The Curse of the Corporation

Part XVI – 1622 CE to 1755 CE

1622 CE - Italy - The Papacy adopts January 1, as the beginning of the New Year rather than March 25.

1623 CE - Italy - Pope Gregory XV decreed that anyone making a pact with Satan to produce impotence in animals or to harm the fruits of the earth are to be imprisoned for life by the inquisition.

Urban VIII

1623 - 1644 CE - Italy - Urban VIII, alias Maffeo Barberini, educated as a Jesuit, is elected pope. A reckless nepotism takes place by placing his brother and nephews as cardinals, and then enriching them.

Urban VIII commuted the sentence inflicted on Galileo from life in prison to exile in his villa at Arcetri, near Florence. Urban's urbanistic work was vast and important. He had the Pantheon restored and commissioned the construction of the bronze baldachino in St. Peter's to Bernini.

1623 CE - Iraq - The Safavids capture Baghdad from the Ottomans.

1623 CE - Turkey - Gregory IV of Amasea becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1623 CE - Turkey - Anthimus II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1623 - 1633 CE - Turkey - Cyril I Lucaris, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1623 CE - North America - The Dutch trading posts on the Hudson river grew slowly, the proprietors in Holland caring much more for the immediate traffic in beaver skins than for the possible advantages of colonization. After the incorporation of the Dutch West India Company, however, more attention was paid to emigration. Thirty families of Walloons (Belgian and Flemish Protestants) were sent out in 1623 CE, and a relic of their settlement is found in the name of Wallabout Bay on Long Island; Albany was begun; Manhattan Island was bought of the Indians from a sum equivalent to $24; Fort Amsterdam was built (1626 CE), on the present site of the Battery; and under its protection grew up the town of New Amsterdam, which was made the capital of the colony. The colony itself was given the name of New Netherland. Extraordinary privileges were granted by the Company to those of its members who were willing to plant settlements at their own expense; and under this system vast estates were allotted on the Hudson to semi-feudal proprietors, known as "patroons." A colony of Swedes established themselves on the Delaware at the present site of Wilmington, but they were compelled a few years later to submit to the Dutch. In spite of a severe Indian war, precipitated by the violence of the colonists under the governorship of William Kieft (1643 CE), New Netherland prospered, and fifty years after its foundation the colony had 10,000 inhabitants, while New Amsterdam counted about 1,500. Both in the capital town and in the outlying settlements there were many English, including sectaries of various sorts who had fled from the intolerance of the English colonies.

Cecilius Calvert

Maryland was a Roman Catholic colony, named for the Virgin Mary. It was founded by Lord Baltimore, Cecilius Calvert, whose father, George, had been converted to Catholicism in 1625 CE, about the time that King Charles I came to the throne in England. Charles was the son of James I, under whose direction the King James Bible was published. George Calvert was the Secretary of the State to Charles I. When Calvert converted to Catholicism, he resigned his position, because of difficulty in serving a Protestant King. But Charles himself married a Roman Catholic princess, Henrietta Marie, sister of Louis XIII of France. He also promoted to the highest levels in the Church of England men who were sympathetic to the Roman Catholic rituals and traditions—which greatly disturbed the Puritans and Calvinists. Charles’ pro-catholic policies came to a head in November 1641 CE when Irish Catholics massacred thousands of Ulster Protestants, and Charles somehow had to defend the Protestants. Many did not trust Charles, asking how Charles could be trusted to protect Protestants when he had a Catholic wife and had promoted seemingly pro-Catholic clergy? This actually led to the English revolution, where Charles was deposed and beheaded, and the monarchy abolished for some years.

Because Charles I needed money, he gave Calvert territory in the New World, carved out of Virginia, hoping it would generate revenue. George Calvert died before he could develop his grant, but his son, Cecilius Calvert, did so. On November 22, 1633 CE, he sailed for the New World with two ships, the Ark and the Dove. The passenger list included three Jesuits, 16-20 Roman Catholic gentlemen (including Cecilius’ brother Leonard), and several hundred Protestant slaves and laborers. The voyage was spiritually directed by a Jesuit priest named Andrew White, remembered today as the “Apostle to Maryland.” Today, the “White House” is named after him. The Calverts’ personal property was called Rock Creek Farm, but in the 1663 property records, it is called “Rome,” and the branch of the Potomac River is called the “Tiber.” (1)

King James I

1624 CE - North America - The policy of the London Company, nevertheless, was little to the taste of King James I and after futile attempts to obtain from the colonists a surrender of their privileges, he canceled the charter in 1624 CE (A) (B). The private grants given in the letters patent for the Virginia province, however, were forfeited via a writ of quo warranto in 1624, and Virginia continued as a royal province until the Virginia declaration of independence was made on May 6, 1776 CE.

But beyond the substitution of a royal governor for one appointed by the Company, there was no immediate change in the administration of the province. The dissolution of the trading corporation which had thus far maintained a more or less restrictive proprietorship over Virginia, rather helped the colonists in taking their interest into their own hands. Under Charles I they practically ruled themselves, and were allowed to levy their own taxes. Under the Commonwealth they secured the right of electing their governor, although they were conspicuous for their fidelity to the House of Stuart. An aristocratic party obtained the upper hand after the English Restoration, kept the Assembly in power beyond the term for which it had been elected, imposed severe taxes, and restricted the suffrage to landowners; but this was a reactionary movement within the colony itself, and not the only instance in our history in which popular government has taken the initiative in abridging popular liberties.

Tracing the chronology of the modern-day State of Virginia –

The origin of the present-day State of Virginia was as, and still remains, a British business corporation with self-governing powers, as the commercial ownership has never been relinquished by the kings of England. The "government" of the United States has never changed from it's inception to it's present existence. The original territories were granted as business enterprises (as shown above) called "provinces," then changing to "states," and finally forming a "federal" state at the international level. The conclusion from this premise is that the several States and the federal government have always been for-profit British business corporations owned by the crown and nobility of England, or the Pope.

WE have hitherto confidered perfons in their natural capacities, and have treated of their rights and duties. But, as all perfonal rights die with the perfon ; and, as the neceffary forms of invefting a feries of individuals, one after another, with the fame identical rights, would be very inconvenient, if not impracticable ; it has been found neceffary, when it is for the advantage of the public to have any particular rights kept on foot and continued, to conftitute artificial perfons, who may maintain a perpetual fucceffion, and enjoy a kind of legal immortality.

THESE artificial perfons are called bodies politic, bodies corporate, (corpora corporata) or corporations : of which there is a great variety fubfifting, for the advancement of religion, of learning, and of commerce ; in order to preferve entire and for ever thofe rights and immunities, which, if they were grated only to thofe individuals of which the body corporate is compofed, would upon their death be utterly loft and extinct.

      Blackstone's Commentaries, Book I, Chapter 18, p. 455, 1765.

That on the 23d of May, 1609, James I, King of England, by his letters patent of that date, under the great seal of England, did erect, form, and establish Robert, Earl of Salisbury, and others, his associates, in the letters patent named, and their successors, into a body corporate and politic, by the name and style of "The Treasurer and Company of Adventurers and Planters of the City of London, for the first Colony in Virginia," with perpetual succession, and power to make, have, and use a common seal; … and did grant to this corporation, and their successors, various powers of government, in the letters patent particularly expressed.

      Johnson v. M'Intosh, 21 U.S. (8 Wheat) 543, at 543, 5 L. Ed. 681 (1823).

The ancient Romans and the Catholic Church created the corporations and trusts, both of which are legal fictions (A) (B). These were later refined by the British crown and government for the purposes of –

… for though none but the king can make a corporation …

      Blackstone's Commentaries, Book I, Chapter 18, p. 462, 1765. See also Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. 518, 674, 4 L. Ed. 629 (1819), and Dictionary of Law, William C. Anderson, Corporation, 1893.

Through the existence of its corporate style, governments and the Catholic Church maintain the perpetuity of –

It might now be understood why the phrase "according to the Curse of other Corporations within this our Kingdom of England," was inserted into the 1662 Connecticut Charter.

Under the perpetuity of the British crown, several "perpetual" taxes were placed upon the British subjects for the continued finance of government, consisting of the following items –

All business corporations have a perpetual existence as long as they have successors as corporate officers, until they are voluntarily dissolved, or until their corporate charters are revoked by the grantor (the State). Perpetuity continually guarantees employment and taxation to the same handful of individuals, their heirs, successors or assigns.

By the absorption of any type of property within the confines of legal fictions (corporations) which have perpetual lives, all property will eventually be consumed within the hands of fewer and fewer people, within a legalistic nightmare of paperwork continuously shuffled by the agents of the king – the attorneys (A).

Cardinal Richelieu, 1585 - 1642

1624 CE - France - Catholic Cardinal Richelieu becomes prime minister of France.

1624 CE - Brazil - Dutch colons colonize north-eastern Brazil.

1625 CE - England - The year of the English plague, where one quarter of England's population died. The Catholic League (Inquisition) perfected the principle of self-sustained war by creating armies that paid for themselves by consistent plunder and requisition. One would strip the countryside completely so that little is left for its inhabitants but to join the army and loot somewhere else.

1625 CE - North America - Dutch colonists found a trading post in America, Nieuwe Amsterdam (New York).

Shah Jahan

1627 CE - India - Shortly after the death of his father Akbar in October 1627 CE, his son, Shah Jahan, succeeded to the throne. He inherited a vast and rich empire; and at mid-century this was perhaps the greatest empire in the world, exhibiting a degree of centralized control rarely matched before. Shah Jahan left behind an extraordinarily rich architectural legacy, which includes the Taj Mahal and the old city of Delhi, Shahjahanabad. As he lay dying in 1658 CE, a war of succession broke out between his four sons. The two principal claimants to the throne were Dara Shikoh, who was championed by the those nobles and officers who were committed to the eclectic policies of previous rulers, and Aurangzeb, who was favored by powerful men more inclined to turn the Mughal Empire into an Islamic state subject to the laws of the Sharia. It is Aurangzeb who triumphed, and though the Mughal Empire saw yet further expansion in the early years of his long reign, 1658 - 1707 CE, by the later part of the seventeenth century the empire was beginning to disintegrate.

1628 CE - Morocco - The Sadid dynasty collapses in Morocco and is succeeded by the Alawis.

1628 CE - France - Cardinal Richelieu destroyed the starving Huguenot stronghold at La Rochelle, France.

1628 CE - Iran - The Safavid dynasty of Iran is ruled by Safi I, the son of Safi Mirza and grandson of Shah Abbas I. He mounted the throne in 1629 CE. Following the example of his grandfather, he put to death all the contenders for the throne. Shah Safi was addicted to opium and died of alcoholism in 1642 CE.

1630 CE - France - The French policy of intervention in the European wars to the greater glory of France led to higher taxes then riots at Dijon in 1630 CE, Paris in 1631 CE, and Lyons in 1632 CE.

1630 CE - Germany - In May, the Holy Roman Empire besieged the walled city of Magdeburg. The Protestant Germans and Swedes refused to surrender. Gustavus Adolphus 1611 - 1632 CE, of Sweden fielded 100,000 men and expected to double this number by 1632 CE. The Catholics slaughtered 25,000 residents so brutally that the Imperial army commander Count Johann Tilly began hiding women and children in a cathedral. Cardinal Richelieu, prime minister of France, is determined to contain Spanish power and influence even if that means aiding and abetting Protestants. He pledged funds this year to the Protestant army of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden and at the same time insisting Catholic Bavaria be spared from attack and that Catholics in conquered countries be permitted to practice their religion. Pope Urban VIII worked diligently to prevent any alliance between France and the Protestant Sweden and took no action against Cardinal Richelieu until its consequence became apparent.

Galileo Galilei
1564 - 1642

1633 CE - Italy - Galileo Galilei, a personal friend of the pope, is forced under threat of torture by Pope Urban VIII, seven Cardinals and fabricated evidence to recant that the sun is not the center of the world and that the earth moves. Galileo is forced to deny truth to save himself from torture and hell. This Church decision would hold until 1992 CE when Pope John Paul II would declare that the Church had made an error.

1633 CE - Turkey - Cyril II Kontares becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1633 - 1634 CE - Turkey - Cyril I Lucaris, restored for the third time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1634 CE - Turkey - Athanasius III Patelaros becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1634 - 1635 CE - Turkey - Cyril I Lucaris, restored for the fourth time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

The Institute of France - 2002

1635 CE - France - Cardinal Mazarin founds the Academie Francaise to promote literature. The original institution, the Institut de France, 'the protector of arts, literature and science', created in 1795 CE, is the union of Five Academies: Academie Francaise (1635 CE), Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (1663 CE), Academie des Sciences (1666 CE), Academie des Beaux-Arts (union in 1816 CE of Academie de Peinture et de Sculpture founded in 1648 CE and of Academie d'Architecture founded by Colbert in 1671 CE), and finally Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques (founded in 1795 CE, abolished in 1803 CE and reinstated in 1832 CE).

1635 - 1636 CE - Turkey - Cyril II Kontares, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1636 - 1637 CE - Turkey - Neophytus III of Nicea becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1637 CE - France - The French philosopher Rene` Descartes publishes the "Discours sur la Methode" and founds modern science.

1637 - 1638 CE - Turkey - Cyril I Lucaris, restored for the fifth time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

Roger Williams

1637 CE - North America - The settlers of New England were never tender in their dealings with the red men, and their first Indian war was the result of a series of raids and murders in which the savagery was not all on one side. The Pequots, a warlike confederacy whose principle seat was on the river now known as the Thames, in Connecticut, planned a general massacre of the whites, in which they desired the Narragansetts to join them. But this tribe was induced by the persuasion of Roger Williams to side with the colonists, and to furnish more than half of the force which, in the spring of 1637 CE, marched against the Pequot strongholds. The Narragansetts were led by their chief, Miantonomoh; there were some Mohegans under Uncas; and Connecticut and Massachusetts sent about 100 soldiers under Captains Mason and Underhill. A fortified Pequot village was surprised at early dawn and set on fire; no quarter was given even to women or children; but the Indians who did not perish in the flames were killed as they tried to break out. Two weeks later a second crushing defeat was inflicted upon the Pequots; some hundreds were made prisoners and sold into slavery, and the confederacy was permanently broken up.

