The Curse of the Corporation

Part XV – 1530 CE to 1621 CE

1530 CE - Turkey - The Ottoman empire under Suleman I. The Ottoman Empire was at its height for about 150 years. It had at that point, however, reached the limits beyond which it could not easily project its power. Conflict continued with Austria and with Christian powers in the Mediterranean, but respective holdings didn't change much.

1530 CE - Spain - Defeated at Rhodes by the Turks, the Hospitallers move to Malta under the king of Spain.

1530 CE - Germany - The Medici family is overthrown and Firenze becomes an archduchy of the German empire. The Protestant princes of Germany form the Protestant League of Schmalkalden against the Catholic emperor Karl V.

1530 CE - England - The first law expelling Gypsies from England is introduced. Henry VIII forbids the transportation of Gypsies into England. The fine is forty pounds for ship's owner or captain. The Gypsy passengers are punished by hanging.

1531 CE - England - King Henry VIII separates from the Roman Catholic Church and papal authority by founding the Church of England. Henry VIII persuaded the bishops to make him head of the Church of England and this became law after the Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy.

1532 CE - Peru - The Inca emperor Atahualpa is captured by Pizarro and the Inca empire collapses.

1532 CE - Austria - Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, 1519 - 1556 CE, King of Spain and Italy, is forced to deal with the Turkish invasion up the Danube valley. The siege of Vienna, Austria is to strike a blow against the heart of the Turkish Empire. He sent Andrea Doria with a fleet of forty-four galleys and 10,000 men to the eastern Mediterranean. The Turkish fleet retreated and a number of Turkish garrisons were taken. The Turkish army on the Danube, fearing a full-scale crusade, abandoned the Danube to beat a retreat back to Turkey. Vienna is thereby saved and, after two years, Spain abandoned the Turkish garrisons saying it is too distant from Spain to be of permanent value.

1533 CE - England - Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon, married Anne Boleyn, and was excommunicated. In 1534 CE, he decreed the Act of Supremacy, making the sovereign the head of the Church of England, under which Sts. John Fisher and Thomas More were executed in 1535 CE. Despite his rejection of papal primacy and actions against monastic life in England, he generally maintained doctrinal orthodoxy until his death in 1547 CE.

1534 CE - Iraq - The Ottomans capture Baghdad.

Paul III

1534 - 1549 CE - Italy - Paul III, alias Alessandro Farnese, is elected pope. His nickname is Cardinal Petticoat because his sister, Giulia, is the pope's mistress. His own mistress is a noble Roman who bore him three sons and a daughter. He is noted for masked balls and brilliant feasts. He named his two grandsons, boys aged 14 and 16, as cardinals and then promoted them to key offices.

Pope Paul III also enjoyed an incestuous relationship with his daughter. To gain control of his family inheritance, he poisoned several relatives, including his mother and neice. He killed two cardinals and a Polish bishop to settle an argument over a theological point. Paul III was probably Rome's biggest pimp - he kept a roll of about 45,000 prostitutes, who paid him a monthly tribute.

He commissioned Michelangelo for the project of the Campidoglio, the grandiose "Last Judgement" fresco, the dome of St. Peter's Basilica and the Farnese Palace.

1534 CE - England - Between 1534 and 1539 CE, Henry VIII closed five hundred and sixty monasteries and other religious houses, selling the property to the rising classes of landowners and merchants. The monks and nuns were thrown out and many became wandering beggars. A large number of people from the north marched to London to protest, they were cruelly put down and their leaders are executed. Henry, however, still remained loyal to Catholic religious teaching and executed Protestants who refused to accept it. Some of the money collected was spent on warships and guns, making English guns the best in Europe. Henry failed to understand the monasteries also provided work and food to the poor and during Henry VIII's reign, seven thousand thieves were hanged for stealing food in order to eat.

1534 CE - Tunisia (Northern Africa) - Turkey responds to the humiliation of the Spanish attack of 1532 CE by making Barbarossa its supreme commander of an enhanced Turkish fleet. Barbarossa captured Tunis that commanded the narrow seas between Sicily and Africa from the Moorish rulers who governed as vassals of Spain. Unbeknownst to Spain and the Holy Roman Empire, the French had provided arms to the Turkish army.

1535 CE - Tunisia (Northern Africa) - Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain and Italy, raised an army of 10,000 with 400 ships to recapture Tunis from the Turks. The siege of Tunis is successful, including the capture of 82 Turkish ships and a vast number of Christian slaves. Barbarossa and some of his army escaped. Spain failed to follow and fully destroy the Turkish army because they discovered the French arms and feared a French attack if the army ventured too far into the field.

1535 CE - Italy - Pope Paul III commissioned nine prelates headed by Cardinal Giovanni Carafa (later Pope Paul IV) who reported "in this Rome, harlots go about in the city like married women, or ride on their mules, followed from the head of the city by nobles and clerics of the Cardinal's household."

1535 CE - Spain - A Trento (Spanish) Council is called and for two meetings no clergy attended. Later in December, about thirty-two members attended and issued a rule to outlaw any challenges to the bible or church teachings under pain of death. To enforce this law they proposed the creation of the Spanish Jesuits as enforcers.

1535 CE - England - Sir Thomas More was convicted of treason in London, his sentence was "that he should be … hanged till he should be half dead; that then he should be cut down alive, his privy parts cut off, his belly ripped, his bowels burnt, his four quarters set up over four gates to the City, and his head upon London Bridge." King Henry VIII however commuted the sentence to beheading. More had refused to take an oath recognizing Henry's supremacy to the Pope.

John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion gives the blessings of the reformed religion to the taking of interest and usury.

1536 CE - France - The death of Francis, son of Francis I brought Henry, Duke of Orleans and Catherine de Medici one step closer to the throne of France. Emperor Charles V pleaded before the Pope, Cardinals and Ambassadors of Europe for peace and to denounce the unjust aggression of France. This is to no avail, as France went on with their offensive.

1536 CE - Peru - Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizzaro conquers the Inca empire of Peru.

1536 CE - Switzerland - The Swiss physician and alchemist Paracelsus publishes the Great Surgery Book.

The Execution of Tyndale

1536 CE - England - William Tyndale is strangled and burned at the stake by the Roman Catholic Clergy for publishing the Bible in English so that Christians could understand it. He had translated the New Testament into English in 1525 CE. Two years earlier, Martin Luther had published the entire Bible in German, while the Bible had been completely published in English in 1535 CE by Miles Coverdale. Some historians claim that Tyndale was executed because of the numerous mistakes which he had made in his translations.

1536 CE - Wales - Between 1536 and 1543 CE, Wales was joined to England under one administration. English law was now the only law for Wales, English became the only official language and Welsh was soon only spoken in the hills. The Welsh Bible that was permitted by Henry VIII became the only basis on which the Welsh language survived through their poets and singers even to current times.

1537 CE - Italy - On May 29, Pope Paul III issued his Pastorale Officium, which states that Indians should not be deprived of liberty or their possessions.

Pope Paul III issued his bull Sublimus Deus, stating the Indians are truly men and are not only capable of understanding the Roman Catholic faith but desire exceedingly to receive it. It also states they should not be deprived of liberty or their possessions. This bull was ignored, as Canon Law states slavery is ordained by divine justice.

1538 CE - France - Michel de Nostradame, the great prophet and doctor, is officially summoned to attend the Inquisition at Toulouse that is as much to be feared as its Spanish equivalent. In 1534 CE, Nostradamus had casually remarked to workmen making a bronze cast of a statue of the Virgin, that he was only making devils. He said he was only referring to the lack of artistic form of the statue and was spared.

1539 CE - France - Gypsy (Roma) are prohibited by Frances I from residence in France. The punishment is banishment. A second offence results in corporal punishment. The Jesuit order, the Society of Jesus, is established by Ignatious Loyola, a Basque, to propagate and defend the faith especially from Protestants by force if necessary. Its formation was a quasi-military in nature run by a general and the priests were considered the Popes soldiers, obedience without question was essential. Their motto was, let us follow the methods adopted by our enemy, the Devil, he is all for evil purposes, we all for good. Their unspoken motto was "the ends justify the means."

1539 CE - England - The Act of Six Articles makes it heretical to deny the main theological tenets of medieval Roman Catholicism. Obedience to the papacy remains a criminal offense. Lutherans are burned as heretics, and Roman Catholics who refuse to recognize the ecclesiastical supremacy of the king (most notably, Sir Thomas More) are executed. The Act of Six Articles is repealed in 1547 CE.

1540 CE - France - France challenged Pope Paul III's papal bull declaring the New World as essentially the property of Spain. The French throne informed Spain and Portugal that possession, not discovery, gave title to new lands.

1540 CE - Scotland - Gypsies are allowed to live under their own laws in Scotland, but this is short lived, as the first anti-Gypsy laws are passed in Scotland the following year.

1541 CE - Switzerland - Jean Calvin, aka Johannes Calvinus, 1509 - 1564 CE, a Frenchmen introduced the reformation in Geneva, slowly, it spread to France, Holland and Scotland. The French clergy would become adamant that it not spread to New France. John Knox began to preach Calvinism in Scotland and converted most of Scotland to Protestantism in a very short time. John Knox called the Cardinal Beaton, Chancellor of Scotland, Carnal Cardinal and spoke of the Cardinal's graceless Grace. Historians are not sure how many bastards he had, but possibly eleven sons and four daughters. This same man was preparing to burn a heretic for eating an egg during Lent.

1541 CE - Ethiopia - The Portuguse invade Ethiopia.

1541 CE - Italy - The constitutions of the Society of Jesus, the Church of Jesu (Jesuits), founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, were approved in a bull by Pope Paul III. The Society of Jesus is the power behind Freemasonry, and is also the headquarters of the Knights of Malta. Ignatius of Loyola was the first Jesuit Superior General.

Ignatius Loyola, who founded the Society of Jesus, was also the founder of the Illuminati, having the intention of combatting the reformation and propagating the Catholic faith. The Reformation was considered as salvation through grace, instead of through the Catholic Church. The Jesuit General, and the other high Jesuit Generals, are sorcerers. They are Luciferian, and worship who they call Lucifer. They do not believe in Satan. This society is the power behind the Presidents of the United States and the rest of the world leaders. The Jesuits were the obvious authors of the Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion, because they have carried out every protocol in that handbook.

Michelangelo completed the Sistine Ceiling and many of the faithful are scandalized. Christ is beardless, the angels have no wings and the saints have no clothes. The critics contend this obscenity belongs in public baths and brothels. Parma and Piacenza of the Papal States were alienated through the nepotism of Pope Paul III

1542 CE - Italy - The counter-reformation is proposed by John Peter Carafa, later Paul IV. It is officially sanctioned by Pope Paul III, by establishing the Congregation of the Roman Inquisition. The Holy Office provides central authority by refreshing the two century old Episcopal and Dominican inquisitions that could imprison anyone on suspicion of heresy, confiscate his property and execute the guilty.

1542 CE - Germany - Martin Luther turned from an admirer of Jews into a vicious anti-Semite in his essays concerning the Jews and their lies. Schema Hamphoras was published this year. He urged that all synagogues, books and houses of Jews be burned. He wanted to destroy all Jews with hellfire, and considered them children of the devil. Martin Luther in 1523 CE had written that Jesus Christ is a Jew and the Jews are the best blood on earth.

1542 CE - Egypt - The bubonic plague, from 1542 until the 1560's, started in Egypt, killing 40% of the population of Constantinople before spreading into Europe. In London, approximately one-fourth to one-third of the population died. It recurred in London at least six more times in the 1560's, killing thousands each time.

1543 CE - England - Henry VIII wanted to marry his son Edward VI to the infant Queen of Scots, Mary, and in this way join the two countries together under an English King. Ordinary Scots were unhappy at the idea and the proposal was turned down. For the next two years, English soldiers punished Scotland by burning and destroying the houses of southern Scotland. Rather than give little Mary to the English, the Scots sent her to France, where she married the French king's son in 1558 CE.

1543 CE - Germany - Martin Luther, having previously defended the rights of Jews, published a savage obscene attack on the Jews. Calling them this damned, rejected race of Jews, he urged his followers to burn their synagogues, demolish their homes and force them to do manual labor. Some believe he is angry that his conversion strategy did not work on the Jews. Others say that he is a sick old man that caused him to slip back into the common anti-Semitic attitudes of the Roman Catholic Church. Jews are being forcibly expelled from parts of what are now Germany, Spain, Poland, Italy, Portugal and other countries.

