Introduction to Masonry Carl H. Claudy
Volume I Entered Apprentice
Volume II Fellowcraft
Volume III Master Mason
- I -
CARL H. CLAUDY, Litt. D.
Author of "A Master's Wages," "Foreign Countries,"
"The Old Past Master," "Old Tiler Talks," "United
Masonic Relief," "The Master's Book," "The
Lion's Paw," "Where Your Treasure Is,"
"These Were Brethren," "Masonic
THE TEMPLE PUBLISHERS
First Printing, September, 1931
Forty-Eighth Printing, August 1961
Three Hundred & Fifty-One Thousand
Copyright, 1931, 1959 by
CARL H. CLAUDY
INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
I - ENTERED APPRENTICE
Printed in the United States of America
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... ......... v ENTERED APPRENTICE ......... ......... 7 DEFINITION ......... ......... 8 EARLY HISTORY ......... ......... 8 ALLEGORY AND SYMBOLS ......... ......... 14 THE LODGE ......... ......... 14 ENTERED APPRENTICE ......... ......... 18 "SUITABLE PROFICIENCY" ......... ......... 20 RITUAL ......... ......... 22 "FREE WILL AND ACCORD" ......... ......... 24 INITIATION ......... ......... 26 THE LODGE AS A SYMBOL ......... ......... 28 PREPARATION ......... ......... 28 CIRCUMAMBULATION ......... ......... 30 UNITY ......... ......... 32 SECRECY ......... ......... 33 PENALTIES ......... ......... 35 THE GREAT LIGHTS ......... ......... 37 CABLE TOW ......... ......... 40 THE LESSER LIGHTS ......... ......... 40 DUE GUARD ......... ......... 44 THE LAMBSKIN APRON ......... ......... 45 "THE GREATEST OF THESE" ......... ......... 47 NORTHEAST ......... ......... 48 WORKING TOOLS ......... ......... 50 IMMOVABLE JEWELS ......... ......... 52 NORTH, PLACE OF DARKNESS ......... ......... 54 POINT WITHIN A CIRCLE ......... ......... 55 LODGE OF THE HOLY ST. JOHNS ......... ......... 59 THE PRINCIPAL TENETS ......... ......... 61 RÉSUME ......... ......... 64
Seers seek for Wisdom's flowers in the mind
And writ of symbols many a learned tome.
(Grow roses still, though rooted in black loam.)
The mystic searches earth till eyes go blind
For soul of roses, yet what use to find
A spirit penned within a catacomb?
Nay, all they learn is weightless as sea-foam
That drifts from wave to wave upon the wind.
In rushes Cap and Bells. How very droll
The ways of students and the foolish books!
He finds no secrets of Freemasonry art
In mind nor rose nor tomb nor musty scroll;
Where no wit is, where all loves are, he looks
And reads their hidden meaning in his heart.
FREEMASONRY'S greatest problems are lack of interest in its teachings and attendance at communications. Many plans have been devised by Masonic leaders to stimulate interest and increase attendance, but few such efforts are more than temporarily effective.
The initial appeal of the Ancient Craft is as strong today as it has ever been. Freemasonry attracts as good men now as in the past. But in the absence of a concerted effort to teach quickly what in a more leisurely age could be spread over many years, the Institution often fails to hold the interest of the new brother against the many attractions of modern life.
Habits of lodge attendance and interest in the Fraternity should be created while the first enthusiasm is high; moreover, every candidate has an inherent right to understand the reality of our rites, the meaning of our mysteries, the truth of our tenets, and the significance of our symbols.
Many lodges attempt to intrigue the new brother with books. Some books are forbiddingly large; others are too learned; others assume that the reader has a knowledge which he does not possess. Some books are dull with many facts and no vision, while others are too specialized or confined to one viewpoint. These three volumes are different. Written by a brother with long experience as a Masonic speaker and writer, they have a simple manner of presentation, a plain statement of facts, a spiritual
interpretation of Masonic teachings and visualize the vital reality behind the allegory and the symbol.
These books answer the simple elementary inquiries of the new brother to whom all the Craft is strange. They will make many an older Mason sit up in astonishment that what he thought obvious and uninteresting is so vividly alive.
The author handles a heart-searching body of Masonic truth in a way so informative and so interesting, yet so touching and so tender, that the influence of these books when presented to and read by candidates must be vast and permanent.
After years of activity in the Craft, culminating in service as Grand Master, I am convinced that the most effective way to encourage interest and understanding is to begin at the beginning, that is, with the Entered Apprentice as the very threshold of his Masonic career. For this purpose I know of no other books which even attempt what these are destined to accomplish, and I appreciate the honor of writing this brief Foreword at the invitation of the publishers.
For the brother old in the Craft who will read them, a revelation awaits. For the initiate, here is wisdom, strength and beauty. For all, the Ancient Craft is here set forth in an unforgettable trilogy of books which not only tell the facts but forget not the vision; which not only describe the form but also reveal the spirit of Freemasonry.
The author is to be commended for the undertaking and complimented on the achievement.
HOWARD R. CRUSE, P.G.M.
August 17, 1931
At your leisure hours, that you may improve in Masonic knowledge, you are to converse with well-informed brethren, who will always be as ready to give, as you will be ready to receive, instruction.
These words from the Charge to an Entered Apprentice set forth the purpose of the three little books, of which this is the first: to give the initiate, in his leisure hours, some "instruction" and information about the Fraternity not wholly imparted in the ceremonies in initiation.
These volumes are intended as simple introductions to the study of the Ancient Craft; the interested Freemason will look further, for other and longer books; the uninterested will not, perhaps, read all of these! Had completeness been the aim, these little books might have become forbiddingly large.
No more has been attempted than to give some Masonic light on some of the history, jurisprudence, symbols, customs, and landmarks of the Order, by the rays of which any initiate may readily find his way down the path of Masonic learning which leads to the gate of truth.
8 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
These books are far more gateways than guides to the foreign country of Freemasonry. However elemental they may be to the Masonic student, if their very simplicity leads those Entered Apprentices, Fellowcrafts, and newly raised Master Masons for whom they were written to seek more Masonic light,. their purpose will have been served and their preparation well worth the time and effort spent upon them.
Freemasonry is a system of morality, veiled in allegory, and illustrated by symbols.
This definition of the Ancient Craft means much more to the well-informed Freemason than to the initiate, to whom it can convey but little. Naturally he wants to know "Why Freemasonry? Why is it veiled? Why illustrated with symbols?"
Masons are "Free and Accepted" for reasons which are to be found in the early history of Freemasonry.
Many of Freemasonry's symbols and teachings go back to the very childhood of the race. Through these a direct relationship may be traced, in mind and heart and ideal, if not in written document, to such diverse ages and places as China four thousand years ago, the priesthood of ancient Egypt, and the Jews of the Captivity. But for purposes of understanding the genesis of the word "free" as coupled with 'Mason," it will suffice to begin with the Roman Collegia: orders or associations of men engaged in
ENTERED APPRENTICE 9
similar pursuits. Doubtless their formation was caused by the universal desire for fellowship and association, particularly strong in Rome, in which the individual was so largely submerged for the good of the empire, as well as by economic necessity, just as labor unions are formed today.
These Collegia speedily became so prominent and powerful that Roman emperors attempted to abolish the right of free association. In spite of edicts and persecutions, some of the Collegia continued to exist.
The Colleges of Architects, however, were sanctioned for a time even after others were forbidden. 'They were too valuable to the state to be abolished or made to work and meet in secret. They were not at this time called Freemasons, but they were free and it is the fact and not the name which is here important. Without architects and builders Rome could not expand, so the Colleges of Architects were permitted to regulate their own affairs and work under their own constitutions, free of the restrictions which were intended to destroy other Collegia.
Then, as now, three were necessary to form a College (no Masonic lodge can meet with less than three); the College had a Magiser or Master, and two Wardens. There were three orders or degrees in the College which, to a large event, used emblems which are a part of Freemasonry. Roman sarcophagi show carvings of a square, compasses, plumb, level, and sometimes columns.
Of the ceremonies of the Collegia we know little or nothing. Of their work we know much, and of their history, enough to trace their decline and fall. The Emperor Diocletian attempted to destroy the new
10 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
religion, Christianity, which threatened so much which seemed to the Romans to make Rome, Rome. Many members of the Colleges of Architects were Christians. Since these associations had taught and believed in brotherhood, when there came a Carpenter who taught brotherhood because of a common Father, the members of the Colleges of Architects took His doctrine, so strangely familiar, for their own.
Persecution, vengeance, cruelty followed; this is not the place to go into the story of the four Masons and the apprentice who were tortured to death, only to become the four crowned martyrs and patron saints of later builders and the Masons of the Middle Ages. Suffice it that the Colleges of Architects were broken up and fled from Rome.
Comes a gap which is not yet bridged. Between the downfall of Rome and the rise of Gothic architecture we know little of what happened to the builders' ColIegia. It is here that we come to the fascinating story of the Comacines. Some of the expelled builders found refuge on the island of Comacina in Lake Como and, through generation after generation, kept alive the traditions and secrets of their art until such time as the world was again ready for the Master Builders. All this is most interestingly set forth in several books, best known of which is Leader Scott's Cathedral Builders; The Story of a Great Masonic Guild. The author says that the Comacine Masters "were the link between the classic Collegia and all other art and trade guilds of the Middle Ages. They were Freemasons because they were builders of a privileged class, absolved from taxes and servitude, and free to travel about in times of feudal bondage."
ENTERED APPRENTICE 11
During the Middle Ages and the rise of Gothic architecture we find two distinct classes of Masons; the Guild Masons, who, like the Guild carpenters or weavers or merchants, were local in character and strictly regulated by law, and the Freemasons, who traveled about from city to city as their services were needed to design and erect those marvelous churches and cathedrals which stand today inimitable in beauty. It may not be affirmed as a proved fact that the Freemasons of the Middle Ages were the direct descendants through the Comacine Masters of the Colleges of Architects of Rome, but there is too much evidence of a similar structure, ideal, and purpose, and too many similarities of symbol, tool, and custom, to dismiss the idea merely because we have no written record covering the period between the expulsion from Rome and the beginning of the cathedral-building age.
However this may be, the operative builders and designers of the cathedrals of Europe were an older Order than the Guild Masons; it is from these Freemasons free of the Guild and free of the local laws that the Freemasonry of to.day has come. Incidentally, it may be noted that the historian Findel finds that the name Freemason appears as early as 1212, and the name occurs in 1375 in the history of the Company of Masons of the City of London.
The history of the Freemasons though the cathedral-building ages up to the Reformation and the gradual decline of the building at needs volumes where here are but pages. But it must be emphasized that the Freemasons were far more than architects and builders; they were artists, the leaders, the
12 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
teachers, the mathematicians and the poets of their time. In their lodges Speculative Masonry grew side by side with their operative art They were jealous of their Order and strict in their acceptance of Apprentices; strict in admitting Apprentices to be Fellows of the Craft, requiring seven years of labor of an Apprentice before he might make his "Master's Piece" to submit to the Master and Wardens of his lodge, when, happily, he might become a Fellow and receive "the Mason Word."
In an age when learning was difficult to get and association with the educated hardly to be had outside of the church, it was but natural that thoughtful and scholarly men should desire membership among the Freemasons. Such men, however, would not want to practice operative masonry, or serve a seven years' apprenticeship. Therefore a place was made for them by taking them in as accepted Masons; that is, accepted as members having something to offer and desiring to receive something from the lodge, but distinguished from the operative Freemasons by the title accepted.
It is not possible to say when this practice began. The Regius Poem, (1) the oldest document of Free-
(1) Halliwell Manuscript, the oldest of the written Constitutions, transcribed in 1390, probably from an earlier version. Called Halliwell because first published in 1840 by James O. Halliwell, who first discovered its Masonic character. Prior to that date it was catalogued in the Royal Library as A Poem of Moral Duties. Called the Regius Poem partly because it formed part of Henry VIII. Royal Library and partly because it is the first and therefore the kingly or royal document of the Craft.
ENTERED APPRENTICE 13
masonry (1319), speaks of Prince Edward (Tenth Century) as:
Of speculatyfe he was a master.
Desiring to become architects and builders, ecclesiasts joined the order. Lovers of liberty were naturally attracted. to a fellowship in which members enjoyed unusual freedom.
Through the years, particularly those which saw the decline of great building and the coming of the Reformation, more and more became the Accepted Masons and less and less the operative building Freemasons. Of forty-nine names on the roll of the Lodge of Aberdeen in the year 1670, thirty-nine were those of Accepted Masons.
Hence our title Free and Accepted Masons, abbreviated F. & A. M. There are variations in certain jurisdictions, (1) such as F. and A. M. (tree and Accepted Masons), A. F. & A. M. (Ancient Free and Accepted Masons), etc., the origin of which the student may find in the history of Freemasonry of the Grand Lodge era. (See Page 121, footnote)
(1) Jurisdiction: the territory and the Craft in it over which Grand Lodge is sovereign. In the United States are forty-nine; one for each state and the District of Columbia. Used as a brevity; thus, the Masonic jurisdiction of New Jersey means "all the Masonry, lodges, Masons in the State of New Jersey over which rules the Grand Lodge of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons for the State of New Jersey."
The word also means the territorial boundaries to which the right of a lodge to accept petitions extends.
14 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
ALLEGORY AND SYMBOLS
Freemasonry is "veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols" because these are the surest ways by which moral and ethical truths may be taught. It is not only with the brain and the mind that the initiate must take in Freemasonry but also with the heart.
Mind speaks to mind with spoken or written words. Heart speaks to heart with words which cannot be written or spoken. Those words are symbols; words which mean little to the indifferent, much to the understanding.
The body has its five senses through which the mind may learn; the mind has also imagination. That imagination may see farther than eyes and hear sounds fainter than may be caught by ears. To the imagination symbols become plain as printed words to the eye. Nothing else will do; no words can be as effective (unless they are themselves symbols); no teachings expressed in language are as easily learned by the mind as those which come via the symbol through the imagination.
Take from Freemasonry its symbols and but the husk remains, the kernel is gone. He who hears but the words of Freemasonry misses their meaning entirely.
During the ceremonies of initiation the Entered Apprentice is informed what a lodge is. In other than the words of the ritual a Masonic lodge is a body of Masons warranted or chartered as such by its
ENTERED APPRENTICE 15
Grand Lodge and possessing the three Great Lights in Masonry.
The lodge usually (1) comes into being when a certain number of brethren petition the Grand Master, who, if it is his pleasure, issues a dispensation which forms these brethren into a provisional lodge, or a lodge under dispensation, familiarly known as U. D. The powers of the U. D. lodge are strictly limited; it is not yet a "regularly constituted lodge" but an inchoate sort of organization, a fledgling in the nest. Not until the Grand Lodge has authorized the issuance of the warrant does it assume the status of a "regular" lodge, and not then until it is consecrated, dedicated, and constituted by the Grand Master and his officers, or those he delegates for the ceremony. The warrant of the new lodge names its first Worshipful Master, Senior Warden, and Junior Warden, who hold office until their successors are duly elected and installed.
Lodge officers are either elected or appointed. In some lodges in some jurisdictions all officers in the 'line" are elected. In others only the Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, Secretary and Treasurer are elected, the others being appointed.
The term of office is one year, but nothing prevents reëlection of a Master or Wardens. Indeed, Secretaries and Treasurers generally serve as long as they
(1) The oldest lodges in a Grand Lodge existed prior to its formation and came into being from a warrant or charter from some other Grand Lodge, or, in some few instances of very old lodges, merely by brethren getting together and holding a lodge under "immemorial custom." Thus, Fredericksburg Lodge of Virginia, in which Washington received his degrees, had no warrant until several years after its formation.
16 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
are willing; a lodge almost invariably reelects the same incumbents year after year to these places.
These officers become the connecting links between different administrations, which practice makes for stability and smooth running.
In the absence of the Master the Senior Warden presides and has for the time being the powers and duties of the Master; in his absence the same devolve upon the Junior Warden.
All lodges have an officer stationed "without the door with a drawn sword in his hand." He is the Tiler and his duties are to keep off "cowans and eavesdroppers." In operative days the secrets of the Freemasons were valuable in coin of the realm. The Mason who knew "the Mason Word" could travel in foreign countries and receive a Master's wages. Many who could not or would not conform to the requirements tried to ascertain the secrets in a clandestine manner.
The eavesdropper literally, one who attempts to listen under the eaves, and who receives the droppings from the roof was a common thief who tried to learn by stealth what he would not learn by work.
The cowan was an ignorant Mason who laid stones together without mortar or piled rough stone from the field into a wall without working them square and true. He was a Mason without the word, with no reputation; the Apprentice who tried to masquerade as a Master.
The operative Masons guarded their assemblies against the intrusion of both the thief and the half-instructed craftsman. Nothing positive is known of the date when the guardian of the door first went on
ENTERED APPRENTICE 17
duty. He was called a Tiler or Tyler because the man who put on the roof or tiles (tiler) completed the building and made those within it secure from intrusion; therefore the officer who guarded the door against intrusion was called, by analogy, a Tiler.
Lodges are referred to as Symbolic, Craft, Ancient Craft, Private, Particular, Subordinate, and Blue, all of which names distinguish them from other organizations, both Masonic and non-Masonic. The word "subordinate" is sometimes objected to by Masonic scholars, most of whom prefer other appellations to distinguish the individual Master Mason's lodge from the Grand Lodge. All Masonic lodges of Ancient Craft Masonry are "Blue Lodges" blue being the distinctive Masonic color, from the hue vault of heaven which is the covering of a symbolic lodge, and which embraces the world, of which the lodge is a symbol.
To such an organization a man petitions for the degrees of Freemasonry. If the lodge accepts his petition a committee is appointed to investigate the petitioner. The committee reports to the lodge whether or not, in its opinion, the petitioner is suitable material out of which to make a Mason.
The statutory time of a month having elapsed and all the members of the lodge having been notified that the petition will come up for ballot at a certain stated communication (Masonic word for "meeting"), the members present ballot on the petition.
The ballot is secret and both the laws and the ancient usages and customs surrounding it are very strict. No brother is permitted to state how he wilt ballot or how he has balloted. No brother is per-
18 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
mitted to inquire of another how he will or has balloted. One black cube (negative ballot) is sufficient to reject the petitioner.
The secrecy of the ballot and the universal (in this country) requirement that a ballot be unanimous to elect are two bulwarks of the Fraternity. Occasionally both the secrecy and the required unanimity may seem to work a hardship, when a man apparently worthy of being taken by the hand as a brother is rejected, but no human institution is perfect, and no human being acts always according to the best that is in him. The occasional failure of the system to work complete justice must be laid to the individuals using it and not to the Fraternity.
More will be said later in these pages on the power of the ballot, its use and abuse; here it is sufficient to note one reason for the secret and unanimous ballot by which the petitioner may be elected to receive initiation. Harmony oneness of mind, effort, ideas, and ideals is one of the foundations of Freemasonry. Anything which interferes with harmony hurts the institution. Therefore it is essential that lodges have a harmonious membership; that no man be admitted to the Masonic home of any brother against that brother's will.
Having passed the ballot, the petitioner in due course is notified, presents himself and is initiated.
He then becomes an Entered Apprentice Mason. He is a Mason to the extent that he is called "brother" and has certain rights; he is not yet a Mason in the
ENTERED APPRENTICE 19
legal Masonic sense. Seeing a framework erected on a plot of ground we reply to the question, "What are they building?" by saying, "A house." We mean, they are building something which eventually will be a house." The Entered Apprentice is a Mason only in the sense that he is a rough ashlar (1) in process of being made into a perfect ashlar.
The Entered Apprentice is the property of the lodge; he can receive his Fellowcraft and Master Mason degrees nowhere else without its permission. 'But he does not yet pay dues to the lodge, he is not yet permitted to sign its bylaws, he can enter it only when it is open on the first degree, he cannot hold office, vote or ballot, receive Masonic burial, attend a Masonic funeral as a member of the lodge, and has no right to Masonic charity.
He has the right to ask his lodge for his Fellowcraft's degree. He has the right of instruction by competent brethren to obtain that "suitable proficiency" in the work of the first degree which will entitle him to his second degree if the brethren are willing to give it to him.
The lodge asks very little of an Entered Apprentice besides the secrecy to which his obligation bound him and those exhibitions of character outlined in the Charge given at the close of the degree.
It requires that he be diligent in learning and that so far as he is able he will suit his convenience as to time and place to that of his instructors.
Inasmuch as the Rite of Destitution is taught the initiate in the first degree he may naturally wonder why an Entered Apprentice has not the right to lodge
20 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
charity if he needs it. Individual Masonic charity he may, of course, receive, but the right to the organized relief of the lodge, or a Grand Lodge, belongs only to a Master Mason.
This is Masonic law; Masonic practice, in the spirit of brotherly love, would offer any relief suddenly and imperatively needed by an initiate for that is Freemasonry.
In the Middle Ages operative apprentices were required to labor seven years before they were thought to know enough to attempt to become Fellows of the Craft. At the end of the seven-year period an apprentice who had earned the approbation of those over him might make his Master's Piece and submit it to the judgment of the Master and Wardens of his lodge.
The Master's Piece was some difficult task of stone cutting or setting. Whether he was admitted as a Fellow or turned back for further instruction depended on its perfection.
The Master's Piece survives in Speculative Masonry only as a small task and the seven years have shrunk to a minimum of one month. Before knocking at the door of the West Gate for his Fellowcraft's Degree an Entered Apprentice must learn "by heart" a part of the ritual and the ceremonies through which he has passed.
Easy for some, difficult for others, this is an essential task. It must be done, and well done. It is no kindness to an Entered Apprentice to permit him to proceed if his Master's Piece is badly made.
ENTERED APPRENTICE 21
As the initiate converses with well-informed brethren will learn that there are literally millions of Mason in the world three millions in the United States. He does not know them; they do not know him. Unless he can prove that he is a Mason, he cannot visit in a lodge where he is not known, neither can he apply for Masonic aid, nor receive Masonic welcome and friendship.
Hence the requirement that the Entered Apprentice earn his work well is in his own interest. But it is also of interest to all brethren, wheresoever dispersed, that the initiate know his work. They may find it as necessary to prove themselves to him as he may need to prove himself to them. If he does know his work, he cannot receive a proof any more than he can give it.
It is of interest to the lodge that the initiate know work well. Well-informed Masons may be very useful in lodge; the sloppy, careless workman can never be depended upon for good work.
Appalled at the apparently great feat of memory asked, some initiates study with an instructor for an hour or two, find it difficult, and lose courage. But what millions of other men have done, any initiate can do. Any man who can learn to know by heart any two words can also learn three; having learned three he may add a fourth, and so on, until he can stand before the lodge and pass a creditable examination, or satisfy a committee that he has learned enough to entitle him to ask for further progress.
The initiate should be not only willing but enthusiastically eager to, learn what is required because of its effect upon his future Masonic career. The Entered
22 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
Apprentice who wins the honor of being passed to the degree of Fellowcraft by having well performed the only task set him goes forward feeling that he is worthy. As Speculative Freemasonry builds only character, a feeling of unworthiness is as much a handicap in lodge life as a piece of faulty stone is in building a wall.
But the most important reason for learning the work thoroughly goes farther. It applies more and more as the Fellowcraft's Degree is reached and passed and is most vital after the initiate has the proud right to say, "I am a Master Mason."
One of the great appeals of Freemasonry, both to the profane (1) and to Masons, is its antiquity. The Order can trace an unbroken history of more than two hundred years in its present form (the Mother Grand Lodge was formed in 1717), and has irrefutable documentary evidence of a much longer existence in simpler forms.
Our present rituals the plural is used advisedly, as no two jurisdictions are exactly at one on what is correct in ritual are the source books from which we prove just where we came from and, to some extent, just when.
If we alter our ritual, either intentionally or by
(1) Profane: Masonically, from pro and fanum, meaning, "Without the temple." To a Mason a profane is one not a Mason; the profane world is all that is not in the Masonic world. The word as used by Masons has no relation to that used to describe what is irreligious or blasphemous.
ENTERED APPRENTICE 23
poor memorization, we gradually lose the many references concealed in the old, old phrases which tell the story of whence we came and when.
Time is relative to the observer; what is very slow to the man may be very rapid to nature. Nature has all the time there is. To drop out a word here, put in a new one there, eliminate this science and add that one to our ritual seems to be a minor matter in a man's lifetime. Yet if it is continued long enough a very few score of years the old ritual will be entirely altered and become something new.
We have confirmation of this. Certain parts of the ritual are printed. These printed paragraphs are practically the same in most jurisdictions. Occasionally there is a variation, showing where some committee on work has not been afraid to change the work of the fathers. But as a whole the printed portion of our work is substantially what it was when it was first brought to this country more than two hundred years ago.
The secret work is very different in many of our jurisdictions. Some of these differences are accounted for by different original sources, yet even in two jurisdictions which sprang from tie same source of Freemasonry, and originally had the same work, we find variations, showing that mouth-to-ear instruction, no matter how secret it may be, is not wholly an accurate way of transmitting words.
If in spite of us alterations creep in by the slow process of time and human fallibility, how much faster will the ritual change if we are careless or indifferent? The farther away we get from our original source, the more meticulously careful must trust-
24 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
worthy Masons be to pass on the work to posterity exactly as we receive it. The Mason of olden time could go to his source for reinspiration we cannot.
Ritual is the thread which binds us to those who immediately preceded us, as their ritual bound them to their fathers, our grandfathers. The ritual we hand down to our sons and their sons' sons will be their bond with us, and through us with the historic dead. To alter that bond intentionally is to wrong those who come after us, even as we have been wronged when those who preceded us were careless or inefficient in their memorization of ritual.
The Entered Apprentice, then, should not be discouraged if the ritual "comes hard." He should fail not in the task nor question that it is worth while, for on what he does and on the way in which he does it depends in some measure the Freemasonry of the future. As he does well or ill, so will those who come after him do ill or well.
"FREE WILL AND ACCORD"
Though he knows it not the petitioner encounters his first Masonic symbol when he receives from the hands of a friend the petition for which he has asked.
Freemasons do not proselyte. The Order asks no man for his petition. Greater than any man, freemasonry honors those she permits to knock upon her West Gate. Not king, prince, nor potentate; president, general, nor savant can honor the Fraternity by petitioning a lodge for the degrees.
Churches send out missionaries and consider it a duty to persuade men to their teachings. Commercial
ENTERED APPRENTICE 25
organizations, Boards of Trade, Chambers of Commerce, Life Insurance Associations, and so on, attempt to win members by advertising and persuasion. Members are happy to ask their friends to join their clubs. But a man must come to the West Gate of a lodge "of his own free will and accord," and can come only by the good offices of a friend whom he has enlisted on his behalf.
The candidate obligates himself for all time: "Once a Mason, always a Mason." He may take no interest in the Order. He may dimit, (1) become unaffiliated, (2) be dropped N. P. D., (3) be tried for a Masonic offense and suspended or expelled, but he cannot "unmake" himself as a Mason, or ever avoid the moral responsibility of keeping the obligations he voluntarily assumes.
If a man be requested to join or persuaded to sign a petition, he may later be in a position to say, "I
(1) Dimit, also spelled demit. Masonic lexicographers quarrel as to which is correct. Dimit from the Latin dimitto, to permit to go, is probably more used than demit, from the Latin demittere, meaning to let down from an elevated position to a lower one; in other words, to resign. However spelled, in Freemasonry it signifies both the permission of the lodge to leave to join another lodge and the paper containing that permission.
(2) Unaffiliated: a Mason who belongs to no lodge. After he has taken his dimit, a Mason is unaffiliated until again elected a member of some lodge. A brother dropped N.P.D. is unaffiliated. A man made a Mason "At sight" (done only by a Grand Master) is unaffiliated until he join some lodge. The state of unaffiliation is Masonically frowned upon, since an unaffiliated brother contributes nothing to the Fraternity to which he is bound.