1638 CE - Iraq - The Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Safavids.

1638 CE - Japan - Japan issues an edict banning emigration and prohibiting ship building. Japan's feudal government actively opposed the spread of Christianity. Christians of the Shimabara Peninsula revolted against the persecution and some twenty thousand made a last stand in a deserted castle. The Christians killed some ten thousand persecutors before being overpowered and only about one hundred survived. The rebellion only increased Japan's hostility toward Christianity.

1638 - 1639 CE - Turkey - Cyril II Kontares, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1639 CE - Italy - Pope Urban VIII in his bull, Commissum Nobis, ruled that Indians not be deprived of liberty or their possessions in violation of Canon Law. No one paid attention.

1639 - 1644 CE - Turkey - Parthenius I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1640 CE - Prussia - Frederick William becomes duke of Prussia and turns Prussia into a European power.

1640 CE - Portugal - Portugal declares its independence from Spain.

Alexander VII

Innocent X

1640 CE - Spain - Spain refused to receive the Popes nuncio when Pope Innocent X and Pope Alexander VII both declined to recognize John IV of Portugal, 1640 - 1656 CE, or to fill the bishoprics with his nominees. The King left them unfilled, appreciated their income, and even discussed setting up a New National Church.

1640 CE - Austria - Swedish and French armies co-operated with a combined penetration of Bohemia (Austria) in the hereditary countries of the Imperialists of the Holy Roman Empire.

1641 CE - Malaysia - Holland seizes Malacca from Portugal.

Coat of Arms of Paulus III at the Palazzo Comunale di Valentano, Duchy of Castro

1641 CE - Italy - Pope Urban VIII, driven by greed, went to war over the papal fief of Castro on the pretext that Odoardo Farnese had defaulted on his debts to the Vatican. Castro allied with Venice, Tuscany and Modena with support from France and imposed a humiliating defeat of the pope's armies. This petty war financially crippled the papal state. The Roman populace broke into riotous jubilation at the news of the death of Pope Urban VIII in 1644 CE.

1641 CE - Ireland - Ireland exploded in rebellion against the Protestant English and Scottish settlers who were forcing the Catholic Irish off their land. As many as three thousand men, women and children were killed, most of them in Ulster. King Charles and Parliament quarreled over who should control an army to defeat the rebels in Ireland. Parliament was fearful of Charles friendship to the Catholic Church and was fearful Charles would use an army against the Protestant Parliament. London locked its gates against the King, and Charles moved to Nottingham. Civil war had started.

1642 CE - France - Cardinal Richelieu, aka Armand Jean du Plessis, held the power of France from 1624 CE until his death in 1642 CE. Richelieu is considered a pitiless warmonger who sided with the Protestants and plotted for war if peace threatened to break out, if it suited his political ambitions. The English summarized Cardinal Richelieu's reign, France he subdued, Italy he terrified, Germany he shook, Spain he afflicted, Portugal he crowned, Lorraine he took, Catalonia he received, Swethland he fostered, Flanders he mangled, England he troubled and Europe he beguiled. Cardinal Mazarin (d. 1661 CE) replaced Richelieu and his policies would also continued to cause riots, treacheries and civil wars between 1648 to 1653 CE.

1642 CE - Iran - The Safavid dynasty of Iran, ruled by Shah Abbas II until 1666 CE.

Louis XIV

1643 CE - France - Louis XIV becomes king of France and Cardinal Jules Mazarin becomes prime minister. Louis XIV reigned under the formula "One King, One Faith, One Law" in France. He owed account neither to Church nor to the people. He continued the persecution of the Christian Protestants using the secret police for Royal orders of arrest and political detention, driving out many skilled craftsmen. Louis is called the Sun King and believed himself to be God's Lieutenant called to rule. He proclaimed "I am the state," and insisted on absolute hierarchical power where each man had a superior to whom he paid all deference and loyalty.

1643 CE - North America - It was principally for the sake of better protection against the Indians that a confederation of "The United Colonies of New England" was formed in 1643 CE, which constituted a perpetual league of friendship for themselves and their posterities. The confederation was important as a first step towards union, but its immediate results were slight, and before the next general outbreak of the savages it had fallen to pieces. However, it still remains in effect as it is a perpetuity document.

1644 - 1911 CE - Manchu Ch'ing Dynasty of China - The Manchurian conquest of China was a deeply humiliating experience for the Chinese. The Manchus, indeed, made things harder for themselves, as foreign rulers, with their decree that Chinese men would have to adopt Manchu costume (including the infamous "queue"). This provoked violent Chinese popular resistance and helped the "Southern Ming" princes rally forces against the Manchus for almost two decades. Some Chinese histories do not begin the list of Ch'ing rulers until the fall of the Southern Ming in 1662 CE – hence two successive Emperors are named "Tsu," "Founder," when usually this means the sole first Emperor of the Dynasty. Like the Mongols, the Manchus practiced the Vajrayâna form of Buddhism, and their Nestorian derived alphabet continued to be used for some purposes right down to the end of the Empire. The desire of the Manchus to be accepted as proper Chinese rulers, however, was otherwise intense. Even before incursion into China proper, they chose (1636 CE) a name for the dynasty following the Ming precedent: Ch'ing means "Clear."

Innocent X

Cardinal Jules Mazarin
1602 - 1661

1644 - 1655 CE - Italy - Innocent X, alias Giambattista Pamfili, is elected pope despite serious objections from the French court and the pope immediately sequestered the riches amassed by Pope Urban VIII's relatives. Cardinal Jules Mazarin, the French prime minister, took the family under his protection and induced the pope to pardon them. Pope Innocent X himself then practiced nepotism loading the papal offices with his kinsmen. Many accused Pope Innocent X with immoral conduct toward his sister in law Donna Olimpia Maidalchini who dominated the papal decisions.

1644 - 1646 CE - Turkey - Parthenius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1645 CE - England - The New Model Army, under Sir Thomas Fairfax, defeats the Royalists at Naseby, in the English Civil War.

1646 CE - Italy - Vincenzo Carafa is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Mutio Vitelleschi.

1646 - 1648 CE - Turkey - Joannicus II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1647 CE - England - England passed a law that abolished Christmas. Sometimes entire congregations were arrested for protesting the abolishment of Christmas.

1648 CE - Germany - The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War, allowing religious freedom to the Calvinists, changes in denominations are to be tolerated however lands of the Emperor where the Catholic faith alone is acceptable and the year 1624 CE is to be considered the point-in-time determining the state of Ecclesiastic possessions and denominations. Provisions in the Peace of Westphalia extended terms of the Peace of Augsburg (1555 CE) to Calvinists and gave equality to Catholics and Protestants in the 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire. More importantly, an ideal is born, reason is born, the courage to be critical with freedom of thought and that religious toleration must overcome religious dogmatism, ecclesiastic and government authority and moral and class prejudices, humanism is born. The Roman Church would continue to resist religious freedom even though the Catholic Church received its position in Rome through Roman Empire freedom of religion laws. Pope Innocent X condemned this freedom of religion treaty and began working to undermine the treaty and ferment more war supporting Spain against France. Emperor Ferdinand III (1637 - 1657 CE) and Elector Maximilian I of Baveria (1623 - 1651 CE) deemed the compromise unavoidable yet the future Pope Alexander VII would also condemn the treaty. It is noteworth that Pop Innocent claimed he didn't have enough money to support Emperor Ferdinand III. The war had cost Germany some five million people, and in some areas as much as 70% of the population. There was widespread robbery, brutality, dissipation and delusions about witchcraft. Germany was turned into the Holy Roman Empire from 1648 CE until its final dissolution in 1806 CE. There are about three hundred states in the Empire acting as sovereign units. The treaty recognized the Republic of the United Netherlands, part of which is now modern Belgium. At the end of the Thirty Years' War the population of Europe has declined from 30 to 20 million.

The signing of the Peace of Westphalia

1648 CE - Holland - Belgium - After 80 years of war, Spain recognizes the independence of the republic of the United Seven Provinces (Holland) but retains the southern Netherlands (Belgium).

Podole, Ukraine

1648 CE - Ukraine - On November 2, Chmielnicki Hordes in Narol, Podolia, massacred 12,000 Jews. Podole is an area which, at the time of the Poland's union with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, constituted the far southeastern province of the Polish Crown's lands. Bordered to by the Dniestr river to the south, the Seret river to the west and the Boh river to the north. In the 17th century, it was the site of major battles with the Ottoman Turks. During the interwar period, part of western Podole was part of Poland. Currently the region lies entirely within the Ukraine.

1648 - 1651 CE - Turkey - Parthenius II, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1649 CE - Ireland - Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland and began a severe persecution of the Church there.

1649 CE - Italy - The duchy of Castro was added to the Papal States.

At its greatest extent in the 18th century, the Papal States included most of Central Italy - Latium, Umbria, Marche, and the Legations of Ravenna, Ferrara, and Bologna extending north into the Romagna. It also included the small enclaves of Benevento and Pontecorvo in southern Italy, and the larger Comtat Venaissin around Avignon in southern France.

Francesco Piccolomini is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Vincenzo Carafa.

The Duchy of Castro

Portrait of King Charles I, Queen Henrietta Maria and their two eldest children.
Their son was invited back to England as King Charles II in 1660.

Oliver Cromwell

1649 CE - England - King Charles I was murdered for opposing the mercantile interests of the City of London, headed by Oliver Cromwell and his clique. Oliver Cromwell created a Republic that would last until 1660. Cromwell believed he is called by God to rule the nation. He had no problem in killing 100 women whose husbands are part of the Royalist Army. They had eliminated the monarchy and they now got rid of the House of Lords and the Anglican Church. King Cromwell however allowed Jews to again settle in Britain, the first Jews allowed in over three hundred and fifty years. Scotland was shocked and King Charles II joined them to fight against Cromwell's troops, they lost and Charles fled to France. Scotland was brought under English Republic rule. Oliver Cromwell took an army to Ireland to punish the Irish for killing of Protestants in 1641 CE. He captured Drogheda and Wexford and his soldiers killed the inhabitants of both, about six thousand in all. The English soldiers used Irish children as shields to keep themselves from being shot or brained.

Puritan merchants based in London gained substantial representation in Parliament following the beheading of Charles. They applied their newfound influence to secure passage of the Navigations Act of 1651. This ordinance attempted to preempt the influence of Dutch merchants by requiring all goods imported into England or the colonies to be carried on English or colonial ships. It was the earliest mercantilist attempt to regulate colonial trade. Ignored by the colonists, the act went largely unenforced.

1650 CE - France - French Catholic Bishop Jacques Benigne, 1627 - 1704 CE, in his Universal History, proclaimed that royal power is absolute and need render account of his acts to no one. He counsels his flock to keep the kings commandments. Unite in a single person, behold this holy power, paternal and absolute, and see the image of God in the King.

1650 CE - Austria - The Jews are expelled from Wien (Vienna).

1650 CE - England - The Crown's efforts to implement a mercantile system in the post-Restoration era took effect in a variety of measures designed to tighten control over colonial trade practices and government affairs. A series of Navigations Acts between 1650 and 1750 CE established the guidelines for Imperial regulation of colonial trade along mercantilist lines. The English navigation act is directed against the Dutch forbidding foreign goods to be brought into England except by English vessels or vessels from the country of the goods origin.

Although the colonists actually acceded to such royal stipulations only in varying degrees, a comprehensible precedent defining the ends and limits of Imperial commercial policy became discernible in this era. Meanwhile, as the institutions of colonial self-government matured, and civic upheaval transformed political discourse in England, concerns about the relationship between representation and the locus of taxation authority grew more relevant.

England imposes the Penal Laws on Ireland. Catholicism is outlawed, as is the exporting of Irish commodities. This oppressive law is designed to impoverish and degrade the Irish Celts.

1651 - 1652 CE - Turkey - Joannicus II, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1652 CE - England - Holland - The first of three Anglo-Dutch commercial wars fought to control maritime markets ended in stalemate. The Dutch Republic had been the dominant commercial power for over a century, controlling the commerce of the East Indies, as well as western trade in slaves, sugar, and furs. Much of England's mercantilist strategy over the next twenty years was designed to expand English trade and profits at the expense of the Dutch. The Navigations Acts imposed by the British government in the two decades that followed directly incited conflict between London and Amsterdam, and placed the American colonies at the center of a global war over trade.

1652 CE - Africa - The Dutch founded Cape Colony in South Africa as a supply base for the Dutch East India Company.

1652 CE - England - From 1652 to 1659 CE, Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans in the English Parliament outlawed Christmas because it was not sanctioned in the Bible. Cromwell ruled as a monarch with his army forbidding people to celebrate Christmas and Easter or to play games on a Sunday. Churches were ordered to be closed and shops were ordered to be open on this day. Clergymen were imprisoned for preaching on Christmas, and some parish officers were fined for decorating the church.

1652 CE - Italy - Aloysius Gottifredi is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Francesco Piccolomini. Gottifredi only holds office for 51 days, from January 21, 1652 to March 12, 1652 and is succeeded by Goschwin Nickel on March 17, 1652.

1652 - 1654 CE - Turkey - Cyril III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1653 CE - Italy - Pope Innocent X commissioned a special commission in 1651 CE to examine five propositions of Jansenism based on the teachings of St. Augustine's on grace and free will. Any semblance of free will, equality or democracy is considered the most serious of heresy. In 1653 CE, he issued a bull unconditionally condemning the five propositions that effectively also condemned St. Augustine in many believers eyes. Pope Innocent X declares the Jansenism movement in France, having so confronted the Jesuit Order on matters of principle and faith, as a heresy. The Order is ultimately disbanded and suppressed.

1653 CE - Hungary - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Ferdinand IV (September 8, 1633 – July 9, 1654) was King of the Romans, King of Hungary, and King of Bohemia.

