught a dualistic antagonism between God and matter, a docetic view of the humanity of Christ, opposed the worship of saints and images, and rejected the whole Catholic church with all the material means of grace, for which they substituted a spiritual baptism, a spiritual eucharist, and a symbol of initiation by the imposition of hands. Some resolved the life of Christ into a myth or symbol of the divine life in every man. They generally observed an austere code of morals, abstained from animal food. Thirteen New Manichaeans were condemned to the stake at Orleans in 1022. Similar executions occurred in other places. At Milan the heretics were left the choice either to bow before the cross, or to die; but the majority plunged into the flames.

1025  More orthodox Taoists and Buddhists rejected Mani's two books and returned the canon to its former state.

1025    Supposed Cathari heretics, who acknowledged that they were disciples of the Italian Gundulf, appeared at Liège and Arras. Upon their recantation, perhaps more apparent than real, they were left unmolested.

1230 John of Lugio, or of Bergamo, introduced innovations into the traditional Cathari  system, which was defended by his father Balasinansa, or Belesmagra, the Catharist Bishop of Verona. Towards the year 1230 John became the leader of a new party composed of the younger and more independent elements of the sect.

1035   Cathari  was being openly taught in Turan Italy. The Bogomili in the East professed this dualism in a modified form. In the West, the Albanenses in Italy and almost all the non-Italian Cathari were rigid Dualists; mitigated Dualism prevailed among the Bagnolenses and Concorrezenses, who were more numerous than the Albanenses in Italy, though but little represented abroad.

1045 The sectarians appeared again at Châlons under Bishop Roger II (1043-65), who in 1045 applied to his fellow-bishop, Wazo of Liège, for advice regarding their treatment. The latter advised indulgence. No manifestation of the heresy in North France is recorded during the second half of the eleventh century; its secret existence, however, cannot be doubted.

1030-1040   Upper Italy was, after Southern France, the principal seat of the heresy. Between 1030-1040 an important Catharist community was discovered at the castle of Monteforte near Asti in Piedmont. Some of the members were seized by the Bishop of Asti and a number of noblemen of the neighbourhood, and, on their refusal to retract, were burned.

1052 In Germany it appeared principally in the Rhine lands. Some members were apprehended in 1052 at Goslar in Hanover and hanged by order of the emperor, Henry III.

1114 Several Cathari had been captured in the Diocese of Soissons were seized and burned by the populace while their case was under discussion at the Council of Beauvais. Others were either threatened with, or actually met a similar fate at Liège in 1144; some of them were spared owing only to the energetic intervention of the local bishop, Adalbero II. During the rest of the twelfth century, Cathari appeared in rapid succession in different places.

1120   Manichaeans, whose chiefs wore black robes and violet headgear, were involved in the Fang-la revolt in China.

1150   Cathari was dominant in southern France and also strong in Italy and Lombardy.

1159   Thirty Cathari, German in race and speech, left an unknown place, perhaps Flanders, to seek refuge in England. Their proselytizing efforts were rewarded by the temporary conversion of one woman. They were detected in 1166 and handed over to the secular power by the bishops of the Council of Oxford. Henry II ordered them to be scourged, branded on the forehead, and cast adrift in the cold of winter, and forbade any of his subjects to shelter or succour them. They all perished from hunger or exposure.

1166   Followers of Mazdak still survived in Samarqand, Tashkent, Ilak, and Susiana. Some Mani books were still known in Antioch in 1166-1199.

1160    Hong-mai called the Religion of Light, started by Mo-Moni the fifth Buddha, a perverse sect. The fifth Buddha refers to the Maitreya prophesied by Buudha. Manichaeans claimed Mani was this promised savior.

1160   Bema rite of Mani was celebrated at Koln, Germany.

1162   Henry, Archbishop of Reims, while on a visit to Flanders, found Cathari widely spread in that part of his ecclesiastical province. Upon his refusal of a bribe of six hundred marks, which they are said to have offered him for toleration, the heretics appealed to the pope, Alexander III, who was inclined to mercy in spite of King Louis VII's advocacy of rigorous measures.

1166 An intense condemnation of the Manichaeans was launched which condemned them for being stubborn vegetarians and condemning the meat eating of the Confusians. They were also said to conduct "vile rituals" at night and to wear white robes with black hats.

1167    Manichaeans had their own church council at Toulouse, attended by 5 French Bishops and two from Lombardy and Constantinople.