(3) N.PD.: short for Non Payment of Dues.
26 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
became a Mason under a misapprehension. I was over-persuaded. I was argued into membership," and might thus have a self-excusing shadow of a reason for failure to do as most solemnly agrees.
But no man does so join unless he signs a false statement. He must declare in his petition, and many times during his progress through the degrees, that the act is "of my own free will and accord." Not only must be so declare, but he must so swear.
Freemasonry gives her all and it is a great gift to those she accepts. But she gives only to those who honestly desire the gift. He who is not first prepared to be a Freemason in his heart, that is, of his own free will and accord, can never be one.
"Initiation is an analogy of man's advent from prenatal darkness into the light of human fellowship, moral truth, and spiritual faith." (1)
From the Latin initium; a beginning, a birth, a coming into being. It is a very common human experience. We are initiated into a new world when we first go to school; adolescence is initiation into manhood or womanhood; we undergo an initiation when we plunge into business or our professions; marriage is an initiation into a new experience, a new way of living, a new outlook on life; the acceptance of a religious experience is an initiation; a new book may initiate us into a new interest. Initiation is everywhere and in one or another form comes to every man.
ENTERED APPRENTICE 27
Masonic initiation may, but does not necessarily, come to those who seek, are accepted, and receive the degrees.
Many refuse the results of initiation. The schoolboy who will not study, the man who will not work, the reader who is not interested in his book, the churchgoer to whom the service is but an empty form to be gone through once a week because "it is the thing to do" these gain nothing from such initiations. The candidate who sees in the Masonic initiation of the Entered Apprentice degree only a formal and dignified ceremony designed to take up an evening and push him one step forward toward membership in the Order refuses to accept his initiation.
Neither lodge nor brethren can help this. If a man will not accept what is offered, if his understanding is so dull, his mind so sodden, his imagination so dead that he cannot glimpse the substance behind the form, both he and the lodge are unlucky. That the majority of initiates do receive and take to themselves this opportunity for spiritual rebirth is obvious, otherwise the Order would not live and grow, could not have lived through hundreds in some form, thousands of years.
He is a wise initiate who will read and study that he may receive all of that for which he has asked. The lodge puts before him the bread of truth, the wine of belief, the staff of power, and sets his feet upon the path that leads to Light . . . but it is for him to eat and drink and travel the winding path of initiation which at long last leads to the symbolic East.
28 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
THE LODGE AS A SYMBOL
The lodge is a symbol of the world. Its shape, the "oblong square," is the ancient conception of the shape of the world. The Entered Apprentice is taught its dimensions, its covering, its furniture, its lights, its jewels, and will learn more of it as a symbol as be proceeds through the degrees. Although a, symbol of the world, the lodge is a world unto itself; a world within a world, different in its customs, its laws, and its structure from the world without. In the world without are class distinctions, wealth, power, poverty, and misery. In the lodge all are on a level and peace and harmony prevail. In the world without most laws are "thou shalt not" and enforced by penalties. In the lodge the laws are mostly "thou shalt" and compulsion is seldom thought of and as rarely invoked. Freemasons obey their laws not so much because they must as because they will. In the world without men are divided by a thousand influences: race, business, religious belief, politics. In the lodge men are united in the common bond of three fundamental beliefs: the Fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man and the immortality of the soul, and all the sweet associations which spring therefrom. In the world without men travel many roads to many goals; in the lodge the initiate does as all others who have gone this way before him, and all, youngest Entered Apprentice and oldest Past Master, travel a common way to an end which is the same for all.
Often it seems queer to the candidate. How should
ENTERED APPRENTICE 29
not, when he receives his explanations afterwards and not before? When the Entered Apprentice Degree is concluded, the initiate who has ears to hear knows some of the reasons for the manner of his preparation and reception, although he should read not only this but larger books which will amplify these instructions to his betterment. He may well begin with the Book of Ruth, in which he will find much illumination "concerning their manner of redeeming and changing."
But the Rite of Discalceation, (1) as it is called, has another significance than that of giving testimony of sincerity of intentions. These are sufficiently important; a candidate for the Entered Apprentice Degree who is not sincere will have a very disagreeable time in Freemasonry. But the hidden meaning of the rite is perhaps even more important than the explained meaning. Here the initiate must possess his soul in patience. He is not yet wholly admitted to the temple which is Freemasonry. He a not permitted to do as Master Masons do, or to know what Master Masons know. For the whole Masonic significance of the rite he must wait until it is his privilege to receive the Sublime Degree of Master Mason.
It should not come as a surprise that a special preparation for initiation is required. The soldier's uniform allows his greatest freedom of action. The bridegroom dresses in his best. The knight of old put on shining armor when going into battle. Men prepare in some way, to the best of their ability, for any new experience.
30 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
Preparation for Masonic initiation is wholly a symbolic matter, but with deeper meanings and greater than are apparent on first acquaintance.
This mouthful of a word, meaning literally "walking around," is not only the name of a part of a degree but also of a symbol. The candidate is conducted around the lodge room for a reason later explained, but the inner meaning of this ceremony is hidden. Its deep significance unites the initiate not only with all who have gone this way before in a Masonic lodge, but with those uncounted millions of men who for thousands of years have made of circumambulation an offering of homage to the Unseen Presence.
Among the first religions were sun and fire worship. Prehistoric man found God in nature. Thunder was His voice; lightning was His weapon; wind was His breath; fire was His presence. The sun gave light and heat; it kept away the wild beasts; it grew the crops; it was life itself. Fire gave light and heat and prepared the food it, also, was life itself. Worship of the sun in the sky was conducted symbolically by worship of fire upon piles of stones which were the first altars.
Man is incurably imitative. The small boy struts with his father's cane; the little girl puts on her mother's dress to play grown up; the valet imitates the master; the clerk imitates his manager. Early man imitated the God he worshiped. Heat and light be could give by fire, so lighting the fire on the altar
ENTERED APPRENTICE 31
became an important religious ceremony. And early man could imitate the movements of his God.
The sun seems to move from east to west by way of the south. Early man circled altars, on which burned the fire which was his God, from east to west by way of the south. Circumambulation became a part of all religious observances; it was in the ceremonies of ancient Egypt; it was part of the mysteries of Eleusis; it was practiced in the rites of Mithras and a thousand other cults, and down through the ages it has come to us.
When the candidate first circles the lodge room about the altar, he walks step by step with a thousand shades of men who have thus worshiped the Most High by humble imitation. This thought of circumambulation is no longer a mere parade but a ceremony of significance, linking all who take part in it with the spiritual aspirations of a dim and distant past.
A further significant teaching of this symbol is its introduction to the idea of dependence. Freemasonry speaks plainly here to him who listens. Of this Newton (1) has beautifully written:
From the hour we are born till we are laid in the grave we grope our way in the dark, and none could find or keep the path without a guide. From how many ills, how many perils, how many pitfalls we are guarded in the midst of the years!
(1) Dr. Joseph Fort Newton: an Episcopal minister whose olden pen has given to Freemasonry The Builders, The Men's House, The Religion of Masonry, Short Talks on Masonry, and whose vision and inspiration are a power in the Masonic world.
32 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
With all our boasted wisdom and foresight, even when we fancy we are secure, we may be in the presence of dire danger, if not of death itself.
Truly it does not lie in man to direct his path, and without a true and trusted friend in whom we can confide, not one of us would find his way home. So Masonry teaches us, simply but unmistakably, at the first step as at the last, that we live and walk by faith, not by sight; and to know that fact is the beginning of wisdom. Since this is so, since no man can find his way alone, in life as in the lodge we must in humility trust our Guide, learn His ways, follow Him and fear no danger. Happy is the man who has learned that secret.
In an Entered Apprentice's Lodge, the 133rd Psalm is read sometimes sung during the course of the degree:
Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity. It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard; that went down to the skirts of his garments; As the dew of Herman and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion, for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even life for evermore.
Unity is an essential of a Masonic lodge. Unity of thought, of intention, of execution. It is but another word for harmony, which Freemasons are taught is the strength and support of all well-regu-
ENTERED APPRENTICE 33
ated institutions, especially this of ours. Dew is nature's blessing where little rain fills; the dew of Hermon is proverbially heavy. Israel poured precious ointments on the heads of those the people honored; that which went down to the skirts of his garments was evidently great in quantity, significant of the honor paid to Aaron, personification of high priesthood, representative of the solidity of his group. The whole passage is a glorification of the beauty of brotherly love, which is why it was anciently selected to be a part of the Entered Apprentice's Degree, in which the initiate is first introduced to that principal tenet of the Fraternity.
In the true sense of the words Freemasonry is not a secret society but a society with secrets. A secret society is one the members of which are not known; a society which exists without common knowledge.
Freemasonry is well known. Men proudly wear the emblem of the Order on coat and watch charm and ring. Many Grand Lodges publish lists of their members. Many Grand Lodges maintain card indexes of all members in the jurisdiction so that it is easy to ascertain whether or not a man is a Mason. Grand Lodges publish their Proceedings, a Masonic press caters to the Masonic world, and thousands of books have been written about Freemasonry. Obviously it is not the society which is secret.
The initiate takes an obligation of secrecy; If he will carefully consider the language of that obligation, he will see that it concerns the forms and cere-
34 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
monies, the manner of teaching, certain modes of recognition. There is no obligation of secrecy regarding the truths taught by Freemasonry, otherwise such a book as this could not lawfully be written.
Sometimes the question is asked by a profane, "Why have any secrets? If what you know and teach is worth so much, why not give it to the world?"
Secrecy is a common fact of everyday life. Our private affairs are ours, not to be shouted from the housetops. Business secrets are often of value in proportion to the success of keeping them. Diplomacy is necessarily conducted in secret. Board meetings of companies, banks, business houses, are secret. A man and his wife have private understandings for no one else to know. The lover tells the secrets of his heart to but one ear.
From all of us some things are secret and hidden that might be open and known if we had the wit or would take the trouble to learn. Fine music is a secret from the tone deaf. Mathematics are a secret from the ignorant. Philosophy is a secret from the commonplace mind. Freemasonry is a secret from the profane and for the same reasons!
The secrecy of Masonry is an honorable secrecy; any good man may ask for her secrets; those who are worthy will receive them. To give them to those who do not seek, or who are not worthy, would but impoverish the Fraternity and enrich not those who received them.
It is sometimes suggested that Freemasonry pretends to possess valuable secrets merely to intrigue men to apply for them through curiosity. How mistaken this is understood by every Freemason. He
ENTERED APPRENTICE 35
who seeks Freemasonry out of curiosity for her secrets must be bitterly disappointed. In school the teacher is anxious to instruct all who seek the classroom in the secrets of geometry, but not all students wish to study geometry and not all who do have the wit to comprehend. Freemasonry is anxious to give of her secrets to worthy men fit to receive them but not all are worthy, and not all the worthy seek.
Freemasonry has been aptly described as "the gentle Craft." Its teachings are of brotherly love, relief, truth, love of God, charity, immortality, mutual help, sympathy. To the initiate, therefore, the penalty in his obligation comes often with a shock of surprise and sometimes consternation.
Let it be said with emphasis: the penalties are wholly symbolic.
The small boy uses the expression "By golly," keeping alive an ancient Cornish oath in which goll or the hand, uplifted, was offered as a sacrifice if what was said was not the truth. In our courts of law we say, "So help me, God," in taking the oath to tell the truth. But the small boy does not expect his hand to be cut off if he happens to fib, nor is the penalty for perjury such that only God may help him upon whom it is inflicted.
Masonic penalties go back to very ancient times; to years when punishments were cruel and inhuman, often for very small offenses. Throats were cut, tongues torn out, bodies cut in half, hooks struck into breasts and the body torn apart; men were dis-
36 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
membered for all sorts of offences which seem to us much too trivial for such extreme punishments; looting a temple, stealing a sheep, disclosing the king's Secrets, etc.
Other punishments of the Middle Ages were based on religious fears. To be buried in unconsecrated ground was a terrible end for ignorant and superstitious people who believed that it meant eternal damnation. Similarly, to be interred in land which was no man's property between high and low water mark was symbolical of spiritual death.
These and other horrible penalties were inflicted by law by various peoples at various times. That the legal penalties for certain civil crimes were incorporated, in Masonic obligations seems obvious. But that they ever meant or were ever intended to mean any death but a symbolic one is simply not so.
The yokel who cries "May God strike me dead if this is not so" does not mean that he wishes to die; but he says that he believes he will be worthy of death if he lies. It is in such a way that the Masonic penalties are to he understood; the Entered Apprentice states his belief that he would merit the penalty of his obligation if he failed to keep it.
The only punishments ever inflicted by Freemasons upon Freemasons are reprimand, suspension (definite and indefinite), and expulsion from the Fraternity.
The initiate who violates his obligation will feel the weight of no hand laid upon him. He will suffer no physical penalties whatever. The contempt and detestation of his brethren, their denial of the privileges of Freemasonry to the foresworn, are the only Masonic penalties ever inflicted.
ENTERED APPRENTICE 37
THE GREAT LIGHTS
There are three the Holy Bible, the Square, and the Compasses. (1)
The Holy Bible is always referred to as "The Great Light" or "The Great Light in Masonry," in this country which is predominantly Christian. The practice may be and often is different in other lands. What is vital and unchangeable, a landmark of the Order (a further discussion of Landmarks is given later, see pages 159 163) is that a Volume of the Sacred Law be open upon the Masonic altar whenever the Lodge is open. A lodge wholly Jewish may prefer to use only the Old Testament; in Turkey and Persia the Koran would be used as the V. S. I. of the Mohammedan; Brahmins would use the Vedas. In the Far East where Masonic lodges have numbers of many races and creeds it is customary to have several holy books upon the altar that the initiate may choose that which is to him the most sacred.
The Holy Bible, our Great Light in Masonry, is opened upon our altars. Upon it lie the other Great Lights the Square and the Compasses. Without all three no Masonic lodge can exist, much less open or work. Together with the warrant from the Grand Lodge they are indispensable.
The Bible on the altar is more than the rule and guide of our faith. It is one of the greatest of Freemasonry's symbols. For the Bible is here a symbol of all holy books of all faiths. It is the Masonic way of setting forth that simplest and most profound of truths which Masonry has made so peculiarly her
38 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
own: that there is a way, there does run a road on which men "of all creeds and of every race" may travel happily together, be their differences of religious faith what they may. In his private devotions a man may petition God or Jehovah, Allah or Buddha, Mohammed or Jesus; he may call upon the God of Israel or the Great First Cause. In the Masonic Lodge he hears humble petition to the Great Architect of the Universe, finding his own deity under that name.
A hundred paths may wind upward around a mountain; at the top they meet. Freemasonry opens the Great Light upon her altar not as one book of one faith, but as all books of all faiths, the book of the Will of the Great Architect, read in what language, what form, what shape we will. It is as all-inclusive us the symbols which lie upon it. The Square is not for any one lodge, any one nation, any one religion it is for all Masons, everywhere, to all of whom it speaks the same tongue. The Compasses circumscribe the desires of Masons wheresoever dispersed; the secret of the Square, held between the points of the Compasses (see page 58) is universal.
Countless references in our ritual are taken from the Old Testament. Almost every name in a Masonic lodge is from the Scriptures. In the Great Light are found those simple teachings of the universality of brotherhood, the love of God for his children, the hope of immortality, which are the very warp and woof of Freemasonry. Let it be emphasized; these are the teachings of Freemasonry in every tongue, in every land, for those of every faith. Our Great Light is but a symbol of the Volume of the Sacred Law. Freemasonry is no more a Christian organi-
ENTERED APPRENTICE 39
zation than it is Jewish or Mohammedan or Brahmin. Its use of the collection of sacred writings of the Jews (Old Testament) and the Gospels of the New Testament as the Great Light must not confuse the initiate so that he reads into Freemasonry a sectarian character which is not there.
This is so well understood that it needs emphasis only for the novice. To give him specific facts as well as assertion: the Bible is first mentioned as a Great Light in Masonry about 1760, whereas the first of the Old Charges (one of the foundation stones on which rest the laws of Freemasonry, first published in 1723, but presumably adopted by the Mother Grand Lodge at its formation in 1717) reads in part as follows (spelling modernized):
A Mason is obliged by his tenure to obey the moral law; and if he rightly understands the art, he will never be a stupid atheis, nor an irreligious libertine. But though in ancient times Masons were charged in every country to be of the religion of that country or nation, whatever it was, yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular opinions to themselves; that is, to be good men and true, or men of honor and honesty, by whatever denominations or persuasions they may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the center of union and the means of conciliating true friendship among persons that must have remained at a perpetual distance.
Perhaps never before has so short a paragraph had
40 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
so profound an effect, setting forth the non-sectarian, non-doctrinal character of Freemasonry, making religion, not a religion, the important matter in the Ancient Craft.
In old rituals this was originally "cable rope." Our cable tow probably comes from the German "Kabel tau."
The cable tow is symbolic of that life cord by which the infant receives life from his mother. Symbolically the cable tow is the cord by which the Masonic infant is attached to his Mother Lodge. When a baby is born the physical cord is severed but never the knife was ground which can cut the spiritual cord which ties a man to his mother. In the Entered Apprentice Degree the physical restraint of the cable tow is removed as soon as the spiritual bond of the obligation is assumed but never the means has been made by which to cut the obligation which binds a man to his Mother Lodge and the gentle Craft. Expulsion does not release from the obligation; unaffiliation does not dissolve the tie; dimitting and joining another lodge cannot make of the new lodge the Mother Lodge.
The cable tow has further significance in the succeeding degrees which will be discussed later.
THE LESSER LIGHTS
When an initiate is first brought to light, the radiance comes from the three Lesser Lights, which form a triangle about or near the altar. Lesser Lights are
ENTERED APPRENTICE 41
lit when the lodge is opened and the altar arranged and extinguished when the lodge is closed and the Great Lights displaced. Something not very much is said of them in the ritual. They form one of those symbols in Freemasonry . . . of which there are so many! . . . which the individual brother is supposed to examine and translate for himself, getting from it what he can and enjoying what he gets in direct proportion to the amount of labor and thought he is willing to devote to the process of extracting the meaning from the outer covering.
In some jurisdictions the Lesser Lights are closely about the altar: in others one is placed at each of the stations of the three principal officers. In some lodges the three Lesser Lights form a right, in others on equilateral, in others an isosceles triangle. What is uniform throughout the Masonic world is the triangular formation; what is different is the shape and size of the triangle.
Of course, it is not possible to place three lights to form anything else but a triangle; they cannot be made to form a square or a star. Hence the natural question: why are there three Lesser Lights and not two or four or more?
There is "three" throughout Ancient Craft Masonry. The first of the great Sacred Numbers of the Ancient Mysteries, three was the numerical symbol of God, but not because God was necessarily considered as triune. While many religions of many ages and peoples have conceived of Divinity as a trinity, the figure three as a symbol of God is far older than any trinitarian doctrine. The triangle, like the circle, is without beginning or ending. One line, or two
42 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
lines, have ends. They start and finish. Like the square or the five or more sided figure, the triangle has no loose ends. And the triangle is the first of these which can be made; as God was always considered as first, and also as without either beginning or ending, the triangle itself soon became a symbol of Deity.
Ancient peoples made much of sex. Their two greatest impulses were self-preservation and mating. Their third was protection of children. So powerful were these in primal man that not all his civilization, his luxury, his complicated and involved life, have succeeded in removing them as the principal mainsprings of all human endeavor. It was natural for the savage worshiper of a shining god in the sky to think he, too, required a mate, especially when that mate was so plainly in evidence. The Moon became the Sun's bride by a process of reasoning as plain as it was childlike.
Father, mother . . . there must be a child, of course. That child was Mercury, the nearest planet to the sun, the one the god kept closest to him. Here we have the origin of the three Lesser Lights; in earliest recorded accounts of the Mysteries of Eleusis (to mention only one) we find three lights about the holy place, representing the Sun, the Moon, and Mercury.
The Worshipful Master rules and governs his lodge as truly as the Sun and Moon rule and govern day and night. There can be no lodge without a Worshipful Master; he is, in a very real sense, the lodge itself. There are some things he cannot do that the brethren under him can do. But without him the
ENTERED APPRENTICE 43
brethren can do nothing, while without the brethren's consent or even their assistance, he can do much. As one of the principal functions of the Worshipful Master is to give "good and wholesome instruction" to his lodge, the inclusion of one light as his symbol is but a logical carrying out of that Masonic doctrine which makes the East the source of Masonic light to the brethren.
By the light of the Lesser Lights the Entered Apprentice is led to see those objects which mean so much to a Mason, the Great Lights; the inestimable gift of God to man as the rule and guide for his faith and practice, the tools dedicated to the Craft and to the Master, the Alpha and Omega of Freemasonry. Light alone is not enough; light must be used! Here, too, is symbolism which it is well to muse upon.
As the lodge as a whole is a symbol of the world, so should a Mason's heart be to him always a symbol of the lodge. In it he should carry ever what he may remember of the Great Light and with spiritual compasses lay out his work; with spiritual square, square both work and actions toward all mankind, "more especially a brother Mason." Therefore must be carry also in his heart three tiny Lesser Lights, by the light of which he uses his spiritual lodge furnishings. If he lights these from the torch of love and burns one for friendliness, one for helpfulness and one for godliness, he will be truly an initiate in the real sense of that term, and about the altar of Freemasonry find a new satisfaction in the new meanings which the three Lesser Lights will, with silent light and soft, imprint upon his heart.
44 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
Mackey (1) states, "A mode of recognition which derives its name from its object, which is to duly guard the person using it."
Other commentators have seen it as derived from the French "Dieu Garcle" God guard me.
The origin of the Third Perfect Point is taught in the degree. Its use, in salute, is a silent way of saying to all present, "I remember my obligation; I am conscious of the penalty of its violation; I forget not my duty."
The initiate uses it first in a salutation to the Wardens, a ceremony the significance of which should never be forgotten. The government of a Masonic lodge is tripartite; it is in the hands of a Master and two Wardens. By this ceremony the Entered Apprentice admits their authority, submits himself to their government under the Master, and agrees to abide by their setting mauls when it is proper for them to use them.
The Due Guard is given by an Entered Apprentice on entering and retiring, that he may never forget the significance of his position when he took upon
(1) Albert Gallatin Mackey: one of the greatest students and most widely followed authorities the Masonic world has known. His Encyclopedia of Freemasonry is a standard work; his Jurisprudence and his Symbolism, if materially added to and changed since his time, are yet foundation works. His History is exhaustive; his List of Landmarks, if often superseded in these more modern days, first reduced the vexed question to proportions in which it might be grasped by the average Masonic mind. The Entered Apprentice who pursues his studies in Freemasonry may do much worse than consult the great Master of Freemasonry.
ENTERED APPRENTICE 45
himself that obligation which gave him the title, Brother.
THE LAMBSKIN APRON
More ancient than die Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle, more honorable than the Star and Garter . . .
In these words the ritual seeks to impress upon him who has been invested with the white lambskin apron its value and its importance.
The Order of the Golden Fleece was founded by Philip, Duke of Burgundy, in 1429.
The Roman Eagle was Rome's symbol and ensign of power and might a hundred years before Christ.
The Order of the Star was created by John II of France in the middle of the Fourteenth Century.
The Order of the Garter 'was founded by Edward III of England in 1349 for himself and twenty-five Knights of the Garter.
It is commonly supposed that the apron became the "badge of a Mason" because stonemasons wore aprons to protect their clothing from the rough contact of building material. But the apron is far, far older than Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle, than the Star or Garter, than the stonemasons of the Middle Ages aye, older than the Comacine Masters, the Collegia of Rome, the Dionysian Artificers who preceded them.
The Hebrew prophets wore aprons and the high priests were so decorated. In the mysteries of Egypt and of India aprons were worn as symbols of priestly power. The earliest Chinese secret societies used aprons; the Essenes wore them, as did the Incas of Peru and the Aztecs of Mexico.
46 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
Throughout the Old Testament are references to lambs, often in connection with sacrifices, frequently used in a sense symbolic of innocence, purity, gentleness, weakness, a matter aided by color, which we unconsciously associate with purity, probably because of the hue of snow.
This association is universal in Freemasonry, and the initiate should strive to keep his apron white and himself innocent. His badge of a Mason should symbolize in its color the purity of his Masonic character; he should forever be innocent of wrong toward all but "more especially a brother Mason."
With the presentation of the apron the lodge accepts the initiate as worthy. It entrusts to his hands its distinguishing badge. With it and symbolized by it comes one of the most precious and most gracious of gifts: the gift of brotherhood. Lucky the Entered Apprentice who has the wit to see the extent and the meaning of the gift; thrice lucky the lodge whose initiates find in it and keep that honor, probity and power, that innocence, strength, and spiritual contact, that glory of unity and oneness with all the Masonic world which may be read into this symbol by him who bath open eyes of the heart with which to see. In the words of the Old Dundee Lodge (1) Apron Charge:
It is yours to wear throughout an honorable life, and at your death to be placed upon the coffin which shall contain your mortal remains and with them laid beneath the silent clods of the valley. Let its pure and spotless surface be to you an ever-present reminder of a purity of life and rectitude of conduct, a never-ending
ENTERED APPRENTICE 47
argument for nobler deeds, for higher thoughts, for greater achievements. And when at last your weary feet shall have come to the end of their toilsome journey, and from your nerveless grasp shall drop the working tools of life, nay the record of your thoughts and actions be as pure and spotless as this emblem . . .
For thus, and thus only, may it be worn with pleasure to yourself and honor to the Fraternity.
"THE GREATEST OF THESE"
The Entered Apprentice practices the Rite of Destitution before he hears the beautiful words of the lecture descriptive of the three principal rounds of Jacob's ladder: "the greatest of these is charity for faith is lost in sight, hope ends in fruition, but charity extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms of eternity." But he may reflect upon both at once and from that reflection learn that Masonic giving to the destitute is not confined to alms.
Putting a quarter in a beggar's hand will hardly extend beyond the grave through the boundless realms of eternity!
Masonic charity does indeed include the giving of physical relief; individual Masons give it, the lodge gives it, the Grand Lodge gives it. But if charity began and ended with money, it would go but a little way. St. Paul said: "And although I bestow all my goods to feed the poor and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing."
If the charity of Freemasonry meant only the giving of alms, it would long ago have given place to a hundred institutions better able to provide relief.
48 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
The charity taught in the lodge is charity of thought, charity of the giving of self. The visit to the sick is true Masonic charity. The brotherly hand laid upon a bowed shoulder in comfort and to give courage is Masonic charity. The word of counsel to the fatherless, the tear dropped in sympathy with the widowed, the joyous letter of congratulation to a fortunate brother, all are Masonic charity and these, indeed, extend beyond the grave.
Often an Entered Apprentice believes that the Rite has taught him that every Mason must give a coin to every beggar who asks, even though they line the streets and need as many dimes as a pocket will hold. Such is not the truth. The Mason gives when he meets anyone "in like destitute condition." It is left for him to judge whether the appeal is for a need which is real or one assumed. In general all calls for Masonic charity should be made through the lodge; machinery is provided for a kindly and brotherly investigation, after which lodge or Grand Lodge will afford relief. Individual charity is wholly in the control of the individual brother's conscience.
But no conscience need control that larger and finer giving of comfort and counsel, of joy and sadness, of sympathy and spiritual help. Here the Mason may give as much as he will and be not the poorer but the richer for his giving. He who reeds the Rite of Destitution in this larger sense has seen through the form to the reality behind and learned the inner significance of the symbol.
Cornerstones are laid in the Northeast Corner be-
ENTERED APPRENTICE 49
cause the Northeast is the point of beginning midway between the darkness of the North and the light of the East.