He was made King of Bohemia in 1646, King of Hungary in 1647 and was elected King of the Romans on May 31, 1653, and crowned at Ratisbon (Regensburg) on June 18 of the same year. He died in Vienna, predeceasing his father, leaving his younger brother, the future Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, as heir.

Queen Christina Wasa of Sweden

1654 CE - Sweden - Queen Christina Wasa of Sweden ruled from 1640 - 1654 CE, then abdicated her throne to Charles Gustavas and converted to Catholicism, which was illegal in Sweden. After abdicating, she lived in Rome, and was an active proponent of religious freedom and a patroness of the arts.

1654 - 1655 CE - Turkey - Paisius I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1655 CE - Poland - Sweden invades Poland-Lithuania ("First Northern War"), causing the death of millions, while Russia, Denmark, and the Holy Roman Empire side with Poland-Lithuania.

1655 CE - Jamaica - The British take Jamaica from the Spanish, who had ruled Jamaica since Columbus' arrival in 1494 CE. In the upheaval, most of the Spaniards' 1,500 African slaves take to the mountains, establishing "Maroon" communities which become military strongholds, whose members bargain with the British officers for freedom and autonomy in exchange for promising to defend Jamaica and to help quell slave revolts.

Alexander VII

1655 - 1667 CE - Italy - The religious peace of Augsburg is now to include the Calvinists. Alexander VII, alias Fabio Chigi, an Inquisitor of Malta, is elected pope. The French minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin objected to the election.

1655 - 1656 CE - Turkey - Joannicus II, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1656 CE - England - Oliver Cromwell agreed to readmit Jews to England in return for loans to the English government from continental Jewish bankers. The Jews had been expelled from England in 1290 CE for their usurious money-lending practices.

1656 CE - Spain - Spain declares war against Britain and France joins Britain.

1656 CE - Holland - The Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens invents the pendulum clock.

1656 CE - France - Blaise Pascal, a Jansenist, attacked the Jesuits as condoning lying, adultery, murder and degrading religion into the observance of empty forms. This is an extremist position, but contained elements of truth as history would confirm. Pope Alexander VII originally opposed nepotism but the curia convinced him that the pope's family should live in style and thus strengthen his own position. The pope had poor relations with Louis XIV of France because the Vatican sheltered Cardinal de Retz his rival who had escaped France in 1654 CE. The pope also is known to firmly refuse to enter into discussion with those he considered heretics. He convinced Venice to allow the return of the Jesuits who had been expelled in 1605 CE during the reign of Pope Paul V. The pope bent to the Jesuit missionaries in China allowing the performance of certain indigenous rites as being effectively civil ceremonies.

1656 - 1657 CE - Turkey - Parthenius III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1657 CE - Turkey - Gabriel II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1657 - 1659 CE - Turkey - Parthenius IV becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1658 CE - India - Aurangzeb triumphed in his claim to the throne over his three brothers, and though the Mughal Empire saw yet further expansion in the early years of his long reign, by the later part of the seventeenth century the empire was beginning to disintegrate. Aurangzeb ruled until 1707 CE.

1658 CE - England - Oliver Cromwell died, hoping his son Richard Cromwell would begin a new dynasty, but Richard is not a good leader and the army commanders began to quarrel among themselves.

Philip IV

1658 CE - France - Philip IV of Spain arranged peace November 24, 1658 with Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin at Lyon.

1658 CE - Germany - Leopold I (d. 1705 CE) ruled the Austrian Hapsburg dominions.

1659 CE - Spain - This period is described by some as the universal shaking days, a religious war of every man against every man. Life is described as solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. The Thirty Years of War changed from a simple religious war to a primary power struggle. The Spanish civil war, begun in 1640 CE, only ended this year, ending hostilities between England, France and Spain under the Treaty of Pyrenees. Louis XIV of France excluded Pope Alexander VII from any participation in the peace process. England and France had defeated the Spanish in the battle of the Dunes, and Maria Teresa, daughter of Felipe IV, is forced to marry Louis XIV of France.

1659 CE - North America - From 1659 to 1680 CE, Puritans in the colony of Massachusetts prohibited the observance of Christmas, imposing a five shilling fine on anyone caught celebrating this pagan festival.

1659 CE - Turkey - Theophanes II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople. The office remains vacant from the end of the reign of Theophanes II until 1662.

1660 CE - Germany - The Hapsburg monarchy, a disparate collection of inheritances, housed several languages: German, Czech, Magyar and others. In the west and south are the hereditary provinces of the Austrian house subject to the ruler of Vienna. The ruler of Vienna is the Duke of Upper and Lower Austria, of Carinthia and Carniola Margrave of Styria and lord of lands in Swabia. Sporadic fighting between Austria and Turkey would turn into a larger-scale war after Turkey took Transylvania.

1660 CE - France - Cardinal Mazarin dies and Louis XIV refuses to appoint a new prime minister.

1660 CE - England - One of Cromwell's commanders marched his army to London and forced elections and invited Charles II to return to his Kingdom, the attempt at Republic Government was over. When Charles returned, all laws and acts of Cromwell were canceled, some say he never said a foolish thing, nor ever did a wise one, but believed in the divine right of Kings. He did support the removal of centuries of Church suppression by telling the Royal Society to examine all systems, theories, principles, elements, histories and experiments of things natural, mathematical and mechanical, which at that time was truly heresy. King Charles II, a Roman Catholic during his first two years, whipped and imprisoned 3,000 Quakers. This action made the Quakers, like the early Christians, stronger in their faith. The Quaker movement rapidly spread throughout the British Empire, Holland, Germany and even Russia. King Charles II believed that Protestant Religion makes people too independent thinking and this threatened the belief of one absolute King.

The earliest accounts of American taxation cannot be separated from the politics of colonial commerce. Charles II's ascension to the British throne in 1660 marked the restoration of the Stuart line in England, and brought to an end the tumultuous era that had followed the English Civil War in 1641 CE. While Cromwell's Puritan revolutionaries had largely ignored the fledgling North American colonies, Charles was determined to incorporate them more fully into a mercantilist trading system. Traditional mercantilism advocated the expansion of national wealth through a favorable balance of trade. By encouraging exports and restricting imports, nations built up a surplus of specie; foreign gold and silver flowed in to cover commercial debts. Colonies represented potential new export markets, of course, but by channeling colonial trade with the rest of the world through English ports, the King could expect a surplus of customs duties to pad the royal coffers.

Charles II created a new committee of the Privy Council, the Lords of Trade and Plantations, charged with formulating colonial policy. Parliament passed the Navigations Act of 1660, which strengthened the ban on foreign shipping initiated in 1651 CE and declared that certain enumerated goods - sugar, indigo, and tobacco - could be shipped only to other English possessions. Duties were applied to most of these commodities.

1660 - 1663 CE - England - Parliament passed the Staple Act, requiring that the goods enumerated in the 1660 Act be shipped exclusively to England, where they could subsequently be re-exported to other countries at greater profit to English merchants. The Staple Act also called for European exports to the colonies to be shipped through England first. Adding a middle man in this fashion inflated the prices of foreign goods, making English goods cheaper by comparison. As such, the Staple Act had an effect similar to that of a protective tariff. In the 1660s, the duties on tobacco from the Virginia and Maryland colonies amounted to 25 percent of English customs revenues and 5 percent of the Crown's entire income.

King Charles II
Painting by by Sir Peter Lely
Collection of Euston Hall

Intense dissatisfaction had been excited among the population by the exactions and usurpations of the aristocratic party in the local government and the oppressive policy of the Parliament at home. The plan of compelling the colonies to pay tribute (A) (B) to British tradesmen, which was destined a century later to seemingly cost the crown so dear, had already been established, and the navigation laws of 1660 and 1663 CE forbade the Americans to buy or sell in any country except England, or to ship their produce in any except English vessels. The laws bore severely upon a planting colony like Virginia, and were harshly enforced. So serious was the disaffection that when a popular young planter named Bacon raised an armed force to repel the Indian forays, the governor, Sir William Berkeley, distrusting his ultimate intentions, declared him a rebel and attempted to disperse his followers. Whatever may have been Bacon's designs, this was enough to insure an insurrection. The volunteers first attacked and beat the Indians and then marched against Jamestown, which they burned to the ground in September 1676 CE; but Bacon died of fever in the midst of his triumphs, and the rebellion was thereafter easily suppressed, without having clearly shown its character. After hanging twenty-two of the insurgents, Berkeley returned to England, where his conduct was severely condemned. "The old fool," said Charles II, "has taken away more lives in that naked country than I did here for the murder of my father."

In spite of all the drawbacks, the Virginia colonists became distinguished for noble characteristics. They were hospitable, generous, chivalrous, and brave. They were ardent lovers of personal freedom. They were full of a manly independence, which gave them a foremost place among the patriots of the revolutionary period, and they had a military aptitude of which Great Britain was to witness impressive proofs.

1661 CE - France - King Louis XIV, at 22 years old, assumed the reigns of government in France. He felt called on to increase and represent the glory of the state through secret council and secret police. He stated that "I have no intention of sharing my authority with them," referring to the vile creature of Cardinal Mazarin. The King thereby withdrew his ambassador from Rome and expelled the nuncio in Paris. The King occupied the papal enclaves of Avignon and Venaissin and threatened to invade the papal states.

1661 CE - England - The Quaker's of England claimed that all men and women were equal, and more outrageous that all war was wrong. The were considered a religious sect of nonconformists.

1662 - 1665 CE - Turkey - Dionysius III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1664 CE - England - England had never ceased to assert her claim to the territory occupied by Dutch enterprise; but there had been no threat of a resort to force, when, in 1664 CE, an English fleet entered the Bay of New York and demanded the surrender of the colony. Gov. Peter Stuyvesant had no means of resistance, and New Netherland passed peaceably to the possession of the Duke of York (afterwards James II), to whom it had already been granted by his brother, Charles II. New Amsterdam was renamed New York, and the administration was assumed by the Duke's appointee, Colonel Nicholls. In the course of the wars which followed between England and Holland, the Dutch recovered the colony as easily in 1673 CE as they had lost it, but it was finally restored to the English by treaty the next year. All these changes were accomplished without violence or popular disturbance. The inhabitants, drawn from many nationalities and religions, and occupied with a thriving trade, were ready to acquiesce in almost any tolerable government.

1664 CE - France - Jean Baptiste Colbert (b. 1619 CE) of France, with authority to establish monopolies, established the East and West India Companies. Pope Alexander VII with no allies offered apologies and accepted the humiliating conditions of the treaty of Pisa including the requirement to establish a pyramid in Rome admitting the Vatican soldier's guilt. He had to defer completely to the Kings demand to appoint the Episcopal in France.

1664 CE - Italy - Giovanni Paolo Oliva is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Goschwin Nickel.

1665 CE - Palestine - Sabbatai Sevi is recognized by the Jews of Palestine as the Messiah, but is then forced by the Ottoman sultan to convert to Islam.

1665 - 1667 CE - Turkey - Parthenius IV, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1666 CE - France - Louis XIV of France founds the Academie Royale des Sciences at Paris.

1666 CE - England - A terrible bubonic plague struck London in 1665, lasting approximately one year and killing sixty eight thousand people. Most of London is destroyed by fire including eighty seven churches, thirteen thousand homes which comprised about 80% of the city. A new law required the structures be rebuilt with brick and stone.

1667 CE - Netherlands - Louis XIV of France attacks the Netherlands.

1667 CE - France - In May, French troops invaded east into Franche-Comte and north into the Spanish Netherlands. King Louis XIV of France is frustrated as the English and Swedes supported the Dutch.

Clement IX

1667 - 1669 CE - Italy - Clement IX was born at Pistoja, on the 28th of January, 1600 CE, of a noble family which has given a host of distinguished personages to the world. Giulio, after studying in the Roman College under three famous professors-Faminius Strada, Alexander Donati, and Torquato de Cupis-went to the University of Pisa, became Jesuit educated and received the doctorate of philosophy and of both laws. Urban, who esteemed his vast erudition, made him referendary of both signatures, and then secretary of the Congregation of Rites, canon and vicar of Saint Mary Major, judge a latere of the legation of Avignon, secretary of briefs to the princes in 1641 CE, Archbishop of Tarsus, and nuncio to the court of King Philip IV, where he obtained from that prince a favor which never failed. After the death of Innocent X, Giulio, recalled from the brilliant nunciature in which he had served the Church eleven years, found himself merely a canon of Saint Mary Major. The Sacred College, appreciating his merit, made him governor of Rome during the conclave that elected Alexander VII, and that pope, in 1657 CE, him a cardinal. Corraro, the Venetian ambassador at Rome, praises Rospigliosi as a secretary of state. "I do not know a better-natured man," writes the Venetian. "I cannot praise him too highly. He fills that post most successfully. The pope knows it well, and says that he has found a secretary after his own heart. Rospigliosi has a sound judgment; he knows no interest foreign to his duty; he is never obstinate in his opinions; when he has plainly stated them he appears pleased to hear them modified or even censured, if the interest of his master is thereby served. He seeks no occupation foreign to his post; he takes all business thoroughly examined to the pope for consideration; and himself makes minutes of everything which the pope lays much to heart."

After the funeral of Alexander VII, sixty-four cardinals went into conclave on the 2nd of June, 1667 CE, and on the 20th they elected Cardinal Rospigliosi, aged sixty-eight years. He took the name of Clement IX, was crowned on the 24th, and took possession of Saint John Lateran on the 3rd of July.

1667 CE - Turkey - Clement becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1668 - 1671 CE - Turkey - Methodius III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1669 CE - Crete - The Turks conquer Crete.

Clement X

1670 - 1676 CE - Italy - In the conclave which followed the death of Clement IX, Emilio Altieri was scarcely an outstanding favorite. He had been made a cardinal only a few weeks before, and he was an old man of almost eighty. Yet it was Emilio Altieri who emerged from this long and stubbornly contested conclave as Pope Clement X. The conclave which had begun on December 20, 1669 CE, ended only when there was a general swing to Altieri on April 29, 1670 CE. Even then Altieri objected that he was too old, but he was overruled and installed as Pope Clement X.