Martin Luther wrote –

Their synagogues should be burned down.
All their books, their Talmudic writers, and also the entire bible are to be taken from them.
They are forbidden to utter the name of God within our hearing.
And, they are to be expelled from their country and be told to return to Jerusalem where they may lie, curse, blaspheme and murder.

1544 CE - Sweden - Gustavus Vasa I, 1523 - 1560 CE, is determined to make Sweden a Lutheran country because the Roman priests in Sweden are unionists. The priests are working to maintain a union of the three Scandinavian Kingdoms. Gustavus I complained that his people understood civilization so little, that they invariably robbed the merchants who came to trade with them. The cultures of Sweden, Poland and Russia are believed to be on the same level of social development. The people are considered poor but hardy with thriftiness being an attribute.

1545 CE - Spain - Emperor Charles V (1519 - 1556 CE) (1500 - 1558 CE) proposed the Council should confine itself to discipline and reform and suggested it be conducted at Trent. The Protestants wanted an uncommitted council of all Christians. Pope Paul III missed this opportunity to resolve the schism by insisting on dealing with dogma, scripture, tradition, original sin, justification and the sacraments. The Spanish Council of Trent, 1545 - 1563 CE, is called by Pope Paul III, the Petticoat Cardinal, brother to the Pope Clement VII, whom whore Giulia Farnese called the Bride of Christ. Cardinal Contarini told Paul III that the entire papal court is heretical, it is contrary to the essence of the Gospel, Christ's law brings freedom, and the papacy brings only serfdom and caprice. No greater slavery than this could be imposed on Christ's faithful. Of the 187 Bishops attending the Council of Trent, well over half are Italian. Spanish prelates and doctors of faith dominated the Council. The Spanish Jesuits firmly and decisively supported the Italian hard line policy. The Spanish Council of Trent made religious reunion of Christendom in Europe impossible. The Council, wrote Father Paulo Sarpi, is so confirmed to schism and hardened attitudes as to make disagreements unresolvable. Trent confirmed the enormous power of Spanish-Rome and Bishops lost so much of their power, that no Council is held for more than three hundred years. It became mandatory to use saint's names for baptism and by the 1600's the Protestants would reject this mandate, selecting names from the Old Testament.

1545 CE - Italy - The Catholic Church, through it's Inquisition, would continue with ruthless cruelty and bigotry in the name of Christ. Pope Paul III bestowed Parma and Piacenza, parts of the papal state, as an hereditary duchy, on his bastard son Pierluigi, an enemy of Emperor Charles. Pierluigi is murdered in 1549, and Charles claimed the two duchies for his own son-in-law, Ottavio, the pope's grandson who had turned against the pope.

1546 CE - France - French King Francis I ordered the massacre of the Waldenses, a Protestant sect connected with the Calvinists. The Waldenses lived chiefly in Provence. Twenty-two towns were attacked and thousands of Christians slaughtered by the Catholics. The Roman Catholic Church's Council of Trent adopted St. Jerome's widely used Latin text of the Gospel in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Protests use several versions of the Bible, not agreeing upon one as more authoritative than another.

1546 CE - Turkey - Joannicus I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1546 - 1555 CE - Turkey - Dionysius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1547 CE - Germany - Emperor Karl V / Carlos I defeats the Lutheran princes of Germany.

1547 CE - France - On March 31, King Francis I died, and Henry, Duke of Orleans became King Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici, Queen of France, an estate so high even Pope Clement VII of the Medicis, had not envisaged when he had arranged the marriage. French became the official language of France, replacing Latin.

1547 CE - England - Henry VIII died and the child King Edward VI became King. The country is ruled by a council who had benefited from the sale of monastery lands and were therefore keen Protestant reformers. Most English people believed in the Catholic religion but less than half believed in Protestant reformation and the numbers are growing. They did not like the selling of pardons for sins, but also did not like the changes in other beliefs. The council ordered new prayer books to be used in all churches and forbid the Catholic mass.

The English Parliament gave local magistrates the power to take any person who was without work and indenture him for two years to any local farmer who wanted to use him. Any person found homeless and unemployed a second time would be executed. The indenture period forced the poor into life long slavery or robbery. Visitors remarked "there are an incredible number of robbers in England, they go about in bands of twenty."

Edward VI of England institutes law requiring that Gypsies be seized and "branded with a 'V' on their breast, and then enslaved for two years." If escapees are caught they will be branded with an "S" and made slaves for life.

1548 CE - Italy - Paul III, in his bull Moto Proprio, stated –

"each and every person of either sex, whether Roman or non-Roman, whether secular or clerical … may freely and lawfully buy and sell publicly any slaves whatsoever of either sex … and publicly hold them as slaves and make use of their work and compel them to do the work assigned to them … slaves who flee to the capital and appeal for their liberty shall in no wise be free from bondage of their servitude but … shall be returned in slavery to their owners and if it seems proper … punished as runaways."

This is clearly at odds with Sicut Dudum of 1435 CE, Sublimis Deus of 1537 CE and Pastotale Officium of 1537 CE. The decree, however, is supportive of the Council of Gangra of 340 CE, Expositio in Librum of 600 CE, the Ninth Council of Toledo of 655 CE and the 12th and 13th century Crusades that permitted slavery. Canon Law is in conflict as is Rome and the Spanish in the field including the clergy.

The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) published their 'Spiritual Exercises' to serve as a guide of self-discipline. One precept stated, if the church teaches that white is black, the Jesuit must believe it. This absolute obedience rule manifested itself in a deep rooted conviction that the future Black Robes of America and other Jesuits are a band of trained liars and sworn enemies of reality. These soldiers of Christ, as they called themselves, muscled their way into positions of power throughout the world.

1548 CE - France - A 16th-century essay entitled Discourse on Voluntary Servitude by the French jurist étienne de La Boétie (1530 - 1563 CE) discusses a question that haunts those who love liberty: Why do people obey unjust laws?

The Discourse offers insight. It examines the psychology of those who obey, those who command, and those who resist. La Boétie (pronounced La Bwettie) was particularly interested in why people obey. He asked, "If a tyrant is one man and his subjects are many, why do they consent to their own enslavement?"

La Boétie did not believe that the state ruled primarily through force. For one thing, there were many more slaves than agents of the state: if even a small percentage of the populace refused to obey a law, that law became unenforceable. Moreover, most people obeyed without being forced to do so. La Boétie evolved an alternate explanation that he called "voluntary servitude."

La Boétie acquired his renown on the basis of one short essay that argued tyranny is "automatically defeated" when people refuse to consent to their own enslavement. His argument has led many to conclude that nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience are the best strategies with which to oppose state power. (A)

1549 CE - Brazil - Portugal establishes Brazil's capital at Sao Salvador da Baia.

1550 CE - Czechoslovakia - Joseph (Jacob) Hutter, an Austrian, is the founder of the brotherhood of the Hutterites about 1550 CE in Moravia, Czechoslovakia. More than fifty percent of their descendants reside in Alberta, Canada.

1550 CE - France - Henri I of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, Scarface, eldest son of Francois de Guise, born 1550 CE, would witness the murder of his father on the walls of Orleans, and from that moment vowed vengeance and hatred against the Protestants.

1550 CE - Russia - The Russian Tsar, Ivan IV, 1500 - 1584 CE, conquered the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan, establishing rule over the whole course of the Volga River. The Russians began a slow steady expansion south and southeast building fortified lines to prevent the Tartars from destroying the new settlements.

Julius III

1550 - 1555 CE - Italy - Julius III, alias Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, is elected pope in spite of hostility from Emperor Charles V. Julius had been responsible for moving the council of Trent to Bologna, thereby causing its demise before it could deal with church reform. Julius is noted as being generous to his relatives, pleasure loving, devoted to banquets, the theatre and hunting. He created scandal by his infatuation with a fifteen year old youth (Innocenzo) picked up on the streets of Parma, whom he made his brother adopt and named cardinal.

Pope Julius III sodomized young boys, of which one was his own illegitimate son. He appointed several handsome teenage boys as cardinals. Cardinal della Casa's famous poem In Praise of Sodomy was dedicated to Pope Julius III.

1551 CE - France - A French edict is issued to reward informers of heretics by allowing one third of the goods of those on whom they had informed.

1551 CE - England - The year after the wool market crash, England had a mass of unused labour. The enclosure movement and signs of overpopulation burdened the British Crown with too many people. The end result was to move these excess people to a new land and "colonize" it. These excess people included those who were "unwanted," in the form of prisoners and other undesirable or unsavory individuals. The Kingdom founded a fund which regulated capital intending to use it only for the settlement movement. As the British Crown could not rule the colonies within such a distance they only gave the rules and the legal framework to the colonists.

1552 CE - Italy - Pope Julius III combined papal and imperial armies but failed to defeat the French under Henry II, and the German princes revolted against Emperor Charles. The Pope had to make a disadvantageous truce giving up Parma. All sides in the conflict now mistrusted the pope.

1552 CE - China - The Jesuit, Francis Xavier, 1506 - 1552 CE, died on an island off the Chinese mainland. He believed the Chinese pagans, being non-baptized, would roast in hell eternally. The Jesuit, Matteo Ricci, 1552 - 1610 CE, took the Roman theology to China.

1553 CE - Spain - Prince Filipe of Spain marries Mary Tudor.

1553 CE - England - King Edward VI, age sixteen, died and Mary, the Catholic daughter of Catherine, became Queen because of support by the ordinary people who are angered by the greed of the Protestant nobles. She had the council cancel all new Reformation laws. Mary, for political, religious and family reasons, chose to marry King Philip II, 1556 - 1598 CE, of Spain. The ordinary people disliked the marriage, causing a rebellion in Kent that nearly reached London before failing. During her five-year reign, she began burning Protestants and three hundred people died in this way which sickened the people.

1554 CE - England - In the reign of Philip and Mary, an Act is passed which decrees that that the death penalty shall be imposed for being a Gypsy, or anyone who "shall become of the fellowship or company of Egyptians."

1555 CE - Germany - Karl V grants equal rights in Germany, referred to as the "Peace of Augsburg," an arrangement of religious territorialism rather than toleration, which recognized the existence of Catholicism and Lutheranism in the German Empire and provided that citizens should adopt the religion of their respective rulers.

1555 CE - Mesopotamia - The Ottoman empire conquers Mesopotamia from the Safavid empire.

1555 CE - France - Michel de Nostradame, the great prophet, published his first prophecies, but his complete works would not be published until 1568 CE, two years after his death. On March 1, he wrote to his son –

"Since governments, sects and countries will undergo such sweeping changes, diametrically opposed to what now obtains, that were I to relate events to come, those in power now - monarchs, leaders of sects and religion - would find these so different from their own imaginings that they would be led to condemn what later centuries will learn how to see and understand. Do not give anything holy to the dogs, nor throw pearls in front of the pigs lest they trample them with their feet and turn on you and tear you apart."

He spoke of the Vulgar Advent to follow that will scandalize delicate sensibilities.

Marcellus II

Paul IV

1555 - 1555 CE - Italy - Marcellus II, alias Marcello Cervini, is elected pope. His inflexible support for papal policy as co-president during the Council of Trent earned him the Emperors disapproval. He resolved to exclude nepotism and forbade his numerous relatives to come near Rome. He died only twenty-two days after his election.

1555 - 1559 CE - Italy - Upon the death of Marcellus II, Pope Paul IV, alias Giampietro (Giovanni) Pieto Carafa, the head of the reactivated Inquisition, is elected pope, against the wishes of the Emperor. He is classed as a fanatic, inhuman in his severity as he hated Jews and shut them in ghettos, hated sodomites whom he burned and hated women, whom he forbade to darken the doors of the Vatican. This Pope is also fiercely anti-Spanish considering they that breed of Moors and Jews, those dregs of the earth. The Pope is a prime candidate for the Inquisition with his mistress, illegitimate children, his gifts of red hats to his grandson and two nephews, aged fourteen and sixteen. The Pope orders Michelangelo to make the Sistine Ceiling more suitable, meaning to give the saints clothing, the angels wings and Christ a beard. Michelangelo refused, saying let Pope Paul IV make the world a suitable place and the painting will soon follow suit. Upon Michelangelo's death, his famous ceiling is made more suitable rather than the Church.