1167   At Vézelay in Burgundy seven Cathari were burned in 1167. Towards the end of the century the Count of Flanders, Phililp I, was remarkable for his severity towards them, and the Archbishop of Reims, Guillaume de Champagne (1176-1202), vigorously seconded his efforts. Confiscation, exile, and death were the penalties inflicted upon them by Hugues, Bishop of Auxerre (1183-1206).

1180 Some persecution arose against Manichaean.

1207  Pope Innocent III had the men of north France go into southern France and destroy the Cathari there. At Bezier's capture 20,000 were massacred.  With Carcasonne's fall 400 were burned alive and 50 hanged, and so on throughout the region.

1239   The execution of about one hundred and eighty Cathari at Montwimer in May, 1239, was the death-blow of Catharism in those countries. Southern France, where its adherents were known as Albigenses, was its principal stronghold in Western Europe. Thence the Cathari penetrated into the northern provinces of Spain: Catalonia, Aragon, Navarre, and Leon. Partisans existed in the peninsula about 1159. At the beginning of the thirteenth century, King Pedro II of Aragon personally led his troops to the assistance of Raymond VI of Toulouse against the Catholic Crusaders, and fell at the battle of Muret in 1213.

1250   According to the Dominican inquisitor, Rainier Sacconi, himself a former adherent, there were in the middle of the thirteenth century about 4000 perfected Cathari in the world. Of these there were in Lombardy and the Marches, 500 of the Albanensian sect, about 200 Bagnolenses, 1500 Concorrezenses, and 150 French refugees; at Vicenza 100, and as many at Florence and Spoleto.

1252    A savage persecutions took place in Italy.

1260   Kublai Khan's mongol hoard destroyed the Manichaean state of Toghuzghuz, but small enclaves of Manichaeans persisted in western Tibet and Khotan.

1258   The last mention of Manichaean books in China took place in 1258.

1285   The banned book Hwa-hu-King which speaks of Mani having incarnated as both Lao-Tzu and Buddha was once again banned. A copy has come down to us from the Dun-Huang cave discovery in 1907.

1323   Most Cathars had been destroyed from Europe.

1368   Edict in China again condemned Manichaeanism and its related sects of the White Lotus and of the Black and White Clouds, followed by one in 1374 and a final one in 1390. It accused the Manichaeans of burning incense to foreign images and icons, practicing magic, and doing unseemly things in the dark of night until dawn.

1420   Some Cathari still existed in Bosnia and Bulgaria.

1446  The Cathari, 40,000 in number, left Bosnia and passed into Herzegovina (1446). They disappeared only after the conquest of these provinces by the Turks in the second half of the fifteenth century.

1646   The sects of the White Lotus and Black Cloud still existed.

1769  Two copies in Coptic of Book of Jeu had  obtained near the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes in 1769.

1785   The Manichaean Pistis Sophia text also has been found in Egypt, along with many others. Two copies of the Book of Pistis-Sophia, in Coptic, had been acquired in 1785.

1813 the sect of the White Lotus stormed the Imperial palace in Peking.

1860 an anti-Manichaean book appeared n China speaking of the Manichaeans as an existing sect.

1900   The 'Cave for Preserving Scriptures', was discovered by a Taoist monk at Dunhuang, China named  Wang Yuanlu in 1900. The cave contains more than 50,000 sutras, documents and paintings covering a period from the 4th to the 11th centuries. It was one of China's most significant archaeological finds. These precious relics are of great historical and scientific value.

1902-1904 original Manichaean documents from Turfan were again published and made available to the world.

1906-1919   Much of the Hand-copied ancient books, manuscripts, literary works, Buddhist and secular decorative art works, and ancient manuscripts were removed from the Dunhuang grottoes by Aurel Stein, Paul Pelliot, Sergei Feodorovich Oldenburg and other archaeologists.

1907   Discoveries of the texts from Dun-Huang caves in western China.

1933   3500 pages of Manichaean material were recovered from Egypt.

1945  On the west bank of the Nile, in Upper Egypt, on or near the site of the ancient town of Chenoboskion were found the Naj' Hammadi (Nag Hammadi) papyri, a collection of 13 codices of Gnostic and Manichaean scriptures.

1981   On January 25, 1981 the Manichaean Orthodox Church, the Listener level of the Order of Nazorean Essenes was officially restored.

Religion Index