The Entered Apprentice lays his Masonic Cornerstone standing in the Northeast corner of the lodge, midway between the darkness of profane ignorance and the full light of the symbolic East.
Here, if indeed he be a man of imagination and no clod, he receives a thrill that may come to him never again save once only in Masonry. For here he enters into his heritage as an Entered Apprentice. All that has gone before has been queer, mysterious, puzzling, almost mind-shocking, devastating with its newness and its differences from the world he knows.
Now he stands "a just and upright Mason" to receive those first instructions which, well studied, will enable him to understand what has been done with and to him as to all who have gone this way before.
Never again will be stand here, an Entered Apprentice a man receives the degree but once. Never, therefore, should be forget that once he stood there, nor how he stood there, nor why. And if, momentarily, memory leaves him, let him look in the Great Light and read (Ezekiel ii, 1-2):
And God said unto me, Son of Man, stand upon thy feet and I will speak unto thee. And the spirit entered into me when he spoke unto me, and set me upon my feet, that I heard him that spake unto me.
No man stands in the Northeast Corner with his heart open but hears that Voice which thundered to the prophet of old.
50 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
The Entered Apprentice receives from the hands of the Master two working tools.
The Twenty-four Inch Gauge is well explained in the ritual, but the significance of one point is sometimes overlooked. The Entered Apprentice is taught that by the Twenty-four Inch Gauge he should divide his time: "Eight hours for the service of God and a distressed worthy brother; eight for the usual vocations, and eight for refreshment and sleep."
There is no time to be wasted. There is no time to be idle. There is no time for waiting.
The implication is plain; the Entered Apprentice should be always ready to use his tools. He should recall the words of Flavius to the workman in Julius Caesar, "Where is thy leather apron and thy rule? What does thou with thy best apparel on?" Freemasonry is not only for the lodge room but for life. Not to take the Twenty-four Inch Gauge into the profane world and by its divisions number the hours for the working of a constructive purpose is to miss the practical application of Masonic labor and Masonic charity.
The Common Gavel which "breaks off the corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builder's use" joins the Rough and Perfect Ashlars in a hidden symbol of the Order at once beautiful and tender. The famous sculptor and ardent Freemason, Gutzon Borglum, asked how he carved stone into beautiful statues, once said, "It is very simple. I merely knock away with hammer and chisel the stone I do not need and the statue is there it was there all the time."
ENTERED APPRENTICE 51
In the Great Light we read: "The kingdom of heaven is within you." We are also there taught that man is made in the image of God. As Brother Borglum has so beautifully said, images are made by a process of taking away. The perfection is already within. All that is required is to remove the roughness, the excrescences, "divesting our hearts and consciences of all the vices and superfluities of life" to show forth the perfect man and Mason within. Thus the gavel becomes also the symbol of personal power.
The Common Gavel has in every lodge a still further significance; it is the symbol of the authority of the Worshipful Master. Later the initiate will learn of the great extent of the power vested in the Master of a lodge; sufficient now to say that the wise Master uses his power sparingly and never arbitrarily.
While the peace and harmony of the Craft are maintained, he need not use it except as the ritual of custom of presiding in the lodge requires. If he so use it will he respected and its possessor will be venerated.
The Master always retains possession of the gavel and never allows it beyond reach. He carries it with him when he moves about the lodge in process of conferring a degree. When the lodge is in charge of the Junior Warden at refreshment (1) it is the Junior Warden who uses a gavel to control the lodge. The gavel is the Master's symbol of authority and reminds him that although his position is the highest within the gift of the brethren, he is yet but a brother among brethren. Holding the highest power in the lodge he
52 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
exercises it by virtue of the commonest of the working tools.
Like all great symbols the gavel taking upon itself in the minds of the brethren something of the quality of the thing symbolized. As we revere the cotton in stripes and stars which become the flag of our country; as we revere the paper and ink which become the Great Light in Masonry, so, also, do Freemasons revere the Common Gavel which typifies and symbolizes the height of Masonic authority the majesty of power, the wisdom of Light which rest in and shine forth from the Oriental Chair.
No symbol in all Freemasonry has the universal significance of the Square. It is the typical jewel; the emblem known the world over as the premier implement of the stone worker and the most important of the Masonic working tools.
Every schoolboy learns that an angle of ninety degrees is a right angle. So common is the description that few even few Masons pause in busy lives to ask why. The ninety-degree angle is not only a right angle, but it is the right angle the only angle which is "right" for stones which will form a wall, a building, a cathedral. Any other angle is, Masonically, incorrect.
About the symbolism of the Square is nothing abstruse. Stonemasons use it to prove the Perfect Ashlars. If the stone fits the square, it is ready for the builder's use. Hence the words "try square" and hence, too, the universal significance of the word
ENTERED APPRENTICE 53
"square," meaning moral, upright, honorable, fair dealing.
Five centuries before the Christian era to mention only one ancient use of the Square as an emblem of morality a Chinese author wrote a book called The Great Learning. In it is the negative of the Golden Rule, that a man should not do into others that which he does not wish others to do into him. And then the Chinese sage adds, "This is called the principle of acting on the Square."
The initiate walks around the lodge turning corners on the square. On the altar is again the Square. He sees the Square hung about the neck of the Master particularly is the Square the jewel of the Master, because from him must come all Masonic light to his brethren, and his teachings must be "square." The Square shares with the Level and the Plumb the quality of immovability in the lodge meaning that as it is always the jewel of the Master, so is it immovably in the Symbolic East. An emblem of virtue, it is always in sight of the brethren in the lodge; for him who carries his Masonry into his daily life, it is forever in sight within, the try square of conscience, the tool by which he squares his every act and word.
The Level and the Plumb are the other Immovable Jewels; the Level worn by the Senior Warden in the West, the Plumb by the Junior Warden in the South. While Square, Level and Plumb are Immovable Jewels and as such belong to all three of the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry; while all we always worn by the three principal officers and at are first seen and noted in the Entered Apprentices Degree, they have a further significance in the second or Fellow-
54 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
craft's Degree, and the Plumb has an especial significance in that ceremony.
NORTH, PLACE OF DARKNESS
The reference to the ecliptic has puzzled many a brother who has not studied the elements of astronomy.
The earliest astronomers defined the ecliptic as the hypothetical "circular" plane of the earth's path about the sun with the sun in the "center."
As a matter of fact the sun is not in the center and the earth's path about the sun is not circular. The earth travels once about the sun in three hundred and sixty-five days and a fraction, on an elliptic path; the sun is at one of the foci of that ellipse.
The axis of the earth, about which it turns once in twenty-four hours, thus making a night and day, is inclined to this hypothetical plane by 23½ degrees. At one point in its yearly path the north pole of the earth is inclined toward the sun by this amount. Halfway farther around its path the north pole is inclined away from the sun by this angle. The longest day in the northern hemisphere June 21 occurs when the north pole is most inclined toward the sun.
Any building situated between latitudes 23½ north and 23½ south of the equator will receive the rays of the sun at meridian (noon) from the north at some time during the year. King Solomon's Temple at Jerusalem, being in latitude 31 degrees 47 seconds north, lay beyond this limit. At no time in the year, therefore, did the sun or moon at meridian "dart its rays into the northerly portion thereof."
ENTERED APPRENTICE 55
As astronomy in Europe is comparatively modern some have argued that this reason for considering the North, Masonically, as a place of darkness, must be also comparatively modern. This is wholly mistaken Pythagoras (to go no further back) recognized the obliquity of the world's axis to the ecliptic, as well as that the earth was a sphere suspended in space. While Pythagoras (born 586 B.C.) is younger than Solomon's Temple, he is almost two thousand years older than the beginnings of astronomy in Europe.
POINT WITHIN A CIRCLE
There is in every regular and well-governed Lodge, a certain point within a circle, embordered by two perpendicular parallel lines . . . .
It is among the most illuminating of the Entered Apprentice's symbols and is important not only for its antiquity, and many meanings which have been read from it, but because of the bond it makes between the old operative stone setter's art and the Speculative Masonry we know.
No man may say when, where, or how the symbol began. From the earliest dawn of history a simple closed figure has been man's symbol for Deity the circle for some peoples, the triangle for others, and a circle or a triangle with a central point for still others. In some jurisdictions a lodge closes with brethren forming a circle about the altar, which thus becomes the point or focus of the Supreme Blessing upon the brethren.
A symbol may have many meanings, all of them
56 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
right, so long as they are not self-contradictory. As the point within a circle has had so many different meanings to so many different people, it is natural that it have many meanings for Masons.
It is connected with sun worship, the most ancient of religions; ruins of ancient temples devoted both to sun and to fire worship are circular in form with a central altar or point which was the Holy of Holies. The symbol is found in India in which land of mystery and mysticism its antiquity is beyond calculation. In ancient meaning the point represents the sun and the circle the universe. This is both modern and ancient, as a dot in a small circle is the astronomical symbol for the sun.
The two parallel lines which in modern Masonry represent the two holy Sts. John are as ancient as the rest of the symbol, but originally bad nothing to do with the "two eminent Christian patrons of Masonry." They date back to an era before Solomon. On early Egyptian monuments may be found the Alpha and Omega or symbol of God in the center of a circle embordered by two perpendicular, parallel serpents representing the Power and the Wisdom of the Creator.
This is not only a symbol of creation but is fraught with other meanings. When man conceived that fire, water, the sun, the moon, the stars, the lightning, the thunder, the mountains and rivers did not each have a special deity, that in all this universe there was but one God, and wanted to draw a picture of that conception of unity, the only thing be could do was to make a point. When man conceived that God was eternal, without beginning and without ending, from
ENTERED APPRENTICE 57
everlasting to everlasting, and desired to draw a picture of that conception of eternity, be could but draw a circle that goes around and around forever. When man conceived that the Master Builder did not blow hot and cold, that be was not changing, fickle and capricious, but a God of rectitude and justice, and needed to picture that conception of righteousness, he drew straight up and down parallel lines. So this symbol stands for the unity, the eternal life, and the righteousness of God.
That derivation of the symbol which best satisfies the mind as to logic and appropriateness students find in the operative craft. The tools used by the cathedral builders were the same as ours today; they had gavel and mallet, setting maul and hammer, chisel and trowel, plumb and square, level and twenty-four inch gauge to "measure and lay out their work."
The square, the level, and the plumb were made of wood wood, cord, and weight for plumb and level; wood alone for square.
Wood wears when used against stone and warps when exposed to water or damp air. The metal used to fasten the two arms of the square together would rust and perhaps bend or break. Naturally the squares would not stay square indefinitely but had to be checked up constantly for their right-angledness.
The importance of the perfect right angle in the square by which the stones were shaped can hardly be overestimated. Operative Masonry in the cathedral-building days was largely a matter of cut and try, of individual workmen, of careful craftsmanship. Quantity production, micrometer measurement,
58 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
interchangeable parts had not been invented. All the more necessary then that the foundation on which all the work was done should be as perfect as the Masters knew how to make it. Cathedral builders erected their temples for all time how well they built a hundred glorious structures in the Old World testify. They built well because they knew how to check and try their squares.
Draw a circle any size on a piece of paper. With a straight edge drew a line through its center. Put a dot on the circle anywhere. Connect that dot with the line at both points where it crosses the circle. Result, a perfect right angle. Draw the circle of what size you will; place the dot on the circumference where you will; if the lines from the dot meet the horizontal line crossing the circle through its center, they will form a right angle.
This was the operative Master's great secret knowing how to "try the square." It was by this means that he tested working tools; did he do so often enough it was impossible either for tools or work "to materially err." From this also comes the ritual used in the lodges of our English brethren where they "open on the center."
The original line across the center has been shifted to the side and become the "two perpendicular parallel lines" of Egypt and India, and our admonitions are no longer what they must once have been; . . . "while a Mason circumscribes his square within these points, it is impossible that it should materially err." But how much greater becomes the meaning of the symbol when we see it as a direct descent from an operative practice! Our ancient brethren used
ENTERED APPRENTICE 59
the point within a circle as a test for the rectitude of the tools by which they squared their work and built their temporal buildings. In the Speculative sense we use it as a test for the rectitude of our intentions and our conduct, by which we square our actions with the square of virtue. They erected Cathedrals we build the house not made with hands. Their point within a circle was operative ours is Speculative.
But through the two point in a circle on the ground by which an operative Master secretly tested the squares of his fellows point within a circle as a symbol by which each of us may test, secretly, the square of his virtue by which he erects an Inner Temple to the Most High both are Masonic, both are beautiful. The one we know is far more lovely that it is a direct descendant of an operative practice the use of which produced the good work, true work, square work of the Master Masons of the days that come not back.
Pass it not lightly. Regard it with the reverence it deserves, for surely it is one of the greatest teachings of Masonry, concealed within a symbol which is plain for any man to read so be it he has Masonry in his heart.
LODGE OF THE HOLY STS. JOHN
Dedication, solemnly setting apart for some sacred purpose, is a ceremony too ancient for its beginnings to be known. Just where Masons left off dedicating their lodges to King Solomon cannot be stated historically; traditionally, as the first Temple was dedicated to King Solomon and the Second Temple to
60 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
Zerubbabel, Masonry was first dedicated to Solomon, then to Zerubbabel, and finally, after Titus destroyed the Second Temple, to the Holy Ste. John.
But we do know that the dedication is very ancient; documentary evidence connects the name of St. John the Evangelist with Masonry as early as 1598. The connection must be far older; indeed, if we need further evidence of the possibility of the Comacine Masters having been the progenitors of the operative Freemasons we may find it in the frequent dedication of Comacine churches to one Saint John or the other. The whole island of Comacina is dedicated to St. John the Baptist and an annual festival and midsummer pageant are observed in his honor to this day.
St. John's Day in summer (June 24), and St. John's Day in winter (December 27) were adopted by the Church in the Third Century, after failure to win pagans from celebrating these two dates as the summer and winter solstices; that is, the beginning of summer and the beginning of winter. Not able to destroy the pagan festivals a wise diplomacy gave them new names and took them into the Church.
It was the custom for the Guilds of the Middle Ages to adopt saints as patrons and protectors, usually from some fancied relation to their trades. The operative Masons were but one among many Guilds which adopted one Saint John or the other; Masons adopted both as (explained in an old ritual), "One finished by his learning what the other began by his zeal, and thus drew a second line parallel to the former."
Whatever the reason and whenever the date, Free-
ENTERED APPRENTICE 61
masons of today come from "the Lodge of the Holy Ste. John of Jerusalem," meaning that we belong to a lodge dedicated to those Saints, whose practices and precepts, teachings and examples, are those all Freemasons should try to follow.
THE PRINCIPAL TENETS
The Entered Apprentice receives a monitorial explanation of these which is both round and full, but neither full nor round enough to instruct him wholly in these three foundation stones of the Ardent Craft. Nor can he receive that roundness and fullness of explanation by words alone. He must progress through the degrees, attend his lodge, see the Fraternity in action, fully to understand all that Freemasonry means by Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth.
But a word or two may clear away some possible misapprehensions.
Brotherly Love is not a sentimental phase. It is an actuality. It means exactly what it says; the love of one brother for another.
In the everyday world brothers love one another for only one reason. Not for blood ties alone; we have all known brothers who could not 'get along" together. Not because they should, not because it is "the thing to do," but simply and only because each acts like a brother.
Freemasonry has magic with which to touch the hearts of men but no wizardry to make the selfish, unselfish; the brutal, gentle; the coarse, fine; the bad, good. Brotherly Love in Freemasonry exists only for him who acts like a brother. It is as true in
62 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
Freemasonry as elsewhere that "to have friends, you must be one."
The Freemason who sees a Square and Compasses upon a coat and thinks, "There is a brother Mason, I wonder what he can do for me," is not acting like a brother. He who thinks, "I wonder if there is anything I can do for him," has learned the first principle of brotherhood.
"You get from Freemasonry just what you put into it" has been so often said that it has become trite but it is as true now as when first uttered. One may draw checks upon a bank only when one has deposited funds. One may draw upon Brotherly Love only if one has Brotherly Love to give.
The Entered Apprentice is obligated in a lodge which wants him; all its members are predisposed in his favor. They will do all in their power to take him into the Mystic Circle. But the brethren cannot do it all; the Entered Apprentice must do his part.
Luckily for us all the Great Architect so made his children that when the heart is opened to pour out its treasures, it is also opened to receive.
The Entered Apprentice learns much of Relief; he will learn more if he goes farther. One small point he may muse upon with profit; these words he will often hear in connection with charity, "more especially a brother Mason."
St. Paul said (Galatians vi, 10), "As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith."
Freemasonry has no teachings that a Mason should not contribute to other charities. The continually
ENTERED APPRENTICE 63
insistent teaching of charity through all the three degrees, especially the Entered Apprentice's Degree, excludes from charity no one.
Without dependence societies, nations, families, congregations, could not be formed or exist. But the very solidity of the group, predicated upon mutual dependence, also creates this idea of distinction in relief or friendship or business as between those without and those within the group. This feeling is universal. The church gives gladly to all good works but most happily to relieve those "who are of the household of faith." Our government considers the welfare of its own nationals before that of the nationals of other governments. The head of a family will not deny his own children clothes to put a coat upon the back of the naked child of his neighbor. Those we know best, those closest, those united in the tightest bonds come first, the world over, in every form of union.
Naturally, then, a Mason is taught that while in theory for all, in practice charity is for "more especially a brother Mason."
The final design of Freemasonry is its third principal tenet the imperial truth. In some aspects truth seems relative, because it is not complete. Then we see it as through a glass, darkly. But the ultimates of truth are immutable and eternal: the Fatherhood of God; the immortality of the soul.
As two aspects of the same object may seem different to different observers, so two aspects of truth may seem different. It is this we must remember when we ask, What is truth in Freemasonry? It is the essence of the symbolism which each man takes
64 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
for himself, different as men are different, greater as perception and intelligence are greater, less as imagination and understanding are less. We are told, "On this theme we contemplate" we think of the truths spread before us and understand and value them according to the quality of our thinking. Doubtless that is one reason for the universal appeal of Free. masonry; she is all things to her brethren and gives to all of us of her Truth in proportion to our ability to receive.
In the Entered Apprentice's Degree the initiate is taught the necessity of a belief in God; of charity toward all mankind, "more especially a brother Mason"; of secrecy; the meaning of brotherly love; the reasons for relief; the greatness of truth; the advantages of temperance; the value of fortitude; the part played in Masonic life by prudence, and the equality of strict justice.
He is charged to be reverent before God, to pray to Him for help, to venerate Him as the source of all that is good. He is exhorted to practice the Golden Rule and to avoid excesses of all kinds. He is admonished to be quiet and peaceable, not to countenance disloyalty and rebellion, to be true and just to government and country, to be cheerful under its laws. He is charged to come often to lodge but not to neglect his business, not to argue about Freemasonry with the ignorant but to learn Masonry from Masons, and once again to be secret. Finally he is urged to present only such candidates as he is sure will agree to all that he has agreed to.
- II -
CARL H. CLAUDY, Litt. D.
Author of "A Master's Wages," "Foreign Countries,"
"The Old Past Master," "Old Tiler Talks," "United
Masonic Relief," "The Master's Book," "The
Lion's Paw," "Where Your Treasure Is,"
"These Were Brethren," "Masonic
THE TEMPLE PUBLISHERS
First Printing, September, 1931
Forty-First Printing, August 1954
Two Hundred & Eighty-Two Thousand
Copyright, 1931 by
CARL H. CLAUDY
INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
II - FELLOWCRAFT
Printed in the United States of America
FELLOWCRAFT . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... 65 CABLE TOW ......... ......... 68 SPURIOUS ......... ......... 69 GRAND LODGE ......... ......... 70 WORKING TOOLS ......... ......... 73 "AMOS, WHAT SEEST THOU?" ......... ......... 75 CORN, WINE, AND OIL ......... ......... 77 THE TWO PILLARS ......... ......... 80 THE GLOBES ......... ......... 85 THE WINDING STAIRS ......... ......... 86 THE NUMBER THREE ......... ......... 88 WORSHIPFUL MASTER ......... ......... 89 THE WARDENS ......... ......... 92 THE NUMBER FIVE ......... ......... 94 ARCHITECTURE ......... ......... 95 THE FIVE SENSES ......... ......... 97 THE NUMBER SEVEN ......... ......... 99 THE SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES ......... ......... 100 THE STAIRS WIND ......... ......... 102 LETTER "G" ......... ......... 103 "GOD IS ALWAYS GEOMETRIZING" ......... ......... 109 HISTORY THE GRAND LODGE PERIOD ......... ......... 112
As battle-weary men long for the sea
Like tired children, seeking Mother's breast,
And in its restless endlessness find rest,
Its crashing surf a soothing systole:
As seeks the storm-tossed ship the harbor's lee,
So mariners upon life's deep, hard-pressed
To weather boiling trough and mounting crest,
Steer for the shelter of Freemasonry.
Her ancient waves of sound lap on the strand,
A melody more God's than man's. We hear,
Like gentle murmurs in a curved sea shell
Which whispers of some far off wonderland
Where lightning flashes from blue skies and clear,
The rolling thunder of the ritual.
As the Entered Apprentice Degree as a whole is symbolic of infancy and youth, a period of learning fundamentals, a beginning, so the Fellowcraft Degree is emblematic of manhood.
But it is a manhood of continued schooling; of renewed research; of further instruction. The Fellowcraft has passed his early Masonic youth, but he lacks the wisdom of age which he can attain only by use of the teachings of his first degree, broadened, strengthened, added to, by those experiences which come to men as distinguished from children.
Of the many symbols of this degree three stand out beyond all others as most beautiful and most important. They are the brazen Pillars; the Flight of Winding Stairs as a means of reaching the Middle Chamber by the teachings of the three, the five, and the seven steps; and the Letter "G" and all that it means to the Freemason.
Very obviously the Fellowcraft Degree is a call to learning, an urge to study, a glorification of educa-
66 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
tion. Preston, (1) to whom we are indebted for much of the present form of this degree, evidently intended it as a foundation for that liberal education which in its classic form was so esteemed by the educated of Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century England.
The explanations of the Five Orders of Architecture, the Five Senses and the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences no longer embrace the essentials of a first-class education, but think not less of the degree on that account, since it is to be understood symbolically, not literally, as the great Masonic scholar may have intended.
While the degree contains moral teaching and a spiritual content only surpassed by that of the Sublime Degree, as a whole it is a call to books and study. If the Fellowcraft takes that to mean Masonic books and Masonic study he will find in this degree the touchstone which will make all three degrees a never-ending happiness for their fortunate possessor.
Later he became the Master of several lodges and was so interested in Freemasonry that he studied it deeply and wrote Illustrations of Masonry, a book to which historians and Masonic antiquarians are deeply indebted. After careful investigation he wrote the lectures of the several degrees, encouraged by the Grand Lodge, and later became its Deputy Grand Secretary. The Prestonian work used in the United States was modified and changed by Thomas Smith Webb, born 1771, died 1819. He was elected Grand Master in Rhode Island in 1813, but is best known for his Freemasons Monitor, or Illustrations of Masonry. Much of the printed ritual in United States jurisdictions is the same or but little changed, from that first printed by Webb in 1797.
Certain differences between this and the preceding degree are at once apparent. The Entered Apprentice about to be passed is no longer a candidate he is a brother. In the first degree the candidate is received with a warning; in the second, the brother to be passed is received with an instruction. In the first degree the cable tow was for a physical purpose; here it is an aid, an urge to action, a girding up, a strengthening for the Masonic life to come. The circumambulation of the Fellowcraft is longer than that of the Apprentice: journey through manhood is longer than through youth. The obligation in the Entered Apprentice Degree stresses almost entirely the necessity for secrecy; in the Fellowcraft Degree secrecy is indeed enjoined upon the brother who kneels at the altar, but he also assumes duties toward his fellows and takes upon himself sacred obligations not intrusted to an Entered Apprentice. He learns of the pass, and he is poor in spirit indeed who is not thrilled to observe the slowly opening door which eventually will let in the whole effulgent Light of the East, typified by the position of the Square and Compasses upon the Volume of the Sacred Law.
A degree to muse upon and to study; one to see many, many times and still not come to the end of the great teachings here exemplified. Alas, too many brethren regard it as but a necessary stepping-stone between the solemnities of the Entered Apprentice's Degree and the glories of the Sublime Degree of Master Mason. Stepping-stone it is, indeed, but he uses it with difficulty and is assisted by it but little who cannot see behind its Pillars a rule of conduct for life; who cannot visualize climbing the Winding
68 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
Stairs as the pilgrimage we all must make; to whom the Middle Chamber is only a chamber in the middle and for whom the Letter "G" is but a letter.
The Fellowcraft wears it so that it may be an aid to his journey; by it a brother may assist him on his way. He also learns in this degree that a cable tow is more than a rope; it is at once a tie and a measurement.
How long is a cable tow? Thousands have asked and but a few have attempted to reply. In much older days it was generally considered to be three miles; that was when a brother was expected to attend lodge whether he wanted to or not if within the length of his cable tow.
Now we have learned that there is no merit in attendance which comes from fear of fine, or other compulsion. The very rare but occasionally necessary summons may come to any Fellowcraft. When it comes, he must attend. But Freemasonry is not unreasonable. She does not demand the impossible, and she knows that what is easy for one is hard for another. To one brother ten miles away a summons may mean a call which he can answer only with great difficulty. To another several hundred miles away who has an airplane at his command it may mean no inconvenience.
Long before airplanes were thought of or railroad trains were anything but curiosities, it was determined (Baltimore Masonic Convention, 1843) that the length of a cable tow is "the scope of a brother's reasonable ability."
Such a length the Fellowcraft may take to heart. Our gentle Fraternity compels no man against his will, leaving to each to determine for himself what is just and right and reasonable and brotherly!
The use of two words in the Fellowcraft's Degree is a relic of antiquity and not a modern test to determine whether or not a Mason heles (1) the true word of a Fellowcraft. We have more accurate ways of knowing whether or not a would-be visitor comes from a legitimate or clandestine lodge (2) than his knowledge of ritual.
There are clandestine or spurious Masons, but they are not difficult to guard against. What all Fellowcrafts must be on watch to detect is any quality of spuriousness in their own Freemasonry. For there is no real Freemasonry of the lips only. A man may have a pocket full of dues cards showing that he is in good standing in a dozen different Masonic organizations; may be (although this is rare) a Past Master, and still, if he has not Freemasonry in his heart, be actually a spurious Mason.
(1) Hele: Masonically, rhymes with "fail." Often confused with "bail," a greeting or recognition. Hele (pronounced "hail") is to cover, to conceal. Is cognate with "cell," "hull," "hollow," "bell" (the covered place). In old provincial English, a "heler" was one who covered roofs with tiles or slates. Compare "tiler."
(2) Clandestine: other than recognized, not legitimate. A few clandestine Grand Lodges and subordinate bodies still exist in this country, organizations calling themselves Masonic but without descent from regular lodges or Grand Lodges, and without recognition by the Masonic world.
70 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
Freemasonry is neither a thing nor a ritual. It is not a lodge nor an organization. Rather is it a manner of thought, a way of living, a guide to the City on a Hill. To make any less of it is to act as a spurious Mason. If the lesson of the pass as communicated in the degree means this to the Fellowcraft, then indeed has he the lesson of this part of the ceremony by heart.
Every initiate should know something of the Grand Lodge, that august body which controls the Craft.
Before a Craft lodge can come into existence now there must be a Grand Lodge, the governing body of all the particular lodges, to give a warrant of constitution to at least seven brethren, empowering them to work and to be a Masonic lodge.
The age-old question which has plagued philosophers: did the first hen lay the first egg, or did the first egg hatch into the first hen, may seem to apply here, since before there can be a Grand Lodge there must be three or more private lodges to form it! But this is written of conditions in the United States today, not of those which obtained in 1717, when four individual lodges in London formed the first Grand Lodge.