1555 CE - Germany - Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, is forced to let each member state be either Catholic or Lutheran as they locally chose. Pope Paul IV denounced this accommodation as heresy.

1555 - 1565 CE - Turkey - Joasaph II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1556 CE - Germany - Karl V abdicates to retire to a Spanish monastery and his empire is divided between his son Felipe II (Spain, southern Italy and the Low Countries) and his brother Ferdinand I (Germany), who already rules over Hungary and Bohemia.

1556 CE - India - Akbar reigned from 1556 to 1605 CE, and extended his empire as far to the west as Afghanistan, and as far south as the Godavari river. Akbar, though a Muslim, is remembered as a tolerant ruler, and he even started a new faith, Din-i-Ilahi, which was an attempt to blend Islam with Hinduism, Christianity, Jainism, and other faiths. He won over the Hindus by naming them to important military and civil positions, by conferring honors upon them, and by marrying a Hindu princess.

1557 CE - China - Portugal establishes a trading post in Macao, the first European settlement in the Far East.

1557 CE - France - The French crown declares bankruptcy.

1557 CE - Italy - Pope Paul IV issued his Bull, Cum ex Apostolatus Officio. He claimed to be Pontifex Maximus, God's representative on earth. As such, he had unlimited power to depose every monarch, hand over every country to foreign invasion, deprive every one of his possessions without legal process. Anyone offering help to one deposed would be excommunicated. He allied himself with France, making war on Spain. The duke of Alva, viceroy of Naples defeated the papal army and the papal state is overrun.

The Papal-French war is brought to a halt by the allies of Spain, Flanders, Hungary, Germany and England on the Netherlands frontier. The French army is virtually annihilated. The number of prisoners is so great that King Philip ordered those too poor to pay ransom to be set free on their promise not to fight against Spain for a year.

Pope Paul IV placed Michele Ghislieri (future Pope Pius V) as the head of the Roman Inquisition. Cardinal Giovanni Morone, 1509 - 1580 CE, a known innocent is imprisoned for heresy. The Congregation of the Inquisition (Holy Office) under the direction of the pope, created the "Index of Forbidden Books," of unprecedented and quite unrealistic severity. Jews are accused of abetting Protestantism and Pope Paul IV confined them strictly to ghettos in Rome and the papal state. He forced them to wear distinctive headgear.

1558 CE - England - Bloody Queen Mary I died and her half sister Elizabeth I became Queen of England.

1559 CE - Spain - France - Spain and France sign a peace treaty after sixty years of wars, and Felipe (Philip) II of Spain marries the daughter of Henry II of France. Emperor Philip II (a German Habsburg) of Spain controlled the Netherlands, Franche Comte, Sardinia, Sicily, the Balearic Isles and a greater part of the Italian Peninsula except Venice and the States of the Church. Spain ruled the greater part of the new world including holdings in northern Africa and Asia. The Sun never set on the dominions of the King of Spain. The Emperor issued the Divine Right of Kings claiming a personal responsibility to God for the welfare of every one of his subjects individually. This included a passion for social justice and for the protection of the poor against their oppressors.

1558 CE - Hungary - Ferdinand I is elected emperor, 1503 - 1564 CE. He became the Holy Roman emperor from 1558 until 1564 CE, king of Bohemia from 1526 to 1564 CE, and king of Hungary from 1526 until 1564 CE. He was the younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Brought up in Spain, he was expected to succeed his grandfather, Ferdinand II of Aragón, who, instead, made Charles his heir. In 1521 CE, Charles gave him the Austrian duchies of the Hapsburgs. In the same year Ferdinand married Anna, daughter of Uladislaus II, king of Hungary and Bohemia, in fulfillment of a treaty (1515 CE) between his grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Uladislaus II. When Anna's brother Louis II, who succeeded to the thrones of Bohemia and Hungary on his father's death (1516 CE), was killed at the battle of Mohacs (1526 CE), Ferdinand claimed the succession. He was elected king of Bohemia, but in Hungary he met the rival claim of John I (John Zapolya), supported by Sultan Sulayman I. John's claims were inherited by his son John Sigismund (king as John II). The sporadic warfare in Hungary was indecisive, except that Ferdinand had to pay tribute to the sultan for the strip of northwest Hungary that he was allowed to keep with the royal title. In Bohemia, Ferdinand laid the groundwork for Hapsburg absolutism by virtually abrogating (1547 CE) the prerogatives of the diet and the towns; he also began the reconversion of the kingdom to Catholicism by calling in the Jesuits. In Germany, Ferdinand increasingly acted as agent of Charles V, who in 1531 CE had him elected king of the Romans, which insured Ferdinand's succession as Holy Roman emperor. He had to deal with the Peasants' War and with the rebellions stirred up by Ulrich I, dispossessed duke of Württemberg, where Ferdinand was unpopular as governor. Ulrich secured the aid of Philip of Hesse and defeated Ferdinand at Lauffen (1534 CE). Ferdinand was obliged to restore the duchy to Ulrich. In the war against the Protestant Schmalkaldic League (1546 - 1547 CE), Ferdinand was an important figure. Though a devout Catholic, Ferdinand was less committed against the Reformation than Charles V. When Charles's triumph against the league was turned to defeat by the betrayal of Maurice, elector of Saxony, Ferdinand acted as mediator in making the Treaty of Passau (1552 CE), and in 1555 CE he negotiated a religious truce at Augsburg. Charles had practically surrendered the government of the empire to Ferdinand by 1556 CE, although formal abdication was not complete until 1558 CE. At the end of his reign, Ferdinand still hoped that the reconvened Council of Trent would bring about a union of the churches. He was succeeded by his son, Maximilian II, who had been crowned king of Bohemia (1562 CE) and king of Hungary (1563 CE) and had been elected king of the Romans (1562 CE) before Ferdinand's death.

1558 CE - Italy - Diego Laynez is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Ignatius of Loyola.

1559 CE - Estonia - Russian Tsar Ivan IV, 1500 - 1584 CE, sent 130,000 men into Estonia and attacked the Teutonic Order. This time not even babies are spared. The people are stripped naked without regard of the freezing weather, tied and bound by three or four to a horse's tail and dragged bleeding through the streets. The streets are full of carcasses of aged men, women and children.

1559 CE - Italy - The Huguenots became a political party in France. Ambassador Edward Carne appeared before Paul I to inform him that Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn had followed Mary on the throne in England. Pope Paul I disagreed violently with Plato who said women are equal to men, St. Thomas Aquinas, 1225 - 1274 CE, is right, women are men who have not quite come off. It is sheer audacity on her part to presume to govern England when it belonged to him. She is a usurper, a bastard, a heretic, if she renounced her ridiculous pretensions and came to him penitent at once, he would see what he could do for her. Within a few months England broke off diplomatic links with Rome.

In this year, the first papal list of prohibited books was published.

1559 CE - England - Queen Elizabeth I made the parish a unit of state administration forcing people to attend or be fined making the vicar or priest as powerful as the squire. They were taught that rebellion against the Crown is a sin against God but slave trading is an honorable profession.

1559 CE - France - Michel de Nostradame the great prophet predicted that –

"the young lion will overcome the old,
in field of combat in a single fight.
He will pierce his eyes in a golden cage,
two wounds in one,
he then dies a cruel death."

The King and his court are well aware of the Nostradamus prophecy. On July 10, King Henry II of France died having been accidentally pierced in the right eye while jousting with the Scottish Count of Montgomery. The King and young Montgomery both had a lion in their coat of arms. During the joust an unknown boy cried out "The king will die." Catherine is reported to have said "cursed be the magician who predicted so evilly and so well." His son Francis II, 1559 - 1560 CE, at age sixteen became King. Given his age a Royal decree is issued announcing that the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine had been appointed to take charge of all fiscal matters, military affairs and diplomatic relations. The Cardinal increased the violence against the Huguenots. During the few months of Francis II, reign more than twice as many victims are condemned and burned at the stake than during all the time of King Henry II. Houses suspected of being the scene of heretic meetings are razed and the owner is put to death. People who they believed knew of the meetings but didn't inform authorities are themselves declared heretics. Parish priests are ordered to excommunicate those who fail to denounce heretics. The more they are persecuted, the more they increased in numbers and within a year 25 percent of France are Huguenot. The Huguenot claimed that the Cardinal of Lorraine had entered into an incestuous alliance with the new young Queen in order to provide her with an heir. The family of Guise is hated as much as the Church.

1559 CE - Switzerland - Geneva is the stronghold of Calvinism with scholars from Scotland, Poland, France, England, Netherlands and Germany in attendance. The Bishop of Winchester reported that the wolves were coming out of Geneva, full of pestilent doctrines, blasphemy and heresy to infect the people.

Pius IV

1560 - 1565 CE - Italy - Pope Pius IV blamed the Jews for the reformation and allowed sixty Jews to be burned alive. On July 17, a Papal Bull stressed that the Christ killers, the Jews, are by nature slaves and should be treated as such. They are to be confined to a ghetto with one entrance. Jews are forced to sell all their property at twenty percent of its value. They are forbidden to engage in commerce or deal in corn, but they could otherwise sell food and second-hand clothes. They are obliged to wear a yellow hat in public. The Germans would follow these teachings in the twentieth century.

He condemned the Protestant Reformation and proclaimed the supreme authority of the Roman pontiff.

1560 CE - Sweden - The Archbishop of the Swedish Lutheran Church forbids priests to have any dealings with the Gypsy (Roma). Their children are not to be christened and their dead are not to be buried.

1560 CE - Spain - Spanish legislation forbids Gypsy (Gitanos) of traveling in groups of more than two. Gypsy "dress and clothing" is banned. Punishment for wearing Gypsy clothing and traveling in groups of more than two is up to eighteen years in the galleys for those over fourteen years of age. This legislation is later altered to change the punishment to death for all nomads, and the galleys reserved for settled Gypsy.

1560 CE - France - On December 5, Francis II of France died and Charles IX, 1560 - 1574 CE, not quite ten years old, succeeded his brother. His mother, Queen mother Catherine de Medici, the Italian, declared she would rule the State for her son. Fifty percent of French nobles are declared Calvinist and France contained about 2,000 Huguenot. The house of Montmorency and Bourbon split with the younger members siding with the Protestants. The House of Bourbon, alias Borvo, is Celtic in nature being derived from the God Borvo whose cult thrived in the Loire and Rhone Valleys as well as in Provence and the Alps.

1561 CE - Spain - Felipe II moves the Spanish capital to Madrid.

1561 CE - Scotland - Mary, Queen of Scots, married in 1558 to the French King's son Francis of Valois, returned to Scotland this year a widow. Queen mother, Catherine de Medici of France, called a council of churches to resolve the Roman and Huguenot conflict before it destroys France. The General of the Jesuit, who is present as an observer, addressed the visitors from Geneva (Huguenot) as wolves, foxes, serpents and assassins, thereby undermining the objectives of the council. The Holy See alarmed at the growth of the Calvinists, approached Philip of Spain to take a personal hand against France to prevent it from being governed by heretics. Pope Pius IV suggested such an enterprise is a duty, as well as a pious, just, honest, easy and glorious work.

1561 CE - France - Gypsy (Roma) are prohibited by Charles IX of France from residence. The punishment is banishment. A second offence results in the galleys and corporal punishment. Men, women and children have their heads shaved.

1562 CE - Germany - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576) was king of Bohemia and king of the Romans (king of Germany) from 1562, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1563, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 1564 until his death.

1562 CE - France - On January 17, Queen Mother Catherine issued an edict granting the Huguenots religious freedom. The objective is to keep our subjects at peace until such time as God will do us the grace to be able to reunite them in one fold. The Priests from the pulpits denounced the Queen as a Jezebel and her advisors as the prophets of Baal. The Roman Catholic faction is led by the Theology Faculty at the University of Paris, and somewhat from the Jesuit instructors. The priests are feeding the religious fears in Paris causing a series of violent clashes.

On March 1, the War of Religions began when the Duke of Guise, a Roman Catholic in Vassy near Chalons-sur-Marne, France, attacked a group of Christian Huguenots at worship, killing more than sixty villagers. He ordered their priest hung. The Duke then led his men into Paris to incite the Roman Catholics. The Queen Mother proclaimed that everything that is done on one side and the other is nothing but a desire to rule and to take from me under cover and color of religion what power I have. The resulting conflict between the Christian sects lasted for thirty-six years.