Emilio Altieri was born at Rome on July 13, 1590 CE, of a noble and pious family. Educated at the Roman College, he went on to take his law degree at the Roman University. Although he became a brilliant attorney, Emilio entered the ranks of the clergy and rose to be bishop of Camerino in 1627 CE. Urban VIII made him governor of Loreto and apostolic visitor for the Papal States. Innocent X sent him as nuncio to Naples, where he ran into the torrid situation created by Masaniello's rising against Spain. He fell into disfavor with Innocent and returned to his diocese, but Alexander VII recalled him to Rome, and Clement IX made him a cardinal at long last on November 27, 1669 CE.

Clement X, though an octogenarian, was able to work hard. Indeed his hours dismayed the members of his household, for he always rose two hours or more before daybreak and was often at work by five o'clock in the morning. Clement was very charitable and did much for the poor, not only by generous alms but by social legislation. He tried to improve agriculture and foster industry in the Papal States. At first Clement did not do much for his relations, but as he grew older he grew softer toward them.

Clement X was much preoccupied with the problem of Poland. That fair land was not only invaded by Turks, but torn with civil dissension. The Pope despatched a nuncio to work for unity. At the death of the weak young King Michael, the Pope worried lest a Protestant mount the Polish throne. Clement was relieved when the fighting nobleman John Sobieski was elected. To help Sobieski, the Pope sent a subsidy, and he had the satisfaction of hearing that Sobieski had defeated the Turks near Lvov. Clement X tried hard to get the Powers to help the hard-pressed Poles.

Clement X had to suffer from French arrogance, but he entertained hopes that the French invasion of Holland would aid the Church. He sent a legate to the peace congress of Nijmegen.

The octogenarian Pope had celebrated the jubilee of 1675 CE, but in 1676 CE dropsy attacked Clement X and on July 22, 1676 CE, a fever carried him off.

1671 CE - Turkey - Parthenius IV, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1671 - 1673 CE - Turkey - Dionysius IV Muselimes (the Muslim) becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1672 CE - England - The Royal African Company was given British Royal charter to engage in slave trading and other African trade.

1673 CE - England - Parliament passed the Revenue Act of 1673. The act imposed a "plantation duty" on certain American exports and closed loopholes colonists had employed to export tobacco and other products directly to European markets. It also created a staff of customs officials to collect the plantation levy in American ports. This staff was the first revenue-collecting administration in the British New World.

In the third of three Anglo-Dutch commercial wars, the English Navy succeeded in usurping Dutch supremacy in world trade, and effectively ended their dominance of the West African slave trade. Subsequently, English merchants were free to expand their private fleets and gain a dominant position in Atlantic Commerce. The Navigations Acts played a central role in enhancing Britain's world position.

Imperial duties levied on colonial tobacco brought in £100,000 annually by the mid-1670s. Charles II required such extravagant sums to finance his exorbitant personal and governmental expenses. In addition to this ample income, the Navigations Acts also ensured English self-sufficiency with respect to critical semi-tropical crops like sugar, tobacco, and indigo.

Just as the King relaxed royal authority over colonial land in this era by issuing large proprietary grants (Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, the Carolinas) to political allies, his tightening of colonial trade regulations and administration also served to secure support for his Restoration regime. Since the Acts established a monopoly over colonial markets for British merchants, they helped cement the alliance between monarch and mercantile community, many of whom were Puritans. Merchants now stood as a ready source of financing for wars and other royal undertakings.

Parliament passed the Test Act that prevented any Catholic from holding public office. This act is to prevent King Charles II or any future King becoming Catholic. The Whigs are afraid of an absolute monarchy and of the Catholic faith but still believed strongly in allowing religious freedom, they also wanted no standing army. An opposing group nicknamed the Tories, an Irish name for thieves, upheld the authority of the Crown and the Church. An Act is also passed forbidding any Catholic to be member of either the Commons or the Lords.

1673 CE - Sweden - Poland - Pope Clement X appealed to Protestant King Charles XI of Sweden, 1660 - 1697 CE, to come to the aid of Poland that is under siege by the Turks. Sweden declined to assist the Roman Church as did King Louis XIV of France. France is preparing for a holy war against Protestant Holland. Spain and Emperor Leopold I, 1658 - 1705 CE, provided aid to the Dutch. John Sobieski, 1624 - 1696 CE, with aid from the Vatican defeated the Turks at Dniester.

1673 - 1674 CE - Turkey - Gerasimus II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1674 CE - France - King Louis XIV of France confiscated church property and diverted their income to support the holy war. Pope Clement X complained, so the King claimed unrestricted right to appoint all ecclesiastical offices and threatened violence.

1674 CE - North America - The grant to the Duke of York included what is now New Jersey. The Duke of York would later become King James II. This territory the duke conveyed to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, and it was named from the island of Jersey, in the English Channel, of which Carteret had been governor. There were already some small Dutch settlements in the territory, and under the new rule a number of Quakers soon came out, the rights of Lord Berkeley having been purchased by members of that persecuted sect. When the Jerseys were divided, in 1676 CE, the Quakers were mostly settled in West Jersey; and although a share of Carteret was afterwards purchased by a partnership, in which William Penn, Robert Barclay, and other distinguished Friends were interested, and the prosperity of both colonies was largely owing to Quaker thrift and order, the prevailing influences in East Jersey continued to be Puritan.

Between Virginia and the Spanish settlements in Florida still remained a large territory which both England and Spain claimed, but neither had seriously attempted to occupy. A few English Quakers and other adventurous pioneers had straggled into the northern parts of this tract, and Spanish missionaries had been busy among the Indians; but colonization practically began under a grant made by Charles II in 1663 CE to Lord Clarendon, General Monk, Lord Ashley Cooper (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury), Berkeley and Carteret (proprietors of New Jersey), Sir William Berkeley (governor of Virginia), Lord Craven, and Sir John Colleton. The province was called Carolina, and embraced the present States of North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and part of Florida. At the request of Shaftesbury, John Locke, the famous English philosopher, drew up for the proprietors a complicated scheme of government, providing for a feudal nobility, an established church, and various Utopian institutions grotesquely unsuited to settlers in a distant wilderness; and the attempt to force the vagaries of a theorist upon a somewhat indocile people kept the province in a turmoil for many years. The first settlements were made on the Chowan and Cape Fear rivers, and were known as the Albemarle and the Clarendon colonies; the latter (1664 CE) was the beginning of the town of Wilmington. Six years later the Carteret colony was established on the Ashley river, when it was soon removed to a better situation at the junction of the Ashley and the Cooper; and this became the city of Charleston. Negroes were introduced from the West Indies in 1671 CE, and South Carolina became almost at the outset a community of planters depending upon slave labor. Both the Carolinas were in frequent revolt against the proprietors; at last, in 1729 CE, Parliament purchased the rights of those personages, and the province became the two crown colonies of North and South Carolina.

Shortly after this change, settlements began in what is now the State of Georgia. General Oglethorpe, an English member of Parliament, formed the design of establishing a colony in America, where persons who had been imprisoned for debt, and others of broken fortunes, might begin a new life. At the same time he hoped to interpose a barrier between the weak Carolina colonies and the Spanish power in Florida. Receiving a patent for all that neglected region south of the Savannah river (Georgia and Alabama), he sailed the same year with 135 persons, and founded Savannah in 1733 CE. The first settlers did not all belong to the unfortunate classes for whom he was especially concerned. They included parties of Jews, Moravians, Scotch Highlanders, and German Protestants, with a great many random adventurers, ill suited to a pioneer enterprise. The colony suffered much from internal troubles and from Spanish hostilities before it was firmly established. It became a royal province in 1752 CE. Alabama was not detached until after the Revolution.

1675 CE - North America - Since the beginning of the seventeenth century the French had been steadily extending their power through the region of the St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi. They were in conflict with the English in Maine, where so early as 1613 CE, one of their mission stations on Mount Desert Island was violently broken up by an expedition from Virginia. They disputed the English claims on the East. They contended for the possession of northern New York. In their service the priest and the fur-trader penetrated the Northwest. The Jesuit Marquette founded Sault Sainte Marie and was the first to reach the upper waters of the Mississippi in 1675 CE.

The war with King Philip, chief of the Wampanoags or Pokanokets, on the east side of Narragansett Bay, and son of the early friend of the settlers, Massasoit, began from trivial causes. Driven from his villages and followed in the swamps in the summer of 1675 CE, Philip broke through the lines of his assailants, joined the Nipmucks in the interior of Massachusetts, and roused the whole country. Everywhere the smaller tribes took up arms, and they were far more dangerous than in former years, because now they were supplied with muskets. Towns were attacked and burned. Remote settlers were massacred. Military detachments were decoyed into ambush and destroyed. The Narragansetts had taken no part in the rising, but the colonists distrusted them, and dispatched an expedition under Josiah Winslow, governor of Plymouth, to crush them, as a measure of precaution. "The Swamp Fight," in what is now the town of South Kingston, Rhode Island, repeated the horrors of the Pequot affair, many of the Indians perishing in their burning wigwams; but on this occasion the whites also suffered severely, their losses amounting to about 240 men – a quarter of the whole number. The war was now waged with increased barbarity. Warwick was burned. Providence was partly ruined. The whole of the Plymouth colony was overrun. Towns were deserted. Settlers were murdered. Hostilities lasted until Philip was killed by a deserter from his tribe in 1676 CE, and Witamo, the female sachem of Pocasset, who had lately been his chief supporter, was drowned in trying to escape from an attack by Major Church. The heads of Witamo and Philip were set up on poles to celebrate the triumph of the settlers. Prisoners were hanged, or sold into the West Indies, or retained as slaves in New England. The tribes were crushed forever, and from this time fast dwindled away. The colonists, on the other hand, lost six hundred men in battle besides the victims of massacre in the settlements, and twelve or thirteen of their towns were entirely destroyed.

1675 - 1676 CE - Turkey - Parthenius IV, restored for the third time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1676 - 1679 CE - Turkey - Dionysius IV Muselimes (the Muslim), restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1676 CE - North America - Nathaniel Bacon Jr. and his followers, in rebellion against governor William Berkeley of colonial Virginia, burn Jamestown to the ground.

Blessed Innocent XI

1676 - 1689 CE - Italy - Jesuit educated Innocent XI, alias Benedetto Odescalchi, is elected pope. He attempted to outlaw nepotism but the cardinals refused to support his efforts. His attempt to outlaw carnivals on moral grounds met with ridicule.

1677 CE - Netherlands - William III of Orange, king of the Netherlands, marries Mary, heir to the English throne.

1678 CE - France - Netherlands - France and the Netherlands sign a peace treaty.

1678 CE - England - Many English Catholics suffered death as a consequence of the Popish Plot, a false allegation by Titus Oates that Catholics planned to assassinate Charles II, land a French army in the country, burn London, and turn over the government to the Jesuits.

1679 CE - France - King Louis XIV began on the advice of his Jesuit confessor a campaign to eradicate Protestantism from French soil. By 1684 CE, nearly six hundred of eight hundred Huguenot churches are closed.

1679 CE - Turkey - Athanasius IV becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1679 - 1682 CE - Turkey - James becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1680 CE - North America - A Jewish community was established in the British colony of Charles Town, South Carolina.

1681 CE - North America - Royally appointed customs collectors resided in every colony by this date, supervised by a resident surveyor. A surveyor general oversaw this colonial customs bureaucracy, reporting violations of the Navigations Acts to his London superiors. Although the Acts established a policy for Imperial regulation of colonial trade, in practice colonial merchants often resisted or sidestepped royal authority. Local inhabitants physically accosted customs officials, while colonial juries in New England and the Chesapeake tended to acquit merchants accused of illegal trade practices.

1682 CE - Austria - The beginning of the Hundred Year War between the Hapsburg monarchy and the Ottoman empire.

1682 CE - France - The king of France moves from Paris to Versailles.

1682 CE - Italy - Charles de Noyelle is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Giovanni Paolo Oliva.

1682 CE - North America - La Salle, the adventurous explorer, sent out by the Governor-General of Canada, navigated the great river, the Mississippi, to its mouth in 1682 CE, and in the name of Louis XIV, took possession of the region thereafter styled Louisiana.

1682 - 1684 CE - Turkey - Dionysius IV Muselimes (the Muslim), restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1683 CE - Hungary - The Turks of the Ottoman Empire had occupied most of Hungary since 1526. The Ottoman includes the Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhjtan and Kygtzstan speaking peoples. Many Europeans do not consider Turkey as being European because they are mostly of Islam tradition. Culturally, modern Turkey is composed of Turks, Arabs, Jews, Greeks, Iranians, Armenians and Kurds. Mustapha I the Turk, with 250,000 men, marched on Vienna, Austria. Vienne, although vastly outnumbered, refused to surrender. A motley army of Austrians, Saxons, Bavarians and Poles under the command of John III (Sobieski), 1629 - 1696 CE, King of Poland, defeated the siegeing army at Vienna. An alliance called the Holy League of the Empire that included Poland, Venice and Russia pressed the attack against the Turks. By 1686 CE, they won back Hungary and crossed the Danube and occupied Serbia in 1688 CE.

1684 CE - North America - The Massachusetts-Bay Colony had enjoyed its heyday while a sympathetic Puritan regime controlled England between 1642 and 1660 CE. Subsequently, the colony chafed at the Stuart monarchy's mercantilist system. Interpreting the various Navigations Acts as intrusive and burdensome, colonial merchants tended to ignore them completely, conducting, for example, a thriving commerce with the Dutch and French sugar islands.

At the urging of exasperated English customs officials in North America, the Lords of Trade took action to curtail colonial independence. The Lords advocated the abolition of all proprietary charters and criticized the autonomy of the corporate colonies of New England. They persuaded the English Court of Chancery to annul the Charter of Massachusetts Bay, on the grounds that its Puritan government had violated the Navigations Acts (and virtually outlawed the Church of England).