Today no regularly constituted lodge can come into being without the consent of an existing Grand Lodge. Most civilized countries now have Grand Lodges; the great formative period of Grand Lodges the Eighteenth and Nineteenth century is practically over. The vast majority of new lodges which
will grow up as children of the mother will not form other Grand Lodges for themselves. It is not contended that no new Grand Lodges will ever be formed but only that less will come into being in the future than have in the past. (1) The Grand Lodge, consisting of the particular lodges represented by their Masters, Senior, and Junior Wardens, and sometimes Past Masters, as well as the officers, Past Grand Masters and Past Grand Officers of the Grand Lodge, is the governing body in its jurisdiction. In the United States jurisdictional lines are coincident with state lines. Each Grand Jurisdiction is supreme unto itself; its word in any Masonic subject is Masonic law within its own borders.
A Grand Lodge adopts a constitution and by-laws for its government which is the body of the law of the Grand Jurisdiction, which, however, rests upon the Old Charges and the Constitutions which have descended to us from the Mother Grand Lodge. The legal body is supplemented by the decisions made by Grand Masters, or the Grand Lodge, or both, general regulations, laws, resolutions and edicts of the Grand Lodge, all in accord with the "ancient usages and customs of the Fraternity."
In the interim between meetings of a Grand Lodge the Grand Master is the Grand Lodge. His powers are arbitrary and great but not unlimited. Most Grand Lodges provide that certain acts of the Grand Master may be revised, confirmed or rejected by the Grand Lodge as a check upon any too radical
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moves. But a brother rarely becomes a Grand Master without serving a long and arduous apprenticeship. Almost invariably he has been Master of his own lodge and by years of service and interest demonstrated his ability and his fitness to preside over the Grand Lodge. The real check against arbitrary actions of a Grand Master is more in his Masonry than the law, more in his desire to do right than in the legal power compelling him to do so.
Most Grand Lodges meet once a year for business, election, and installation of officers. Some Grand Lodges (Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, for instance) meet in quarterly communications. All Grand Lodges meet in special communications at the call of the Grand Master.
The Grand Lodge receives and disburses certain funds; these come as dues from the constituent lodges, from gifts and bequests, from special assessments, etc. The funds are spent as the Grand Lodge orders; upon charity, the maintenance of the 'Home, the expenses of the Grand Lodge, maintaining a Grand Secretary and his office and staff, publication of Proceedings, educational work, etc.
Most Grand Lodges also publish a manual or monitor of the non-secret work of the degrees which may or may not also contain the forms for various Masonic ceremonies such as dedication of lodge halls, cornerstone laying, funeral service, etc. Most Grand Lodges also publish a Digest or Code, which contains the constitution, by-laws, and regulations of the Grand Lodge, and the resolutions, edicts, and decisions under which the Craft works. The interested Mason will procure these at his earliest convenience that he
may be well informed regarding the laws and customs of his own jurisdiction.
The working tools of a Fellowcraft are the Plumb, the Square, and the Level. The Entered Apprentice has learned of them as the Immovable Jewels, but in the Fellowcraft's Degree they have a double significance. They are still the Jewels of the three principal officers, still immovably fixed in the East, the West, and the South, but they are also given into the hands of the Fellowcraft with instructions the more impressive for their brevity.
The tools represent an advance in knowledge. The Entered Apprentice received a Twenty-four Inch Gauge and a Common Gavel with which to measure and lay out a rough ashlar and chip off its edges to a stone ready for the builders' use. But that is all he may do. Not with gauge or gavel may he build; only prepare material for another. He is still but a beginner, a student; to his hands are intrusted only such tasks as if ill done will not materially affect the whole.
The Fellowcraft uses the Plumb, the Square, and the Level. With the Square he tests the work of the Apprentice; with the Level he lays the courses of the wall he builds; with the Plumb he raises perpendicular columns. If he use his tools aright he demonstrates that he is worthy to be a Fellow of the Craft and no Apprentice; that he can lay a wall and build a tower which will stand.
Hence the symbolism of the three tools as taught
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in the monitorial work. The Plumb admonishes us to walk uprightly; that is, not leaning over, not awry with the world or ourselves, but straight and square with the base of life on which we tread. We are to square our actions by the Square of Virtue. Every man has a conscience, be it ever so dead; every Freemason is expected to carry the conscience of a Fellowcraft's Square of Virtue in his breast and build no act, no matter how small, which does not fit within its right angle.
The operative Fellow of the Craft builds his wall course by course, each level and straight. We build upon the level of time, a fearsome level indeed. The Fellow of the Craft whose wall stands not true on a physical level may take down his stones, retemper his mortar and try again. But the Freemason can never unbuild that which is erected on the level of time; once gone, the opportunity is gone forever. Omar said, "The moving finger writes, and having writ, moves on." The poet Oxenham phrased it "No man travels twice the great highway which winds through darkness up to light, through night, to day."
Therefore does it behoove the Fellowcraft to build on his level of time with a true Plumb and a right Square.
In its interweaving of emblem with emblem, teaching with teaching, symbol with symbol. Freemasonry is like the latticework atop the Pillars in the Porch of King Solomon's Temple, the several parts of which are so intimately connected as to denote unity. Here the Plumb as a Jewel, the Plumb as a working tool of the Fellowcraft, and the Heavenly Plumb in the
hand of Jehovah, as told in Amos vii, are so inextricably mingled that while references to them occur a different parts of the degree, symbolically they must be considered together.
"AMOS, WHAT SEEST THOU?"
Thus he shewed me; and behold the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumb line, with a plumb line in his hand. And the Lord said unto me, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, a plumb line. Then said the Lord, Behold, I will set a plumb line in the midst my people Israel; I will not again pass by them any more.
This passage from the Great Light is as much a part of the ritual of the Fellowcraft's Degree as the 133rd Psalm is of the Entered Apprentice's Degree, has the same intimate connection with the teachings of this ceremony.
The vital and important part is this: the Lord set a plumb line in the midst of his people Israel. He did not propose to judge them by a plumb line afar off in another land, in high heaven, but here in the here midst of them.
This is of intense interest to the Fellowcraft Mason, since it teaches him how he should judge his own work and, more important, how he should judge the work of others.
Presumably plumb lines hang alike. Presumably all plumbs, like all squares and all levels, are equally accurate. Yet a man may use a tool thinking it accurate which to another is not true. If the tool of building and the tool of judging be not alike either
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the judgment must be inaccurate or the judge must take into consideration the tool by which the work was done.
By the touch system, a blind man may learn to write upon a typewriter. If a loosened type drop from the type bar when the blind man strikes the letter "e" he will make but a little black smudge upon the paper. It is perfectly legible; in this sentence every "e" but one has been smudged. Would you criticize the blind man for imperfect work? He has no means of knowing that his tool is faulty. If you found the smudges which stand for the letter in the right places, showing that he had used his imperfect machine perfectly, would you not consider that he had done perfect work? Aye, because you would judge by a plumb line "in the midst" of the man and his work. If, however, the paper with the smudged letters "e" were judged by one who knew nothing of the workman's blindness, nothing of his typewriter, one who saw only a poor piece of typing, doubtless, he would judge it as imperfect.
The builders of the Washington monument and the Eiffel Tower in Paris both used plumb lines accurate to the level of the latitude and longitude of these structures. Both are at right angles with sea level.
Yet to some observer on the moon equipped with a strong telescope these towers would not appear parallel. As they are in different latitudes they rise from the surface of the earth at an angle to each other.
Doubtless he who engineered the monument would protest that the monument to Washington was right and the French engineer's tower wrong. The Frenchman, knowing his plumb was accurate, would be-
lieve the monument crooked. But the Great Architect, we may hope, would think both right knowing each was perfect by the plumb by which it was erected.
The Fellowcraft learns to judge his work by his own plumb line, not by another's; if he erects that which is good work, true work, square work by his own working tools in other words, by his own standards he does well. Only when a Fellowcraft is false to his own conscience is he building other than fair and straight.
CORN, WINE, AND OIL
The wages which our ancient brethren received for their labors in the building of King Solomon's Temple are paid no more. We use them only as symbols, save in the dedication, constitution, and consecration of a new lodge and in the laying of cornerstones, when once again the fruit of the land, the brew of the grape and the essence of the olive are poured to launch a new unit of brotherhood into the fellowship of lodges; to begin a new structure dedicated to public or Masonic use.
In the Great Light are many references to these particular forms of wealth. In ancient days the grapes in the vineyard, the olives in the grove and the grain of the field were not only wealth but the measure of trade; so many skins of wine, so many cruses of oil, so many bushels of corn were then as are dollars and cents today. Thus when our ancient brethren received wages in corn, wine, and oil they were paid for their labors in coin of the realm.
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The oil pressed from the olive was as important to the Jews in Palestine as butter and other fats are among Occidentals. Because it was so necessary and hence so valuable it became an important part of sacrificial rites.
Oil was also used not only as a food but for lighting purposes within the house, not in the open air where the torch was more effective. Oil was also an article of the toilet; mixed with perfume it was used in the ceremonies of anointment and in preparation for ceremonial appearances. The "precious ointment which ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard" was doubtless made of olive oil suitably mixed with such perfumes and spices as myrrh, cinnamon, galbanum and frankincense. Probably oil was also used as a surgical dressing; nomadic peoples, subject to injuries, could hardly avoid knowledge of the value of soothing oil.
The corn of the Old Testament is not the corn we know. In the majority of the uses of the word a more understandable translation would be "grain." The principal grains of the Old Testament days were barley and wheat and "corn" represents not only both of these but all the grains which the Jews cultivated.
An ear of grain has been an emblem of plenty since the mists of antiquity shrouded the beginnings of mythology. Ceres, goddess of abundance, survives today in our cereals. The Greeks called her Demeter, a corruption of Gemeter, out mother earth. She wore a garland of grain and carried ears of grain in her hand.
The Hebrew Shibboleth means both an ear of corn
and a flood of water. Both are symbols of abundance, plenty, wealth.
Scarcely less important to our ancient brethren than their corn and oil was wine. Vineyards were highly esteemed both as wealth and as comfort the pleasant shade of the vine and fig tree was a part of ancient hospitality. Vineyards on mountain sides or hills were most carefully tended and protected against washing by terraces and walls, as even today one may see on the hillsides of the Rhine. Thorn hedges kept cattle from the grapes. The vineyardist frequently lived in a watchtower or hut on an elevation to keep sharp look out that neither predatory man nor beast took his ripening wealth.
Thus corn, wine, and oil were the wages of a Fellowcraft in the days of King Solomon. Freemasons receive no material wages for their labors, but if the work done in a lodge is paid for only in coin of the heart such wages are no less real. They may sustain as does the grain, refresh as does the wine, give joy and gladness as does the oil. How much we receive, what we do with our wages, depends entirely on our Masonic work. Our ancient brethren were paid for their physical labors. Whether their wages were paid for work performed upon the mountains and in the quarries, or whether they received corn, wine, and oil because they labored in the fields and vineyards, it was true then and it is true now that only "in the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread." To receive the Masonic equivalent of the ancient corn, wine, and oil, a brother must labor. He must till the fields of his own heart or build the temple of his own house not made with hands. He
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must give labor to his neighbor or carry stones for his brother's temple.
If he stand and wait and watch and wonder, he will not be able to ascend into the Middle Chamber where our ancient brethren received their wages. If he works for the joy of working, does his part in his lodge work1 takes his place among the laborers of Freemasonry, he will receive corn, wine, and oil in measures pressed down and running over and know a fraternal joy as substantial in fact as it is ethereal in quality; as real in his heart as it is intangible to the profane world.
For all Fellowcrafts aye, for all Freemasons corn, wine, and oil are symbols of sacrifice, of the fruits of labor, of wages earned.
THE TWO PILLARS
And King Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre. He was a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali, (1) and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass; And he was filled with wisdom, and understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass. And he came to King Solomon, and wrought all his work. For he cast two pillars of brass, of eighteen cubits, (2) high apiece; and a line of twelve cubit, did compass either of them about . . . .
And he setup the pillars in the porch of the temple; and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin; and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz. And upon the top
the pillars was lily work; so was the work of the pillars finished. (I Kings vii, 13-22)
Also he made before the house two pillars of thirty and five cubits high, and the chapiter that was on the top of each of them was five cubits. And he made chains, as in the oracle, and put them on the heads of the pillars and made an hundred pomegranates and put them on the chains. (II Chronicles iii, 15-16.)
From the dawn of religion the pillar, monolith or built-up, has played an important put in the worship of the Unseen. From the huge boulders of Stonehenge among which the Druids are supposed to have performed their rites, through East Indian temples to the religion of ancient Egypt, scholars trace the use of pillars as an essential part of religious worship; indeed, in Egypt the obelisk stead for the very presence of the Sun God himself.
It is not strange, then, that Hiram of Tyre should erect pillars for Solomon's Temple. What has seemed strange is the variation in the dimensions given in Kings and Chronicles; a discrepancy which is explained by the theory that Kings gives the height of one and Chronicles of both pillars together. Of the ritualistic explanation of the two brazen pillars it is not necessary to speak at length, since the Middle Chamber lecture is quite satisfyingly explicit regarding their ancient use and purpose. But their inner symbolic significance is not touched upon in the ritual; it is one of the hidden beauties of Freemasonry left for each brother to hunt down for himself.
It is a poor symbol that has but one meaning. Of
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the many interpretations of the Brazen Pillars, two are here selected as vivid and important.
The ancients believed the earth to be flat and that it was supported by two Pillars of God, placed at the western entrance of the world as then known. These are now called Gibraltar, on one side of the Strait, and Ceuta on the other. This may account for the origin of the twin pillars. However this may be, the practice of erecting columns at the entrance of an edifice dedicated to worship prevailed in Egypt and Phoenicia, and at the erection of King Solomon's Temple the Brazen Pillars were placed in the porch thereof.
Some writers have suggested that they represent the masculine and feminine elements in nature; others, that they stand for the authority of Church and State, because on stated occasions the high priest stood before one pillar and the king before the other. Some students think that they allude to the two legendary pillars of Enoch, upon which, tradition informs us, all the wisdom of the ancient world was inscribed in order to preserve it from inundations and conflagrations. William Preston supposed that, by them, Solomon had reference to the pillars of cloud and fire which guided the Children of Israel out of bondage and up to the Promised Land. One authority says a literal translation of their names is: "In Thee is strength," and, "It shall be established," and by a natural transposition may be thus expressed: "Oh, Lord, Thou art almighty and Thy power is established from everlasting to everlasting."
It is impossible to escape the conviction that in meaning they are related to religion, and represent
the strength and stability, the perpetuity and providence of God, and in Freemasonry are symbols of a living faith.
Faith cannot be defined. The factors of mightiest import cannot be caught up in speech Life is the primary fact of which we are conscious, and yet there is no language by which it can be fenced in No chart can he made of a mother's love; it is deeper than words and reads in little, common things a wealth that is more than golden.
While we cannot define, we can recognize the power of faith. It generates energy. It is the dynamics of elevated characters and noble spirits, the source of all that bears the impress of greatness.
And we can realize its necessity. 'Without faith it would be impossible to transact business. "It spans the earth with railroads, and cleaves the sea with ships. It gives man wings to fly the air, and fins to swim the deep. It creates the harmony of music and the whir of factory wheels. It draws man up toward the angels and brings heaven down to earth." By it all human relationship is conditioned. We must have faith in institutions and ideals, faith in friendship, family and fireside, faith in self faith in man, and faith in God.
Freemasonry is the oldest, the largest, and the most widely distributed fraternal Order on the face of the earth today by reason of its faith in God. At one end of the Second Section of the Fellowcraft Degree are the Two Brazen Pillars a symbol of that faith, at its other end is the Letter "G," a living sign of the same belief.
But there is another interpretation of the symbolism.
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The Entered Apprentice in process of being passed to the degree of Fellowcraft passes between the pillars. No hint is given that be should pass nearer to one thus to the other; no suggestion is made that either may work a greater influence than the other, He merely passes between.
A deep significance is in this very omission. Masons refer to the promise of God unto David; the interested may read Chapter vii of II Samuel for themselves, and gather that the establishment promised by the Lord was that of a house, a family, a descent of blood from David unto his children and his children's children.
The pillars were named by Hiram Abif; those names have many translations. Strength and establishment are but two; power, and wisdom or control, fit the meaning of the words as well.
Used to blast stumps from fields dynamite is an aid to the farmer. Used in war it kills and maims. Fire cooks our food and makes steam for our engines; fire also burns up our houses and destroys our forests. But it is not the power but the use of power which is good or bad. The truth applies to any power; spiritual, legal, monarchial, political, personal. Power is without either virtue or vice; the user may use it well or ill, as he pleases.
Freemasonry passes the brother in process of becoming a Fellowcraft between the pillar of strength power; and the pillar of establishment choice or control He is a man now and no minor or infant. He has grown up Masonically. Before him are spread the two great essentials to all success, all greatness, and happiness.
Like any other power temporal or physical, religious or spiritual Freemasonry can be used well or ill Here us the lesson set before the Fellowcraft; if he like David would have his kingdom of Masonic manhood established in strength he must pass between the pillars with understanding that power without control is useless, and control without power, futile. Each is a complement of the other; in the passage between the pillars the Fellowcraft not only has his feet set upon the Winding Stairs but is given so he has eyes to see and ears to bear secret instructions as to how he shall climb those stairs that he may, indeed, reach the Middle Chamber. He shall climb by strength, but directed by wisdom; he shall progress by power, but guided by control; he shall rise by the might that is in him, but arrive by the wisdom of his heart.
So seen the pillars become symbols of high value; the initiate of old saw in the obelisk the very spirit of the God he worshiped. The modern Masonic initiate may see in them both the faith and the means by which he may travel a little further, a little higher toward the secret Middle Chamber of life in which dwells the Unseen Presence.
The "world celestial and the world terrestrial" on the brazen pillars were added by comparatively modern ritual makers. Solomon knew them not, although contemporaries of Solomon believed the earth stood still while a hollow sphere with its inner surface dotted with stars revolved about the earth. The
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slowly turning celestial sphere is as old as mankind's observations of the starry decked heavens.
It is to be noted that both terrestrial and celestial spheres are used as emblems of universality. This is not mere duplication for emphasis; each teaches an individual part of universality. What is called universal on the earth as for instance the necessity of mankind to breathe, drink water and eat in order to live is not necessarily universal in all the universe. We have no knowledge that any other planet in our solar system is inhabited what evidence there is rather to the contrary. We are ignorant of any other sun which has any inhabited planets in its system. If life does exist in some world to us unknown, it may be entirely different from life on this planet. A symbol of universality which applied only to the earth would be a self-contradiction.
Real universality means what it says. It appertains to the whole universe. A Mason's charity of relief to the poor and distressed must obviously be confined to this particular planet, but his charity of thought may, so we are taught, extend "through the boundless realms of eternity."
The world terrestrial and the world celestial on our representations of the pillars, in denoting universality, mean that the principles of our Order are not founded upon mere earthly conditions and transient truths, but rest upon divine and limitless foundations, coexistent with the cosmos and its Creator.
THE WINDING STAIRS
Like so much else in Freemasonry the Middle Chamber is wholly symbolic. It seems obvious that
Solomon the Wise would not have permitted any practice so time wasting and uneconomic as sending many thousand workmen up a flight of stairs to a small middle chamber to receive corn, wine, and oil which had to be brought up in advance, only to be carried down in small lots by each workman as be received his wages.
If we are to accept the Scriptural account of the Temple as accurate, there actually were winding stairs. "And they went up with winding stairs into he middle chamber" is stated in I Kings. That the stairs had the three, five, and seven steps by which we rise is not stated in the Scriptures. Only in this country have the Winding Stairs fifteen steps. In older days the stairs had but five, sometimes seven steps. Preston had thirty-six steps in his Winding stairs in a series of one, three, five, seven, nine, and eleven. But this violated a Pythagorean principle and Freemasonry has adopted much in its system from the science of numbers as exemplified by Pythagoras as the Fellowcraft will discover when if he receives the Sublime Degree.
The great philosopher Pythagoras taught that odd numbers were more perfect than even; indeed, the Temple builders who wrought long before Pythagoras always built their stairs with an odd number of steps, so that, starting with the right foot at the bottom the climber might enter the sacred place at the top with the same foot in advance. Freemasonry uses only odd numbers, with particular reliance on three: three degrees, three principal officers, three steps, three Lesser Lights, and so on.
Hence the English system later eliminated the
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number eleven from Preston's thirty-six, making twenty-five steps in all.
The stairs as a whole are a representation of life; not the physical life of eating, drinking, sleeping and working, but the mental and spiritual life, of both the lodge and the world without; of learning, studying, enlarging mental horizons, increasing the spiritual outlook. Freemasons divide the fifteen steps into three, referring to the officers of a lodge; five, concerned with the orders of architecture and the human senses; and seven, the Liberal Arts and Sciences.
THE NUMBER THREE
The first three steps represent the three principal officers of a lodge, and though not stated in time ritual must always refer to Deity, of which three; the triangle, is the most ancient symbol.
Their principal implication here is to assure the Fellowcraft just starting his ascent that he does not climb alone. The Worshipful Master, Senior, and Junior Wardens are themselves symbolic of the lodge as a whole, and thus (as a lodge is a symbol of the world) of the Masonic world the Fraternity. The Fellowcraft is surrounded by the Craft. The brethren are present to help him climb. In his search for truth, in his quest of his wages in the Middle Chamber, the Fellowcraft is to receive the support and assistance of all in the Mystic Circle; surely an impressive symbol.
If we examine a little into the powers and duties of the Worshipful Master and his Wardens we may see how they rule and govern the lodge and so by
that means they may aid the Fellowcraft in his ascent.
WORSHIPFUL (1) MASTER
The incumbent of the Oriental Chair has powers peculiar to his station which are far greater than those of the president of a society or the chairman a meeting of any kind. President and chairman are elected by the body over which they preside and may be removed by that body. A Master is elected by his lodge but can be removed only by the Grand Master (or his Deputy acting for him) or Grand Lodge. The presiding officer is bound by the rules of order adopted by the body and by its by-laws. A lodge cannot pass by-laws to alter, amend, or curtail the inherent powers of a Master.
Grand Lodges so differ in their interpretation of some of the "ancient usages and custom" of the Fraternity that what applies in one jurisdiction does not necessarily apply in another. But certain powers of a Master are so well recognized that they may be considered universal.
(1) Worshipful: greatly respected. The Wycliffe Bible (Matthew xix, 19) reads: "Worschip thi fadir and thi modir." The Authorized Version translates "worschip" to "honor" "honor thy father and thy mother." In parts of England today one hears the Mayor spoken of as Worshipful, the word used in its ancient sense, meaning one worthy, honorable, to be respected. "Worshipful" as applied to the Master of a lodge does not mean that we should bow down to him in adoration as when used in its ecclesiastical sense. We "worship" God, but not men, Our Masters in being called "Worshipful" are but paid a tribute of respect in the language of two or more centuries ago.
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The Master may congregate his lodge when he pleases and for what purpose he wishes, provided it does not interfere with the laws of the Grand Lodge.
For instance, he may assemble his lodge at a special communication to confer degrees, at his pleasure; but he must not disobey that requirement of the Grand Lodge which calls for proper notice to the brethren, nor may a Master confer a degree in less than the statutory time following a preceding degree without a dispensation from the Grand Master.
The Master has the right of presiding over governing his lodge, and only the Grand Master or his Deputy may suspend him. He may put any brother in the East to preside or to confer a degree; he may then resume the gavel at his pleasure even in the middle of a sentence! But when he has delegated authority temporarily the Master is not relieved from responsibility for what occurs in his lodge.
It is the Master's right to control lodge business and work. It is in a very real sense his lodge. He decides all points of order and no appeal from his decision may be taken to the lodge. He can initiate and terminate debate at his pleasure and can propose or second any motion. He may open and close the lodge at his pleasure, except that he may not open a stated communication earlier than the hour stated in the by-laws. He is responsible only to the Grand Master and the Grand Lodge, the obligations he assumed when he was installed, (1) his conscience, and his God.
The Master has the right to say who may enter and who may leave the lodge room, he may deny a visitor entrance; but be must have a good and sufficient reason, otherwise his Grand Lodge will unquestionably rule such a drastic step arbitrary and punish accordingly. Per contra, if he permits the entry of a visitor to whom some member has objected, he may also subject himself to Grand Lodge discipline. In other words his power to admit or exclude a visitor is absolute; his right to admit or exclude a visitor is hedged about by the pledges he takes at his installation and the rules of his Grand Lodge.
A very important power of a Master is that of appointing committees. No lodge may appoint a committee. The lodge may pass a resolution that a committee be appointed, but the selection of that committee is an inherent right of the Master. He is ex officio a member of all committees he appoints. The reason is obvious; he is responsible to the Grand Master and the Grand Lodge for the conduct of his lodge. If the lodge could appoint committees and act upon their recommendations, the Master would be in the anomalous position of having great responsibilities, but no power to carry out their performance.
Only the Master may order a committee to examine a visiting brother. It is his responsibility to see that no cowan or eavesdropper comes within the tiled door. Therefore it is for him to pick a committee in which he has confidence. So, also, with the committees which report upon petitioners. He is responsible for the accuracy, the fair-mindedness, the speed and the intelligence of such investigations. It
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is, therefore, for him to say to whom shall be delegated this necessary and important work.
It is generally, not exclusively, held that only a Master can issue a summons. In a few jurisdictions the lodge members present at a stated communication may summons the whole membership.
If he keeps within the laws, resolutions, and edicts of his Grand Lodge on the one hand, and the Landmarks, Old Charges, Constitutions and ancient usages and customs on the other, the power of the Worshipful Master is that of an absolute monarch. His responsibilities and his duties are those of an apostle of Light!
Wardens are found in all bodies of Masonry, in all rites, in all countries.
Its derivation gives the meaning of the word. It comes from the Saxon weardian, to guard, to watch. In France the second and third officers are premier and second Surveillant; in Germany erste and zwite Aufseher; in Spain primer and segundo Vigilante; in Italy primo and aecondo Sorvegliante, all the words meaning one who overlooks, watches, keep. ward. observes.
Whether the title came from the provision of the old rituals that the Wardens sit beside the two pillars in the porch of the temple to oversee or watch, the Senior Warden the Fellowcrafts and the Junior Warden the Apprentices, or whether the old rituals we developed from the custom of the Middle Ages Guilds having Wardens (watchers) is a moot question.
In the French Rite and the Scottish Rite both Wardens sit in the West near the columns. In the Blue lodge the symbolism is somewhat impaired by the Junior Warden sitting in the South, but is strengthened by giving each Warden, as an emblem of authority, a replica of the column beneath the shade of which he once sat. The column of the Senior Warden is erect, that of the Junior Warden on its side, while the lodge is at labor. During refreshment the Senior Warden's column is laid prostrate while that of the Junior Warden is erected, so that by a glance at either South or West the Craft may know at all times whether the lodge is at labor or refreshment.
The government of the Craft by a Master and two wardens cannot be too strongly emphasized. It is not only the right but the duty of the Senior Warden to assist the Worshipful Master in opening and governing his lodge. When he uses it to enforce orders, his setting maul or gavel is to be respected; he has a proper officer to carry his messages to the Junior Warden or elsewhere; under the Master he is responsible for the conduct of the lodge while at labor.
The Junior Warden's duties are less important; he observes the time and calls the lodge from labor to refreshment and refreshment to labor in due season at the orders of the Master. It is his duty to see that "none of the Craft convert the purposes of refreshment into intemperance and excess" which doubtless has a bibulous derivation, coming from days when refreshment meant wine. If we no longer drink wine at lodge, we still have reason for this charge upon the Junior Warden, since it is his unpleasant duty,
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when ordered by the Master or Grand Master, because he supervises the conduct of the Craft at refreshment, to prefer charges against those suspected of Masonic misconduct.