The Queen Mother of France allowed a small contingent of colonists, all of them Huguenots, to the New World. The establishment of Fort Caroline, is approval by Queen Catherine of France.

1562 CE - England - England under Queen Elizabeth I began selling West African slaves to work for the Spanish in America. John Hawkins carried his first human cargo this year.

An Act is passed in England "for further punishment of Vagabonds, calling themselves Egyptians." Any Gypsy born in England and Wales is not compelled to leave the country if they quit their idle and ungodly life and company. All others should suffer death and loss of lands and goods.

1563 CE - England - The English Parliament made Justices of the Peace responsible for fair wages and working hours. A work day started at five in the morning, ending between seven or eight at night, with two half hours allowed for meals. People were not allowed to move from their parish where they were born without permission. It was estimated there were over ten thousand homeless people on the road.

The first text of the 39 Articles of the Church of England was issued. Also enacted were a new Act of Supremacy and Oath of Succession to the English throne.

1563 CE - Italy - Pope Pius IV made plans to excommunicate Queen Elizabeth I when Emperor Philip II of Spain dissuaded him from issuing a bull. Emperor Philip is concerned that if Elizabeth I is deposed, then Mary Queen of Scots would ascend to the throne. She is a Roman Catholic, part of the French system of alliances and hostile to Spain.

1563 CE - Spain - Emperor Philip II of Spain, Italy, most of Europe and the New World finally allowed the publication of the Council of Trent, 1545 - 1563 CE, with the addition of a clause by the Imperial Crown that many of the decrees are of no effect. The Council of Trent required marriage be conducted in a church, by a priest, and before two witnesses to be valid and binding. The Council of Trent in Rome affirms that Gypsy (Roma) cannot be priests

1563 CE - France - After the assassination of the Roman Catholic Duke de Guise in February by a Huguenot, Jean Polrot de Mere, it became difficult to maintain order in Paris, France. de Mere was publicly executed on March 18.

1564 CE - Philippine Islands - Spain begins colonizing the Philippines.

1565 CE - Netherlands - The Duke of Alva, Spain, as Governor of the Netherlands, proudly conceded having ordered the execution of 18,000 unrepentant heretics. Netherlands rebelled against Spanish rule demanding abolishment of the Inquisition and the edicts and consult with the States-General on the religious question. A large part of the country lay under the jurisdiction of foreign prelates, such as the French Archbishop of Rheims. Luxembourg is administered by six different bishops, not one whom resides in the Duchy of Netherlands. The regent, being intimidated by the mob, gave orders that virtually granted a temporary grant of religious toleration. Calvinists swarmed into the Netherlands from France, Germany, England and Geneva and strove to carry out the complete destruction of Catholic worship. Over four hundred churches and monasteries are looted or destroyed over the next year. Monks and nuns are maltreated or killed.

1565 CE - Italy - Pope Pius IV died and the popular hatred for him and his family exploded, with the rioting crowds destroying the headquarters of the Inquisition, releasing its wretched prisoners and destroying the statues of the pope.

Francis Borgia is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Diego Laynez.

1565 - 1572 CE - Turkey - Metrophanes III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1565 CE - North America - In September, a Spanish fleet of eight ships swooped down on Fort Caroline, Florida, and put the French Huguenots to death. King Philip of Spain had ordered placards be put around their necks reading "hung not as Frenchmen but as Lutherans." The Spanish discovered the French intruders at Fort Caroline and killed all the inhabitants.

St. Pius V

1566 - 1572 CE - Italy - St. Pius V, alias Michele (formally Antonio) Ghislieri, head of the Roman Inquisition, is elected pope. He was also the Dominican Inquisitor of Como and Bergamo. His veal and severity as an inquisitor brought him into disfavor with the people. He built a new palace for the inquisition and sharpened its rules and practices and personally attended its sessions. Under his rule the number of persons of men of culture and distinction soared. He expelled many Jews from the papal states, forcing the rest into ghettos. He drove hundreds of printers to flee to Germany and Switzerland with the publication of the Congregation of the Index (the list of banned books, published in 1571).

Pope Pius V issued Scripturia et Traditio, stating that the bible and the teachings of the Church are to be treated as equally authoritative in doctrinal matters. The Pope took the precaution of sending a special brief to the Spanish Bishops ordering them to publish it in defiance of the Emperor. The Bishops refused to do so without the permission of the Royal Council. The pope said: You in Spain wish to be Pope and refer everything to the King. The King is fully aware that the clergy is an integral part of the civil service and their loyalty is imperative in governing the Empire. The clergy is expected to use their influence in the pulpit and confessional to support Royal edicts. The common belief at this time is that more than one religion in one State would bring that State to destruction.

The Inquisiteurs tortured and burned the heretics, especially the Jews, for failure to do so resulted in their own excommunication and being a suspect of heresy. Pope Innocent IV had authorized the use of torture.

1567 CE - Spain - Pope Pius V issued a papal bull against bullfights pronouncing all that took part in them excommunicated. Emperor Philip II of Spain consulted a body of Spanish theologians and is assured this entertainment is not sinful, so the papal edict is disregarded with the support of the Spanish bishops.

1567 CE - Netherlands - Emperor Philip II of Spain sent 10,000 Spanish army veterans into the Netherlands to put down the religious rebellion. Nobles, including the Knights of the Golden Fleece, are tried equally with all men and those found guilty are executed. The executions continued for the next two years, likely numbering in the thousands.

1567 CE - Spain - On the advice of Pope Pius V and the Archbishop of Granada, Emperor Philip II of Spain issued an edict to forbid all Moorish customs. The Arabic language is to be replaced by Spanish within three years. All Arabic books are to be collected, artificial baths are forbidden. Moorish houses must open the doors to their homes during marriage feasts, on Fridays and on Holy Days of the Spanish Church to observe any Moorish practices. This edict would lead to civil war. The Spanish Moors believed they could raise a 100,000 man army from its 85,000 households and 15,000 from the Turks and Moors from beyond the sea.

1568 CE - Netherlands - William of Orange raised a 25,000 man army from western Germany, and invaded the southern Netherlands, to champion the liberty of the country, but is forced to retire due to lack of Netherlands support.

1568 CE - Spain - The Spanish civil war saw the massacre of the priests, and their women and children are sold as slaves to Barbary in exchange for arms and munitions. The Spanish troops wandered the land plundering and kidnapping Morisco women to sell as slaves. The rebellion by the Spanish Muslims is crushed by King Philip II of Spain, who also ordered the dispersal of the Moslem population of Andalusia to all parts of Castile. Granada is depopulated and repopulated with genuine Old Christians. Henceforth, any male Morisco over age 16 found within 10 leagues of the province of Granada is to be killed and any female over nine and one half is to be sold into slavery. About 60,000 Spanish had lost their lives during the war. The Moors are not allowed to leave their house without permission. They were dispersed among the Christians and forced to attend Christian schools. This same year Protestantism in northern Spain is virtually quenched with the burning of Herrezuelo's widow, Leonor de Cisneros.

1568 CE - France - The Edict of Saint Maur prohibited all religions but Catholicism, thereby making it irrevocable and perpetual. As a result great religious intolerance continued to grow in Paris.

The civil war in France between the Romans and Huguenots reached lower levels of cruelty on both sides. A Huguenot fleet intercepted seven Portuguese ships bound for Brazil carrying sixty-nine Jesuits and they are all thrown overboard. Rapes, mutilation and mass execution are so common that Francois de la Noue, a Huguenot field commander put it simply: "we fought the first war like angels, the second like men and the third like devils." Henri, Duke of Guise formed the Catholic League to defend the faith against the Huguenots.

1568 CE - Italy - Pope Pius V orders the expulsion of all Gypsy (Roma) from the domain of the Roman Catholic Church.

1570 CE - Italy - Pope Pius V issued a bull excommunicating Queen Elizabeth I for her actions in separating the English Church from the Roman Church and her persecution of Roman Catholics in Britain.

1570 CE - England - English ships began attacking Spanish ships returning from America because Spain would not allow England to trade with Spanish American colonies. Philip of Spain knew quite well that Elizabeth of England was encouraging the sea dogs or privateers as they were known. Some of the more infamous high sea criminals of this time were John Hawkins (slave trader), Francis Drake and Martin Frobisher. The Netherlands was under Catholic Spanish rule and Queen Elizabeth I was assisting the Dutch Protestant to attack Spanish ships.

1570 CE - Spain - The Spanish Catholic Church is provided escape from poverty and starvation and 1/4 of the adult population is clerical, consisting of 400,000 monks, 312,000 priests and 200,000 minor orders, thereby causing a great drain on the economy. By 1626 CE there are 9,088 monasteries in Spain.

1570 CE - Russia - Russian Tsar Ivan IV, 1500 - 1584 CE, called the Terrible, on January 9, 1570 CE, seized the city of Novgorod believing they opposed him and killed sixty thousand people.

1571 CE - Greece - On October 7, in the battle of Lepanto an army formed by the Pope, Spain, Venezia and Genova destroys the Ottoman navy, thus halting Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean. It was a naval battle between the Christians and Ottomans fought at the mouth of the Gulf of Patras, off Lepanto, Greece. The fleet of the Holy League commanded by John of Austria (d. 1578 CE) opposed the Ottoman fleet under Uluç Ali Pasha. The allied fleet (about 200 galleys, not counting smaller ships) consisted mainly of Spanish, Venetian, and papal ships and of vessels sent by a number of Italian states. It carried approximately 30,000 fighting men and was about evenly matched with the Ottoman fleet. The battle ended with the virtual destruction of the Ottoman navy (except 40 galleys, with which Uluç Ali escaped). Approximately 15,000 Turks were slain or captured, some 10,000 Christian galley slaves were liberated, and much booty was taken. The victors, however, lost over 7,000 men. Among the allied wounded was Cervantes, who lost the use of his left arm. Lepanto was the first major Ottoman defeat by the Christian powers, and it ended the myth of Ottoman naval invincibility. It did not, however, affect Ottoman supremacy on the land, and a new Turkish fleet was speedily built by Sokollu, grand vizier of Selim II. Nevertheless, the battle was decisive in the sense that an Ottoman victory probably would have made the Ottoman Empire supreme in the Mediterranean.

Gregory XIII

1572 - 1585 CE - Italy - Gregory XIII (aka Ugo Boncompagni) continued the reform of his precedessors provoking new discontent among the patrician families. Despite his proposals of austerity, he practised nepotism. In politics, his actions were rather ineffective. He had the Gregorian calender - named after him - adopted, thereby abandoning the old Julian calender. He built the palace on Quirinal Hill with the same name.

1572 CE - France - August 24, 1572 CE was the date of the infamous St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in France. On that day began one of the most horrifying holocausts in history. The glorious Reformation, begun in Germany on October 31, 1517 CE, had spread to France - and was joyfully received. A great change had come over the people as industry and learning began to flourish, and so rapidly did the Truth spread, that over a third of the population embraced the Reformed Christian Faith.

Alarm bells began to ring at the Vatican! France was her eldest daughter and main pillar - the chief source of money and power. King Pepin of the Franks, the father of Charlemagne, had given the Papal States to the Pope almost 1000 years earlier. Almost half the real estate in the country was owned by the clergy.

Medal struck by Emperor Gregory XIII (1572-85) to commemorate the slaughter of over 100,000 French Christians

In Paris, the King of France and his Court spent their time drinking, reveling and carousing. The Court spiritual adviser - a Jesuit priest - urged them to massacre the Protestants (Huguenots) - as penance for their many sins! To catch the Christians off-guard every token of peace, friendship, and ecumenical good will was offered.

Charles IX, then king of France, was one of those who opposed a Huguenot massacre, obstinately refusing at first to sign the decree his mother presented. But his was a weak and credulous nature, so at the end of a very few days, wearied by Catherine's importunities, and convinced besides by her false statements that the Huguenots were really plotting against his life, he suddenly seized the pen, and signed the order for the massacre, exclaiming hysterically: "By God's death, since you will kill the admiral, kill them all! Kill all the Huguenots in France, so that none may be left to reproach me. By God's death, kill them all!"