1684 - 1685 CE - Turkey - Parthenius IV, restored for the fourth time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

King James II

1685 CE - England - King Charles II (1660 - 1685 CE) of England died and his brother James II (1685 - 1688 CE) a Catholic, who is governor in Scotland became King of England. As the Duke of York, James had ruled the proprietary colony of New York in authoritarian fashion for two decades, refusing to allow a representative assembly. As a Catholic, he had little empathy for Puritan colonies. His desire to curb the power of colonial representative institutions and subject the colonies to firmer royal control comported well with the mentality of the Lords of Trade.

James II the Catholic killed many Presbyterian men, women and children in Scotland, and many remember this time as the killing time. The Tories and Anglicans are delighted with their new king. King James II tried to remove the anti-Catholic laws and to bring the Catholic Church back to England and allow it to exist beside the Anglican Church but Parliament is angry including the Tories and Anglicans. James tried to get rid of the Tory gentry who most strongly opposed him. He removed three quarters of all Justices of the Peace replacing them with men of lower social class.

1685 CE - France - King Louis XIV (1643 - 1715 CE) forbade Huguenots to exercise their faith, educate their children as Protestant and to leave France. Half a million Huguenots had left France by this date and Prussia is actively recruiting these skilled Huguenots. Many of these French Protestants escaped persecution and settled in Britain. Many Nonconformist and Puritan escaped Persecution in Britain to settle in America. Catholic families fled Britain and settled in Maryland for the same reasons. The demolition of churches, kidnapping of children and the expulsion of Huguenots from strategic cities like Paris is most effective. This year an estimated 200,000 Protestants departed France and this is considered King Louis XIV's greatest error.

1685 - 1686 CE - Turkey - James, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1686 CE - North America - With James's blessing, the Lords of Trade revoked the corporate charters of Connecticut and Rhode Island, merging them with the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies to form The Dominion of New England. New York and New Jersey were added two years later. The Dominion represented a new authoritarian model of colonial administration. James appointed Sir Edmund Andros, an arrogant military official, as the Dominion Governor, and abolished the Massachusetts General Court. Situated in Boston, Andros acted to abolish local assemblies, ruled by administrative fiat, and levied arbitrary taxes. Other colonies experienced similar authoritarian rule, and within a year stood on the brink of revolt.

1686 CE - Hungary - The Ottomans are ejected from Budapest.

1686 - 1687 CE - Turkey - Dionysius IV Muselimes (the Muslim), restored for the third time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1687 CE - Italy - Thyrsus González de Santalla is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Charles de Noyelle.

1687 - 1688 CE - Turkey - James, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1688 CE - India - Moguls complete conquest of India.

1688 CE - England - James II pursued identical policies in England: abrogating the corporate charters of towns and guilds, levying new taxes without Parliamentary consent. King James II, a catholic, had a son that would perpetuate a Catholic King so Parliament looked for a way out and looked to the other succession of James's daughter, Mary. Mary is Protestant and married to the Protestant ruler of Holland, William III of Orange. They invited William of Orange to invade England, who is already at war with France. William entered London, but the crown is offered only to Mary. William said he would leave Britain unless he became King. Parliament had no choice but to crown both Mary and William. By this action, England effectively became a Dutch colony until 1714 CE. William of Orange, a Protestant Dutch Prince, accepted an invitation to rule with his English wife, Mary, as "constitutional monarchs" who would accept the rights of Parliament. King James II appealed to Rome for help, but Pope Innocent, not pleased with his methods of imposing Roman Catholicism, refused.

King James II had abdicated the throne as a result of the British Revolution of 1688, which allowed the prince and princess of Orange, William and Mary, to accede to the British crown. Dutch and German mercantile interests had helped to place William II of Orange on the British throne. This revolution resulted in the creation of the 1689 English Bill of Rights, and also resulted in war between France and England. This war was in consequence of the dethroning of James II, and the northern American colonies were promptly involved in it, New York and New England fighting willingly as for their own existence. In King William's War, as it is called, the English government paid little attention to its American subjects, but left them to defend themselves by their own resources, at their own cost, and in their own way. Both sides made use of the Indians – a practice not then regarded with the horror which it inspired in the authors of the Declaration of Independence – and the campaigns were marked by terrible brutalities.

To ensure control by the crown of their commercial holdings, Article III provided that all prior grants and charters remained unimpaired by this Bill of Rights. The Constitution of the United States could not impair, nullify or negate the prior contractual obligations of the colonies under the original British charters and grants. The notion of any future separation from England was thereby negated –

III. Provided that no charter or grant or pardon granted before the three and twentieth day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred eighty-nine shall be any ways impeached or invalidated by this Act, but that the same shall be and remain of the same force and effect in law and no other than as if this Act had never been made.

     English Bill of Rights, Article III, 1689.

William III merged Britain and Netherlands under the House of Orange, following the Glorious Revolution in England. Dutch Jews, both Sephardic and Ashkenazim, began to move into England in significant numbers. London became a center of Sephardic banking (A) (B). The leading figures in the banking industry were Moses da Costa, Solomon de Medina, Isaac Pereira, Manasseh Lopez, Samson Gideon, Francis & Joseph Salvador and the Goldsmid brothers.

John Locke

The so-called Glorious Revolution ushered a change in political philosophy as well. The long-held understanding of the "divine right of kings" gave way to notions of a constitutionally limited monarchy, permanently checked by the authority of Parliament. English revolutionaries, or Whigs, believed that the enhanced capacity of the Legislative body, particularly its role as the final arbiter of taxation, best protected the traditional rights of English subjects from regal capriciousness.

John Locke most clearly elucidated the principles of the Glorious Revolution in his seminal work, Two Treatises on Government in 1690 CE. Locke grounded his thesis on the assumption that rights and liberties were not necessarily the arbitrary constructs of government - he argued there were certain universal entitlements to "life, liberty, and property" that preceded and superseded any specific regime. Governments were formed by mutual consent of the governed specifically to preserve and enhance "life, liberty and property," and derived their authority and legitimacy from such consent. Locke even hinted that this putative contract between governors and governed could be dissolved if a regime habitually abrogated its subjects' inalienable rights. Locke's natural rights philosophy, with its concomitant endorsement of popular sovereignty and representative government (though not democracy, per se), would resonate strongly with many Americans, especially those who wished to augment the power of colonial assemblies.

Cotton Mather

1688 CE - North America - In America, a belief in witchcraft was almost a natural consequence of the Puritan conception of the spiritual life. Executions for witchcraft took place as early as 1648 CE. In 1688 CE, the fear of witches became a terrible popular delusion, breaking out first in Boston, where an old Irish woman was hanged, mainly on testimony that she spoke her own language, and could not say the Lord's Prayer in English. The panic owed its intensity and duration largely to the sermons and writings of the Rev. Cotton Mather, a mighty divine whose credulity was on a par with his violence. The disorder reached its height in Salem (1692 CE), where a special court was ordered for the trial of witches, and scores of persons were thrown into prison on the word of frightened children or the tattle of ill-natured gossips. In one year twenty persons were put to death; and when the inevitable reaction set in, eight were under capital sentence one hundred and fifty were in jail, and many of the suspected had fled the country.

Morose, superstitious, bigoted, severe, the Puritans nevertheless exhibited from the first some of the highest qualities of the founders of a free state. They represent, with the Virginians, the chief sources of the national life. Nothing could be more striking or more picturesque than the contrast between the two classes of pioneers. But they had many things in common, especially a brave and self-reliant spirit. The Puritans had less sense of personal freedom than their Southern brethren, but a keener desire for political independence. Their civil government being founded on the churches, and the churches having adopted the Congregational practice, every settlement enjoyed a large measure of home rule, and the development of the autonomy of the towns, so characteristic of the New England system, was easy and rapid. The jealousy of English interference, which sprang from special circumstances, ripened into an ardent attachment to the principles of political liberty. The Puritans, moreover, were industrious, enterprising, and full of resources. In spite of the navigation laws, which they evaded when they could, they practiced trades and built ships. They opened schools. They founded Harvard College in 1638 CE, and the next year set up the first printing press in the English-American colonies.

1688 CE - Turkey - Callinicus II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1688 CE - Turkey - Neophytus IV becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

Coat of Arms
William III and Mary II

1689 CE - England - In the coat of arms for William III and Mary II, an escutcheon of Nassau was added. ("Azure billetty and a lion rampant or.") beginning in 1689 CE and continuing until 1702 CE.

The price Parliament was willing to pay to avoid being dominated by the Roman Catholic Church would be another hundred year of war. The English and French, under Louis XIV, began what was known as King William's War or the War of the League of Augsburg.

King James II landed in Ireland with French support from King Louis XIV. In Dublin, a Catholic parliament immediately passed an act taking away all the property of Protestants in Ireland. Thirty thousand Protestants locked themselves in the city of Londonderry. King James II's army encircled Derry, as they called it, for fifteen weeks, when English ships arrived bringing fresh supplies and the struggle for Derry was over. The battle cry of the Protestants, 'No Surrender' is still the battle cry of Ulster three hundred years later as the war continues.

William of Orange was helped to the throne by Pope Innocent XI, alias Benedetto Odescalchi, a Jesuit who became Pope in 1676 CE. The Pope gave 8 million livre to secure William's allegiance and to ensure Louis XIV of France didn't form any alliance against the Vatican. It is noteworthy that the Vatican destroyed most records at the Vatican to ensure history didn't learn of the Pope's activities in this revolution.

1689 CE - Scotland - John Grahame of Claverhouse died at the battle of Killiecrankie wearing the Grand Cross of the Order of the Knights Templar.

Alexander VIII

1689 - 1691 CE - Italy - Alexander VIII, né Pietro Vito Ottoboni (April 22, 1610 - February 1, 1691 CE), Pope from 1689 to 1691 CE, was born of a noble Venetian family, and was the son of Marco Ottoboni, chancellor of the Republic of Venice. His early studies were made with marked brilliancy at the University of Padua, where, in 1627 CE, he earned a doctorate in canon and civil law.

He went to Rome, during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII, and was made governor of Terni, Rieti, and Spoleto. For fourteen years he served as auditor of the Rota. At the request of the Venetian Republic, Ottoboni was made Cardinal by Pope Innocent X in 1652 CE, and was later given the bishopric of Brescia, in Venetian territory, where he quietly spent the best years of middle life.

The ambassador of Louis XIV of France (1643 - 1715 CE) succeeded in procuring his election on October 6, 1689 CE as successor to Pope Innocent XI; nevertheless, after months of negotiation Alexander VIII finally condemned the declaration made in 1682 CE by the French clergy concerning the liberties of the Gallican church.

Alexander VIII was already an octogenarian when elected to the papacy, and lived but sixteen months, during which time little of importance was done. Louis XIV, whose political situation was now critical, profited by the peaceful dispositions of the new pope, restored to him Avignon, and renounced the long-abused right of asylum for the French Embassy.

Charities on a large scale and unbounded nepotism exhausted the papal treasury, reversing the policies of his predecessor. Out of compassion for the poor of the impoverished Papal States, he sought to help them by reducing taxes. But this same generous nature led him to bestow on his relations the riches they were eager to accumulate; on their behalf, and to the discredit of his pontificate, he revived sinecure offices which had been suppressed by Innocent XI. He bought the books and manuscripts of Queen Christina of Sweden (1632 - 1654 CE) for the Vatican Library. Alexander VIII assisted his native Venice by generous subsidies in the war against the Turks. He condemned in 1690 CE the doctrines of the so-called philosophical sin, taught in the Jesuit schools. Alexander VIII died on February 1, 1691 CE.

1689 CE - Russia - China - The Treaty of Nerchinsk establishes the border between Siberia and Manchuria, along the Amur of Heilung River, with Outer Mongolia as no man's land. This was China's first agreement with a western power.

1689 - 1693 CE - Turkey - Callinicus II, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1689 CE - North America - News of the Glorious Revolution in England set off popular uprisings in Massachusetts, Maryland, and New York. Governor Andros was overthrown and the Dominion of New England dissolved. King William's War, or The War of the League of Augsburg, against Catholic France began.

The Toleration Act granted a measure of freedom of worship to other English dissenters but not to Catholics.

1690 CE - Ireland - King William III entered Ireland and defeated King James II's army at the River Boyne. King James II left Ireland for France a few days later never to return. The Irish Protestant parliament over the next fifty years passed laws to prevent Catholics from becoming members of parliament, becoming lawyers, going to universities, joining the navy or taking public posts. Catholics are not allowed to own a horse valued over five pounds. Catholic schools are forbidden. Sons who became Protestant, could take over their parents property and use the property in any manner.

1690 CE - Italy - Pope Alexander VIII condemned the Jesuit belief that denied the necessity of an explicit act of love for God after attainment of reason. Also condemned is the Jesuit belief that no sin is involved if committed without knowledge or thought. He also condemned thirty-one Jansenist propositions.

1690 CE - Austria - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary, King of the Romans was the elder son of Emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, who was the daughter of Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine.

Born in Vienna, he was educated strictly by Prince Dietrich Otto von Salm and became a good linguist. In 1687, he received the crown of Hungary and became King of the Romans on 6 January 1690.

Queen Mary
King William III

1691 CE - North America - King William III granted Massachusetts a new charter establishing it as a royal colony. The charter affirmed the crown's authority to appoint the governor and naval officers to supervise ports, while guaranteeing that delegates to the colonial assembly were to be popularly elected by property-owning males, including nonmembers of the Puritan church.

Bifurcated authority between colony and crown, governor and elected assembly, gradually became the norm throughout North America. By the early 18th century, only Rhode Island and Connecticut elected their governors. The king appointed governors in all other colonies except the proprietary colonies of Pennsylvania and Maryland, where the Penn and Calvert families, respectively, exercised that power. This system tended to increase political autonomy for property-owning colonists at the same time it extended royal authority over military affairs and trade.