Only Wardens (or Past Masters) may be elected Master. This requirement (which has certain exceptions, as in the formation of a new lodge) is very old. The fourth of the Old Charges reads:
No brother can be a Warden until he has passed the part of a Fellowcraft; (1) nor a Master, until he has acted as Warden; nor Grand Warden, until he has been Master of a Lodge; nor Grand Master, unless he has been a Fellowcraft before his election.
The Warden's is a high and exalted office; his duties are many, his responsibilities great; his powers only exceeded by those of the Master.
THE NUMBER FIVE
Five has always been a sacred and mystical number; Pythagoras made of it a symbol of life, since it rejected unity by the addition of the first even and the first odd number. It was therefore symbolic of happiness and misery, birth and death, order and disorder in other words, life as it was lived. Egypt knew five minor planets, five elements, five elementary powers. The Greeks had four elements and added ether, the unknown, making a cosmos of five.
Five is peculiarly the number of the Fellowcraft's Degree; it represents the central group of the three which form the stairs; it refers to the five orders of architecture; five are required to hold a Fellowcraft's Lodge; there are five human senses; geometry is the fifth science, and so on.
In the Winding Stairs the number five represents first the five orders of architecture.
Here for the first time the initiate is introduced to the science of building as a whole. He has been presented with working tools; he his had explained the rough and perfect ashlars, he has heard of the house not made with hands; he knows something of the building of the Temple. Now he is taught of architecture as a science; its beginnings are laid before him; he is shown how the Greeks commenced and the Romans added to the kinds of architecture; he learns of the beautiful, perfect and complete whole which is a well-designed, well-constructed building.
Here is symbolism in quantity! And here indeed the Fellowcraft gets a glimpse of all that Freemasonry may mean to a man, for just as the Freemasons of old were the builders of the cathedrals and the temples for the worship of the Most High, so is the Speculative Freemason pledged to the building of his spiritual temple.
Temples are built stone by stone, a little at a time. Each stone must be hewn from the solid rock of the quarry. Then it must be laid out and chipped with
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the gavel until it is a perfect ashlar. Finally it must be get in place with the tempered mortar which will bind. But before any stone may be placed, a plan must come into existence; the architect must plan his part. As the Fellowcraft hears in the degree:
A survey of nature, and the observation of her beautiful proportions, first induced man to imitate the divine plan, and to study symmetry and order. This gave rise to society, and birth to every useful art. The architect began to design, and the plans which he laid down, improved by time and experience, have led to the production of works which are the admiration of every age.
So must the Fellowcraft, studying the orders of architecture by which he will erect his spiritual temple, design the structure before he commences to build.
There are five orders of architecture, not one. There are many plans on which a man may build a life, not one only. Freemasonry does not attempt to distinguish as between the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian as to beauty or desirability. She does suggest that the Tuscan, plainer than the Doric, and the Composite, more ornamental though not more beautiful than the Corinthian, are less reverenced than the ancient and original orders. Freemasonry makes no attempt to influence the Fellowcraft as to which order of life building he shall choose. He may elect the physical, the mental, the spiritual or he may choose the sacrificial "plainer than the Doric" or the ornamental, which is "not more beautiful than the Corinthian." Freemasonry is concerned less with
what order of spiritual architecture a Fellowcraft chooses by which to build than that he does choose one; that he build not aimlessly. He is bidden to study symmetry and order.
Architecture is perhaps the most beautiful and expressive of all the arts. Painting and sculpture, noble though they are, lack the utility of architecture and any. to interpret nature rather than to originate.
Architecture is not hampered by the necessity of reproducing something already in existence. It may raise its spires untrammeled by any nature model; it may fling its arches gloriously across a nave and transept with no similitude in nature to hamper by suggestion. If his genius be great enough, the architect may tell in his structure truths which may not be put in words, inspire by glories not sung in the divinest harmonies.
So may the builder of his own house not made with hands, if he choose aright his plan of life and hew to the line of his plan. So, indeed, have done all those great men who have led the world; the prophets of old, Pythagoras, Confucius, Buddha, Shakespeare, Milton, Goethe, Washington, Lincoln . . .
THE FIVE SENSES
If the Fellowcraft, climbing his three, five, and seven steps to a Middle Chamber of unknown proportions, containing an unknown wage, is overweighted with the emphasis put upon the spiritual side of life, he may here be comforted.
Freemasonry is not an ascetic organization. It recognizes that the physical is as much a part of
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normal life as the mental and spiritual upon which so much emphasis is put.
The Fellowcraft Degree is a glorification of education, the gaining of knowledge, the study of the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences and all that they connote. Therefore it is wholly logical that the degree should make special reference to the five means by which man has acquired all his knowledge; aye, by which he will ever acquire any knowledge.
All learning is sense-bound. Inspiring examples have been given the world by unfortunates deprived of one or more senses. Blind men often make as great a success as those who see; deaf men often overcome the handicap until it appears nonexistent. Helen Keller is blind, deaf, and was dumb as well; all that she has accomplished and it would be a great accomplishment with all five senses has been done through feeling and tasting and smelling.
But take away all five senses and a man is no more a man; perhaps his mind is no more a mind. With no contact whatever with the material world he can learn nothing of it. As man reaches up through the material to the spiritual, he could learn nothing of ethics without contact with the physical.
If there are limits beyond which human investigations and explorations into the unknown may not go, it is because of the limitations of the five senses. Not even the extension of those senses by the marvelously sensitive instruments of science may overcome, in the last analysis, their limits.
Some objects are smaller than any rays we know except X-rays. If it were possible to construct a microscope powerful enough to see an atom, the only
light by which it could be seen would be X-rays. But the very X-rays which would be necessary to see it would destroy the atom as soon as they struck it. In our present knowledge, then, to see the atom is beyond the power of human senses. If anything is beyond the power of eyes, even if aided by the greatest magnification, then there must be truths beyond the power of touch and taste and smell and hearing, regardless of the magnification science may provide.
Except for one factor! Brute beasts hear, see, feel, smell, and taste, as do we. But they garner no facts of science, win no truths, formulate no laws of nature through these senses. More than the five senses are necessary to perceive the relation between thing and thing, and life and life. That factor is the perception, the mind, the soul or spirit, if you will, which differentiates man from all other living beings.
If the Fellowcraft's five steps, then, seem to glorify the five senses of human nature, it is because Freemasonry is a well-rounded scheme of life and living which recognizes the physical as well as the mental life of men and knows that only through the physical do we perceive the spiritual. It is in this sense, not as a simple lesson in physiology, that we are to receive the teachings of the five steps by which we rise above the ground floor of the Temple to that last flight of seven steps which are typical of knowledge.
THE NUMBER SEVEN
Most potent of numbers in the ancient religions, the number seven has deep significance. The Pythagoreans called it the perfect number, as made
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up of three and four, the two perfect figures, triangle and square. It was the virgin number because it cannot be multiplied to produce any number within ten, as can two and two, two and three, and two and four, three and three. Nor can it be produced by the multiplication of any whole numbers.
Our ancient ancestors knew seven planets, seven Pliades, seven Hyades, and seven lights burned before the Altar of Mithras. The Goths had seven deities: Sun, Moon, Tuisco, Woden, Thor, Friga, and Seatur or Saturn, from which we derive the names of the seven days of our week. In the Gothic mysteries the candidate met with seven obstructions. The ancient Jews swore by seven, because seven witnesses were used to confirm, and seven sacrifices offered to attest truth. The Sabbath is the seventh day; Noah had seven days' notice of the flood; God created the heaven and the earth in six days and rested on the seventh day; the walls of Jericho were encompassed seven times by seven priests bearing seven rams' horns; the Temple was seven years in building, and so on through a thousand references.
It is only necessary to refer to the seven necessary to open an Entered Apprentice's lodge, the seven original officers of a lodge (some now have nine or ten or even more) and the seven steps which complete the Winding Stairs to show that seven is an important number in the Fraternity.
TEE SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES
In William Preston's day a liberal education was comprised in the study of grammar, rhetoric and
logic, called the trivium, and arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy, called the quadrivium. Preston endeavored to compress into his Middle Chamber lecture enough of these to make at least an outline available to men who might otherwise know nothing of them.
In our day and times grammar and rhetoric are considered of importance, but in a secondary way; logic is more or less swallowed up as a study in the reasoning appropriate to any particular subject; arithmetic, of course, continues its primary importance; but from the standpoint of science, geometry and its offshoots are still the vital sciences of measurement. Music has fallen into the discard as part of a liberal education; it is now one of the arts, not the sciences, and astronomy is so interrelated with physics that it is hard to say where one leaves off and the other begins. As for electricity, chemistry, biology, civics, government, and the physical sciences, they were barely dreamed of in Preston's day.
So it is not actually but symbolically that we are to climb the seven steps. If the author may venture to quote himself: (1)
William Preston, who put so practical an interpretation upon these steps, lived it an age when these did indeed represent all knowledge. But we must not refuse to grow because the ritual has not grown with modern discovery. When we rise by Grammar and Rhetoric, we must consider that they mean not only language, but all methods of communication. The step of Logic means a knowledge not only of a method of
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reasoning, but of all reasoning which logicians have accomplished. When we ascend by Arithmetic and Geometry, we must visualize all science; since science is but measurement, in the true mathematical sense, it requires no great stretch of the imagination to read into these two steps all that science may teach. The step denominated Music means not only sweet and harmonious sounds, but all beauty poetry, art, nature, loveliness of whatever kind. Not to be familiar with the beauty which nature provides is to be, by so much, less a man; to stunt, by so much, a starving soul. As for the seventh step of Astronomy, surely it means not only a study of the solar system and the stars as it did in William Preston's day, but also a study of all that is beyond the earth; of spirit and the world of spirit, of ethics, philosophy, the abstract of Deity. Preston builded better than he knew; his seven steps are both logical in arrangement and suggestive in their order. The true Fellowcraft will see in them a guide to the making of a man rich in mind and spirit, by which riches only can true brotherhood be practiced.
THE STAIRS WIND
Finally consider the implications of the winding stairs, as opposed to those which are straight.
The one virtue which most distinguishes man is courage. It requires more courage to face the unknown than the known. A straight stair, a ladder, hides neither secret nor mystery at its top. But the stairs which wind hide each step from the climber; what is just around the corner is unknown. The
winding stairs of life lead us to we know not what; for some of us a Middle Chamber of fame and fortune; for others, one of pain and frustration. The Angel of Death may stand with drawn sword on the very next step for any of us.
Yet man climbs.
Man has always climbed; he climbed from a cave man savagery to the dawn of civilization; Lowell's
brute despair of trampled centuries,
Leapt up with one hoarse yell and snapped its bands;
Groped for its right with horny, callous hands
And stared around for God with bloodshot eyes,
was a climbing from slavery to independence, from the brutish to the spiritual. Through ignorance, darkness, misery, cruelty, wrong, oppression, danger, and despair, man has climbed to enlightenment. Each individual man must climb his little winding stairs through much the same experience as that of the race.
Aye, man climbs because he has courage; because he has faith; because he is a man. So must the Freemason climb. The winding stairs do lead somewhere. There is a Middle Chamber. There are wages of the Fellowcraft to be earned.
So believing, so, unafraid, climbing, the Fellowcraft may hope at the top of his winding stairs to reach a Middle Chamber, and see a new sign in the East . . .
Its first reference is to the first and noblest of the sciences, geometry. Geometry, the fifth of the
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Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences, and astronomy, the seventh science, are so much a part of each other that it is difficult to consider them separately; indeed, the ritual of the letter "G" is as much concerned with the study of the heavens as of the science of measurement alone. We hear:
By it we discover the power, the wisdom, and the goodness of the Grand Artificer of the Universe and view with delight the wonderful proportions of this vast machine. By it we discover how the planets move in their respective orbits and demonstrate their various revolutions.
Numberless worlds are around us, all framed by the same Divine Artist, which roll through the vast expanse, controlled by the same unerring law.
It is difficult to visualize the vital importance of the heavens to early men. We can hardly conceive of their terror of the eclipse and the comet or sense their veneration for the Sun and his bride, the Moon. We are too well educated. We know too much about "the proportions which connect this vast machine." The astronomer has pushed back the frontiers of his science beyond the comprehension of most of us; the questions which occur as a result of unaided visual observations have all been answered. We have substituted facts for fancies regarding the sun, the moon, time solar system, the comet, and the eclipse.
(1) Albert Pike: born 1809, died 1891. One of the greatest geniuses Freemasonry has ever known. It is said of him that "he found Scottish Rite Masonry in a hovel and left it in a palace." He was a mystic, a symbolist, a teacher
We cannot, even in the remotest degree, feel, though we may partially and imperfectly imaging those great, primitive, simplehearted children of Nature felt in regard to the Starry Hosts, there upon the slopes of the Himalayas, on the Chaldean plains, in the Persian and Median deserts, and upon the banks of the great, strange river, the Nile. To them the Universe was alive instinct with forces and powers, mysterious and beyond their comprehension. To them it was no machine, no great system of clockwork; but a great live creature, in sympathy with or inimical to man. To them, all was mystery and a miracle, and the stars flashing overhead spoke to their hearts almost in an audible language. Jupiter, with its kingly splendors, was the emperor of the starry legions. Venus looked lovingly on the earth and blessed it; Mars with his crimson fires threatened war and misfortune; and Saturn, cold and grave, chilled and repelled them. The ever-changing Moon, faithful companion of the Sun, was a constant miracle and wonder; the Sun himself the visible emblem of the creative and generative power. To them the earth was a great plain, over which the sun, the moon and the planets revolved, its servants, framed to give it light. Of the stars, some were beneficent existences that brought with them springtime and fruits and flowers some, faithful sentinels, advising them of coming inundation, of the season of storm and of deadly winds;
(2) of the hidden truths of Freemasonry. To him the world of Freemasonry owes a debt of incalculable size. Poet, Freemason, philosopher, his genius had a profound effect upon the Craft in general, and the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry In particular.
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some heralds of evil, which, steadily foretelling, they seemed to cause. To them the eclipses were portents of evil, and their causes hidden in mystery, and supernatural. The regular returns of the stars, the comings of Arcturus, Orion, Sirius, the Pleiades, and Aldebaran, and the journeyings of the Sun, were voluntary and not mechanical to them. What wonder that astronomy became to them the most important of sciences; that those who learned it became rulers; and that vast edifices, the Pyramids, the tower or temple of Bel, and other like erections elsewhere in the East, were builded for astronomical purposes? and what wonder that, in their great childlike simplicity, they worshiped Light, the Sun, the Planets, and the Stars, and personified them, and eagerly believed in the histories invented for them; in that age when the capacity for belief was infinite; as indeed, if we but reflect, it still is and ever will be?
Anglo-Saxons usually consider history as their history; science as their science; religion as their religion. This somewhat naïve viewpoint is hardly substantiated by a less egoistic survey of knowledge. Columbus' sailors believed they would fall off the edge of a flat world, yet Pythagoras knew the earth to be a ball. The ecliptic was known before Solomon's Temple was built; the Chinese predicted eclipses long, long before the Europeans of the Middle Ages regarded them as portents of doom!
Astronomical lore in Freemasonry is very old. The foundations of our degrees. are far more ancient than we can prove by documentary evidence. It is surely not stretching credulity to believe that the
study which antedates geometry must have been impressed on our Order, its ceremonies and its symbols, long before Preston and Webb worked their ingenious revolutions in our rituals and gave us the system of degrees we use today in one form or another.
The astronomical references in our degrees begin with the points of the compass; East, West, and South, and the place of darkness, the North. We are taught why the North is a place of darkness by the position of Solomon's Temple with reference to the ecliptic, a most important astronomical conception. The sun is the Past Master's GWU symbol; our Masters rule their lodges or are supposed to! with the same regularity with which the sun rules the day and the moon governs the night. Our explanation of our Lesser Lights is obviously an adaptation of a concept which dates back to the earliest of religions; specifically to the Egyptian Isis, Osiris, and Horns, represented by the sun, moon, and Mercury.
In circumambulation about the altar we traverse our lodges from East to West by way of the South as did the sun worshipers who thus imitated the daily passage of their deity through the heavens.
Measures of time are astronomical. Days and nights were before man and consequently before astronomy but hours and minutes are inventions of the mind, depending upon the astronomical observation of the sun at meridian to determine noon and consequently all other periods of time. The Middle Chamber work gives to geometry the premier place as a means by which the astronomer may fix the
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duration of time and seasons, years and cycles.
Observing that the sun rose and set our ancient brethren easily determined East and West, although as the sun rises and sets through a variation of 47 degrees north and south during a six months' period the determination was not exact.
The earliest Chaldean star gazers, progenitors of the astronomers of later ages, saw that the apparently revolving heavens pivoted on a point nearly coincident with a certain star. We know that the true north diverges from the North Star one and a half degrees, but their observations were sufficiently accurate to determine a North and consequently East, West, and South.
A curious derivation of a Masonic symbol from the heavens is that universally associated with the Stewards, the cornucopia.
According to the mythology of the Greeks which goes back to the very dawn of civilization, the god Zeus was nourished in infancy from the milk of the goat, Amalthea. In gratitude the god placed Amalthea forever in the heavens as a constellation, but first he gave one of Amalthea's horns to his nurses with the assurance that it would forever pour for them whatever they desired.
The horn of plenty, or the cornucopia, is thus a symbol of abundance. The goat from which it came may be found by the curious among the constellations under the name of Capricorn. The Tropic of Capricorn of our school days is the southern limit of the swing of the sum on the path which marks the ecliptic, on which the earth dips first its north, than its south pole toward our luminary. Hence
there is a connection, not the less direct for being tenuous, between our Stewards, their symbol, the lights in the lodge, the place of darkness, and Solomon's Temple. Of such curious links and interesting bypaths is the connection of astronomy with geometry and the letter "G," the more beautiful when we see eye to eye with the Psalmist: "The heavens declare the glory of God and the firmament sheweth his handiwork."
"GOD IS ALWAYS GEOMETRIZING"
So said Plato twenty-three centuries ago. It is merely an accident of the English language that geometry and God begin with the same letter; no matter what the language or the ritual, the initial of the Ineffable Name and that of the first and noblest of sciences are Masonically the same.
"But that is secret!" cries some newly-initiated brother who has examined his printed monitor and finds that the ritual concerning the further significance of the letter "G" is represented only by stars. Aye, the ritual is secret, but the fact is the most gloriously public that Freemasonry may herald to the world. One can no more keep secret the idea that God is the very warp and woof of Freemasonry than that He is the essence of all life. Take God out of Freemasonry and there is, literally, nothing left; it is a pricked balloon, an empty vessel, a bubble which has burst.
The petitioner knows it before he signs his application. He must answer "Do you believe in God?" before his petition can be accepted. He must de-
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clare his faith in a Supreme Being before he may he initiated. But note that he is not required to say, then or ever, what God. He may name Him as he will, think of Him as he pleases; make Him impersonal law or personal and anthropomorphic; Freemasonry cares not.
Freemasonry's own especial name for Deity is Great Architect of the Universe. She speaks of God rarely as if she felt the sacredness of the simple Jewish symbol the Yod which stood for JHVH, that unpronouncable name we think may have been Jehovah. But God, Great Architect of the Universe, Grand Artificer, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge Above, Jehovah, Allah, Buddha, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, or Great Geometer, a symbol of the conception shines in the East of every American Masonic lodge, as in the center of the canopy of every English lodge.
Secret? Aye, secret as those matters of the heart which may not be told are secret. Let him who loves his wife or his child more than he loves aught else upon the earth try to explain in words just bow he loves, and he will understand just what sort of a secret this is. All the world may know that be loves; how he loves, how much he loves, there are no words to tell.
All the world may know that the symbol of Deity shines in the East of a Masonic lodge; only the true Freemason, who is actually a Mason in his heart, as well as in his mind, may know just how and in what way the Great Architect is the very essence and substance of the Ancient Craft.
The symbol of Deity has always been a part of all houses of initiation. In the Egyptian mysteries it
was the Sun God's symbol, Ra. The Greeks considered the number five to be the symbol of man's dependence upon the Unseen; from five also came the Pentalpha or five-pointed star. The imaginative will easily see here a connection with the Fellowcraft's Degree in which five is especially the symbolic number. Plutarch tells us that in the Greek mysteries the symbol of God was made of wood in the first, of bronze in the second, and of gold in the third degree, or step, to symbolize the refinement of man's conception of Deity as he progressed from the darkness of ignorance to the light of faith in some one of many forms of belief in God.
Freemasonry uses a much more tender and beautiful symbolism. In modern and costly temples the letter "G" may be of crystal, lighted behind with electric light. In some country lodge it may be cut from cardboard and painted blue, illuminated if at all with a tallow dip. A Western lodge meets yearly on the top of a hill in a forest, and nails to a tree cut branches in the form of a rough letter "G." Freemasonry's symbolism is not of the material substance of the letter, but its connection with geometry, the science by which the universe exists and moves and by which the proportions which connect this vast machine are measured.
Aye, God is always geometrizing. Geometry is particularly His science. Freemasonry makes it especially the science of the Fellowcraft's Degree and couples it with the symbol of the Great Architect of the Universe. No teaching of Freemasonry is greater; none is simpler than this. The Fellowcraft who sees it as the very crux and climax of the
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degree, the reality behind the form, has learned as no words may teach him for what he climbed the Winding Stairs, and the true wages of a Fellowcraft which he found within the Middle Chamber.
HISTORY THE GRAND LODGE PERIOD
The formation of the Mother Grand Lodge in London, in 1717, which profoundly affected Freemasonry, is shrouded in mystery, clouded in the mists of time, and as extraordinary as it was important.
The Freemasons of those far-off days could have had no idea of the tremendous issues which hung upon their actions nor dreamed of the effect of their union. Had they even imagined it, doubtless they would have left us more records, and we would not now have to speculate on matters of history the very causes of which are in all probability never fully to be known to us.
One of the causes which led to the sudden coming to life of the old and diminishing Fraternity was the Reformation. During its operative period Freemasonry had been if not a child of the Church at least its servant, working hand in hand with it. Our oldest document the Halliwell Manuscript or Regius Poem, dated 1390 invokes the Virgin Mary, speaks of the Trinity and gives instructions for observing Mass! But the same influences which produces the Reformation worked in Freemasonry and by 1600, according to the Harleian Manuscript, (1) the Order had
largely severed its dependence upon the Church and become a refuge for those who wished to be free in thought as well as for Freemasons. It was still Christian almost aggressively Christian in its teachings. Not for another hundred years or more and then only partially did it rid itself of any sectarian character whatever and become what it is today, a meeting ground for "men of every country, sect and opinion," united in a common belief in the Fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man, and the hope of immortality.
Seventeen hundred and seventeen is the dividing line between before and after; between the old Freemasonry and the new; between a Craft which was slowly expiring and one which began to grow with a new vitality; between the last lingering remains of operative Masonry and a Craft wholly Speculative.
Just what were the causes of the events which led up to the formation of the first Grand Lodge we do not know. We can only guess. No minutes of the Mother Grand Lodge were kept during its first six years. The Constitutions and Old Charges, first published in 1723, were republished fifteen years after. In this second edition of 1738 is a meager record of the first meetings of the Grand Lodge, so brief and so skeletonized that there is space for it in such a little book as this. In the yellowed pages of this old and precious book of which a few copies still remain we read (letters modernized):
King George I entered London most magnificently on 20 Sept., 1714, and after the Rebellion was over 1716 A.D., the few Lodges at
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London finding themselves neglected by Sir Christopher Wren, thought fit to cement under a Grand Master as the Center of Union and Harmony, viz., the Lodges that met,They and some old Brothers met at the said Apple-Tree, and having put in the chair the oldest Master Mason (now the Master of a Lodge) they constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro Tempore in due form, and forthwith revived the Quarterly Communication of the Officers of Lodges (called the Grand Lodge) resolved to hold the Annual Assembly and Feast and then to chuse a Grand Master from among themselves, till they should have the Honor of a Noble Brother at their Head.
1. At the Goose and Gridiron Alehouse at St. Pauls Churchyard.
2. At the Crown Alehouse in Parker's-Lane, near Drury-Lane.
3. At the Apple-Tree Tavern in Charles-street, Covent Garden.
4. At the Rummer and Grapes Tavern in Channel-Row, Westminster.
Accordingly on St. John Baptist's Day, in the 3d year of King George I. A.D. 1717 the Assembly and Feast of the Free and accepted Masons was held at the foresaid Goose and Gridiron Ale-house.
Before Dinner, the oldest Master Mason (now the Master of a Lodge) in the Chair, proposed a List of proper Candidates; and the Brethren by a Majority of Hands elected Mr. Anthony Sayer Gentleman, Grand Master of Masons Capt. Joseph Elliot, Mr. Jacob Lamball, Carpenter, Grand Wardens who being forthwith invested with the Badges of Office and power
by the said oldest Master, and installed, was duly congratulated by the Assembly who paid him the Homage.
Sayer Grand Master commanded the Masters and Wardens of Lodges to meet the Grand Officers every Quarter in Communication at the lace he should appoint in his Summons sent by the Tyler. N. B. It is called the Quarterly Communication, because it should meet Quarterly according to ancient Usage. And when the Grand Master is present it is a Lodge in Ample Form; otherwise, only in Due Form, let having the same authority with Ample Form,
Probably other lodges existed is London at the time; whether they refused to join the historic four or were not invited we do not know. We know little about these original four lodges. The Engraved List of Lodges was published in 1729 in which the Goose and Gridiron Number 1 (afterwards the Lodge of Antiquity) is said to have dated from 1691. When William Preston became its Master the lodge was involved in a controversy with the Grand Lodge but that is too special an event to consider in so broad a sketch as this.
Lodge number two of the original four lodges which met at the Crown, Parker's-Lane, was struck from the roll in 1740. The first Grand Master of this Mother Grand Lodge, Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, came from lodge number three the Apple-Tree Tavern Lodge; we know little more of it. These three lodges were small, and at least as much operative as Speculative. But the fourth lodge, which met
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at the Rummer and Grapes Tavern in Channel Row, Westminster, was not only the largest (seventy members) but the most Speculative and with the highest type of membership. It mothered not only men of high social rank, lords, counts and knights, but also Dr. Desaguliers (1) and James Anderson, (2) two brethren who had a great deal to do with the revival, especially Anderson, to whom we are indebted for much.
In our perspective a Grand Lodge is as much a necessary part of the existing order of things as a State or Federal Government. In 1717 it was a new idea, accompanied by many other new ideas. Some brother or brethren saw that if the ancient Order were not to die, it must be given new life through a new organization. Doubtless they were influenced by Mother Kilwinning Lodge (3) of Scotland which had
(1) John Theophilus Desaguliers, LLD. F.R.S., born 1683, died 1744, called the Father of Modern Speculative Masonry. He was the third Grand Master of the first Grand Lodge and thrice afterwards Deputy Grand Master. He is credited with having been the inspiration of Anderson, and to have supplied much of the material from which Anderson wrote his "Constitutions."
(2) James Anderson, Father of the first printed Constitutions, 1723, which contains the Old Charges, the General Regulations, and a fanciful, fascinating, but wholly erroneous history of Freemasonry.
(3) Kilwinning: a small town in Scotland which tradition states is the birthplace of Freemasonry in the land of heather, as is York the east of the first General Assembly of Freemasons in England. Kilwinning Lodge Mother Kilwinning by affection and common consent at one time seceded from the Mother Grand Lodge, during which period she chartered various lodges as of "inherent right," including one in Virginia in 1785.
assumed and exercised certain motherly functions In regard to her daughter lodges, all of which had Kilwinning as a part of their name and, apparently, of their obedience.