Having thus wrung from her weak and bewildered son the permission she desired, Catherine intrusted to Guise and certain other influential Catholics, the charge of murdering the Huguenot wedding guests who were still tarrying in Paris. It was settled that the massacre should take place on St. Bartholomew's Day, and that the bells of the famous old church near the Louvre should ring out the signal for the attack at two o'clock in the morning. The houses where the principal Huguenot noblemen lodged were all marked in advance, and the conspirators agreed to recognize each other, even in the darkness, by means of a white sleeve or badge which all were to wear on the left arm.

An Eyewitness Account of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
by François Dubois
From the Musée Cantonal Des Beaux-Arts, Lausanne Switzerland

At first the plan had been to sacrifice only a few of the leaders, but the lists gradually grew longer and longer, so that by the time the signal bell pealed forth, a general massacre had been arranged. Most of the prominent Huguenots in Paris, and many of their followers, were slain, for they were taken by surprise in the night, and thus unable to offer any defense; besides, the gates of the city were closed and guarded so that none could escape.

The Duke of Guise, without troubling himself about lesser victims, proceeded immediately to the house of Admiral Coligny. After posting men to prevent any attempt at escape, he sent guards upstairs to murder his aged political rival. Breaking into Coligny's sleeping room, these assassins found him there, calm and composed, although at the first alarm he had bidden his servants escape by way of the roofs, saying: "For a long time past I have kept myself in readiness for death. As for you, save yourselves if you can!"

When the door was broken open, the guard abruptly inquired, "Are you Coligny?"

"Yes, I am he, young man, and you ought to respect my gray hairs," replied the admiral, adding philosophically, "but you will not shorten my life much!"

Emperor Gregory had the great red dragon of Satan as his heraldic symbol.

The murderer, having thus ascertained that this was really the victim he sought, dealt Coligny a mortal blow, and had barely done so, when he heard his master call out impatiently from below, "Is it done? Show me some proof." Although the breath had not yet left the admiral's body, the assassin hurled him out of the window, at the duke's feet, where some one wiped the blood away from the dead man's face, to enable the duke to make quite sure that the right person had been dispatched. Standing there, gazing at his victim, the Duke of Guise touched the corpse with his foot, crying in a tone of wonder, "Gracious, I didn't know he was so tall!" - the word for "tall" and "great" being the same in French. Then, turning to his followers, he boldly exclaimed: "Courage, companions, we have begun well. On to the others!"

It is said that Charles IX, hearing the bells peal out their terrible signal, was seized with sudden repentance, and sent a messenger off in great haste to stay the duke's hand. But the order did not arrive till after Coligny was murdered, so Guise coolly sent back word, "Tell the king it is too late!"

Meantime, other murderers were at work also. Not only were more than two thousand Huguenots slain, but a few Catholics as well; for the great disorder made a good opportunity for wreaking private revenge. Even in the Louvre, the massacre went on, the Huguenots there being led down into the palace yard, and only Henry of Navarre and young Condé were allowed the alternative of "Mass or the Bastille (bas-teel´)!" In the new Queen of Navarre's bedroom a few Huguenots were murdered, some frantic followers of the bridegroom having tried to take refuge there from the foes so hotly pursuing them.

When the day dawned, Charles IX himself is said to have gone out on a balcony of the Louvre, where, armed with a crossbow, he shot at the fugitives who were vainly trying to gain the bridge and flee across the river. Catherine and her maids paraded the streets, gazing complacently at their victims.

Besides Henry of Navarre and the Prince of Condé, the king spared his Huguenot nurse, and his physician Paré, because he was much attached to them both, and depended upon them for comfort in many ways.

Many were imprisoned - many sent as slaves to row the King's ships - and some were able to escape to other countries. The massacres continued for centuries. The best and brightest people fled to Germany, Switzerland, England, Ireland and eventually America and brought their incomparable manufacturing skills with them. France was ruined. Wars, famine, disease and poverty finally led to the French Revolution - the Guillotine - the Reign of Terror - the fall of the Roman Catholic Monarchy - atheism - and communism.

When news of the Massacre reached the Vatican there was jubilation! Cannons roared - bells rung - and a special commemorative medal was struck to honor the occasion. The Pope commissioned Italian artist Vasari to paint a mural of the Massacre, which still hangs in the Vatican. Pope Gregory XIII calls for celebratory bonfires.

The Gregorian Calendar is named after Gregory VIII.

The Huguenots won a short period of relief from persecution with the ascension of Henry IV to the throne. The Edict of Nantes gave full freedom to his Protestants subjects. The signing of this Edict inaugurated an era of peace and great prosperity for France. However, for granting his subjects liberty of conscience, the king was stabbed to death by a Jesuit named Ravaillac. This Edict of Toleration was revoked in 1685 CE, and a new storm of persecution ensued. The exodus began again with over a million Huguenots fleeing France to avoid certain torture and death.

1572 CE - Spain - Emperor Philip II of Spain, with the support of most of Europe and the New World, issued a decree to expand the existing decree that no papal decree might be published in Spain until examined by the Council of Castille. They are to hold back any such decree it considers infringing the laws and customs of the Kingdom. He expanded the former decree by decreeing that all papal briefs procured for cases sub Judaic before ecclesiastical courts should be disregarded and that no Spaniard should be cited to appear before any tribunal outside Spain. The Emperor virtually annihilated the jurisdiction of Rome as far as Spain is concerned. It is noteworthy that most of Italy and all of Sicily are under Spanish control.

1572 CE - Netherlands - The Sea Beggars (Gueax) who had fled the Spanish persecution in the Netherlands had become very successful privateers under the protection of England. The Sea Beggars took the Spanish fortress of Brill and strengthened its fortifications. The exiled Netherlanders came pouring back to defend the town. The Spanish war of siege is to last without interruption for nearly forty years. These Calvinists would eventually contribute to the fall of the mightiest empire in the world.

1572 - 1579 CE - Turkey - Jeremias II Tranos becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1573 CE - Netherlands - The Spanish Catholics executed one thousand Calvinists in the Netherlands and drove another 60,000 out of the territory.

1573 CE - Italy - Pope Gregory XIII issued a papal bull forbidding the admission to Holy Orders of the descendants of Jews to the fourth generation and is also extended to include the Moors. This bull thereby effectively excluded Jesus and his Jewish disciples from the priesthood.

Everard Mercurian is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Francis Borgia.

1573 CE - Poland - The Ottoman Turks penetrated Poland, subdued the north coast of the Black Sea and took Cyprus. The Turks had acquired Crete in 1669 CE. The son of Catherine de Medici, the Duke of Anjou, became the new King of Poland.

1574 CE - Holland - The siege of Leiden, Holland by the Spanish is broken when the dikes broke, flooding the land and killing twenty thousand Spaniards. King Charles IX of France dies on May 30, previously stating that he rejoiced that he had no male child to wear the crown, being fully aware of its corrupt nature. Catherine de Medici's third son Anjou becomes King of France and chooses the name of Henry III. King Henry believed the only way to deal with the heretics is to eliminate them. The Cardinal of Lorraine died and many people declared that maybe now we can have peace as he was the one person who prevented it.

1574 CE - Northern Africa - The Hafsid dynasty collapses in Tunisia and is replaced by the Ottomans.

1575 CE - France - Alencon, the son of Queen Mother Catherine de Medici, rallied the Huguenots to march on Paris and his brother King Henry III. By November, Duke John Casimir, the son of the Elector Palatine, commanded 8,000 German cavalrymen, 6,000 infantry from the cantons of Switzerland and some 7,000 arquebusiers were on the march, plundering and burning as they cut their way to the Loire.

1575 CE - Italy - Pope Gregory XIII actively supported the Jesuit Inquisition troops in the creation of colleges and missionaries to India, China, Japan and Brazil.

1576 CE - France - Alencon found himself with an army of 30,000 men waiting for his command to march on Paris. The Peace of Monsieur, as it was called, is signed May 6, granting every demand of the Huguenot. Free exercise of religion is granted everywhere in the realm. Every local Parliament is to have a tribunal composed equally of Catholic and Reformed judges. Alencon is granted the independent administration of the Province of Touraine, Berry and Anjou. They demanded the instigators of the St. Bartholomew Massacre be punished. As Catherine is the instigator she convinced Alencon to be satisfied with a formal declaration that all victims of the Massacre had been innocent and their families would be freed from paying taxes in the future. The Roman Catholics who had proclaimed Catherine a dedicated servant of the Faith and had compared her favorably with Joan of Arc, now found reason to distrust her. A League of the Holy Trinity is founded to serve the Church and protect it against enemies including the royal family. Henry III proclaimed himself as its chief hoping to avert any danger. Alencon accepted the title of Lieutenant General of France and Queen Mother Catherine used him to start the Sixth War of Religion against his comrades the Huguenots. This campaign exceeded in bestiality anything that had been previously inflicted on the innocent people. The Duke of Sully, 1560 - 1641 CE, reported that Alencon's troops caught six village girls, raped them to boredom and then filled them up with gunpowder and set fire to them. Sully entrenched government monopolies on gunpowder, mines and salt.

1576 CE - Hungary - Crotia - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Rudolf II (July 18, 1552 – January 20, 1612), Holy Roman Emperor as Rudolf II (1576-1612), King of Hungary and Croatia, as Rudolf (1572-1608), King of Bohemia as Rudolf II (1575-1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria as Rudolf V (1576-1608).

1577 CE - Italy - On New Years Day, Pope Gregory XIII decreed that all Roman Jews, under pain of death, must listen attentively to the compulsory Catholic conversion sermon given in Roman synagogues after Friday night services.

1578 CE - Italy - On New Years Day, Gregory XIII signed into law a tax forcing Jews to pay for the support of a "House of Conversion" to convert Jews to Christianity. 1578 CE - Morocco - King Sebastiao of Portugal is defeated by a Muslim army at Alcazarquivir.

1578 CE - Switzerland - About 6,000 Anabaptists are executed since their formation in 1525 CE. Freedom of choice and rejection of Papal authority made them socially and politically dangerous.

Map of the Ottoman Empire in 1580

1578 CE - Spain - Peace was reached between Spain and Ottoman empires.

1579 CE - Holland - The northern provinces of the "Low Countries" (Holland) break away from Spanish rule and proclaim a Calvinist union ("Union of Utrecht"), while the southern provinces accept the Catholic rule of Felipe II ("Union of Arras").

1579 - 1580 CE - Turkey - Metrophanes III, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1580 CE - Italy - Pope Gregory XIII conspired to have Queen Elizabeth I of England assassinated after his failure to get Emperor King Philip II of Spain to attack Ireland, the Netherlands and then England. During Queen Elizabeth I's reign the Irish rebelled, encouraged by the arrival of 600 Spanish and Italian soldiers. The English considered the Irish people as wild and primitive, and therefore treated them with great cruelty. When Elizabeth finally subjected the people, they looked like death, spoke like ghosts and had been forced into cannibalism to survive. Ulster had fought the longest, therefore most of the best land was given to Protestant English and Scottish merchants. The county of Derry in Ulster was taken over by a group of London merchants and divided among the twelve main London guilds. The town of Derry was renamed Londonderry, after its new merchant owners. The most militant of Catholics, the Jesuits, are sent to England as missionaries. The English, expecting an assassination attempt, executed the head of the Jesuits and other executions followed.

1580 CE - Spain - Felipe II of Spain invades Portugal, thus uniting the Iberian peninsula under the rule of a single king.

1580 - 1584 CE - Turkey - Jeremias II Tranos, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1581 CE - Italy - On New Years, Pope Gregory XIII ordered his troops to confiscate all sacred literature from the Roman Jewish community. Thousands of Jews were murdered in the campaign.

Claudio Acquaviva is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Everard Mercurian.

1581 CE - Netherlands - The Low Countries unite in the Republic of United Provinces. The Netherlands, meaning the low countries, a conglomerate of seventeen provinces, declared their independence from Spain. They consisted of northerners that spoke Germanic (Flemish or Dutch), and southern French speaking people called Walloons. Amsterdam remained Catholic, an island in a Calvinist sea. The leaders of the low lands are French Roman Catholics. The Calvinist religion has been slowly building from the 1560's and would be the single most driving force for the creation of the Dutch, and they are also greatly inspired by the French Huguenots. To avoid the ongoing slaughter, the Calvinists move northward and the Roman Catholics moved south. Within a few years the principle city of Holland, Amsterdam, is the commercial and financial capital of Europe. Their main cry is 'liberty' meaning freedom from interference by central authorities or outside powers. They favored local custom, local law and local privileges.