1691 CE - Romania - The Habsburg empire acquires Transylvania from the Ottomans.

1691 CE - England - Central banking was initiated by international banker William Paterson in 1691 CE when he obtained the Charter for the Bank of England which put the control of England's money in a privately owned company which had the right to issue notes payable on demand against the security of bank loans to the crown. One of their first transactions was to loan 1.2 million pounds at 8% interest to William of Orange to help the King pay the cost of his war with Louis XIV of France. Paterson said: "The bank hath benefit of interest on all monies which it creates out of nothing." Reginald McKenna, British Chancellor of the Exchequer (or Treasury), said 230 years later –

"The banks can and do create money … And they who control the credit of the nation direct the policy of governments and hold in the hollow of their hands the destiny of the people."

Innocent XII

1691 - 1700 CE - Italy - Jesuit educated Innocent XII, alias Antonio Pignatelli, is elected pope. In 1692 CE, he issued a decree that popes should never grant estates, offices or revenues to relatives. Only one relative should be eligible to become cardinal. All the cardinals are forced to sign the decree.

1693 - 1694 CE - Turkey - Dionysius IV Muselimes (the Muslim), restored for the fourth time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1694 CE - Iran - The Safavid dynasty of Iran is ruled by Shah Hossein until 1722 CE.

1694 - 1702 CE - Turkey - Callinicus II, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1696 CE - England - Parliament passed the Navigations Act of 1696, which required American governors to enforce trade regulations and increased the legal powers of customs agents. The Act replaced the Lords of Trade with a new Board of Trade, composed of politicians and officials with knowledge of colonial affairs. It also created Vice-Admiralty Courts to enforce all laws of trade and navigation. Unlike most local colonial courts, Vice-Admiralty Courts did not rely on juries; decisions were rendered by a single judge appointed directly by the royal governor.

From 1689 to 1713 CE, Britain engaged in almost perpetual warfare with Louis XIV's France in order to prevent the Catholic juggernaut from dominating the balance of power in Europe. During King William's War (War of the League of Augsburg, 1689 - 1697 CE) and Queen Anne's War (War of Spanish Succession, 1702 - 1713 CE), the Board of Trade undertook extensive military planning for operations against the French in Canada. It also exercised significant influence over colonial administration, advising the Privy Council on the appointment of colonial governors and other royal officials, and reviewing acts passed by colonial assemblies in order to reconcile them with the economic policies of the British government. Soon after the Board's creation, Parliament added to the number of American products subject to the board's regulation under the Navigations Acts. The exigencies of war tended to instigate such tightening of administrative controls.

1697 CE - England - France - The treaty of Ryswick ends the The War of the League of Augsburg, with no winner.

1699 CE - Hungary - The Ottomans lose to the Habsburgs. Under terms of the Treaty of Carlowitz, the defeat of the Turks awarded Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia and Slavonia to Austria.

1699 CE - England - Parliament passed the Woolen Act, which prohibited the export and intercolonial sale of certain textiles in an effort to protect the British textile industry from budding colonial manufactures. Such legislation was consistent with a mercantilist orientation that discouraged colonial industries from competing with similar British concerns. Colonies were to be limited solely to supplying raw materials. Excise duties on colonial tobacco contributed £400,000 in royal revenue annually.

The birth rate fell and would remain lower in England than the rest of Europe, some believe it was because they married later in life, age twenty seven, and that women tried to control the size of their families, by breast feeding babies for as long as possible. More men also remained unmarried that is unexplained. In south Wales one in three of all heads of gentry families remained unmarried, a century earlier hardly any heads of gentry families in the area remained unmarried. The head of the family had absolute power, his wife and children belonged to him, mind, body and soul. Absolute obedience was expected, disobedience was considered an act against God as well as the head of the house. Children were frequently beaten to break their sinful ways. Wives lost their legal rights over whatever property they brought into the marriage. Scottish women however were not afraid to stand up to both husbands and government, in fact many Scottish women were killed for their beliefs during the 'Killing Times' in Scotland, possibly the result of religious democracy in Scotland.

The Quakers were horrified at the sadism of child beatings by the English and instructed their members to love their children, correct them with affection, never strike in passion, and suit the corrections to their ages as well as their fault.

1700 CE - Sweden - King Charles XII of Sweden invaded Narva, Russia and onward in 1709 CE to Poltava where he is finally stopped. As a result, Russia annexed Livonia, Eastonia, Ingria and part of Karelia from Sweden. Sweden also ceded the bishoprics of Breman-Verden to Hanover, and Stettin and part of Swedish Pomerania to Prussia. Sweden ceased to be a leading power.

1700 CE - Spain - Carlos II dies and his nephew Felipe V, a Bourbon, becomes King of Spain, thus ending the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs. With the death of the last Spanish Hapsburg King Charles II (1665 - 1700 CE), King Louis XIV of France threatened virtually to annex Spain. If Spanish America and the Spanish Netherlands passed to France, the commercial position of England and Holland would be undermined. The Hapsburgs of Austrian King Leopold I (1658 - 1705 CE) joined a coalition with England and Holland against Louis XIV of France. France however managed to place their Bourbon King Philip V (1700 - 1746 CE) on the Spanish throne, but the Spanish Empire is divided. Gibraltar and Minorca went to Britain, Sicily to Savoy and Naples, Milan and the Spanish Netherlands to Austria, except the Upper Gelderland, a small part of the Spanish Netherlands, went to Prussia.

Clement XI

1700 - 1721 CE - Italy - Clement XI, alias Giovanni Francesco Albani, is elected pope. He was known in his youth for his prodigious learning and brilliance. Clement XI became cardinal in 1690 CE. As pope he was involved in the struggle between France and Austria over the throne of Spain; he recognized Philip V but later was forced into recognizing Charles of Hapsburg, the other claimant. The chief spiritual concern of his pontificate was that of Jansenism. The brief Vineam Domini (1705 CE) condemned the Jansenist ideas on papal infallibility, and in 1713 CE, he issued the bull Unigenitus, which condemned certain other Jansenist propositions. He was succeeded by Innocent XIII.

1701 CE - Prussia - Frederick William I, son of Frederick William, succeeds to his father and Brandenburg is renamed the Kingdom of Prussia.

1701 CE - England - So deep runs the fear of the Catholic Church that the Parliament of England passed the Act of Settlement to make sure only a Protestant could inherit the crown. Even today, if a son or daughter of the monarch becomes a Catholic, he or she cannot inherit the throne. It provides that only Protestant descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover, who have not, furthermore, married a Catholic, can succeed to the English Crown. The English law of Settlement did not apply to Scotland. The British merchants in Canada would try to use this English law to prohibit the French from holding positions of power in the future. It is noteworthy that the King can marry into another faith, just not Catholic. This law is still in effect.

1701 CE - France - Religious persecution in France had driven an estimated ten thousand Huguenot hatters from France, causing them to import hats from England. Most French hatters had fled to London, taking with them the secret of their art. During the next forty years even the Roman cardinals are forced to obtain their hats in London. The term "mad as a hatter" began because the mercury fumes inhaled in the process of making hats drove the practitioners of the art into early senility.

1701 CE - Spain - Germany - The Spanish War of Succession (1701 - 1714 CE) began between the Bourbon Philip of Anjou (Philip V) (1700 - 1746 CE) and Habsburg duke Charles (Emperor Charles VI (1711 - 1740 CE).

1702 CE - North America - In Queen Anne's War (War of Spanish Succession, 1702 - 1713 CE), springing like the previous contest, from quarrels with which the colonists had no direct concern, France was not only much stronger in northern New York and the West than before, and more definite and earnest in her ambition of American empire, but she was now in alliance with Spain. Hostilities began in Florida, where Governor Moore, of South Carolina, captured St. Augustine, only to retreat on the approach of Spanish vessels of war.

Thirty years of general prosperity followed, broken by Indian troubles in the Carolinas and Maine, by controversies between the colonists and the home government, and by hostilities between England and Spain, in which colonial troops bore an arduous part.

1702 CE - Europe - King William III forms an alliance between England, the Netherlands and Austria against Spain and France ("War of the Spanish Succession") to defend the archduke Karl of Austria's claim of the Spanish throne against King Felipe V of Spain.

1702 - 1707 CE - Turkey - Gabriel III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1704 CE - Spain - England captures Gibraltar from Spain.

1705 CE - China - The Jesuit Order is not allowed to expand in China. The pope ruled that the Jesuits could not incorporate the cult of Confucius and ancestor worship based on the opposition of the Dominican order. This prohibition led to the persecution of Chinese Christians and the closure of missions. This ill-conceived doctrine would not be revoked until 1939 CE by Pope Pius XII.

1705 CE - England - William Bosman of London recorded that the English, French, Dutch and others follow the common practice of branding their black slaves like their cattle to ensure ownership.

1687 CE - Italy - Michelangelo Tamburini is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Thyrsus González de Santalla.

1706 CE - Spain - Austria captures Milano from Spain.

1707 CE - India - Aurangzeb dies, destabalizing the Mogul Empire in India.

Coat of Arms

1707 CE - England - In 1707 CE, the Coat of Arms of England was changed. The arms of England and Scotland were moved to the first and fourth quarters, the arms of France in the second, and the arms of Ireland in the third.

Scotland and England are united into the United Kingdom of Great Britain, but each kept its own separate legal and judicial system and its separate Church.

1707 CE - Japan - Mount Fuji exploded, following a 8.4 magnitude earthquake, sending ash to Tokyo 70 miles away. Fuji has erupted about 10 times since 781 CE. This 12,388 foot mountain became a point of pilgrimage.

1707 CE - Turkey - Neophytus V becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1707 - 1709 CE - Turkey - Cyprianus I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1709 CE - Afghanistan - The Afgahn revolt against the Safavid empire.

1709 - 1711 CE - Turkey - Athanasius V becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1711 CE - Austria - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Charles VI (October 1685 – 20 October 1740) was the penultimate Habsburg sovereign of the Habsburg Empire. He succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain as Charles III following the death of its ruler, and Charles's relative, Carlos II, in 1700.

1711 CE - Europe - The Black Plague struck the Holy Roman Empire killing five hundred thousand people.

1711 CE - Brazil - France invades and captures Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

1711 - 1713 CE - Turkey - Cyril IV becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1712 CE - Germany - The first public synagogue in inaugurated in Berlin.

Medal of Queen Anne
commemorating the
Peace of Utrecht

1713 CE - Europe - The Peace of Utrecht brought the perpetual struggles on the European continent to a temporary end, and inaugurated a generation of tranquil respite. Britain and France signed a peace treaty which handed most of Canada to Britain and left Britain as the dominant force in north America, while Spain surrendered the Spanish Netherlands (Belgium), Milan and southern Italy to Austria (Napoli) and Piedmont (Sicily), and Gibraltar to Britain, allowing Felipe V (a Bourbon) to be recognized as the king of Spain.

By the Treaty of Utrecht, Sicily was separated from Naples and handed over to Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, who ceded it to Austria seven years later, receiving in exchange the island of Sardinia.

By treaty of Utrecht, France accepted limits on its expansion as well as a political settlement for Europe. It accepted Queen Anne instead of James's II son as the true monarch of Britain. Britain had also won the rock of Gibraltar, controlling the entrance to the Mediterranean. Sicily is assigned to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy, 1675 - 1730 CE, including control over the church. Pope Clement XI is ignored, with the pope issuing a bull condemning the action, but no one paid any attention.

1713 - 1714 CE - Turkey - Cyprianus I, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1713 CE - North America - During this era, the economies of the British colonies in North America flourished, as they were drawn more integrally into a burgeoning Atlantic system of triangular trade. Simultaneously, prosperity fostered ever-increasing exposure to British manufactured goods and culture, prompting colonial society to grow more Anglicized. Colonists on the edge of the American wilderness came to view themselves as British subjects abroad, heirs to the motherland's civilized institutions and beneficiaries of attendant rights and privileges. The British Government's milder approach to imperial economic policies during this era abetted the process of Anglicization. At the same time, such "salutary neglect" encouraged the maturation of colonial political systems and the concomitant autonomy of colonial legislatures, furthering trends that had begun in earnest in the wake of the Glorious Revolution. As colonial societies expanded and matured, colonists expected the British home government to uphold, or at least not interfere with, the prosperity and autonomy they enjoyed. When transitions in British external affairs and internal politics inspired a fundamental reorientation of imperial policies, however, the colonies resisted changes they viewed as detrimental to their interests.

1714 CE - England - Queen Anne, the last of the Stuarts died. Some Tories wanted King James' II son to return to Britain as James III, however he would not renounce his Catholic religion. King George I ascended to the throne. As an elector of the Duchy of Hanover tapped by Parliament to preserve a Protestant monarchy, the German-speaking king had to rely on influential ministers to exert any real political authority.

The following chronology shows how King George I ascended to the throne of England –

  • In the 12th century the lands which in the 19th century comprised the Duchy of Brunswick and the Kingdom of Hanover were inherited by the Welfs.
  • The House of Welf / Guelph was a younger branch of the Italian House of Este whose senior branch ruled in Modena until the end of the 18th century.
  • In 1235, Emperor Frederick II created Otto "the Child" (+1252), a member of the House of Welf, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg.
  • Otto added several counties and the town of Hanover to his possessions.
  • In 1267, Otto's sons Albert and John divided the Duchy, Albert becoming Duke of Brunswick, and John Duke of Lüneburg.
  • Then the Duchies of Brunswick and Lüneburg were united and divided many times by different branches of the House of Welf.
  • One of these branches headed by Duke Ernest-Augustus (+1698), emerged as the most powerful.
  • In 1692, Duke Ernest-Augustus was raised to the rank of Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, and his possessions became known as the Electorate of Hanover.
  • In 1714, his son George-Louis (+1727) became King of Great Britain, as George I, and the union of Hanover and Great Britain lasted until 1837.
  • George I

    Coat of Arms
    George I

    In 1714 CE, the Coat of Arms of the English crown was changed to include the Duchy of Hanover. The fourth quarter was changed to three sections tierced per pale and per chevron for Hanover: (1) Gules two lions passant guardant or; (2) Or semy of hearts gules a lion rampant azure; and (3) Gules a horse courant argent. Overall, an escutcheon of pretence gules charged with the Crown of Charlemagne. The same arms were for George II.