The newly formed Grand Lodge went the whole way. It proposed to, and did, take command of its lodges. It branched out beyond the jurisdiction originally proposed "within ten miles of London" and invaded the provinces. It gave enormous powers to the Grand Master. It prohibited the working of the "Master's Part" in private lodges, thus throwing back to the ancient annual assemblies. (1) It divided the Craft into Entered Apprentices and Fellowcrafts. It resolved "against all politics as what never yet conduced to the welfare of the lodge nor ever will." This was a highly important declaration at a time when every organization in England was taking part in politics, especially in the Jacobite struggle against the House of Hanover. Indeed, a Grand Master, the Duke of Wharton (1722) turned against the Grand Lodge and the Fraternity when it refused to lend itself to his political aspirations and sponsored the Gormogons, a caricature organization which tried to destroy Freemasonry by
(1) Assembly: sometimes called General Assembly, or Yearly Assembly. The word seems to denote a meeting of Masons in the ancient operative days equivalent to a modern lodge. The York Manuscript No.1, dated approximately 1600, says:
"Edwin procured of ye King his father a charter and commission to holds every years an assembly wheresoever they would within ye realm of England." In the Harleian Manuscript, 1660, it is set forth that: . . . . . every Master and Fellow come to the Assembly, if it be within five mile. about him, if he have any warning."
118 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
ridicule. Luckily for us all, ridicule, powerful weapon though it is, never in the long run prevails against reality. The Gormogons, like other and later organizations, such as the Scald Miserable Masons, (1) had its brief day and died and Freemasonry throve and grew.
Finally the Grand Lodge erased the ancient Charge "to be true to God and Holy Church" and substituted the Charge already quoted (see page 39).
This was of unparalleled importance; it was one of the factors which led to the formation of other Grand Lodges and dissension in Freemasonry, but as it was distinctly right and founded modern speculative Freemasonry on the rock of non-sectarianism and the brotherhood of all men who believe in a common Father regardless of His name, His church, or the way in which He is worshiped, it won out in the end and became what it is today, a fundamental of the Craft.
Between 1717 and 1751 the Craft spread rapidly, not only in England, but on the Continent, and in the Colonies, especially Colonial America, where time and people, conditions and social life provided fallow ground for the seeds of Freemasonry. But in spite of a new life, and wise counsels of brethren
(1) Scald Miserables: mock Masons who paraded in London in 1741. Many such mock Masonic processions were formed by enemies of the Order often men who had been denied acceptance. Of little importance then, and none now, except that the Masonic disinclination to take part in public processions dedications, cornerstone layings and funerals excepted comes from the mock Masonic processions which imitated the ancient "March of Procession" of Masons in London in the early years of the Grand Lodge.
who restricted the acts if not the power of the new Grand Lodge, all was not plain sailing. Dissensions appeared. Causes of friction, if net numerous, were important and went deep. The religious issue was vital; doubtless it seemed to the cider Masons then as radical a step as it seemed to in when the Grand Orient of France (1) took the V. S. L. from the altar. In the 1738 edition of the Constitutions we find the article "Concerning God and religion" altered to read, "In ancient times the Christian Masons were charged to comply with the Christian usages of each country where they traveled and worked."
Another cause for dissension was the Grand Lodge's strong hand regarding the making of Masons. Too many lodges were careless; too many private groups of Masons assumed the right to assemble as a lodge and make Masons of their friends; too much laxity existed as to fees and dues and the payment of charity to the Grand Lodge. To check these practices the Grand Lodge changed some words in the degrees doubtless our "spurious Mason" clauses come from this and this caused the same reaction then as an attempt by modern brethren to change or rearrange our present ritual would produce.
Probably the religious issue did not cause a major
(1) Grand Orient of France: a body once Masonic which is without recognition by the Grand Lodges of England, the United States, and most of the other nations. It removed from its Constitutions a paragraph affirming the existence of the Great Architect of the Universe. Withdrawal of recognition by the United Grand Lodge of England followed immediately (1878) and ever since the Grand Orient has been clandestine to practically all the Masonic world.
120 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
part of the trouble, but it provided a constant source of irritation. Then as now many clergymen were Speculative Masons. Today enlightened clergymen do not see in the absence of mention of the Carpenter of Nazareth in a lodge any denial of Him, any more than a Jewish Rabbi sees in the absence of mention of Jehovah, or a Buddhist sees in the absence of mention of Buddha, a denial of those deities. Then, however, many clergymen insisted upon a Christian tinge to the Masonic ceremonies, and while the quarrel would hardly have come from this alone, it was a contributing cause.
In 1738 the Grand Lodge sanctioned the making of the "Master's Part" into what we know as the Third Degree. This had been going on for years no one knows how many but not by permission of Grand Lodge. Sanctioning it was to many brethren an "alteration of established usage" and the customs of "time immemorial." It proved another blow struck at unity.
All these and other matters fomented dissension which came to a head in 1751 when a rival Grand Lodge was formed. It came into being with a brilliant stroke, for it chose the name "The Most Antient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons."
Calling itself "Antient" and the older body "Modern" at once enlisted the support of hundreds of brethren who did not look beneath the surface to learn which was really which. So we have this peculiar and confusing terminology; the original, the older, the more ancient Grand Lodge was called
the "Modern" Grand Lodge, and the newer and rebellious body was called "Antient." (1)
The curious story of the rise of this Antient Grand Lodge should be read by every Freemason, for it has had a tremendous effect upon the craft. We can afford to be charitable to those who believed they were engaged in a revolution, not a rebellion. This country was born out of what we call the Revolution, which to the Royalists of 1776 was the Rebellion.
The Antients were extremely fortunate in having one Laurence Dermott secede from the Moderns with them. Dermott was a fighting Irishman, a brother heart and soul in the Fraternity, and if some of his actions seem a little questionable to us, he has to his credit the success of the movement. In 1771 when the Duke of Atholl became Grand Master the Antients had almost two hundred lodges on the roll.
Dermott kept the religious issue alive; by implication he made the Moderns seem anti-religious. He
(1) United States Grand Lodges style themselves under several different abbreviations: F. and A. M.; A. F. and A. M., and variations using the Ampersand (&) in place of the word "and." The District of Columbia still uses F. A. A. M., meaning Free and Accepted Masons, in spite of the possible confusion as to whether the first A stands for "and" or "ancient." The variations are accounted for by differences in origins, some Grand Lodges coming into being with lodges which held under the "Ancients," and some from the "Moderns," and by variations due to the errors which are seemingly ineradicable in "mouth-to-ear" instruction. Whether Ancient Free and Accepted Masons; Free, Ancient and Accepted Masons; Ancient Free Masons, or any other combination of the words, all United States Grand Lodges are "regular," tracing descent either mediately or immediately to the United Grand Lodge of England and recognised by her.
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kept the Antients a Christian body and wrote distinctively Christian sentiments and references into its Constitutions and its documents whenever be could get them adopted.
Meanwhile other Grand Lodges arose; they were not very important and never grew very large, but they belong in the story of Freemasonry; the "Grand Lodge of All England," "The Grand Lodge of England South of the River Trent," "The Supreme Grand Lodge" all made their bids for recognition, lived their little day and passed on, each leaving its trace, its influence, but unable to contend against the Antients and the Moderns.
The benefits which came from the clash seem today to be greater than the evils. Then Freemasons saw only harm in the rivalry which split the Fraternity. Now we can see that where one Grand Lodge established lodges on warships, the other retaliated with Army lodges which carded Freemasonry to far places; where one body started a school for girls, the other retorted with a school for boys both still in existence, by the way where one Grand Lodge reached out to the provinces, the other cultivated Scotland and Ireland. Both worked indefatigably in the American Colonies.
The heart burnings, the jealousies, the sorrows and the contests between Antients and Moderns, if they exhibited less of brotherly love than the Fraternity taught, were actually spurs to action. Without some such urge Freemasonry could hardly have spread so fast or so far. As the United States became a much stronger and more closely welded union after the cleavage of 1861 65, so Freemasonry was to unite at
last in a far greater, stronger and more harmonious body when the two rival Grand Lodges came together, composed their differences, forgot their rivalries, and clasped hands across the altar of the United Grand Lodge.
The reconciliation is as astonishing and mysterious as the discord. We can see that the death of Dermott, who was gathered to his fathers in 1791, fighting for the Antients to the last, removed one cause of difference between the two Grand Lodges; we can understand that as the Antients had grown in power and prestige not only in England but in the Colonies until they outnumbered the Moderns in both lodges and brethren, the Moderns might well have thought that union would be a life saver; we can comprehend that time heals all differences and that what had seemed important in 1751 in fifty years had dwindled in vitality.
But what is amazing to this day is that after the difficult period, when overtures were made, refusals recorded, committees appointed and differences finally composed, the Antient Grand Lodge, in accepting the idea of reconciliation, receded from almost all the positions for which it had fought so Long! It was as if the spirit of combat, so alien to the gentle genius of Freemasonry, had worn itself out and brethren became as eager to forgive and forget and compromise as they had previously been strong to resist and to struggle.
Whatever the spirit which caused it, the final reconciliation took place in Freemasons' Hall in London, on St. John's Day, December 27, 1813. The two Grand Lodges filed together into the Hall; the
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Articles of Union were read; the Duke of Kent retired as Grand Master in favor of the Duke of Sussex, who was elected Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge.
Two matters must be stressed: the second of the Articles of Union reads: "It is declared and pronounced that pure ancient Masonry consists of three degrees and no more; viz., those of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellowcraft and the Master Mason (including the Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch)."
In 1815 a new Book of Constitutions proclaimed to all the world forever the non-sectarian character of Freemasonry in this Charge concerning God and religion:
"Let a man's religion or mode of worship be what it may, he is not excluded from the Order, provided he believes in the glorious Architect of heaven and earth, and practice the sacred duties of morality."
Newton says of this:
Surely that is broad enough, high enough; and we ought to join with it the famous proclamation issued by the Grand Master, the Duke of Sussex, from Kensington Palace, in 1842, declaring that Masonry is not identified with any one religion to the exclusion of others, and men in India who were otherwise eligible and could make a sincere profession of faith in one living God, be they Hindus or Mohammedans, might petition for membership in the Craft. Such in our own day is the spirit and practice of Masonic universality, and from that position, we may be very sure, the Craft will never recede.
- III -
CARL H. CLAUDY, Litt. D.
Author of "A Master's Wages," "Foreign Countries,"
"The Old Past Master," "Old Tiler Talks," "United
Masonic Relief," "The Master's Book," "The
Lion's Paw," "Where Your Treasure Is,"
"These Were Brethren," "Masonic
THE TEMPLE PUBLISHERS
First Printing, September, 1931
Forty-Second Printing, August 1955
Two Hundred & Ninety-Two Thousand
Copyright, 1931, by
CARL H. CLAUDY
INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
III - Master Mason
Printed in the United States of America
THE SUBLIME DEGREE OF MASTER MASON .......... ......... 125 "REMEMBER NOW THY CREATOR" ......... ......... 127 THE HIRAMIC LEGEND ......... ......... 129 THE SANCTUM SANCTORUM ......... ......... 133 THE LION ......... ......... 134 FIVE POINTS OF FELLOWSHIP ......... ......... 136 THREE GRAND PILLARS ......... ......... 140 THE BOOK OF CONSTITUTIONS, GUARDED BY THE TILER'S SWORD ......... ......... 144 THE ALL-SEEING EYE ......... ......... 148 THE 47TH PROBLEM OF EUCLID ......... ......... 150 SPRIG OF ACACIA ......... ......... 155 THE LAWS OF FREEMASONRY ......... ......... 157 POWER OF THE BALLOT ......... ......... 164 VOUCHING ......... ......... 166 THE CHARACTER OF A MASTER MASON ......... ......... 169 A MASTER'S WAGES ......... ......... 171 FREEMASONRY COMES TO THE NEW WORLD ......... ......... 172
So many men before thy Altars kneel
Unthinkingly, to promise brotherhood;
So few remain, humbly to kiss thy rood
With ears undeafened to thy mute appeal;
So many find thy symbols less than real,
Thy teachings mystic, hard to understand;
So few there are, in all thy far-flung band
To hold thy banner high and draw thy steel.
And yet . . . immortal and most mighty, thou!
What hath thy lore of life to let it live?
What is the vital spark, hid in thy vow?
Thy millions learned, as thy dear paths they tred,
The secret of the strength thou has to give:
"I am a way of common men to God."
INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
THE SUBLIME DEGREE OF MASTER MASON
Similarities exist in all the degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry. Each has an entry, a reception, a circumambulation, an obligation, a bringing to light. Each discovers certain symbols to the initiate and, in demonstration and in lecture, gives him the key by which he may unlock the door behind which he will find their meaning.
In its Second Section the Sublime Degree departs from the familiar. Instead of being concerned with moral principles and exhortations, as is the first degree, or with architecture and learning, as is the second, It answers the cry of Job, "If a man die, shall he live again?"
The degree delves into the deepest recesses of a man's nature. While it leads the initiate into the Sanctum Sanctorum of the Temple, it probes the Holy of Holies of his heart.
As a whole the degree is symbolical of that old age by the wisdom of which "we may enjoy the happy reflections consequent on a well.spent life, and die in the hope of a glorious immortality."
But it is much more than that. It is at once the
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universal and yearning question of man throughout all ages and its answer. It teaches no creed, no dogma, no religion; only that there is a hope of immortality; there is a Great Architect by whose mercy we may live again, leaving to each brother his choice of interpretations by which he may read the Great Beyond.
It teaches of the power and the powerlessness of evil. For those who are happy in a belief in the resurrection of the physical body, the Sublime Degree has comfort. For those whose hope is in the raising only of that spiritual body of which Paul taught, the degree assures of all the longing heart can wish.
When the lesson of the greatest hope and the dearest wish of all mankind is made manifest, the Sublime Degree turns to this life and this brotherhood, and in the symbolism of the Lion, the exposition of the Five Points of Fellowship, the means by which a Mason may claim all that a man may from his brother, and the Word, ties together the Hiramic Legend and daily living in a manner which no thoughtful man may see and bear without a thrill; a way at once awe-inspiring and heartening, terrible but beautiful, sternly uncompromising yet strangely comforting.
It is because the degree is all this and more, much more, which cannot be put into words that it means so much to those of whom it becomes a part. The ceremony is not of the earth, earthy, but of that land of the inner life, that home of the spirit where each man thinks the secret thoughts be tells never never.
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Pull the flower to pieces; remain the petals, a perfume, but no rose. Play the symphony, isolated note by note; sound is heard, but no music. Every word Milton wrote is in the dictionary but great poems may not there be found.
So of any written account of this degree; we may write of its symbols, analyze its legend, tell of its meaning, but we pronounce but words without a rhyme, make a flower of wax, a song muted. The best we may do is to point out a path up the high mountain of spiritual experience which is the Sublime Degree, that he who climbs may see it with a new view and clearer eyes.
"REMEMBER NOW THY CREATOR. . .
Of all the quotations, allusions, facts, and names taken from the Great Light and made a part of the Masonic ritual none has a more secure place in the hearts of the brethren than the first seven verses from Ecclesiastes xii:
Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth, while the evil days come not, for the years draw nigh, when thou shalt say, I have no pleasure in them; While the sun, or the light, or the moon, or the stars, be not darkened, nor the clouds return after the rain: In the day when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the strong men shall bow themselves, and the grinders cease because they are few, and those that look out of the windows be darkened, And the doors shall be shut in the streets, when the sound of the grinding is low, and he shall
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rise up at the voice of the bird, and all the daughters of musick shall be brought low; Also when they shall be afraid of that which is high, and fears shall be in the way, and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and desire shall fail: because man goeth to his long home, and the mourners go about the streets: Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.
Of the two favorite interpretations of Biblical commentators one makes this dramatic passage a description of old age and senile decay; the other, a reference to the seldom experienced and much feared thunderstorm in Palestine.
The first gives advice to remember the Creator before the eyes begin to go blind, the bands begin to tremble, the legs to weaken, the teeth to drop out; before the old man is frightened at every little sound, even the voice of a bird; before his voice ceases to be musical; before "the almond tree shall flourish" that is, the hair whiten like the almond tree in bloom and so tiny a weight as that of a grasshopper be burdensome; before the silver cord (spinal marrow) be loosed or the golden bowl (heart) be broken and so on.
Whether or not the writer of this passage possessed a sufficient knowledge of anatomy to refer to the spinal cord, heart, internal organs, and brain as the "silver cord," the "golden bowl," the "pitcher," and
MASTER MASON 129
the "wheel," is problematical. The storm interpretation is not open to such an objection; the little mills with which women ground corn would soon cease in the face of the feared thunder; the women in the houses would draw away from the windows and shut them and also the doors, but there is some difficulty in getting the grasshopper and the almond tree into this analogy.
Read it how you will, the majestic and awe-inspiring poetry rings here the solemn warning with a shake of the heart and a shiver up the back. Remember now thy Creator ... now, before the fearsome storms of life, or the decay of old age is upon you; wait not until "fears are in the way" to cry for help to the Almighty. Delay not until toothless, sightless, white.haired age asks for help from on high because there is no help left on earth! Remember now thy Creator, while limbs are strong and desire ardent, while life pulses redly and the world is all before.
No man thinks of his Master Mason's degree but hears again in his heart at least the beginning and ending of this sermon in poetry: "Remember now thy Creator, in the days of thy youth; . . . then shall the dust return to the earth as it was and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it." The solemn strokes on the bell which is Ecclesiastes and the heart-gripping drama of the Legend of Hiram Abif are never to be known apart by him who has met them together.
THE HIRAMIC LEGEND
Learned students have attempted to fix the date
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as if dates mattered! when the Hiramic Legend first made its appearance in Freemasonry. Their conclusions are more negative than positive, and none has gone behind the fact that in one form or another the Hiramic Legend is among the oldest as it is among the dearest myths of the human race. One may agree that documentary evidence does not put the legend of the martyred master workman into the third degree prior to 1725 and still see in it a re-casting of the race-old drama of man's hope for immortality.
A dozen or more suggestions have been made by Masonic students as to what the legend means. Some take it literally even though the Old Testament says nothing of the death of that Hiram which Solomon fetched out of Tyre who "wrought all his work." Others believe it is another way of telling the story of Isis and Osiris itself a legend which could hardly have been foisted on the people full born from the brain of some clever priest but must have been an heritage from the Hyksos, or even earlier inhabitants of Egypt. Fancifully, some see in it a modern version of the death of Abel at the hands of Cain, and of course thousands visualize it as the death and resurrection of the Man of Galilee.
Search the Great Light; you will find no account of the tragedy of Hiram Abif. You will learn of Hiram, or Huram. If you delve deeply enough In Hebrew you will learn that "Abif" means "his father" which may indicate another Hiram, a son. Modern scholarship translates Hiram Abif as "Hiram, my father" meaning a Hiram looked up to, venerated, given a title of honor, as the father of ;
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the father of an art, the father of the sacred vessels of the Temple. But of the Three, the tragedy, and the Lost Word, the Old Testament is silent.
Nor will you find in secular history any account of the drama of Hiram. For its truth you must delve into the myths and legends and fairy stories in which the race has half concealed, half revealed, those truths which do not bear telling in plain words.
Is there a Santa Claus? For six years old there is. For his elders Santa Claus is a means of telling a beautiful truth in terms which six years old can understand. Is the legend "true"? What is meant by "true"? If the translation of "true" is "historically accurate," obviously neither Santa Claus nor Hiram Abif is "true." But if "true" means "containing a great truth," then both the myth of the Yuletide Saint and the Legend of the Master Builder are true in the most real sense.
Raised to the Sublime Degree, many men see in the living, the dying and the raising of the Master only a literal drama, designed to teach the virtues of fortitude and inflexible fidelity. For those whose ears bear only the melody and are deaf to harmonies, for those whose eyes are so blinded by the sunset as not to see the colors, this is good enough.
Yet any literal interpretation of the legend and our ceremony which exemplifies it misses its heart.
The Legend of Hiram Abif is at once the tragedy and the hope of man; it is virtue struck down by error, evil, and sin, and raised again by truth, goodness, and mercy. It is the story of the resurrection of that "which bears the nearest affinity to that supreme intelligence which pervades all nature." It
132 INTRODUCTION TO FREEMASONRY
is the answer to Job. It is at once the beginning of the even more sacred legend of that which was lost and the assurance that at long last he who seeks shall find.
How long is a rope? A silly question! It can be answered, presumably, if one can find one end and measure it to the other. Suppose the rope has only one end? Sillier and sillier! But if two ends are true of a rope, are they true of space and time and eternity? If time has a beginning, it has an ending. If space commences somewhere, there also will be its end to be found. If eternity has a beginning, it is not eternal!
Here is the shock, the surprise, and the glory of the third degree. It presents us with eternity in the midst of life. It pushes back the confines of our little dimensions, our tiny measurements of time, our small comprehension of space and shows us that we enter eternity at neither birth nor death. We have always been in eternity if we are in it at all. Hiram Abif was gathered to his fathers when the selfishness and sin of misguided men struck him down. But they were powerless against the Paw of the Lion and the might of Freemasonry. Each of us is born, lives his short life and, wearing his little white apron, is laid where our forefathers have gone before us. The drama of the third degree assures us that the life from birth to death and including both is but an episode, a single note in the great symphony.
The Hiramic Legend is the glory of Freemasonry; the search for that which was lost is the glory of life.
Never may we find it here. You shall gaze through microscope and telescope and catch no sight of its
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shadow. You shall travel in many lands and far and see it not. You shall listen to all the words of all the tongues which all men have ever spoken and will speak the Lost Word is not heard. Were it but a word, how easy to invent another! But it is not a word, but The Word, the great secret, the unknowableness which the Great Architect sets before his children, a will o' the wisp to follow, a pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. Never here is it to be found, but the search for it is the reason for life.
The Sublime Degree teaches that in another life it may be found.
That is why it is the Sublime Degree.
THE SANCTUM SANCTORUM
In the Entered Apprentice's and Fellowcraft's degrees the altar is the place of obligation. Here in due form the initiate takes upon himself those duties and offers those promises which make of the candidate an Entered Apprentice, which pass the Entered Apprentice to the degree of Fellowcraft.
In the Master Mason's Degree the altar is more much more. It now becomes the Masonic Holy of Holies, which the Great Light teaches us was the center and heart of both the Tabernacle in the Wilderness and the Temple of Solomon. In the Holy of Holies was the Ark of the Covenant, over which the Shekinah, the very spirit of God Himself, glowed in a radiance too bright for mortal eyes.
Let him who reads remember the Rite of Discalceation as it was in the preceding degrees and compare it with that practiced here. As he reflects on
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the symbolism of the altar in the Sublime Degree, he will understand why it is different. Exodus iii, 4 and 5 help:
God called unto him out of the midst of the bush and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I. And he said, Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.
In the East the worshiper removes his shoes that the Temple be not defiled. The Rite of Discalceation does not proclaim that the Masonic initiate will defile the Temple of Freemasonry, but that he is thus made to recognize that "the place whereon thou stand. eat is holy ground" a place not to be approached as are other places, but one into which one walks as set forth in the prayer book, "reverently, discreetly, advisedly, soberly, and in the fear of God."
Some things may not be written; not so much that it is forbidden as that they are not to be expressed in words. Kneeling before the altar of the Great Architect of the Universe to offer petition for himself, alone with his Maker the Freemason is himself a symbol of that strange relationship which all feel and none may speak; that oneness with infinity by which he whose heart is quickened may understand as much as it may be understood the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man.
The lion is one of Freemasonry's most powerful and potent symbols both in the Lion of the Tribe of Judah and the paw of the lion.
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Judah was symbolized as a lion in his father's deathbed blessing. The lion was upon the standard of the large and powerful tribe of Judah. "Lion of the Tribe of Judah" was one of Solomon's titles. Christian interpretation of the phrase springs from Revelation (v, 5), Behold, the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the door and to loose the seven seals thereof.
The idea of a resurrection is curiously interwoven with the lion. In the Twelfth Century, one Philip de Thaun stated: "Know that the lioness, if she bring forth a dead cub, she holds her cub and the lion arrives; he goes about and cries, till it revives on the 3rd day."
Thus the strong lion of Judith
The gates of cruel death being broken
Arose on the third day
At the loud sounding voice of the father. (1)
But the lion was connected with the idea of resurrection long before the Man of Galilee walked upon the earth. In ancient Egypt as we learn from the stone carvings on the ruins of temples a lion raised Osiris from a dead level to a living perpendicular by a grip of his paw; the carvings show a figure standing behind the altar, observing the raising of the dead, with its left arm uplifted and forming the angle and a square.
The Lion of the Tribe of Judah, considered as signifying a coming redeemer who would spring from the tribe, or meaning the King of Israel who built
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the Temple, or symbolizing the Christ, must not be confused with the mode of recognition so inextricably mingled with the Sublime Degree, teaching of a resurrection and a future life.
Unquestionably the Israelites absorbed much of Egyptian belief during the Captivity, which may account both for the Lion of the Tribe of Judah, and our own use of the paw.
FIVE POINTS OF FELLOWSHIP
The Five Points of Fellowship contain the essence of the doctrine of brotherhood.
In the Old Constitutions as explained in the Halliwell or Regius manuscript are fifteen regulations called points. The old verse runs:
Fifteen artyculus there they soughton
And fifteen poyntys there they wrogton.
Philip's New World of Words, published in 1706, defines point as "a head or chief matter." An operative Mason "points" the wall by filling in the chinks left in laying bricks or stone, thus completing the structure.
Our Five Points of Fellowship are not allied to these, except as they are reflected in the word "points." We also find this relationship in the Perfect Points of Entrance, once called Principal Points.
A change was made in the symbolism of the Five Points in 1843, at the Baltimore Masonic Convention. Prior to that time the Five Points were symbolized by hand, foot, knee, breast, and back. After
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1843 the hand was omitted and the mouth and ear tacked on as the fifth. Mackey believed that "The omission of the first and the insertion of the last are innovations and the enumeration given . . . is the old and genuine one which was originally taught in England by Preston and in this country by Webb."
Such curiosities of ritual changes, though interesting, are more for the antiquarian than the average lodge member. Most of us are more concerned with a practical explanation of the Five Points as they have been taught for more than a hundred years.
A man goes on foot a short distance by preference; for a longer journey he boards a street car, rides in an automobile, engages passage on a railroad or courses through the air in a plane. Service to our brethren on foot does not imply any special virtue in that means of transportation. The word expresses the willingness of him who would serve to go at inconvenience and with difficulty, if necessary.
We assist our brethren when we can; also we serve them. The two terms are not interchangeable. We cannot assist a brother without serving, but we may serve him without assisting him. A wholly negative action may be a service; suppose we have a just claim against him and because of our fraternal relations we postpone pressing it. That is true service, but not active assistance, such as we might render if we gave or loaned money.
How far should we go on foot to render service? Nothing is said in the ritual but the cable tow is elsewhere used as a measure of length. Our own conception of brotherhood must say how far we travel to help our brother.
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To petition at the altar of the Great Architect of the Universe before engaging in any great or important undertaking is sound Masonic doctrine. We name the welfare of our brethren in our petitions because we love them; knowing our own need of their prayers, we realise their need of ours. Anciently it was written Laborare est orare to labor is to pray. If indeed labor is prayer, then to pray for our brethren we may labor for them, which at once clarifies the Second Point and makes it a practical, everyday, do-it-now admonition. To work for our brother's welfare is in the most brotherly manner to petition the Most High for him.
We often associate something less than proper with the idea of a secret. "He has a secret in his life"; "he is secretive"; "he says one thing but in his secret heart he thinks another" seem to connote some degree of guilt with what is secret. We keep our brother's secrets, guilty or innocent, but let us not assume that every secret is of a guilty variety.