1582 CE - Europe - The Gregorian calendar (Christian calendar) is adopted in Spain, Italy, France and Portugal. Named for Pope Gregory XIII, it was put into effect and was eventually adopted in most countries: England delayed adoption until 1752 CE.

Roman Catholic Pope Gregory XIII caused the current "Gregorian Calendar" to be adopted, in order to eliminate the solar time shift error that was introduced over the time period of 1,629 years by the inaccurate "Julian Calendar."

Two different reasons are given as to what dates became the reference points for the solstices of the seasons –

(1) by December 1582 CE the shortest day of the year on the Roman "Julian Calendar" had shifted 12 days from Dec. 24, 46 BCE to Wednesday, Dec. 12, 1582 CE. However, the Original December 25th 'Birth Date' was retained for all pagan Sun gods by the Roman "Saturnalia," "Consualia," "Opalia," and "Sol Invictus" traditions; which were now incorporated into the Catholic "Twelve Days of Christ-mass." (See 46 BCE). On the new Roman Catholic Gregorian calendar, the shortest annual day was numerically shifted back 10 days to the 22nd of December, where it remains to this day; while the original order of the seven days of the week remained unchanged.

(2) by the Julian reckoning, the solar year comprised 365.25 days, and the intercalation of a "leap day" every four years was intended to maintain correspondence between the calendar and the seasons.  Really, however there was a slight inaccuracy in the Julian measurement (the solar year is actually 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds = 365.2422 days).  This slight inaccuracy caused the Julian calendar to slip behind the seasons about one day per century. Although this regression had amounted to 14 days by Pope Gregory's time, he based his reform on restoration of the vernal equinox, then falling on March 11, to the date had 1,257 years earlier when Council of Nicaea was convened (March 21, 325 CE). Pope Gregory made the correction by advancing the calendar 10 days. The change was made the day after October 4, 1582, and that following day was established as October 15, 1582. The Gregorian calendar differs from the Julian in three ways:  (a) No century year is a leap year unless it is exactly divisible by 400 (e.g., 1600, 2000, etc.); (b) Years divisible by 4000 are common (not leap) years; and (c) once again the New Year would begin with the date set by the early pagans, the first day of the month of Janus - January 1.

1582 CE - Arabia - Arabian Admiral Phiri Rhis (proun. Peery Reese) made a map of the world in 1582 CE. The map clearly shows features of the earth that nobody should have known in the late 1500's. Without an accurate timepiece there was no way to figure longitude on a sailing ship. It wasn't until 1790 CE that the first accurate marine timepiece was invented.

250-years before this clock was made, Phiri Rhis had drawn a map which shows the coastline of Africa and South America accurate to within a .5 degree of longitude.

On the map he wrote that he had borrowed and copied from twenty earlier ancient maps. Some of the maps dating back to Alexander the Great and older, which is before the time of Christ.

Another mystery of this map is that it shows Antarctica as it looks under 2 miles of covering ice. All of this long before Antarctica was even discovered. That type of information did not exist until the seismic surveys during the 1958 CE International Geophysical Year.

1582 CE - Ireland - English Queen Elizabeth sends a legion of English merchants, adventurers, and courtiers to colonize the lush hills and pastures of Ireland's Munster county. This is the largest overseas colonizing effort of the Tudor dynasty.

1583 CE - China - The Jesuit Matthew Ricci entered Peking, China with knowledge of mathematics for use in astronomy and is honored as a wise man from the west. He is allowed to establish three hundred churches over the next thirty years. His success is his understanding that the traditional approach of offering civilization to a barbaric heathen culture would not work with a superior civilization like China. He instead presented a church in sympathy with the traditions of China.

1583 CE - Italy - Pope Gregory XIII had changed the calendar the previous year by ten days. The Orthodox religions refused to accept this change as a matter of faith. The Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches continue to celebrate Christmas on January 7. Pope Gregory routinely dissolved marriages between Protestants and Catholics and sanctioned abortions before forty days. He said that abortions before forty days are not a serious sin.

1583 CE - England - The English Parliament expelled the Jesuits.

1584 - 1585 CE - Turkey - Pachomius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1585 CE - England - Queen Elizabeth I of England sent 5,000 footmen and 1,000 horses to help the Protestants of the northern Netherlands defend themselves from the Catholic Spanish army. Most English people at this time believed that to be Catholic is to be an enemy of England.

Sixtus V

1585 - 1590 CE - Italy - The Franciscan Cardinal Felice Peretti da Montalto, the inquisitor for Venice, (he is recalled due to his severity) upon being elected Pope as Sixtus V, proclaimed "now I am Caesar." He is a ruthless, violent and inflexible pope with blood on his hands. Thousands of brigands are publicly executed and the nobles who sheltered them are mercilessly punished. The Jesuit Robert Bellarmine suggested that the pope only had indirect jurisdiction over temporal rulers. Theologian Vittorio wrote it is lawful to disobey unjust orders of a pope. Pope Sixtus V resolved to censure both men. The Cardinals of the Congregation of the Index are too terrified to tell his Holiness that these eminent authors based their views on the works of countless saints and scholars for fear the pope might put the saints themselves on the Index.

1585 - 1586 CE - Turkey - Theoleptus II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1586 CE - Germany - Switzerland - The Catholic Archbishop of Treves had 118 women and two men burned for incantations that prolonged winter, this added to the growing martyrs of the inquisition. The Bishop of Geneva burned 500, the Bishop of Bamburg burned 600 and the Bishop of Wurzburg created 900 martyrs.

1587 CE - Spain - King Philip II of Spain, an ardent Roman Catholic, was determined to end Protestantism that flourished in England under Queen Elizabeth I, as well as repay the English for interfering in his war in the Netherlands. He decided to conquer England and began to assemble an Armada to move his army from the Netherlands to England when Francis Drake attacked and destroyed part of this fleet in Cadiz harbor.

1587 CE - Iran - The Safavid dynasty of Iran is ruled by Shah Abbas I until 1628 CE.

1587 - 1595 CE - Turkey - Jeremias II Tranos, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1588 CE - Spain - Felipe II of Spain declares war against Elizabeth I of England to protect Spanish possessions in America from English buccaneers, but the Spanish Armada (130 warships, 2,400 guns, 26,000 sailors) is defeated by the English fleet of Francis Drake. The Spanish Armada which was launched by Dutch and Spanish mercantile interests against England was also wrecked by storms.

King Henry III of France

1588 CE - France - The Duke of Guise and the Holy Roman League demanded the French King establish Courts of Inquisition in every province to confiscate all Huguenot (Protestant) property and put to death all Huguenot prisoners of war who refused to recant their heresy. They also demanded the return to the Church all lands and property it had been forced to cede by earlier edicts.

The Duke of Guise quietly and without bloodshed took Paris and King Henry III fled the city. The Duke Cardinal of Lorraine, brother of the Duke of Guise, let it be known that any agreement would have to include the ceding to him of Sedan and its great fortress. The Duke of Savoy demanded withdrawal of French protection from Geneva that he coveted. The Papal Nuncio Morosini is on everyone's side striving to delay any settlement until the Spanish Armada had landed its troops in England. The Church is solidly behind Spain and supports the dismembering of France. King Henry III (d. 1589 CE) ordered the death of the Duke of Guise in December of 1588 CE, and his brother the Duke Cardinal of Lorraine. The Catholics of France are outraged and declared Henry deposed.

1588 CE - Italy - Pope Sixtus V promised Philip II of Spain large subsidies if he invaded England. When the Armada failed the pope refused to pay however he did support Philip against the Huguenot Henry of Navarre (Henry IV of France). King Philip II of Spain rebuilt his fleet, and the defeat of the Spanish Armada due more by bad weather than by English guns, marked the arrival of England as a great European sea power.

1589 CE - France - A Catholic monk, Jacques Clement, stabbed Henry III in the stomach and King Henry III died the next day. Before the King died he proclaimed Navarre as his successor thereby thwarting the Roman Church and its Holy League. Protestant Henry of Navarre became Henry IV of Burbon (1589 - 1610 CE) and would fight the Catholic League and the Spanish armies, but would convert to the Catholic faith in 1593 CE to put an end to the war. The Roman League proclaimed Cardinal Bourbon as the King of France taking the name Charles X. Philip II of Spain advanced a claim through the person of the elder daughter of his own marriage to Elizabeth, the daughter of Catherine de Medici and Henry II. The Pope supported King Philip's proposal that until succession is resolved, he be appointed Protector of the State and of the Religion of the Kingdom of France. The House of Bourbon is founded on the Celtic God Borvo. Celtic beliefs also included touching wood to ward off evil, kissing under the mistletoe as an antidote to poison or saying things happen in threes keeping alive the sacred Celtic triad.

Spain, which supports the Catholics in the wars of religion, invades France.

Urban VII

Gregory XIV

1590 - 1590 CE - Italy - Urban VII, alias Giambattista Castagna, an inquisitor, is elected pope but died before his coronation of malaria. He endeavored to carry out many charitable actions among which the establishment, with his own money, of a fund for poor girls without dowries.

1590 - 1591 CE - Italy - Gregory XIV, alias Niccolo Sfondrati, is elected pope with brutal intervention by the Spanish Government. He continued to fund the Spanish Holy League (inquisition). He died after only ten months of reign. Pope Gregory XIV, in Cumsicuti, ordered the Indian slaves be set free, however no one responded to the order.

1590 CE - England - Sir Francis Bacon, beginning in the early 1590's, began the detailed plans by which North America would be colonized. He was the supreme adept in the Rosicrucian Society, and established the super secret Knights of the Helmet (1), a society established along the lines of Rosicrucianism. And, finally, Bacon was responsible for the modern birth of Freemasonry (2). Thus we can see that the occult activities of our original Forefathers mentioned above was merely the outworking of a secret plan originally conceived "thousands of years before Columbus ever sailed!" Our Masonic forefathers were merely following the details of the occult plan as envisioned specifically by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1590's, operating according to the vision provided him by his Guiding Spirit.

Innocent IX

Clement VIII

1591 - 1591 CE - Italy - Innocent IX, Giovanni Antonio Fachinetti, an Inquisitor is elected pope being on the acceptable list of King Philip II of Spain. Not surprising, he supported Philip II and the Holy League against Protestant Henry IV of France.

1592 - 1605 CE - Italy - Pope Clement VIII, alias Loppolito Aldobrandini, is elected pope. Clement VIII was a cultivated person with a tendency to luxury. He managed to make peace between Spain and France. In 1600, he celebrated the Holy Year, exceeding all expectations of the number of the pilgrims coming to Rome. In the same year, Giordano Bruno was burnt at the stake.

1593 CE - Poland - Sweden - Pope Clement VIII paid King Sigismund of Poland and Sweden 20,000 crowns to restore Roman Catholicism in Sweden. Kind Sigismund is schooled in the doctrine of the Jesuits. He ruled Sweden through Polish ministers and the Roman Catholic clergy as though Sweden is a dependency of Poland. This arrogance would lead to revolution in 1597 CE, reverting Sweden back to Lutheranism. More importantly, a fundamental and perpetual hostility resulted between Poland and Sweden.

1595 CE - France - King Henri IV of France declared war on Spain and the French allies are the English and Dutch. They all agreed not to settle a separate peace. Jesuit priest Pedro de Rivadeneira, 1527 - 1611 CE, wrote that Kings are not absolute lords over the property of his subjects.

1596 CE - Turkey - Matthew II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1596 CE - Turkey - Gabriel I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1597 CE - Java - The Dutch found the colony of Batavia in Java.

1597 CE - Turkey - Theophanes I Karykes becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1597 - 1598 CE - Turkey - Meletius I Pegas, becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1598 CE - Southern Russia - Abdullah Shaybanid II of the Uzbeks dies and the Astrakhanid dynasty inherits power in Transoxiana, retaining the capital at Bukhara.

1598 CE - France - Henri IV, by converting to Catholicism and granting religious freedom to France, brings an end to the Wars of Religion, and the last Spanish troops are expelled from France. Henri IV issues the Edict of Nantes, which granted limited religious tolerance, political equality and fortified strongholds to the Huguenots, but this was short lived and finally revoked by Louis XIV in 1685 CE. Pope Clement VIII reluctantly accepted the treaty.