    At this time, the Kings of England became the electors of the king of the Holy Roman Emperor, placing the British crown under Catholic authority.

    King George I, a German from Hanover, became King of England, defeating the army of the son of King James II, the Jacobites. This effectively ended the House of Stuart and began the House of Hanoverian, later changed to Windsor. Because of the Tory connection with the Jacobites, King George I allowed the Whigs to form his government. King George only spoke German and didn't seem interested in his new kingdom.

    The House of Hanover and Brunswick (Germany) had now acquired the British throne in the person of George I, father of George II, and great-grandfather of George III.

    1714 - 1716 CE - Turkey - Cosmas III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1715 CE - France - Louis XIV dies and is succeeded by Louis XV.

    1716 - 1726 CE - Turkey - Jeremias III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1717 CE - Italy - Pope Clement XI equipped a Spanish fleet to fight the Turks but Cardinal Giulio Alberoni used it to wrest Sardinia from the Holy Roman Empire.

    1717 CE - England - Officially, Freemasonry was begun in 1717 CE, when four Craft Lodges gathered at the Apple Tree Tavern in London, and set up a constitution for Free and Accepted Masons, written by Anderson. But they claim their roots can be traced to Egypt, Syria, Babylon and the stonecutters of the Temple of Solomon, specifically "Hiram Abiff," a celebrated figure because of his death-defying refusal to reveal trade secrets to intruders. Hiram Abiff is the "Jesus Christ" for many Masons, though it is "an irony," because the Temple of Solomon was not built with stones, but with wood, brought by another "Hiram," the King of Tyre.

    Masonic lodges were organized in order to supposedly escape the heavy hand of the Catholic Church. However, the power behind the Masonic organization are the Jesuits. By forming a "society with secrets," the Catholic Church can still maintain control over governments.

    Coat of Arms
    Prince of Wales

    The Coat of Arms of the Prince of Wales has within it a symbol – The Order of the Garter. The Order of the Garter is the parent organization over Freemasonry, world-wide. When a man becomes a 33rd Degree Mason, he swears allegiance to that organization, and thereby to Prince of Wales.

    The first Masonic Grand Lodge was organized in England on the Catholic feast-day of St. John the Baptist, June 24, 1717 CE, (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) with the seeming intent of marking Masonry as a "Christian institution."

    It was still Christian - almost aggressively Christian - in its teachings. Not for another hundred years or more and then only partially did it rid itself of any sectarian character whatever and become what it is today, a meeting ground for "men of every country, sect and opinion," united in a common belief in the Fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man, and the hope of immortality.

         Introduction to Masonry, Carl H. Claudy, Volume II, p. 113, 1931.

    However, with the removal of the sectarian nature of Christianity, a new religion of the State (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) was formed, with the viewpoint that the Holy Bible is merely part of the "furniture" of Masonry. As this fraternal order has been heavily involved through the years in the dedication of public buildings and other institutions, among other things, the Freemasons look upon these acts as being part of the basis for their "wages." The Masonic oath is considered to supercede all other oaths, whether they be made for the State, the church or the spouse. Once a Mason, always a Mason. (A)

    The entrance of several members of the Royal Society and of the nobility changed the situation [growth of Masonry]. Since 1721 CE it has spread over Europe. This rapid propagation was chiefly due to the spirit of the age which, tiring of religious quarrels, restive under ecclesiastical authority and discontented with existing social conditions, turned for enlightenment and relief to the ancient mysteries and sought, by uniting men of kindred tendencies, to reconstruct society on a purely human basis.

         Catholic Encyclopedia, Freemasonry.

    With the absorption of all religious beliefs into it's jurisdiction, Freemasonry now claims to be the supreme religion, even though denounced by the Catholic Church over 200 years ago.

    Accordingly, an uninitiated Christian pastor states: "The whole system of rites, language, lectures and symbols does not mean what it says," thereby spreading falsehoods and lies. The Masonic worship of the Great Architect of the Universe shows that the institution is anti-Christian –

    We have it therefore upon the highest Masonic authority and testimony that the Great Architect denotes the same thing which was deified and worshiped in the Indian cults and in the Egyptian mysteries in the different ages and under various names. This generative principle of the Indian and Egyptian cults is substantially identical with the "Divine soul" of Pythagoras, the "Holy Aged" of the Kabbalah and the "Demiurge" of the Gnostics. The "one god" of Freemasonry is the Great Architect, who is identical with the creative principle.

         Freemasonry – Pastor Martin L. Wagner, pp. 295-296, 1912.

    Freemasonry shows that it is nothing more than worship of the creative principle – sex, the worship of the ancient religions of the sun and phallus disguised in a new form. The "building of Solomon's Temple" shows that Sol-om-on (A) (B) is merely a hybrid name of several different sun gods. The obelisk is a solar symbol, and a standard symbol in Freemasonry with the best example being the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.

    The founding of America was done by a vast majority of men who truly believed in the religion of Freemasonry under the guidance of the law of nature. This law of nature – law by the internal dictate of reason alone – is the basis for international law. This belief is very openly displayed in Article 11 of the 1796 Treaty of Tripoli.

    1718 CE - Italy - Spain invades southern Italy.

    1720 CE - Spain - The Quadruple Alliance of Britain, France, Austria and Savoy defeats Spain.

    1720 CE - England - Sir Robert Walpole, leader of the Whigs in the House of Commons, becomes chief minister to King George I (and George II, 1727 - 1760 CE), a position he occupied until 1742 CE. In this role, and during his service as First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer, Walpole became the primary architect of imperial colonial policy between 1714 and 1742 CE. Relieved of the burden of global war with France, Walpole deferred to the wisdom of his personal motto, "Let sleeping dogs lie," when dealing with the North American colonies. He accepted the status quo, instituted few new policies, and scaled back the degree of official interference in colonial affairs, an approach that came to be known as "salutary neglect." Walpole decided that forceful imperial rule only stood to interfere with his preference for a merchant-dominated empire based on trade.

    Sir Robert Walpole

    Walpole's benign hand and deference to merchants fostered an already prominent trend toward legislative autonomy in the colonies. Prior to 1689 CE, royal authorities and authoritarian elites wielded the upper hand in colonial politics. In the 18th century, as colonial societies grew and became more diversified, colonial politics tended to become more representative and slightly more democratic. The ideological influence of the Glorious Revolution complemented these demographic changes. Drawing on the example of the English Whigs, leaders of the American representative assemblies established the same committees that existed in the House of Commons. Foremost among the powers coveted by colonial legislatures was the authority to levy taxes. Control of taxation, in turn, served as a wedge to procure greater constitutional equity relative to a royal or proprietary governor. The connection was simple: Assemblies voted for taxes that paid the governor's salary, an important bargaining chip in negotiations over the control of patronage and the budget. Sovereignty over taxation and revenue also served to stymie the implementation of unpopular imperial edicts. Royal bureaucrats and absentee proprietors roiled at such insolence, but legislative autonomy became a fact of political life in the colonies. Of course, royal governors continued to exert their influence through control of patronage and land grants, but political authority gradually reverted to parochial leaders who controlled the assemblies. These assemblymen, in turn, marshaled local support to resist governors or royal bureaucrats.

    In British politics, Walpole secured support for the Crown's policies through assiduous dispensations of patronage, pensions, and gifts. This strategy had a discernible impact on the royal customs bureaucracy in the colonies. The patronage system tended to fill colonial posts with mediocre officials concerned with their own enrichment rather than the integrity of imperial trade policies. Such men were more susceptible to bribes and less likely to challenge the will of local elites. Patronage eviscerated the Board of Trade, traditionally the institutional spearhead for colonial discipline. Lacking reliable support, even the most reform-minded governors and officials could do little but assent to colonial preferences.

    Walpole's opponents in Parliament decried the strategy he employed to build a strong "court party," claiming that it encouraged corruption and enervated the principles of constitutional monarchy established during the Glorious Revolution. These "Real Whigs" were joined by another set of critics loosely referring to themselves as the "country party." The latter criticized Walpole's close ties with merchants and financial institutions, and warned of the threats to liberty embodied by high taxes, extensive royal bureaucracies, a standing army, and large national debts.

    Ironically, even as Walpole's patronage system worked to their political advantage by etiolating royal influence in North America, colonists found much that was appealing in the rhetoric of the minister's opponents. They still rankled at the arbitrary power royal governors employed - vetoing legislation and using land grants and appointments to influence legislators' votes. Real Whig ideology indicted excessive executive power and corruption as forces corrosive to representative bodies and traditional liberty. Such rhetoric resonated with colonists, especially influential assemblymen.

    Innocent XIII

    1721 - 1724 CE - Italy - Jesuit educated Innocent XIII is elected pope. He recognized James III as King of England and offered a bribe of 10,000 ducats if he re-established Roman Catholicism in Britain. Pope Innocent XIII, suppressed the Jesuit order and forbade them to receive novices for disobedience in the ban of Chinese rites.

    1722 - 1736 CE - Persia (Iran) - Mahmoud Khan, an Afghan chieftain, revolts against the Safavids, invades Persia and captures Isfahan, thus ending the Safavid dynasty.

    Benedict XIII

    1724 - 1730 CE - Italy - Benedict XIII, alias Pietro Francesco Orsini, a Dominican, is elected pope by the French, Spanish and Habsburg factions. On the occasion of the 17th Jubilee Year he inaugurated the wonderful staircase at Trinita dei Monti in Rome. Benedict XIII canonized St. Louis Gonzaga and St. Stanislaus, patron of Poland.

    He forbade churchmen to wear wigs and this decision was reluctantly accepted by Cardinal Bentivoglio and Cardinal Alberoni, since they used to wear it for reasons regarding their health. He renewed the announcements already issued by Innocent XII in 1696 CE for the lotto game to all Roman citizens and its province. Benedict XIII was buried in S. Maria sopra Minerva. His pontificate lasted about five years and nine months.

    1724 CE - Germany - The German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer.

    1726 - 1732 CE - Turkey - Paisius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1727 CE - Ireland - The English protestants dominated Ireland, passing laws to penalise catholicism by removing the rights of the Irish Natives to vote, hold office, own or lease property, educate their children, or to take up a profession. Using this law, the English dominated landholdings, and would eventually force the Natives from the lands.

    1727 CE - Russia - China - The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the remainder of the Russian-Chinese border, which was not settled in 1689 CE.

    1729 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Iranian / Persian general Nadir Shah expels the Afghans

    Clement XII

    1730 - 1740 CE - Italy - Clement XII, alias Lorenzo Corsini, is elected pope. Clement XII did not interfere in the numerous wars that broke out in that period. He abolished the ban regarding the lotto, because of the adverse balance of the Pontifical State. The drawing used to take place in the loggias of the Carnpidoglio and the first numbers were: 56-11-54-18-6.

    Clement XII founded an institute for Chinese youth in Naples. He excommunicated the Masonic institutions.

    Clement XII was the author of the current system of pavingstones, which are typical of Roman streets. He had the streets of Rome paved with squared stones and enlarged, levelled and straightened out part of Via del Corso. He opened the Capitoline Museums to the public, and enriched them with new works. He is buried in the Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano. His pontificate lasted about nine years and six months.

    Franz Retz is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Michelangelo Tamburini.

    1730 CE - England - The British are dominating the slave trade, a position they would hold until abolition in 1807 CE. Between 1690 to 1807 CE, Britain transported an estimated 2.8 million slaves to the Americas.

    1732 CE - Germany - Prussia under Frederick William I, 1713 - 1740 CE, succeeded in attracting most of the Protestants evicted by the Catholic Bishop of Salzburg.

    1732 CE - England - Parliament passed the Hat Act, prohibiting the export and intercolonial sale of finished hats. Like the Woolen Act before it, the Hat Act represented another attempt to discourage colonial manufacturing within a mercantile economic system.

    1732 - 1733 CE - Turkey - Jeremias III, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1733 CE - England - By the 1720s, the colonies produced more flour, fish, and barrels than the British sugar islands actually needed. Accordingly, colonial merchants shipped the surplus to the French West Indies, which helped French growers to gain control of the competitive European sugar market. In response to desperate petitioning on the part of British sugar planters, Parliament passed the Molasses Act of 1733, which imposed a high tariff, 6 pence per gallon, on molasses imported into the colonies from non-British possessions. But New England merchants, who often imported molasses from the French West Indies, and New England distillers, who needed it to produce rum cheaply, stood to suffer financially. This protective tariff favoring British agricultural producers over colonial merchants and distillers comported once again with a mercantilist policy that promoted the integrity of the Imperial Atlantic trade over the profitability of colonial commerce. New England merchants were largely able to ignore the Molasses Act, however, bribing customs officials and smuggling French contraband. Despite the Board of Trade's efforts to oversee colonial customs officers, the actual flow of commodities in and out of American ports evaded imperial control. The Act was never seriously enforced, and sugar prices subsequently rose to render the immediate issue moot.

    1733 CE - North America - The first Masonic circles began to appear in 1733 CE; by the time of the American Revolution, nearly 150 lodges existed throughout the colonies.

    1733 - 1734 CE - Turkey - Serapheim I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1734 CE - Spain - Carlos, son of Spain's king Felipe V, a Bourbon, conquers Napoli and Sicily from Austria and founds the independent Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Don Carlos, later Charles III, king of Spain, in 1735 CE was crowned and recognized Charles IV, King of the Due Sicilie by the Treaty of Vienna.

    1734 - 1740 CE - Turkey - Neophytus VI becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1736 - 1747 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Afshar dynasty, Nader Shah Afshar defeats the Afghans and invades Afghanistan and India.

    1736 CE - Spain - Naples - Spain and Naples broke diplomatic relations with the Vatican.

    1736 CE - Austria - The last Medici dies and Tuscany is inherited by Austria's Franz I Hapsburg.

    1737 CE - Italy - Pope Paul III banned the enslavement of Indians in the New World.

    1738 CE - India - The Iranian/Persian general Nadir Shah invades India and captures Delhi.

    1738 CE - Italy - Freemasonry was condemned by Clement XII and Catholics were forbidden to join, under penalty of excommunication; the prohibition was repeated by Benedict XIV in 1751 CE and also by later popes.