He may have a secret ambition, a secret joy, a secret hope if he confide these to us, is our teaching merely to refuse to tell them or to keep them in the fine old sense of that word to hold, to guard, to preserve? The Tiler stands watch and ward not to keep the door from others but to see that none uses it improperly. Thus are we to keep the secret joys and ambitions of our brother close in our hearts until he wants them known, but also, by sympathy and understanding, help him to maintain them.
"Do you stumble and fall, my brother? My hand is stretched out to prevent. Do you need aid? My hand is yours use it. It is your hand for the time
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being. My strength is united to yours. You are not alone in your struggle I stand with you on the Fourth of the Five Points and as your need may be, go, Deo volente, will be my strength for you."
So must we speak when the need comes. It makes no difference in what way our brother stumbles; it may be mentally; it may be spiritually; it may be materially; it may be morally. No exceptions are noted in our teachings. We are not told to stretch forth the hand in aid if, and perhaps, and but! Not for us to judge, to condemn, to admonish . . . for us only to put forth our strength unto our falling brother at his need without question and without stint.
For of such is the Kingdom of Brotherhood.
More sins are committed in the name of the Fifth of the Five Points than in the name of Liberty! Too often we offer counsel when it is not advice but help that is needed. Too often we admonish of motes within our brother's eye when our own vision is blinded by beams. Reread here Amos vii in the Fellowcraft's Degree.
"In the midst of my people Israel" not in the faraway land; not across the river; not up on the mountain top, but in the midst of them, close to them, in intimate personal individual plumb line! So are we to admonish our brother; not by the plumb, the square, the level we are each taught to carry in our hearts, but by his plumb, his square, his level.
If he build true by his own tools, we have no right to judge him by ours. He may differ from us in opinion; he may be Republican where we are Democrat, Methodist where we are Baptist, Protectionist
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where we are Free Trade we must not judge him by the plumb line of our own beliefs. When we see a brave man shrinking, a virtuous man abandoning himself to vice, a good man acting as a criminal then is his building faulty judged by his own plumb line, and we may heed the Fifth of the Five Points and counsel and advise him to swing back true to his own working tools.
So considered, these teachings of Masonry, concerned wholly with the relations of brother to brother, become a broad and beautiful band of blue the blue of the Blue Lodge the true blue of brotherhood.
THREE GRAND PILLARS
In the Entered Apprentice's Degree we learn of Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty.
In the Fellowcraft's Degree we hear of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian Columns.
In the Master Mason's Degree we hear again of the Three Grand Pillars.
In each degree as we progress more and more toward the East from whence comes Masonic Light we discover more interesting meanings of the supports of a lodge.
It would take pages where here are but paragraphs even to list the references to wisdom in the Great Light; the word occurs in the Bible two hundred and twenty-four times!
For Masons, however, perhaps the most illuminating passage. regarding wisdom come from Proverbs (ii 2; iii 13, 14; viii 11). Solomon said:
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Incline thine ear unto wisdom and apply thine heart to understanding. Happy is the man that findeth wisdom and the man. that getteth understanding. For the merchandise of it is better than the merchandise of silver and the gain thereof than fine gold. For wisdom is better than rubies and all the things that may be desired are not to be compared to it.
Knowledge is cognizance of facts. Wisdom is the strength of mind to apply its knowledge. A Mason may know every word of our ritual from the beginning of the Entered Apprentice's Degree to the final words of the Sublime Degree of Master Mason and still have no wisdom, Masonic or otherwise. Many a great leader of the Craft has been a stumbling, halting ritualist, yet possessed in abundance a Masonic wisdom which made him a power for good among the brethren.
Knowledge comes from study; wisdom from experience and reflection. Knowledge may be the possession of the criminal, the wastrel, the "irreligious libertine," and the atheist. Wisdom comes only to the wise, and the wise are ever good.
The first of the Three Grand Pillars which support our Institution should be to every Mason a symbol of the real need to become wise with the goodness of Masonry, skilled in the arts of brotherhood, learned in the way to the hearts of his brethren. If be know not and ask, "How may I gain Masonic wisdom?" let him find the answer not in the ritual, important though it is; not in form and ceremony, beautiful though they are with the strength of repetition and age let him look to the Five Points of Fellow.
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ship, for there is the key to all real wisdom concerning the brotherhood of man.
The second of our Grand Pillars, without which nothing endures, even when contrived by wisdom and adorned by beauty, we know in two forms in our daily lives. First, the strength which lies in action, power, might the strength of the arm, the engine, the army. Second, that other, subtler strength which is not the less strong for being passive; the strength of the foundation which endures, the strength of the principles by which we live, individually, collectively, nationally Masonically.
It is the second form of strength with which the Speculative Mason is concerned. Freemasons build no temporal buildings. We do lay the cornerstone of the public building in the Northeast Corner, but the action is symbolic, not practical. The operative Mason who sets the stone for the Grand Master would place it as strongly in the building without our ceremony as with it. Our building is with the strength which endures in hearts and minds rather than that which makes the sundry "materials of which an edifice is composed" to do man's will. The Freemason constructs only the spiritual building; his stone is his mind, mentally chipped by the common gavel to a perfect ashlar. The strength by which he establishes his kingdom is not a strength of iron but a strength of will; his pillars support not a wall to keep out cowans and eavesdroppers but a character proof against the intrusion of "the vices and superfluities of life."
Beauty is represented in a Masonic lodge by the Corinthian column, most beautiful of the ancient or-
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den of architecture; by the Junior Warden who observes the sun at meridian when the day is most beautiful; by Hiram Abif, who beautified and adorned the Temple. We are taught that it is as necessary that beauty adorn all great and important undertakings as that wisdom contrive or strength support them. In the story of Solomon's Temple in the Great Light we find detailed descriptions of what was evidently, to those who went into details of its construction, the most beautiful building possible for the engineering skill, the wealth and the conception of the people of Israel.
Artists dispute and philosophers differ about what is beauty. All of us have our individual conceptions of what constitutes it.
As no two men are agreed as to what is beautiful in a material sense, the Masonic conception of beauty cannot be of material beauty. Its symbol of beauty the sun at meridian is actually too blinding to see. If we think the sun beautiful, it is for what it does for us, rather than for what it is.
The Masonic Pillar of Beauty, then, must be the symbol of an inward loveliness, a beauty of the mind, of the heart; a beauty of the spirit. Our Corinthian column is to us not merely the support of a building but that which upholds a character. Our Junior Warden represents not only the beauty of the sun at meridian, but the illumination by which a life is made beautiful. Hiram Abif is to us not only an exemplary character but an ideal to follow, a tradition to be preserved, a glory for which we may strive.
A man may keep every law, go to church three
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times on a Sunday, belong to our Order, subscribe to every charity and still be mean of spirit, unhappy to live with, selfish, inconsiderate, disagreeable. Such an one has not learned the inward meaning of the Pillar of Beauty. He has never stood symbolically in the South. For him the sun at meridian is but the orb of day at high noon and nothing more.
But for the real Mason, who takes lessons of the Three Grand Pillars to heart, beauty is as much a lamp to live by as are wisdom and strength. He finds beauty in his fellow man because his inner self is beautiful. His house not made with hands is glorious before heaven, not because in imitation of Solomon he "overlaid also the house, the beams, the post and the walls thereof and the doors thereof, with gold" but because it is made of those stones which endure before the Great Architect unselfishness, and kindness, and consideration, and charity, and a giving spirit; of brotherhood genuine because it springs from the heart.
For these things endure. Material things pass away. The Temple of Solomon is but a memory. Scattered the stones, stolen the gold and silver, destroyed the lovely vessels cast by Hiram Abif. But the memory, like the history of the beauty and the glory which was Solomon, abide unto this day. So shall it be with our house not built with hands, so be it we build with the beauty which Masons teach.
THE BOOK OF CONSTITUTIONS, GUARDED BY THE TILER'S SWORD
Before the door of all lodges stands a Tiler "with a drawn sword in his hand."
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Customarily it is a straight blade; such a shining shaft of steel as was carried by knights of olden time. According to Mackey it should have a snake-like shape in allusion to the "Flaming sword which was placed at the east of the Garden of Eden which turned every way to keep the way of the tree of life."
"The Book of Constitutions, guarded by the Tiler's sword," is a comparatively modern symbol; its introduction has been traced to Webb, about 1800.
It reminds us to be "ever watchful and guarded in our words and actions, particularly when before the enemies of Masonry, ever bearing in remembrance those truly Masonic virtues, silence and circumspection." But the Book of Constitutions is not a secret work. It was first ordered printed by the Mother Grand Lodge, and a few original copies as well as uncounted reprints of the Old Charges and the General Regulations of 1723 are in existence to be seen by Mason and profane alike.
Obviously neither silence nor circumspection regarding this particular Masonic volume is necessary.
Some read into Webb's symbol the thought that it expresses the guardianship of constitutional government by the Masonic Fraternity but this seems rather far-fetched. It is easier to think that the Tiler's sword admonishes us to brook no changes in our ancient landmarks, to be guarded lest our words and actions bring the foundation book of Masonic law into disrepute before the enemies of Masonry, applying to the Book of Constitutions as well as to the secrets of Freemasonry "those truly Masonic virtues, silence and circumspection."
The second edition of Anderson's Constitutions sets
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forth that in 1731 the Grand Master, the Duke of Norfolk, presented to the Grand Lodge of England
the old trusty sword of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, that was worn next by his successor in war, the brave Bernard, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, with both their names on the blade, which the Grand Master had ordered Brother George Moody (the king's sword cutler) to adorn richly with the arms of Norfolk in silver on the scabbard, in order to be the Grand Master's sword of state in the future.
Early prints of lodge meetings on the Continent show the sword in use in the ceremonies; in this country the sword was never worn in the lodge room even during that era when a sword was as much a necessary article of a gentleman's dress as shoes or gloves. It was deemed then as now incompatible with meeting upon the level. Either as a weapon which made its possessor stronger than the man who was unarmed, or as a badge of rank, the sword has no place in the lodge, except that it is usually presented to the Tiler in the lodge at opening. It is almost universal for the Tiler to request military men in uniform to leave their swords without the lodge before entering.
This custom, comparatively little known in this country because few military men in times of peace go to lodge in full uniform, was often broken during the war when soldiers clanked up and down lodge rooms with their arms at their sides. But it is as Masonically inconsistent to wear a sword in lodge as to appear therein without an apron.
The Tiler's sword is wholly symbolic; whether it
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was always so is a matter lost in the mists which shroud ancient history.
The Tiler of the operative lodge may well have been armed with a sword for actual defense against the cowan, who wanted the word and the secret of the square without the necessity of serving a long period as an Apprentice and laboring to produce a satisfactory Master's Piece.
The modern Tiler keeps off the cowan and the eavesdropper by the simple process of refusing to admit those he does not know; if they still desire to enter the tiled door, they must either be vouched for or request a committee. The Tiler's sword is but the emblem of his authority, as the gavel is the symbol of that possessed by the Master.
No symbol in Freemasonry but is less than the idea symbolized. The Volume of the Sacred Law, the letter "G," the Square, the Compasses, all symbolize ideas infinitely greater than paper and ink, a letter formed of electric lights or carved from wood, a working tool of metal. The Tiler's sword has a much greater significance than its use as a defense against invasion of privacy.
The eavesdropper from without is no longer feared. The real eavesdropper is the innocent profane who is told more than he should by the too enthusiastic Mason. In the monitorial charge to the Entered Apprentice we hear, "neither are you to suffer your zeal for the Institution to lead you into argument with those who, through ignorance, may ridicule it." The admonition of the Book of Constitutions guarded by the Tiler's sword applies here.
Constructively if not actively every profane who
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learns more than he should of esoteric Masonic work is an enemy.
Let us, then, all wear a Tiler's sword in our hearts; let us set the seal of silence and circumspection upon our tongues; let us guard the West Gate from the cowan as loyally as the Tiler guards his door.
Only by such use of the sword do we carry out its symbolism. To Masons the sword is an emblem of power and authority, never of blood or wounds or battle or death. Only when thought of in this way is it consistent with the rest of the symbols of our gentle Craft, winning obedience to the mandates of the Tiler by brotherly love, an infinitely stronger power than strength of arm, point of weapon or bright and glittering steel.
THE ALL-SEEING EYE
This is one of the oldest and most widespread symbols denoting God. We find it in Egypt, in India, and in the Old Testament. The Open Eye of Egypt represented Osiris. In India Siva is represented by an eye. In the Old Testament we read of the "eyes of Jehovah."
Omniscience and omnipresence are rather forbidding words; the All-Seeing Eye expresses in familiar syllables a thought easily comprehended by ignorant and wise alike. The conception of a sleepless Eye which sees not only material but spiritual things; which watches not only externals but the "inmost recesses of the human heart" has that pictorial and imaginative appeal which visualizes to the most matter-of-fact the power and the universality of the Great Architect.
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We are taught of it as the "All-Seeing Eye whom the sun, moon, and stars obey and under whose watchful care even comets perform their stupendous revolutions." In this astronomical reference is a potent argument for extreme care in the transmission of ritual unchanged from mouth to ear and the necessity of curbing well-intentioned brethren who wish to "improve" the ritual.
The word "revolution," printed in the earliest Webb monitors, fixes the astronomical references as comparatively modern conceptions. Tycho Brahe, progenitor of the modern maker and user of fine instruments among astronomers, whose discoveries have left an indelible impress on astronomy, did not consider comets as orbital bodies. Galileo thought them "emanations of the atmosphere." Not until the Seventeenth Century was well under way did a few daring spirits suggest that these celestial portents of evil, these terrible heavenly demons which had inspired terror in the hearts of men for uncounted generations, were actually parts of the solar system, and that many if not most of them were periodic, returning again and again; in other words, that they revolved about the sun.
Obviously this passage of our ritual cannot have come down to us by a word-of-mouth transmission from an epoch earlier than that in which men first believed that a comet was not an augury of evil but a part of the solar system, a body which engaged not in irresponsible evolutions but law-controlled revolutions. Here the change of a single letter would destroy an approximate date-fixing reference.
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THE 47TH PROBLEM OF EUCLID
Except the All-Seeing Eye, this emblem contains more real food for thought than any other in the lecture of the Sublime Degree. Yet the 47th problem of Euclid generally gets less attention and certainly less understanding than all the rest.
The paragraph relating to Pythagoras in our lecture is condensed from one in the Thomas Smith Webb Monitor which appeared at the close of the Eighteenth Century.
Unabbreviated, it reads:In a sense that Pythagoras was a learned man, a leader, a teacher, a founder of a school, a wise man who saw God in Nature and in number, he was a "friend and brother." That he was "initiated into several orders of priesthood" is history. That he
The 47th problem of Euclid was an invention of our ancient friend and brother, the great Pythagoras, who, in his travels through Asia, Africa, and Europe was initiated into several orders of priesthood, and raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason. This wise philosopher enriched his mind abundantly in a general knowledge of things, and more especially in Geometry, or Masonry. On this subject be drew out many problems and theorems, and, among the most distinguished, be erected this, when, in the joy of his heart, he exclaimed Eureka, in the Greek language signifying, "I have found it," and upon the discovery of which he is said to have sacrificed a hecatomb. It teaches Masons to be general lovers of the arts and sciences.
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was "raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason" is an impossibility, as the third degree as we know it is not more than three hundred years old at the very outside. Pythagoras traveled but probably his wanderings were confined to the countries bordering the Mediterranean. He did go to Egypt, but it is doubtful that he got much farther into Asia than Asia Minor. He did indeed "enrich his mind abundantly" in many matters and particularly in mathematics. That he was the first to "erect" the 47th problem is possible but not proved; at least he worked with it so much that it is sometimes called "the Pythagorean problem." If he did discover it, he might have exclaimed "Eureka," but that he sacrificed a hecatomb a hundred head of cattle is entirely out of character, since the Pythagoreans were vegetarians 'and reverenced all animal life.
In Pythagoras' day (586-506 B.C.) the 47th problem was not so called. It remained for Euclid of Alexandria two hundred years later to write his books of geometry, of which the 47th and 48th problems form the end of the first. Either Pythagoras did discover the Pythagorean problem, or if it was known prior to his time, it was used by him, so that Euclid, recording in writing the science of geometry as it was then known, merely availed himself of the mathematical knowledge of his era.
At the close of his first book Euclid states the 47th problem and its correlative 48th as follows:
(47th) In every right angle triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
(48th) If the square described on one of the
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sides of a triangle is equal to the square described on the other sides, then the angle contained by these two sides is a right angle.
This sounds more complicated than it is. Of all people Masons should know what a square is: a right angle, the fourth of a circle, an angle of ninety degrees. For the benefit of those who have forgotten their school days, the "hypotenuse" is the line which makes a right angle into a triangle by connecting the ends of the two lines which form it.
For illustrative purposes let us consider that the familiar Masonic square has one arm six inches long and one arm eight inches long.
A square erected on the six-inch arm will contain square inches to the number of six times six, or thirty-six square inches. The square erected on the eight-inch arm will contain square inches to the number of eight times eight, or sixty-four.
The sum of sixty-four and thirty-six square inches is one hundred square inches.
According to the 47th problem the square which can be erected upon the hypotenuse, or line joining the six- and eight-inch arms of the square, should contain exactly one hundred square inches. The only square which can contain one hundred square inches has ten-inch sides, since ten, and no other number, is the square root of one hundred.
This is provable, mathematically, but it is also demonstrable with an actual square. The curious need only lay off a line six inches long, at right angles to a line eight inches long, connect the free ends by a line (the hypotenuse) and measure the
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length of that line to be convinced it is, indeed, ten inches long.
This is the famous 47th problem. It is the root of all geometry. It is behind the discovery of every mathematical unknown from two known factors. It is the very cornerstone of mathematics.
The engineer who tunnels from both sides through a mountain uses it to get his two shafts to meet in the center. The surveyor who wants to know how high a mountain may be ascertains the answer through the 47th problem. The astronomer who calculates the distance of the sun, the moon, the planets, and who fixes "the duration of times and seasons, years, and cycles," depends upon the 47th problem for his results. The navigator traveling the trackless seas uses the 47th problem in determining his latitude, his longitude, and his true time. Eclipses are predicted, tides are specified as to height and time of occurrence, land is surveyed, roads run, shafts dug, bridges built, with the 47th problem to show the way.
It is difficult to show why it is true; easy to demonstrate that it is true. Why is two added to two always four and never five or three? Only because we call the product of two added to two by the name of "four." If we expressed the conception of "fourness" by some other name, then two plus two would be that other name. But the truth would be the same, regardless of the name. So it is with the 47th problem of Euclid. The sum of the squares of the sides of any right angle triangle no matter what their dimensions always exactly equals the square of the line connecting their ends
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the hypotenuse. One line may be a few inches long, the other several miles long; the problem invariably works out both by actual measurement upon the earth and by mathematical demonstration.
It is impossible for us to conceive a place in the universe where two added to two produces five end not four. We cannot conceive of a world, no matter bow far distant among the stars, where the 47th problem is not a true fact, meaning absolute not dependent upon time or place or world or even universe.
Truth, we are taught, is a divine attribute and as such is coincident with Divinity, omnipresent.
It is in this sense that the 47th problem "teaches Masons to be general lovers of the arts and sciences." With the 47th problem man reaches out into the universe, measures distances of the greatest magnitude, describes the whole framework and handiwork of nature. With it he calculates the orbits and the positions of those numberless worlds about us, and reduces the chaos of ignorance to the law and order of intelligent appreciation of the cosmos. With it he instructs his fellow-Masons that the great book of Nature is to be read through a square.
Considered thus, the "invention of our ancient friend and brother, the great Pythagoras," becomes one of the most impressive, as it is one of the most important, of the emblems of all Freemasonry, since it is a symbol of the power, the wisdom and the goodness of the Great Architect of the Universe.
Ho who understands the truth behind the 47th problem sees a new meaning to the reception of a Fellowcraft and understands better why a square teaches morality and is dedicated to the Master.
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SPRIG OF ACACIA
If the All-Seeing Eye is the most ancient and the 47th Problem of Euclid the grandest of the emblems of the Master Mason's Degree, the Sprig of Acacia holds the greatest comfort. Not even the Anchor and Ark as symbols of hope speak to Masons as does the simple sprig of evergreen "which once marked the temporary resting place of the illustrious dead."
Acacia was a symbol long before Freemasonry existed. It is the shittim wood of the Old Testament, the erica or tamarisk at the foot of which the body of the dead Osiris was cast ashore so that, when found, it would rise again.
The Jews have always considered shittim a sacred wood; a symbol of life. Logs of it used in houses sprout long after the tree is destroyed that the beam be made. Everyone is familiar with the evergreen which does not seem to die in cold weather, as do less hardy trees which shed their leaves and sleep through the winter.
Shittim wood was used to construct the table of shewbread, the Tabernacle, the Ark of the Covenant, the sacred furniture of the Temple. Of its boughs, so it has been said, was woven the crown of thorns which the Nazarene wore . . .
But if Freemasonry did not make it a symbol, we adopted it as symbolic of our own special Rite and beliefs.
Acacia marked the spot where lay all that was mortal of the Widow's Son. Raised from a dead level to a living perpendicular in the very shade of the acacia, how should the plant not stand for im-
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mortality, a life to come, the most blessed hope of man?
In the stately prayer in the Master Mason's Degree we hear, "For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again " Later we learn of man who "cometh forth as a flower and is cut down" by the scythe of time which gathers him "to the land where his fathers have gone before him."
Where is that land?
Uncounted millions have asked. Freemasonry's reply is that glorious immortality symbolized by the Sprig of Acacia. Its reality is attested by every hope of every man born of woman since the first infant cried the birth cry.
The Sprig of Acacia has another equally beautiful implication, besides that of certainty of spiritual survival. "Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." The Sprig of Acacia is not only the emblem of a future life but of faith.
It matters little what faith that it. It is the existence of some faith which is important; the certainty of things not seen. The Mason may be Methodist, Baptist, Spiritualist, Universalist, Unitarian, Trinitarian, Mohammedan, or Brahmin! He may believe in the orthodox future life of golden streets and milk and honey; his faith may send him to a whole realm of seven planets which with the esoteric Buddhist he must visit in turn; he may believe in the successive planes of Spiritualism or the Nirvana of the Orient the Sprig of Acacia is at once a symbol of the immortality taught by his faith and of the faith itself.
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We cannot prove immortality any more than we can prove God. Proof is the result of logic, and logic is a process of the mind. Faith is the product of a process of the heart. We cannot reason ourselves into or out of love; we cannot reason ourselves into or out of faith.
The Sprig of Acacia proves nothing nor tries to. It means everything to him who has the faith. It is Freemasonry's attestation to her children of the certainty with which she regards her trinity of truths:
There is no Plan without a Planner.
That Which Was Lost will at long last be found.
Divine life which is ours can no more die than can Divinity.
The phraseology is the author's. The teachings are Freemasonry's. Their symbol is the little green sprig which Freemasons drop with their tears on the body of a deceased brother in full faith that where and how we presume not to say, leaving it wholly to the Eye which sees and the Everlasting Arms which enfold he, even as we, shall live again.
THE LAWS OF FREEMASONRY
Master Masons are obligated to abide by the laws, resolutions, and edicts of the Grand Lodge, the by-laws of the particular lodges of which they are members, and to maintain and support the Landmarks and the ancient usages and customs of the Fraternity.
The written laws, based on the General Regulations and the Old Charges first printed in 1723, are the Constitution and by-laws of the Grand Lodge, its resolutions, regulations, and edicts, and the by-laws
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of the particular lodge. The Ancient Landmarks are written in some jurisdictions; in others they are a part of the unwritten law.
The General Regulations as set forth in Anderson's Constitutions were adopted shortly after the formation of the Mother Grand Lodge in England. Unquestionably they embodied the laws of Masonry as they were known to the four old lodges which formed the first Grand Lodge and hence have the respectability of antiquity.
In general the Old Charges are concerned with the relations of the individual brother to his lodge and his brethren; the General Regulations with the conduct of the Craft as a whole. The General Regulations permit their own alteration by Grand Lodge the Old Charges do not.
Many civil laws are provided with measures of enforcement and penalties for infringement. Masonic law knows but four penalties: reprimand, definite suspension, indefinite suspension, and expulsion. These penalties for serious infractions of Masonic law may be ordered after a Masonic trial and a verdict of guilty, but mercy is much more a part of Masonic than of civil law. Infractions of Masonic law resulting in trial and punishment are rare, compared to the number of Masons, the vast majority of whom are so willing to obey the laws that enforcement is seldom required.
There is no universality of Masonic law in all jurisdictions. Different latitudes, characters of people, ideas, have all left their marks upon the enactments of our forty-nine Grand Lodges. In the majority of essentials they arc one: in some particu-
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lars they hold divergent views. Most Grand Lodges adhere to the spirit of the Old Charges, and so far as modern conditions permit to the sense of the General Regulations.
Masons desiring to understand the laws by which the Craft is governed and the legal standards by which Grand Lodge measures its laws, resolutions, and edicts should read both the Old Charges and the General Regulations of 1723. The last (thirty-ninth) of these General Regulations reads, "Every Annual Grand Lodge has an inherent Power and Authority to make new Regulations, or to alter these, for the real benefit of this Ancient Fraternity; provided always that the old Landmarks be carefully preserv'd," etc.
The old landmarks or the Ancient Landmarks as we usually term them are thus those foundations of the law of Masonry which are not subject to change. Had the Mother Grand Lodge formulated the Ancient Landmarks, it would have saved much trouble and confusion for Grand Lodges which came after. Apparently the unwritten law of Masonry the common law was so well understood and practiced then that it was not thought necessary to codify it.
Masons customarily observe a great body of unwritten law; our ancient usages and customs which are not specified in print. But the Landmarks have been reduced to print and made a part of the written law in many jurisdictions.
The Landmarks bear the same relation to Masonic law in general as the provisions of Magna Carta bear to modern constitutional law. Just as Magna Carta specified some of the inherent rights of men
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which all governments should respect, so the Landmarks crystallize the inherent characteristic fundamentals which make Freemasonry, and without which the Institution would be something else.
Mackey states that the Landmarks are:
1. The modes of recognition.
2. The division of symbolic Masonry into three degrees.
3. The legend of the third degree.
4. The government of the Fraternity by a Grand Master.
5. The prerogative of the Grand Master to preside over every assembly of the Craft.
6. The prerogative of the Grand Master to grant dispensation for conferring degrees at irregular intervals.
7. The prerogative of the Grand Master to give Dispensations for opening and holding lodges.
8. The prerogative of the Grand Master to make Masons at sight.
9. The necessity for Masons to congregate in lodges.
10. The government of the Craft when congregated in a Lodge, by a Master and two Wardens.
11. The necessity that every lodge, when congregated, should be duly tiled.
12. The right of every Mason to be represented in all general meetings of the Craft.
13. The right of every Mason to appeal from his brethren, in lodge convened, to the Grand Master.
14. The right of every Mason to visit and sit in every regular lodge.
15. That no visitor, unknown to the brethren
MASTER MASON 161Compare these with the Landmarks as formulated by a committee and adopted by the Grand Lodge of New Jersey in 1903:
present or some one of them as a Mason, can enter a lodge without first passing an examination according to ancient usage.
16. No lodge can interfere with the business of another lodge.
17. Every Freemason is amenable to the laws and regulations of the Masonic jurisdiction in which he resides.
18. A candidate for initiation must be a man, free-born, unmutilated and of mature age.
19. A belief in the existence of God as the Grand Architect of the Universe.
20. Belief in a resurrection to a future life.
21. A "Book of the Law" constitutes an indispensable part of the furniture of every lodge.
22. The equality of all Masons.
23. The secrecy of the Institution.
24. The foundation of a Speculative science upon an operative art.
25. These landmarks can never be changed.
1. Belief in God as the Great Architect and Supreme Ruler of the Universe.
2. The acceptance of the revealed Word of God as the rule and guide for our faith and practice, and its visible presence in every lodge.