1598 CE - Spain - Felipe II dies and is succeeded by Felipe III.

1598 CE - Italy - The last principalities to lose their autonomy to the popes were Ferrara in 1598 CE and Urbino in 1631 CE.

1598 CE - England - Elizabeth I expels the Hanseatic merchants from England for refusing to grant reciprocal privileges to English traders. Elizabeth closed the steelyard. The Hanseatic merchants retired to Hamburg.

1598 - 1602 CE - Turkey - Matthew II, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1599 CE - Italy - Jesuit priest Juan De Mariana, 1536 - 1623 CE, wrote that monarchy is superior to democracy and should be strictly hereditary, with a perfectly definite law of succession, yet a monarch is the very antithesis of a tyrant. If a King usurps sovereignty by violence, it is lawful to use violence to dethrone him and to deprive him of his life. If they make themselves intolerable by their wickedness and evil deeds, then they are liable to be assassinated, not only justly but with the applause and acclamation of posterity.

1600 - 1800 CE - India - Thousands of temples in Bengal that inspired the architecture of Burma, Cambodia and others are destroyed.

1600 CE - Europe - Probably the most fragmented political unit in Europe is the Holy Roman Empire composed of Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Italy. Denmark held the Duchy of Holstein and Sweden held Pomerania. The lands are split between Roman Catholic Church and Protestant Churches. The largest Jewish communities in Western Europe at this time are Amsterdam, Frankfurt and Venice.

1600 CE - England - To raise money Queen Elizabeth I of England sold trading monopolies despite objections from parliament. Unknown to parliament, the Queen and Lord Burghley also sold official positions in the English Government on the same basis as the Vatican.

1600 CE - France - The past twenty years of religious wars had claimed some eight hundred thousand lives along with the razing of nine cities and two hundred villages. King Henry IV of Navarre, now king of France, married Marie de Medici, a remote cousin to Catherine, on October 5.

1600 CE - Italy - Pope Clement VIII sent more than thirty heretics to the stake. The Dominican philosopher Giordano Bruno, 1548 - 1600 CE, is one of his victims. The pope's acceptance of the Edict of Nantes in 1598 allowed the Huguenots religious freedom, civil equality and other rights previously considered heresy. Future Popes would consider this compromise a great evil. Eighty thousand pilgrims are in Rome to celebrate the centennial.

1600 CE - Japan - The Dutch ship de Liefde is shipwrecked on Japan. One of the survivors was William Adams, aka Anshin Miura, 1564 - 1620 CE, an Englishman and pilot of the Liefde. He stayed and became an advisor to the Shogunate. The Jesuits attempted to denounce the Liefde survivors calling them thieves and robbers. William Adams soon learned that the Jesuits had been filing false reports to Europe to discourage trade.

1602 CE - Holland - The Dutch East India Company is established.

1602 - 1603 CE - Turkey - Neophytus II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1603 CE - France - King Henry IV lifted the French ban against the Jesuit Order imposed by Catherine de Medici, but imposed limitations on the number of colleges, imposed special licenses on activities outside their own buildings and imposed an oath of allegiance to the king. The Jesuit Order is know to be subversive and focused on the upper classes to gain positions of power and political influence.

Coat of Arms
James I

1603 CE - England - Under James I, the arms of England and France were placed in the first and fourth quarters, the arms of Scotland ("Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counterflory gules") were placed in the second quarter, and the arms of Ireland ("Azure a harp or stringed argent") were placed in the third quarter. The Irish arms were added only at this time even though the Kings of England had been the Kings of Ireland since 1541 CE. These arms remained the same for Charles I, Charles II and James II.

1603 CE - Turkey - Matthew II, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1603 - 1607 CE - Turkey - Raphael II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1604 CE - England - The Gunpowder Plot, an attempt by Catholic fanatics to blow up James I of England and the houses of Parliament, resulted in an anti-Catholic Oath of Allegiance.

The English were imprisoning and killing Catholics who showed any allegiances to Rome and the Pope. Guy Fawkes, 1570 - 1606 CE, and others tried to overthrow the government by blowing up the House of Parliament. Four hundred years later the British on November 5, light bonfires, burn effigies of Guy Fawkes and the Pope and light fireworks. Some suggest this perpetuates religious intolerance between Protestants and Catholics.

The Law Merchant (A) (B) is effectively incorporated into the common law of England. This is essentially the law on negotiable instruments and insurance erected out of the Civil Law.

Leo XI

Paul V

1605 - 1605 CE - Italy - Leo XI was a good friend of St. Philip Neri. His pontificate lasted only twenty-seven days as he died as a result of injuries suffered from falling from a horse while riding.

1605 - 1621 CE - Italy - Paul V, alias Camillo Borghese, an Inquisitor, is elected pope. The church of Venice refused to accept the supremacy of the pope and forbid the erection of new churches, the acquisition of land by the church without permission and brought two clerics to trial in a secular court. Pope Paul V excommunicated the senate and placed the city under an interdict. Most of the clergy flouted it, and those who observed it – notably the Jesuit – are expelled from Venice. The pope eventually had to back down. This is to prevent Venice going Protestant or possibly a European war. The clergy imprisoned in Venice are freed, but the Jesuits are not allowed back into the city.

1605 CE - England - George Waymouth, on a trading voyage to the Maine coast, returned to Dartmouth with trade furs and five captured Indian girls. The slave girls were trained in English and European dress to act as public relations agents to extol America as a veritable paradise to encourage investment and migration.

Rejoicing at birth of Prince Salim (Jahangir). Mughal, c. 1590

1605 - 1627 CE - India - Akbar was succeeded by his son Salim, who took the title of Jahangir. In his reign, Jahangir consolidated the gains made by his father. The courtly culture of the Mughals flourished under his rule; like his great grand-father, Babar, he had an interest in gardens, and Mughal painting probably reached its zenith in Jahangir's time. Jahangir married Nur Jahan, "Light of the World", in 1611 CE. Shortly after his death in October 1627 CE, his son, Shah Jahan, succeeded to the throne.

1607 CE - England - The settling of America was accomplished by grants from the Crown of England, who financed business ventures into the New World. The administration of the founded colonies were organized by English business men whose hope it was to gain profit. These men were supported by the English Crown, by developed "Charters", which allowed them to build an organized society. In contrast to the Spanish, who were poor and by comparison undeducated, and only wanting to exploit the country, the English settlers often were gentlemen with a high standard of education. They were young men who wanted to hand down the English culture in service to the English Crown.

It was the London Company, a British corporation, which made the first permanent English settlement in America. The partners sent out three small vessels commanded by Captain Christopher Newport, and carrying 105 emigrants. They arrived in Chesapeake Bay in April 1607 CE, and the building of Jamestown, on James River, was begun the next month. The government of the colony was lodged in a council named by the King, and the councilors elected a president.

The choice of officers was not fortunate, and the settlers, though there were some good men among them, were mostly of the refuse material always abundant in such new ventures. There were only twenty mechanics, with a mob of vagabond gentlemen, servants, soldiers, and idlers. Quarrelsome, mutinous, and improvident, they were kept in order solely by the personal influence of Captain John Smith, an adventurer of the best type, who had passed through some strange experiences in the wars against the Turks, and who brought to this Virginia undertaking a knowledge of men, a capacity to command, the daring of an explorer and the plain sense of a practical colonist. From the outset, he was the real leader of the community, so far as they consented to have any. He saved them from starvation by getting corn from the Indians; he staved off hostilities with the natives; and on several occasions, when he fell into the hands of hostile Indians, he escaped death by his tact and ingenuity.

1607 - 1612 CE - Turkey - Neophytus II, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

Captain John Smith

1608 CE - North America However, John Smith's energy and ingenuity could not save the colonists from themselves. More than half of them perished the first year; and although three parties of recruits were sent out in 1608 and 1609 CE, they were of the same wretched quality as the original shipment. Instead of tilling the ground, they searched for channels to the unknown South Sea, and loaded their ships with useless dirt which they supposed contained gold. Smith had been elected president in 1608, but the next year he was injured by an accidental explosion of gunpowder, and went to England for surgical aid. His departure, destined to be final, nearly proved the ruin of the colony. He left 490 persons in the settlement, and in six months they were all dead but sixty, most of them by famine.

The survivors built small vessels in which they hoped to reach the English fishermen off Newfoundland, and abandoning Jamestown in June 1610 CE, they set out upon their melancholy voyage. But in the James River they met an English fleet coming to their aid. It brought a large party of settlers and abundant supplies, and at the head of the expedition was Lord De la Warr, with a commission as governor for life. The deserted houses of Jamestown were now reoccupied; hope was restored; more profitable industries than gold-hunting were encouraged; food was easily raised on the fertile Virginia lands; valuable crops of tobacco were shipped to England; and before long, respectable young women began to emigrate to a country where the planters wanted nothing, perhaps, so much as wives. The improved state of things was owing in no small measure to the wiser policy of the London Company, which had been reorganized, and had received a new patent. The proprietors now began to put away the delusion that Virginia was the gateway of the gorgeous East, and to learn that it offered wealth only as the reward of industry and prudent enterprise.

Lord De la Warr did not remain long in America, and his wise and firm administration was not always imitated by his successors. The Company, moreover, was slow to understand that thrifty and well-ordered communities were not likely to be created in Virginia by men who were too shiftless or vicious to live in England. Yet, by degrees, the better class of emigrants took control; many of the lazy gentlemen learned to work; and new settlements were established on the James River. The terms upon which the Company granted lands favored the formation of large plantations, and the English practice of selling convicts into servitude in Virginia for a period of years gave the rich proprietors a supply of labor. Prisoners of this class were not always felons, many being transported for political offences during the Scottish and civil wars, and on the expiration of their service they enjoyed the same rights as other colonists.

It was in this same year that France founded the colony of Quebec.

1608 CE - Germany - German states form the Evangelical Union (Catholic League).

1609 CE - Spain - The Royal Council of Spain is requested to suggest means for securing the safety of Spain other than the slaughter of the whole Spanish-African (Moors) population. Deportation to Newfoundland is suggested without increasing the dangerous population of Africa. Others suggested enslavement, mutilation and wholesale massacre. Catholic King Philip III of Spain, directed by the Duke of Lerma, ordered all Muslim's expelled and by 1614 this ethnic cleansing is reported completed. Some devout Catholic Moors fled to the mountains and elected their own King. A series of fierce fights followed in which thousands of Moors are slaughtered. Many other Christian Moors fled to France. Many Christian Moors expelled to Africa died as Christian martyrs. Estimates of Moors killed and expelled from Spain range from 150,000 to 500,000 people. Much money was made from the confiscated Spanish-Moor property. The Moorish Kingdom had been conquered by Spain in 1492 CE.

1609 CE - England - The charters and letters patents were granted to the liege subjects of the Crown, their heirs, assigns and successors forever, which were given in a feudal tenance known as socage and not capite. The charters were not granted under knight's service. These charters were not granted to the entire population, but to private individuals. (A) (B) (C) (D)

St. George Tucker

With respect to their interior polity, our colonies are properly of three sorts. 1. Provincial establishments, the constitutions of which depend on the respective commissions issued by the crown to the governors, and the instructions which usually accompany those commissions; under the authority of which, provincial assemblies are constituted, with the power of making local ordinances, not repugnant to the laws of England. 2. Proprietary governments, granted out by the crown to individuals, in the nature of feudatory principalities, with all the inferior regalities, and subordinate powers of Legislation, which formerly belonged to the owners of counties palatine: yet still with these express conditions, that the ends for which the grant was made be substantially pursued, and that nothing be attempted which may derogate from the sovereignty of the mother-country. 3. Charter governments, in the nature of civil corporations, with the power of making bye-laws for their own interior regulation, not contrary to the laws of England: and with such rights and authorities as are specially given them in their several charters of incorporation. The form of government in most of them is borrowed from that of England.

     Tucker on Blackstone's Commentaries, Book I, Chapter 4, p. 105, 1803.

Franchife and liberty are ufed as fynonymous terms: and their definition is , a royal privilege, or branch of the king's prerogative, fubfifting in the hands of a fubject … It is likewife a franchife for a number of perfons to be incorporated, and fubfift as a body politic, with a power to maintain perpetual fecceffion and do other corporate acts: and each individual member of fuch corporation is alfo faid to have a franchife or freedom.