    1738 CE - England - John Wesley, 1703 - 1791 CE, founded the Methodist Church of London after his 1738 CE conversion to Christianity. They claimed 130,000 members by his death in 1791 CE.

    1740 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Astrakhanid dynasty collapses and Uzebkistan and Turkmenistan are absorbed into Persia.

    1740 CE - Prussia - Frederick II "the Great" succeeds to the throne of Prussia.

    1740 CE - Austria - Karl VI dies and Maria Theresa succeeds at the Habsburg throne, but her succession is not recognized by Prussia.

    Benedict XIV

    1740 - 1758 CE - Italy - Benedict XIV, alias Lorenzo Lambertini, is elected pope. He was the most learned Pope of his century. Together with St. Leonard, he spread the word about the devotion of the "Via Crucis" and celebrated the 18th Jubilee Year (1750 CE). He ordered the continuation of the Papal portraits in the Basilica of San Paolo in Rome.

    On the occasion of a solemn religious service, he defined the Coliseum as a public church. Benedict XIV defended marriage and prohibited duels, while abolishing the Select Knights corps, which was responsible for the pope's safety.

    Benedict XIV published a magnificent work on the beatification and canonisation of saints. The current Canonical Code was based, to a large extent, upon the so-called Bollarium Benedicti XIV. He founded the Holy or Christian Museum in the Vatican and the Capitoline picture gallery. He is buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. His pontificate lasted about seventeen years and nine months.

    1740 - 1743 CE - Turkey - Paisius II, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1740 CE - England - Canada - King George's [II] War, The War of Austrian Succession, 1740 - 1748 CE, renewed hostilities with France and brought the post-Utrecht era of peace to an end. The most important incident of which was the capture of the strong fortress of Louisburg in 1745 CE, constructed by the French on the Island of Cape Breton after their expulsion from Acadia. This exploit was almost wholly a colonial enterprise, the principal part of the force being furnished by Massachusetts, and the commander being William Pepperell, of Maine. The exultant Americans now meditated the conquest of French Canada and were eager to raise a colonial army, which the British minister, however, would not permit, lest the provinces should grow too independent. The colonists were only allowed to menace Montreal while a British expedition should attack Quebec. But the British expedition never came; the costly preparation of the provincials went for nothing; a French fleet, on the other hand, alarmed the coasts until it was disabled by fever and dispersed by storms; the frontiers were harassed by Canadians and Indians; and finally the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 CE restored Louisburg to France, and gave her also the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland.

    Thus far the colonial wars with France had all sprung from the contests of the European powers. The decisive struggle, known as the French and Indian War, began with the clashing interests of the settlers themselves. At the middle of the eighteenth century the French, although their colonies increased very slowly in population, were steadily strengthening their position on the route from Canada through the Mississippi Valley. They commanded the lakes at Niagara and Detroit; they had founded New Orleans in 1718 CE and made it the capital of Louisiana; and they began to press upon the English frontiers in Western Virginia and Pennsylvania, where pioneers from the tide-water settlements were now crossing the Blue Ridge and the Alleghenies, and turning their attention to the rich valley of the Ohio. Resolved to hold this country, the French built forts at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, and Venango (Erie, Waterford, and Franklin, Penn.), roused the Indians, and seized English traders. The governors of Virginia and Pennsylvania received orders from England to expel the French wherever they were found within the limits of those provinces. A mission of remonstrance and inquiry from Lieutenant-Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, to the French at Fort Le Boeuf in 1753 CE, first brought George Washington into public notice. He was in his twenty-second year when he under took this dangerous winter journey, a dignified, high-minded, truthful, well-bred gentleman, used to a vigorous out-of-door life, knowing so much of the profession of arms as could be learned by militia service, and, for his time and circumstances, a very respectable scholar. He discharged his errand with great discretion, bringing back clear evidence of the French intentions, and recommending the immediate construction of a fort at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, the present site of Pittsburgh. The work was begun by a small advance party, but the French drove them out and finished it for themselves, calling it Fort Du Quesne. An expedition of Virginia, New York, and South Carolina troops, was disconcerted by this misfortune; but Washington, succeeding to the command of the Virginia regiment on the death of his superior officer, distinguished himself alike in action and in a judicious and orderly retreat to the Upper Potomac.

    1741 CE - Russia - Elizabeta becomes czarina.

    1741 CE - Italy - Pope Benedict XIV denounced the trading activities of the Jesuit order especially in New France.

    1741 CE - Portugal - Pombal, minister in Portugal, accused the Jesuit Order of attempted assassination of the King of Portugal and all Jesuits are deported in 1759 CE.

    1742 CE - France - Lord Kilmarnock and other exiled Stuart participants showed that the Jacobite-Templar link still existed when they receive Karl Gotthelf, Baron Von Hunde into the Order of the Temple in Paris.

    1742 CE - Italy - A papal decree was issued condemning the disciplining actions of the Jesuits in China. The Jesuits were known for the spare the rod, spoil the rod philosophy that they employed world wide, which was sadistic in nature.

    1742 CE - Russia - Empress Elisabeth ordered the expulsion of all Jews from Russia.

    1743 CE - England - France - England was at war with France until 1748 CE concerning control of the Austrian Empire.

    1743 - 1744 CE - Turkey - Neophytus VI, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1744 - 1748 CE - Turkey - Paisius II, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1745 CE - Scotland - Prince Charles Edward Stewart, himself a senior Templar, gives a soiree for the Chivalry of the Order in Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh.

    King James II's grandson, Bonny Prince Charlie, landed on the west coast of Scotland and raised a Highland army. The army took Edinburgh, defeating the English and marched south on London. The assumption was that some English would join the attack and when they didn't the army turned back to Scotland.

    1745 CE - Germany - Franz I Hapsburg of Austria becomes German emperor.

    1746 CE - Scotland - The British army defeated Bonny Prince Charles' army at Culloden, near Inverness. Many Highlanders were killed, even those who had not joined in the uprising. Their homes were destroyed and the animals killed. Laws were passed forbidding Highlanders to use bagpipe or wear kilt. Some did not obey the law and were shot. Some are sent to work in Canada. In Edinburgh, Scotland, the kilt and tartan are forbidden until 1782 CE, and very few of the tartans are worn after this time except for fancy dress. Many historians date the beginning of Great Scottish Land Clearances from this time. What followed was an attempt to destroy a culture by driving the Highlanders off the land. It is ironic that many of these same peoples who were cleared from their lands would become agents of the British Empire and do the same thing to native peoples in other places.

    1747 CE - Iran - Southern Russia - Afghanistan - The Iranian/Persian general Nadir Shah is assassinated and Iran/Persia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan disintegrate. Ahmad Shah Duran, the Afghan commander of Nadir's bodyguard, proclaims himself the ruler of Afghanistan with capital in Kandahar and founds the Durrani dynasty.

    1747 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Zand dynasty of Karimkhan-e-Zand rules Persia until 1787 CE.

    1747 CE - Afghanistan - Afghanistan becomes independent of Persia.

    1748 CE - England - The Earl of Halifax assumed the presidency of the Board of Trade, intending to undertake a more aggressive approach to colonial regulation. By the late 1740s, many members of the Board of Trade became increasingly concerned with the growing political power exercised by colonial assemblies and the stubborn independence of colonial merchants. Senior British ministers, however, generally ignored the Board's warnings and calls for administrative reform.

    1748 - 1757 CE - Turkey - Cyril V becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

    1750 CE - Austria - Castle Salzburg in Austria is occupied by 347 soldiers of which only seven are baptized Catholics, suggesting the Catholic Church had finally lost control after more than six hundred years of rule.

    1750 CE - England - Parliament passed the Iron Act to prevent the manufacture of finished iron products, another effort to discourage colonial industry in competition with that of Britain. The act was extensively violated in the colonies.

    1751 CE - India - British troops under Robert Clive capture the fortified town of Arcot, in Southern India, from the French under Dupleix. Great Britain thereby established itself as the leading colonial power in India.

    1751 CE - France - Atheism and militant anti-clericalism were both important elements in the Enlightenment. The French philosopher Voltaire saw priests and Christianity as a scourge on the human race, exclaiming "E'crasez l'infame!" – Crush the infamous things!. The clergy were perceived corrupt, the pope considered a tyrant, the king despised as a lackey and errand boy for the whoremaster in Rome.

    If the bible was the holy book of the Christian enlightenment, then the Encyclopedia was the inspiration of the Enlightenment. Here was a compendium of human knowledge dealing with arts, sciences mechanics and philosophy which swelled to some thirty-six volumes by 1780 CE. Begun by the Atheist Diderot in 1751 CE, the Encyclopedia bore the imprints of Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Buffon, Turgot and others. Gracing the title page of Diderot's compendium in the first edition was a drawing of Lucifer, symbol of light and rebellion, standing beside the masonic symbols of square and compass.

    The Enlightenment mirrored the Christian religion. Reason became its revelation, nature its god. If the Enlightenment did not abolish the myth of god, it reduced god to a sort of absentee deity, a caretaker to the universe who was nevertheless subject to the laws of nature. Deism arose from the same fertile soil of the Enlightenment as had Atheism, and no doubt many deists were actually Atheists. The deistic god was symbolized in the masonic lodges as the "Great Architect of the Universe," certainly not the god of the Christian superstition.

    1751 CE - Italy - Ignacio Visconti is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Franz Retz.

    1754 CE - England - Although British mercantilist policies sought to subjugate the colonial economy, an important loophole in the Navigations Acts had the opposite effect. The Acts had always allowed Americans to own ships and transport goods, thus enabling colonial merchants to gain control of 95 percent of the commerce between mainland and the West Indies. The American merchant fleet, for example, carried 75 percent of all manufactures shipped across the Atlantic from London and Bristol. Quite unintentionally, British mercantilism fostered a dynamic and wealthy community of colonial merchants. These merchants formed part of the provincial elite whose influence tended to keep royal governors in check.

    Prosperity did not guarantee unanimity among colonies, however. When various colonial representatives convened in Albany to discuss war plans against the French and certain Native American tribes, Benjamin Franklin suggested a Plan of Union. The plan collapsed in part because individual colonial assemblies had no intention of surrendering their autonomy.

    There had been no declaration of war between France and England, but the British ministry advised the colonists to hold a convention of delegates from the several Assemblies to provide for the general defence. Representatives of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland accordingly met at Albany in June, 1754 CE, and going somewhat beyond the advice of the ministers, proposed on the 4th of July a scheme of confederation which may be called the germ of the present Constitution. Its author was Benjamin Franklin, then deputy postmaster-general for America. He was forty-eight years of age, distinguished for the vigor and effectiveness of his writings on public affairs, the strength of his attachment to the popular cause, the sagacity of his political and economical teachings, and his acquirements in natural science. The plan of confederation, however, was rejected by the colonies because it left too much power to the crown, and disapproved by the crown because it gave too much authority to the people.

    The 1754 Albany Plan proposed placing all the colonies under on central government. Portions of the plan included:

    "It is proposed that humble application be made for an act of Parliament of Great Britain, by virtue of which one general government may be formed in America, including all the said colonies, within and under which government each colony may retain its present constitution, except in the particulars wherein a change may be directed by the said act, as hereafter follows.

    That the said general government be administered by a President-General, to be appointed and supported by the crown; and a Grand Council, to be chosen by the representatives of the people of the several Colonies met in their respective assemblies …"

    A more practical measure of the ministry was the dispatch to America of two regiments of regular troops. To cooperate, the provincial Assemblies voted seven or eight thousand men. The British general, Braddock, appointed commander-in-chief, undertook an expedition against Fort Du Quesne with the regulars and a detachment of Virginians, and the provincials were to operate in the North and East. British regular officers knew little of the conditions of campaigning in America. Braddock was unable to move until Franklin, on his own pecuniary responsibility, collected horses and wagons for him from the farmers of Pennsylvania; and when at last on the march, the General haughtily rejected the advice of Washington, who accompanied him as aide-de-camp, that the Virginia rangers should scour the woods in advance. The consequence was an ambuscade, near Fort Du Quesne, July 9, 1755 CE, in which Braddock was mortally wounded, and the British lost more than half their men and all their guns and baggage. Only the gallantry and skill of Washington and the firmness of the provincials saved the remnant. The expedition was abandoned and Washington found full occupation in defending the frontier against the Indians, and organizing new levies.

    1755 CE - Italy - Aloysius Centurione is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Ignacio Visconti.

    1755 CE - North America - The chief command, after the death of Braddock devolved upon Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts. He made an attempt upon Fort Niagara, but accomplished nothing. Gen. William Johnson, superintendent of the Indians of New York, was a little more fortunate, for being dispatched against Crown Point on Lake Champlain, where the Canadians had established themselves over twenty years before, he defeated the French general, Dieskau, in the battle of Lake George, September 5, 1755 CE, and built Fort William Henry at the head of the lake. Still he was not able to reach Crown Point or even to prevent the French from fortifying Ticonderoga.

    The one entire success of the campaign was the expulsion of the French neutrals from Nova Scotia. These people, remnants and descendants of the Acadians of the last generation, had always remained French in language, religion, and sympathy. Simple, industrious, and peaceable, their neutrality was mainly an affair of sentiment, and the persistent efforts of Canadian agents to rouse them into active hostilities against their English conquerors seem to have met with no response. The English, however, resolved, as a measure of precaution, to remove them from their homes and scatter them among the provinces. An expedition of provincials and regulars, under General John Winslow of Massachusetts, and Colonel Monckton, easily reduced the military posts on the French side of the Bay of Fundy in June 1755 CE, and then, assembling the Acadians by stratagem in their parish churches, hurried them on shipboard. About 6,000 were deported by this ruthless means; families were separated; the houses, lands, cattle, and crops of the exiles were confiscated; every colony received some of the destitute and heart-broken victims.

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