3. The Grand Master is elected by the Craft, and holds office until his successor is duly installed. He is the ruler of the Craft and is, of right, the presiding officer of every assemblage of Masons as such. He may, within his jurisdiction, convene a lodge at any time or place and do Masonic work therein; may create lodges by
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his warrant, and arrest the warrant of any lodge. He may suspend, during his pleasure, the operation of any rule or regulation of Masonry not a "Landmark." He may suspend the installed officers of any lodge and reinstate them at pleasure, and is not answerable for his acts as ran Master. He may deputize any brother to do any act in his absence which he himself might do if present.
4. A Masonic lodge must have a Master and two Wardens, and when convened for Masonic work must be duly tiled.
5. No person can be made a Mason unless he be a man free-born, of mature and discreet age, of good character and reputation and having no maim or defect in his body that may render him incapable of learning the art or of being advanced to the several degrees, nor unless he apply for admission without solicitation and take upon himself the Masonic obligations. Nor can he be admitted to membership in a Masonic lodge except upon a secret ballot by the brethren of that lodge.
6. Masons, as such, are equal; possess the right to visit every lodge or assembly of Masons where their presence will not disturb the peace and harmony of the same, and to appeal to the General Assembly of Masons, or its substitute, the Grand Lodge, whenever aggrieved by any act of a lodge.
7. The Master of a lodge, before his election as such, must have served as a Warden. He and the Wardens are elected by the members of the lodge, but hold their offices by virtue of the warrant of the Grand Master, until their successors have qualified. They are his representatives
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in the lodge, and are not, therefore, responsible to the lodge for their official acts, nor can they be tried or disciplined by the lodge during their term of office.
8. Every Mason, for Masonic purposes, is subject to the jurisdiction of the lodge within whose Jurisdiction he resides.
9. The legend of the third degree; the means of recognition; the methods of conferring degrees; the obligations of those degrees and the ballot of every brother are and must continue to be inviolably secret.
10. Ancient Craft Masonry includes only the Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and Master Mason degrees.
With these as a foundation, the Old Charges for precedent, the first General Regulations for organic law, Grand Lodges write and adopt their constitutions and by-laws and particular lodges write and adopt their by-laws, which are usually subject to approval by Grand Lodge, a Grand Lodge Committee, or the Grand Master. Grand Masters, ad interim, issue edicts and make decisions; often these are later incorporated by the Grand Lodge into the written law of the jurisdiction. All of these together, except where they conflict (as some of the early General Regulations necessarily conflict with Later enactments made to supersede them) form the legal structure of Freemasonry.
Undeniably it is much looser than the similar body of law for the government of a nation. If Masonic law were interpreted wholly by the letter as is necessarily the case in civil law the government of the Craft might often be as loose as its statutes. But
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as a matter of fact the Craft is well governed. Its ancient usages and customs so soon win their way into the hearts of new brethren that there is a great resistance to any attempt to change the old order, unless necessity shows that it is inescapable. Masons much prefer to whisper good counsel to an erring brother than to subject him to Masonic trial.
POWER OF THE BALLOT
A Master Mason has rights, duties, and privileges unknown to the Entered Apprentice or Fellowcraft. He is part of a lodge; he is invested with all the powers of a full-fledged member of the Ancient Craft. His vote is as powerful as that of the oldest member; his black cube as potent to keep an applicant out of the lodge as that of the Grand Master.
Any Master Mason has the undoubted right to cast a black cube against any applicant. It is his duty to cast it if he knows something about the applicant which would prevent him from becoming a good Mason, a useful member of the lodge. It may be his duty to cast it without such knowledge; if the applicant is one with whom any Master Mason cannot associate in lodge in peace and harmony, he should be excluded. But the Master Mason should consider well and think tolerantly and broad-mindedly of his "peace and harmony."
If a single black cube is in the ballot box, the applicant is rejected. (1)
(1) In most jurisdictions a single black cube in the ballot box requires the ballot to be taken again immediately to avoid the possibility of a mistake. If the black cube re-appears the second time the applicant is rejected.
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This rejection does more than refuse the applicant the degrees. It creates a lodge jurisdiction over the petitioner. He may not apply to another lodge for the degrees refused him by this one without first securing a waiver of jurisdiction. (1) He may not again apply even to the lodge which rejected him until after a certain statutory period usually six months. When his application is again received and brought up for ballot, the fact that he previously applied and was rejected is stated to the lodge.
The casting of a black cube not only rejects for the degrees but puts a certain disability upon the applicant which he is powerless to remove.
The brother who casts a ballot wields a tremendous power. Like most powers it can be used well or ill. It may work harm or good not only upon him upon whom it is used but to him who uses it. Unlike many great powers put into the hands of men this one is not subject to review or control by any human agency. No king, prince, potentate; no law, custom or regulation; no Masonic brother or officer can interfere with a brother's use of his power.
For no one knows who uses the black cube. No one knows why one is cast. The individual brother and his God alone know.
The very absence of any responsibility to man or authority is one reason why the power should be used with intelligence and only when after solemn self-inquiry the reason behind its use is found to be Masonic.
The black cube is the great protection of the Fraternity; it permits the brother who does not desire
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to make public his secret knowledge to use that knowledge for the benefit of the Craft. It gives to all members the right to say who shall not become members of their lodge family. But at the same time it puts to the test the Masonic heart and the personal honesty of every brother present. The black cube is a thorough test of our understanding of the Masonic teaching of the cardinal virtue Justice, which "enables us to render to every man his just due without distinction." We are taught of justice that "it should be the invariable practice of every Mason never to deviate from the minutest principles thereof."
Justice to the lodge requires us to cast the black cube on an applicant we believe to be unfit. Justice to ourselves requires that we cast the black cube on the application of the man we believe would destroy the harmony of our lodge. Justice to the applicant requires that no black cube be cast for little or mean reasons. Justice to justice requires that we think carefully, deliberate slowly, and act cautiously. No man will know what we do; no eye will see save that All-Seeing Eye which penetrates the innermost recesses of our hearts.
A well-used black cube goes into the ballot box.
Ill used, it drops into the heart and blackens it.
One of the privileges and one of the responsibilities of the Master Mason is that of vouching for a brother. To vouch for a Mason is Masonically to say to the
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brother to whom one introduces him who is vouched for: "I know that Brother A. is a Master Mason."
By implication it means (1) that the brother vouching has sat in open lodge with the brother vouched for, or (2) that the brother vouching has subjected the brother vouched for to a strict trial and due examination.
In most jurisdictions no brother may undertake a private examination of any man representing himself as a brother without the orders of the Worshipful Master of his lodge, of the Grand Master. The Worshipful Master is solely responsible for the proper purging of his lodge and therefore has the right to decide who is and who is not competent to examine a visitor.
The number of men who have never taken the degrees who try to get into Masonic lodges is very small. Nevertheless there have been, are, and doubtless will be such men; men without principle or honor; eavesdroppers who have heard what was not intended or their cars.
Far more dangerous than the eavesdropper is the cowan. In these modern days the cowan is the man who has been legally raised but who has been dropped N. P. D. or suspended or expelled after trial; or he is an Entered Apprentice or a Fellow. craft whose further advancement has been stopped for cause.
If such an one be evilly disposed he may and has been known to forge a good standing card (1) to use as credentials. Or he may find a lost card and as-
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sume the identity of the name signed upon it. Some brethren are so unwise as to keep their good standing cards from year to year as an interesting collection. If such a collection be stolen it may be the innocent means of letting loose upon the Fraternity a whole flock of designing cowans, Since dates upon such cards are changed with little difficulty. It is an excellent Masonic rule to destroy last year's card as soon as this year's card is received. Loss of a current card should be immediately reported to the Grand Secretary, as well as the Master of the lodge. A card should be signed as soon as received.
No avouchment may be accepted from an Entered Apprentice or a Fellowcraft. A brother of the first or second degree may be absolutely sure that all those in the lodge in which he took his degrees were Master Masons, but not being a Master Mason he cannot possess lawful Masonic information about Master Masons. Neither is he competent to vouch to a Tiler for any Entered Apprentice or Fellow. craft he remembers as in lodge with him as a Mason of the degree in which the lodge was then open. The right to vouch is strictly a Master Mason's right; no brother of the first or second degree possesses it.
Vouching for a brother is a solemn undertaking. Before the lodge the voucher puts his Masonic credit against the credibility of the brother he vouches for. No squeamishness of feeling should ever interfere.
A. Master Mason should not vouch for his blood brother even if morally sure his brother is a Mason unless he has lawful Masonic information.
No one should ever feel offended because a brother will not ,ouch for him. A. may remember having
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sat in lodge with B., yet B. may have forgotten that they sat together in lodge. If B. refuses to vouch for A., A. should be happy that B. is so careful a Mason, not offended that B. does not remember or because "he doesn't trust me."
The lodge is more important than the brother. The sanctity of the tiled door is greater than the feelings of the individual. The Masonic honor of the brother doing the vouching should be of far greater worth to him than any consideration of expediency.
The entire matter may be covered in one small commandment: "Never vouch unless you have lawful Masonic knowledge."
THE CHARACTER OF A MASTER MASON
The moral aspects of a Mason's character are foreshadowed in the Entered Apprentice's Degree. He who lives by Brotherly Love, Relief, Truth, Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice is a moral man in the best meaning of that much-abused word.
A Master Mason has a public as well as a Masonic character; he must be a citizen before he can be a Freemason. All his reputation as a Master Mason, all the teachings of integrity and fidelity, all the magnificent examples of firmness and fortitude in trial and danger even in the Valley of the Shadow which a man has been taught as a Master Mason are concerned in supporting with dignity his character as a citizen.
Politics are never discussed in Masonic lodges. This law, so well known and obeyed that it is not written in most Grand Lodge Constitutions or lodge
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by-laws, comes down to us from the Old Charge. In the lodge we meet upon the level and part upon the square. We are not Democrats, Republicans, Socialists, Progressives, but Masons. No lodge may take any political action; to do so would be to draw upon it the immediate censure of the Grand Master and the Grand Lodge.
But these prohibitions do not mean that Masons should not study political economy; even as a lodge Masons may listen to talks upon the science of government which is a "political" matter if the word is used in its broad acceptation.
Every good citizen is expected to obey the law, uphold the Constitution and the government, do his duty in jury service, go to the polls and vote, bear arms when called to the colors, pay his just share of taxes, take an intelligent interest in the government, his party and political economy, support the public schools, reverence and honor the flag, keep the peace, serve nation, state, county, and town when called to leadership and so to live that his neighbors are happier for his living.
When the citizen becomes a Mason be adds to these moral obligations his pledged word, his sacred honor, his character as it is seen naked of God, that be will do certain things and refrain from doing other things. All of these pledges involve not only his duty as a man but as a citizen.
The newly raised Master Mason is bidden to "support the dignity of your character on every occasion."
The Master Mason should be a better citizen than the non-Mason because he has been better taught and has pledged his sacred honor.
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A MASTER'S WAGES
In the world of business the employer usually sets the wage for which the workman must labor. The employer is governed partly by the law of supply and demand, partly by his own cupidity or generosity. The wage he pays may be to some extent fixed by labor unions; only occasionally must he pay whatever the workman demands. Usually he pays as little as he can for as much as he can get.
In the Masonic world all this is different. A Master's wages are as large as he wants them to be! He can ask any wage he will and get it if he is willing to work for it. No labor union sets the scale; the law of supply and demand does not operate; neither cupidity nor generosity is involved. The only question asked is, "Can you earn the wages you ask?"
A Master's wages are paid in coin of the heart, not of the mint. They are earned by what a Mason does with his mind, not his hands. In operative days a Freemason set so many stones and received each man his penny. In Speculative Freemasonry a Master builds into his spiritual temple as many perfect ashlars as he can and receives for his labor uncounted coins of happiness, satisfaction, knowledge, under. standing, and spiritual uplift.
In operative days a Mason's earning power was circumscribed by his strength and his skill. In Speculative Masonry a Mason's earning power is circumscribed only by his wit and his desire. He may read these little books, receive his penny, and be satisfied. Or be may see them for what they are: only an introduction, a gateway, a sign pointing out
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the path and read and study and ponder until be has earned not one but a handful of pennies, each penny a thought, each thought a blessing, making life easier to live.
Archeologists dig through the ruins of a city to uncover a forgotten one below. Push the spade in deeper and below the forgotten city is yet another, older, different, twice forgotten of men. City buried under city, patiently uncovered by the student's excavating tools such are the symbols of Freemasonry.
Dig through the outer shell and find a meaning; cut down through that meaning and find another; under it if you dig deeply enough you may find a third, a fourth who shall say how many teachings?
The Master Mason builds. Before he builds he digs a foundation. Let him who would receive all that Freemasonry has to give dig deeply into the symbolism, the history, the philosophy, the jurisprudence and the spiritual meanings of the Ancient Craft.
So, and only so, will he become a real Freemason free to travel in foreign countries and receive Master's wages.
So mote it be.
FREEMASONRY COMES TO THE NEW WORLD
Space here forbids telling even in outline of the spread of Freemasonry into other lands. The interested student may read the fascinating story for himself in many excellent histories of Freemasonry.
Here we must confine ourselves to a very short sketch of the coming of Freemasonry to America a
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subject the beginnings of which are clouded in legend, veiled in tradition and misty in lack of records.
The first native born American Mason is generally conceded to have been Jonathan Belcher, who was made a Mason in England in 1704.
In June, 1730, the Duke of Norfolk, Grand Master of the Mother Grand Lodge, appointed Daniel Coxe, of New Jersey, the first Provincial Grand Master in America.
Johnson (1) says "There has appeared no evidence, however, that he exercised this deputation."
McGregor (2) says: "I was fortunately able to find a letter written by Daniel Coxe to James Alexander, dated from Trenton, N. 1., July 31, 1730, thus definitely determining his (Coxe's) presence here."
On April 13, 1733, a deputation was issued to Henry Price as "Provincial Grand Master of New England and Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging."
If Coxe never exercised his authority under his deputation, then Henry Price was, as most historians claim, the father of Freemasonry in America.
If Coxe did exercise his authority under his deputation, then be deserves that honor.
Both McGregor and Johnson are historians and
(1) Melvin M. Johnson, Past Grand Master of Massachusetts. His learned and comprehensive The Beginnings of Freemasonry in America is exhaustive and complete.
(2) The late David McGregor, Historian of the Grand lodge of New Jersey was a student of tireless energy and resource, with a profound knowledge not only of early Freemasonry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania but of early Colonial history in
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research workers of scholarly ability. Brethren in New Jersey and Pennsylvania almost universally agree with McGregor; brethren in New England in general and Massachusetts in particular agree with Johnson. Into the merits of this friendly controversy and the claims of two great Grand Jurisdictions this sketch cannot go. Perhaps we shall do well to await the "further light" of future historical research.
After all, to most of us it matters little! Freemasonry came to the Colonies in the early third of the Eighteenth Century and spread and grew, made its own place in the hearts of the Colonists and played a mighty if quiet part in the stirring events which were to sever the Thirteen Colonies from the motherland and to form the United States.
"Occasional lodges" without charters or warrants met in the Colonies at undetermined dates prior to the first known regular and duly constituted lodge which was the "First Lodge in Boston," July 30, 1733. Johnson states (Beginnings of Freemasonry in America):
Regular authority was granted for the establishment of duly constituted Freemasonry in New England in 1733; in all North America in 1734; in South America in 1735; in South Carolina, Georgia, and New Hampshire in 1735 or 1736; in the West Indies and New York in 1737; in Antigua and Nova Scotia in 1737 38; in Jamaica and St. Christopher in 1739; in the Barbados in 1739 40; in Bermuda, 1742; in Newfoundland, 1746; in San Domingo, 1748; and in Rhode island, 1749.
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By the close of the first half of the century not less than forty lodges had sprung from the Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston. Others had been warranted direct from London.
Newton states (Modern Masonry):
In point of priority, then, the following lodges have precedence in the history of regularly constituted lodges in America: the Lodge of Boston in 1733; the Lodge at Montserrat second, in 1734; the Lodge of Philadelphia in 1734-35; the Lodge in Savannah, Georgia, and the Lodge in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1735; the Lodge in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1736; and so on as the list lengthened. The earliest American by-laws or regulations of a lodge were adopted in 1733, but no mention is made of any degrees. Masons were either "made" or "admitted" and nothing more until 1736, when for the first time the degree of Fellowcraft is named. Not until three years later, however, do we find such an entry as the following, in Portsmouth, New Hampshire: "Capt. Andrew Tombes was made a Mason and raised to a Fellowcraft." The records of Tun Tavern Lodge, of Philadelphia, in 1749, use the words "entered," "passed," and "raised" as we use them now.
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Aaron 32, 33, 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beliefs, Fundamental 28 Abbreviations 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Belcher, Jonathan 173 Abif (see Hiram Abif) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black Cube 18, 164, 166 Acacia, Sprig of 155 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boaz 80 Accepted Masons 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Books of Constitutions 144 Accord, Free Will and 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Borglum, Gutzon 50 Allegory and Symbols 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brotherly Love 61 All-Seeing Eye 148 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . By-Laws and Constitutions 71 Altar 133 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amalthea 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Tow 40, 68 "Amos, What Seest Thou?" 75, 139 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carpenter 119 Ample Form 115 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chaldean Star Gazers 108 Ancient Landmarks 159 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Character of Master Mason 169 Antient 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charge, God and Religion 39, 124 Anderson, James 116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charity, Masonic 47 Anderson's Constitutions 145, 158 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christian 112 Appletree Tavern 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronicles II 80 Apprentice, Entered 7, 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circle, Point Within 55 Aprons 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circumambulation 30, 67 Apron Presentation 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Citizen, Duty of 170 Architects, Colleges of 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clandestine 69 Architecture 95, 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collegia, Roman 8 Army Lodges 122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column, Replica of 93 Arithmetic 100, 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comacine 10, 60 Arts and Sciences, Seven 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comets 149 Ashlar 19, 50, 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Committee 91 Assembly 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Communication 17 Astronomy 55, 100, 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Company of Masons 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compasses 37, 38 Ballot 17, 164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composite 96 Baltimore Masonic Convention 68, 136 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Congregate 89 Beauty 142, 143 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Constituted 15
Constitution, By-Laws 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eavesdropper 16, 167 Constitutions 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ecliptic 54, 106 Corinthian 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ecclesiastes 127 Cornerstone 48, 49, 142 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engraved List, Lodges 115 Cornucopia 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enoch, Pillars of 82 Corn, Win, and Oil 77, 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entered Apprentice 7, 18 Courage 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Erica 155 Cowan 16, 167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eternity 57, 132 Coxe, Daniel 173 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Euclid 150, 151 Craft, Government 93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eureka 151 Creator . . . Remember Now Thy 127 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exodus 134 Crown Alehouse 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eye, All-Seeing 148 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ezekiel 49 Darkness, Place of 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . David 84 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Faith 82 Dedication 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fatherhood of God 63 Definition 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fellowcraft 65 Dependence 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fellowship, Five Points 136-140 Dermott 121, 122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Worship 30 Desaguliers 116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First Lodge in Boston 174 Dew of Hermon 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First American Mason 173 Dimit 025 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First Provincial Grand Master 173 Discalceation 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five 94, 111 Divine Plan 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five Orders 96 Do You Believe in God? 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five Points of Fellowship 136-140 Doric 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Five Senses 97, 98 Due form 115 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forty-Seventh Problem 150-154 Duke of Atholl 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Four Crowned Martyrs 10 Duke of Kent 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fourth of the Old Charges 94 Duke of Sussex 123, 124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fredericksburg Lodge 015 Duke of Wharton 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free and Accepted 8 Duly Constituted (dates) 174 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freemasonry, Laws 157 Dundee Lodge Charge 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free Will and Accord 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Funds 72 Early History 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . East 107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . East to West 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Garter, Order of 45 Eavesdropper 16, 167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gavel 50, 52 Ecliptic 54, 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Regulations 157, 159
Geometrizing, God is always 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holy Royal Arch 123 Geometry 100-101, 103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Holy Sts. John, Lodge of 59 Gibraltar 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horn of Plenty 108 Globes 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . God 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Immemorial Custom 15 God Is Always Geometrizing 109 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Immortality 63, 156-157 God, Names of 37, 38, 110 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Immovability 53 Golden Fleece 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Immovable Jewels 52-53 Golden Rule 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initiation 26 Good Standing Card 167 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation 90 Goose and Gridiron 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intemperance 93 Gormogons 117 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interpretations 128 Government of Craft 93 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ionic 96 Grain 78 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar 100-101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jachin 80 Grand Lodge 70, 116, 157, 163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jacobite Struggle 117 Grand Lodge History 132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jewel of Master 53 Grand Lodge History 132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jewels, Immovable 53 Grand Lodges 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Johnson, Melvin M. 173 Grand Lodges, Other 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Junior Warden's Duties 93 Grand Master 71 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jurisdiction 13 Grand Masters 163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Justice 166 Grand Orient, France 119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Great light 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kilwinning, Mother 116 Great Lights, the 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . King George I 113 Greatest of These 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kings I 80 Gauge, Twenty-Four Inch 50 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knowledge 141 Guide and Rule 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guild Masons 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lambs 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lambskin Apron 45 Halliwell Manuscript 12, 112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Landmarks 159 Harleian Manuscript 112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Landmarks, Mackey 160 Hecatomb 151 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Landmarks, New Jersey 161 Hele 69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lawful Masonic Info. 168 Hiram 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lecture, Middle Chamber 81 Hiram Abif 84, 130, 132, 143 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legend, Hiramic 129-132 Hiramic Legend 129-132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesser Lights 40-41 History, Early 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter "G" 103 History Grand Lodge Period 132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 53, 73 History New World 173 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liberal Arts 88, 100
Lights, Great 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newton, Dr. Joseph Fort 31 Lights, Lesser 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New World (History) 172 Lion, 134 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North 107 Lodge 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Northeast 48 Lodge Government 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North, Place of Darkness 54 Lodge Jurisdiction 165 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N.P.D. 25 Lodge of Aberdeen 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lodge of Holy Ste. John 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lodges, Names of 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Officers 15 Lodge as a Symbol 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Officers of a Lodge 100 Logic 100-101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Old Charges 113, 157-158 Lost Word 133 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Old Charges, Fourth of the 94 Love, Brotherly 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Once a Mason 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On Foot 137 Mackey, Albert G. 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operative Secret 58 Magister 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oriental Chair 52, 89 Manual 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Osiris 155 Master Mason, Character of 169 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Master's Part, the 117, 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Master's Piece 12, 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel Lines 56 Master's Wages 171 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pass, the 67 Master, Worshipful 42, 51, 89 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Past Master's Symbol 107 McGregor, David 173 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paw of the Lion 132 Memory 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Penalties 35, 158 Mercury 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Perfect Ashlar 95 Meridian 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Petition 138 Middle Chamber 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pike, Albert 104 Middle Chamber Lecture 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pillar of Beauty 143 Minutes of Mother Grand Lodge 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pillars of Enoch 82 Modern 120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pillars of God 81 Monitor 72 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pillars, Three Grand 140-141 Mother lodge 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pillars, Two 80 Mother Grand Lodge 22, 112, 158 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Place of Darkness 55, 107 Mother Grand lodge Minutes 113 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plato 109 Mother Kilwinning 116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plumb 53, 73 Music 100, 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plutarch 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Points 136 Naphtali, Tribe of 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Point Within a Circle 55
Politics 169 . . . . . . . . Rhetoric 100-101 Power 84 . . . . . . . . Right-angle 57-58 Power of Ballot 164 . . . . . . . . Rite of Destitution 19, 47-48, Power of Faith 83 . . . . . . . . Rite of Discalceation 29, 134 Preparation 28-29 . . . . . . . . Ritual 22, 24 Preston, William 66, 100, 102, 115 . . . . . . . . Rival Grand Lodge 120 Price, Henry 173 . . . . . . . . Roman Eagle 45 Principal Tenets 61 . . . . . . . . Rule and Guide 37 Priority dates 175 . . . . . . . . Rummer and Grapes 114 Private Examination 167 . . . . . . . . Proceedings 33 . . . . . . . . Sanctum Sanctorum 133 Profane 22 . . . . . . . . Sayer, Anthony 114-115 Proficiency, Suitable 20 . . . . . . . . Scald Miserables 118 Property of the Lodge 19 . . . . . . . . Second Section 125 Proselyte 24 . . . . . . . . Second Temple 59 Proverbs 140 . . . . . . . . Secrecy 33 Provincial Grand Master in New England 173 . . . . . . . . Secrecy of Ballot 18 Psalm, 133rd 32 . . . . . . . . Secrets 34, 138 Punishments 35-36 . . . . . . . . Secret Society 33 Purposes of Refreshment 93 . . . . . . . . Sen. Warden Duties 93 Pythagoras 55, 94, 150-151 . . . . . . . . Senses, Five 97 . . . . . . . . Serpents, Parallel 56 Quadrivium 100 . . . . . . . . Seven 99 Quarterly Communications 71, 114 . . . . . . . . Seven Steps, 3, 5 & 87 . . . . . . . . Shibboleth 78 . . . . . . . . Shittim Wood 155 Ra 110 . . . . . . . . Solomon 59 Reception 29 . . . . . . . . Solomon's Temple 54, 77 Reconciliation 123 . . . . . . . . South 107 Reformation 112 . . . . . . . . Special Commun. 71 Refreshment 51 . . . . . . . . Sprig of Acacia 155 Regius Poem 12, 112 . . . . . . . . Spurious 69, 119 Regulations, General 158-159 . . . . . . . . Square 37-38, 52, 73 Relief 62 . . . . . . . . Stairs, Winding 86, 102 Remember Now Thy Creator 127 . . . . . . . . Star, Order of 45 Replica of the Column 93 . . . . . . . . State Lines 71 Résumé 64 . . . . . . . . Statutory Time 17 Resurrection 126, 135 . . . . . . . . Steps 87 Revelation 135 . . . . . . . . Strength 142
St. John the Baptist 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twenty-Four Inch Gauge 50 St. John Baptist's Day 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . St. John, Evangelist 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unaffiliated 25 St. John's Day, 1813 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unconsecrated Ground 36 St. John's Day, Summer 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under Dispensation 15 St. John's Day, Winter 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unity 32, 56 St. Paul 47, 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Universality 86, 148 Sts. John, Holy 56 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Upright Mason 49 Ste. John, Lodge of 59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sublime Degree 125, 127, 133 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vices 51, 142 Suitable Proficiency 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Volume of Sacred Law 37-38 Summons 92 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vouching 166 Sun Worship 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sun God 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages, Fellowcraft's 79 Superfluities 51, 142 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wages, Master's 171 Suspend 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Waiver of Jurisdiction 165 Sword 144 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wardens 92 Symbol, First 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warrant 37 Symbol of Deity 42, 111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington 15 Symbol, Lodge as 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Mark 36 Symbols, Allegory and 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Webb Monitor 150 Symmetry and Order 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Webb, Thomas Smith 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . West 107 Tamarisk 155 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Who May Enter 90 Touching 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Who May Leave 91 Tenets, Principal 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Widow's Son 80, 155 Three 41, 88 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Winding Stairs 86, 102 Three, Five, and Seven Step 87 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wisdom, 141. 141 Three Grand Columns 144 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working Tools 50, 73 Three Grand Pillars 140-141 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work, Printed 23 Tiler 16-17, 144, 146-147 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work, Secret 23 Tiler's Sword 144-146, 148 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . World Celestial 85 Tools, Working 50, 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . World Terrestrial 85 Tribe of Judah 135 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Worshipful Master 42, 51, 89 Tribe of Naphtali 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trivium 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-Ray 98 Truth in Freemasonry 63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Try Square 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . York Manuscript No. 1 117 Tuscan 96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two Pillars 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zerubbabel 59