     Blackstone's Commentaries, Book 2, Chapter 3, p. 37, 1765.

The king was making a tremendous commercial venture when he sent his subjects to America, and used his money and resources to do so. The king had a lawful right to receive gain and prosper from his venture, even if it was on the land of the Native American. In the first Virginia Charter, he declares his sovereignty over the land and his subjects, and he declares the amount of gold, silver and copper he is to receive if any is found by his subjects. There could have just as easily been none, or his subjects could have died in various manners. This is was a valid right of the king, as the king had expended his resources with the risk of total loss. The king declares that all his heirs and successors were to also receive the same amount of gold, silver and copper that he claimed with this Charter. The gold that remained in the colonies also belonged to the king. He provided the remainder as a benefit for his subjects, which amounted to the further use of his capital. In the First Virginia Charter, the king declared the right and exercised the power to regulate every aspect of commerce in his new colony. A license had to be granted for travel connected with transfer of goods (commerce), even to the furniture that was used.

The following colonies were granted to the king's subjects under socage

… and as self-governing business corporations.

These feudal tenures (A) fall under the doctrine of parens patriæ, where the sovereign is the father of the country and holds absolute title to all land. Under the trust, the grantees become the legal owners. As legal owners, the grantees have the liability for the res, or property, held in trust. The beneficial users are entitled to profits from the rents of the land, but do not retain legal title. Thus, the land is held by trust under grant from the king or queen for the ultimate beneficial use of the king or queen, thereby giving the king the title of "universal trustee." This is origination of the cestui que trust (A) (B). The creator of the trust is the king or queen as the trustor, or grantor, of the trust. The land is held in trust by charter with the grantees as trustees, the legal owners, for the benefit of the beneficiaries, the cestui que trust, the equitable users, which are the king or the queen.

As did England with the Colonies - England still holds beneficial title and the colonies hold legal title.

Beneficium in this sense arose on the continent among the German tribes after the collapse of the Roman Empire. "All those to whom the Frankish king had given land and to whom the Frankish emperor had granted political authority had received it on certain conditions. They were the recipients of royal favor - a beneficium. Their holding came to be so styled."

     Handbook of Anglo-American Legal History, Max Radin, p. 126 (1936).

Common items in the original charters granted from the Crown of England, which were ALL leaseholds, tenancies or estates, included, but were not limited to:

1. Yielding and paying to the King of England various fees, including gold and silver from each state:

2. Authority to set up their own governments with assigns and successors.

3. Authority to defend the colony with other inhabitants (militia).

4. Authority to lay and collect duties and taxes on tonnages of shipping vessels.

5. Authority to erect seaports and harbors.

6. Authority to erect forts, dockyards, and magazines for defenses.

7. Authority to naturalize all foreigners and make them subjects of the British crown.

8. Authority to incorporate all cities and towns.

9. Authority to pursue, vanquish, capture or put to death any enemies of the provinces.

1610 CE - France - Jean Francois Ravaillac, on May 14 in the Rue Saint-Honore, stabbed King Henry IV, 1589 - 1610 CE, twice, the second time being fatal. He said he feared the King would lead the Huguenots in a mass slaughter of Roman Catholics. Ravaillac is in the pay of the Jesuits, so believed the Arnauld family. Henry's widow, Mary de Medici, an ardent supporter of Spain, now ruled France for her infant son King Louis XIII. Spain how only had to contend with minor wars in Italy and the Mediterranean.

1612 CE - England - John Smyth in London established the Baptist Church believing the religion is a personal relationship between man and God.

1612 CE - Germany - Matthias becomes German emperor.

1612 CE - Turkey - Cyril I Lucaris becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1612 - 1620 CE - Turkey - Timothy II (Timotheus II) becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1613 CE - Scandanavia - Catholics were banned from Scandinavia.

1614 CE - Japan - The Jesuits are expelled from Japan and Christian activity is outlawed. Some suggest it was because of the Jesuits telling lies about Japan to discourage trade. They had been in Japan since 1549 CE and wanted to maintain their monopoly as information brokers. They blamed William Adams, aka Anshin Miura, the first Englishman to Japan in 1600 CE.

1615 CE - Italy - Galileo Galilei, 1564 - 1642 CE, attempted to convince the Roman Church that God reveals truth in both the Bible and physical nature. The truth of the physical nature did not contradict the Bible if the Bible is properly understood. Galileo writings are heresy as the Churches position is that the Holy Bible can never speak untruth and it clearly states the sun moves about the earth.

Mutio Vitelleschi is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Claudio Acquaviva.

1616 CE - Italy - The Holy Office on March 3, 1616 CE placed the works of Copernicus on the Index of Condemned Books.

1617 CE - Hungary - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Ferdinand II (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), King of Hungary (1618–1625).

1617 CE - France - Louis XIII becomes king.

1618 CE - Austria - Hungary - Ferdinard of Styria (Habsburg Family) is elected King of Bohemia (Northern Austria), in 1618 CE as King of Hungary and in 1619 CE as King of Austria, effectively all the Eastern heritage. Ferdinard is considered by many to be just a tool of the Jesuits.

1618 CE - Europe - The "Defenestration of Prague" (the Habsburg remove Frederick of the Palatinate and install Matthias' cousin Ferdinand on the throne of Bohemia) begins the "Thirty Years' War" pitting the Habsburg empire and Spain against France, England, Sweden, with the first war fought more by artillery than by men.

The thirty-year war began as a European religious struggle and ended as a political power struggle. Mercenaries had no loyalty and would changed sides if not paid and who are allowed to pillage and suppress the population with terrible devastation. The English Parliament wished to go to war against the Catholics but King James I, the Scot, would not agree.

1618 CE - Spain - The Jesuit Fathers Luis de Aliaga and Florencio organized a rebellion to expel the Duke of Lerma as effective ruler of the Spanish Empire. To avoid persecution, the Duke convinced Pope Paul V to make him a cardinal. The King allowed him to retire uninjured in person or in ill-gotten gains. The Duke of Uceda, a Jesuit supporter, succeed the Duke of Lerma as chief confidant to the King.

1618 CE - Prussia - The Brandenburg branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty inherits the duchy of Prussia.

1619 CE - North America - The London Company made an important innovation by instructing Governor Yeardley to summon a representative assembly, the first legislature ever chosen in America in 1619 CE; and two years later they granted to the Virginia colony a written constitution, by which authority was confided to a governor and council appointed by the Company, and an Assembly, consisting of the council and a house of burgesses, elected by the people. Bills passed by the Assembly, however, required the assent of the governor and the Company. This fell far short of the popular self-government, but it was an advance upon the ideas of colonial management current at that time, and a good beginning for the development of political liberties. It is to the credit of the London Company that they so soon perceived the truth which the whole later history of North American colonization has demonstrated – that there is no stability or principle of growth in communities which are not taught to depend upon themselves.

African slaves were first brought in by a Dutch vessel in 1619 CE, and this was the beginning of negro slavery in the United States, though the number of slaves for many years was very small. The growth of a Virginian aristocracy, under all the conditions of the colony, was almost inevitable, and from an early date the division of the classes was well marked, and the landed gentry followed as far as they could the social customs of the Old Country.

It is clear that the soil of the Americas was for the growth of the British empire through the use of "plantations." "Colonization" refers to populating a new country while still remaining subject to the mother country, whereas emigration implies abandoning one's old country for a new one. The "new world" would be colonized by English prisoners – debtors, thieves, murderers and other unsavory characters who were given the option to either come to America or languish in jail. It was the perfect environment for the British commercial industry of slavery, as that particular institution was not allowed in England, being greatly discouraged and not allowed by law.

1619 CE - France - The French banned the pommes de terre (potato) in Burgundy, France and burned the crop to protect citizens from leprosy and its base addiction and craving. The Vatican had banned the root in the 15th century, claiming it to be the root of man's licentious and depraved moral behavior. The fear is that the roots would make the peasants self-sufficient, allowing them to have too much time on their hands.

1619 CE - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Frederick V and Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England and VI of Scotland, became monarchs of Bohemia (Czechoslovakia). Their son, prince Ruprecht von Wittelsbach, is the first prince born in Bohemia in more than a century. The Jesuits called Frederick, "The Winter King," who would vanish as surely as the snow. The Jesuits are secretly in league with the Habsburg emperor in Vienna, who is plotting to bind the Bohemian subjects closer to his crown. The Austrian army overwhelmed the Bohemian army this autumn along the White Mountains as predicted by the Jesuits. The royal family fled Bohemia.

1620 CE - North America - The settlement of New England under the auspices of the Plymouth Company, although it was attempted even earlier than the foundation of Virginia, was not accomplished until some years after Jamestown had passed through its worst trials. Captain John Smith made a successful trading and fishing voyage to the territory of the Plymouth Company in 1614 CE, drew a map of the coast, and gave the country the name of New England; and his published reports did something towards stimulating adventure; but the first permanent English colony within the limits of the Plymouth grant was made by accident, and without the Company's knowledge.

The Puritans, separatists from the Church of England, who fled to Holland rather than submit to what they believed to be popish forms of worship, dissatisfied with their hard life in a foreign country and among people who spoke another tongue, turned their attention toward America, as a land where they could worship in their own way, and listen to the preaching of their own doctrines with neighbors of their own race. After sundry negotiations with the Dutch and other proprietors, they obtained a patent from the London Company for a settlement in Virginia, and then formed a joint-stock partnership with certain London merchants for trading, fishing, and planting, the merchants to furnish money for the outfit, the labor of every adult emigrant to be reckoned equivalent to one share of £10, and the whole property to be divided at the end of seven years. Crossing from Delft Haven to England, the Pilgrims, as they were afterwards called, sailed from Plymouth, September 6, 1620 CE, in the ship Mayflower, one hundred and two men, women, and children, under the leadership of Elder William Brewster. On the 11th of November they cast anchor in which is now the harbor of Provincetown, on Cape Cod. This was outside the limits of the Virginia Company, and their patent was consequently of no use to them; but on ship-board, in order to provide for the emergency, they drew up a schedule of government, "covenanting and combining themselves together into a civil body politic," and chose John Carver as governor. This has been regarded as an important precedent in popular government, but to the Pilgrims it was only a temporary device, and the next ship from England brought them a patent from the Council of New England in 1621 CE.

Having left England to rid themselves of the established church, the Pilgrims had no idea of tolerating the introduction of that hated institution into their new home. They banished a preacher named Lyford for holding worship according to the forms of the Church of England; and with Oldham, an exile in the same cause, he settled at Nantasket, now Hull. Thomas Morton, a rollicking free-liver at Mount Wollaston (Quincy), surrounded himself with noisy adventurers, who carried their disorder so far as to set up a May-pole; whereupon the new Plymouth people sent out an expedition, dispersed the settlement, cut down the pole, and shipped Morton to England. So much religious zeal was little to the taste of the London partners, who had gone into the enterprise as a matter of business. A quarrel followed, and as a result the colonists bought out the other shareholders, and divided the property. They were no no longer a trading company, even in name, but a self-governing "body politic" which, though it never became numerous, maintained a virtual independence until it was absorbed into the greater colony of Massachusetts Bay.

1620 CE - Czechoslovakia - Pope Paul V initially did not want to take sides in the thirty-year war but this year the Vatican gave substantial subsidies to Emperor Ferdinand II, 1619 - 1637 CE, and the Holy Catholic League to exploit their victory over the Protestants in Prague.

1620 - 1623 CE - Turkey - Cyril I Lucaris, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

Gregory XV

1621 - 1623 CE - Italy - Gregory XV, alias Alessandro Ludovisi, is elected pope, the first Jesuit-trained pope. He believed the objective of the papacy is to promote and maintain unity among the Catholic powers. The populace had little faith in the papacy because the pope is elected by political powers. He introduced the secret written ballot to the election of popes. He also created the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith to regulate missionaries likely proposed by the Jesuit. He wanted to replace the Catholic sovereign control of missionaries in heathen lands and to cover Protestant sovereigns, who through their heresy had lost this right. This congregation of thirteen cardinals became the Counter-Reformation headquarters. The Pope pressed King Philip II of Spain to break the twelve-year truce in the Netherlands to attack the Calvinists.

1621 CE - Spain - Felipe III dies and is succeeded by Felipe IV.


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