The Curse of the Corporation
Part XIV 1365 CE to 1529 CE
1365 CE - Persia (Iran) - The turkic-speaking Timur overthrow the Chaghatai khanate and conquers Persia, the old Ilkhanate, establishing his capital in Samarkand.
1366 CE - England - During the fortieth year of the reign of Edward III, the allegiance to the pope was overturned when Pope Urban V, attempted to revive the vasalage and annual rent to which king John had subjected his kingdom, it was unanimously agreed by all the estates of the realm in parliament assembled, 40 Edw. III, that king John's donation was null and void, being without the concurrence of parliament, and contrary to his coronation oath: and all the temporal nobility and commons engaged, that if the pope should endeavour by process or otherwise to maintain these usurpations, they would resist and withstand him with all their power.
1368 - 1644 CE - Ming Dynasty of China - The Míng was the first Chinese dynasty not to be named after a local ancient kingdom (Ch'in, Han, T'ang, etc.). This was because the Founder, Chu Yüan-chang, was of humble origin, not nobility that would have identified with such a locality. Like the Mongol Yüan ("Beginning"), the name is instead chosen to be auspicious, "Bright." The Founder of the Han had originally been of low station also, a peasant, but he had already styled himself "King of Han" (Han Wang) before definitively claiming the Ch'in Emperorship. Also perhaps because of his origins, the Ming Founder was suspicious of the Scholars and sought to balance their influence in the Court with a competing Military institution of comparable depth and prestige. This wise provision, a kind of system of checks and balances, ultimately failed, as Emperors fell under the influence of the Scholars, and then even of the Palace Eunuchs, and neglected the Military. When the Manchus then seized power, some Chinese generals actually went over to them, expecting better status and attention. It was a Chinese general who overthrew the last of the Southern Ming Emperors.
1370 CE - Denmark - The Hanseatic League is formed by a group of Germanic merchants from the cities of Hamburg, Leipzig, Bremen, Danzig, Stettin and Lubeck that achieved official standing this year. The Hanseatic League defeats Waldemar IV of Denmark, thus gaining the monopoly of trade in Scandinavia. Amsterdam joins the Hanseatic League.
1370 - 1378 CE - France - Gregory XI, alias Pierre Roger de Beaufort, is elected pope by 17 cardinals at Avignon. He is particularly active in repressing heresy in Provence, Germany and Spain. In France, he used the Inquisition ruthlessly, calling on King Charles V to help fill the prisons with those who escaped the stake.
After 70 years, Gregory XI returned the seat of the papacy definitively to Rome. Many urgent calls from St. Bridget of Sweden and St. Catherine of Siena induced him to this move. He established himself in the Vatican but died a year after his return at the age of 47, exhausted and stricken by the continous rebellions and plots around him.
1375 CE - England - John Wyclif, 1328 - 1384 CE, of England advocated the laity had the right to control the property of the church. He wanted to restore a pure, early church, unencumbered by complex organization or doctrinal accretions of dubious origins and equally dubious worth. He contended the Bible alone has divine authority. The supremacy of the Bible means the fallibility of all clerical institutions, including the papacy. The papacy naturally condemned his doctrines as heretical but could not arrest him. After his death, his bones are dug up and burned in effigy.
The first known record of the concept "Freemasons" in the city archives of London. [(] The Masons' Company of London existing. [p40EF2]
1376 - 1379 CE - Turkey - Andronicus IV becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.
1376 - 1379 CE - Turkey - Macarius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1376 CE - Germany - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Wenceslaus (26 February 1361 – 16 August 1419), was, by election, the German King (formally King of the Romans) from 1376 and, by inheritance, King of Bohemia (as Wenceslaus IV) from 1378. He was the third Bohemian and second German monarch of the House of Luxembourg. He was deposed in 1400 as the German King, but continued to rule as King of Bohemia.
1377 CE - Italy - The home of the papacy returns from Avignon, France to Rome, Italy. The Vatican became the residence of the Pope. [L]
1377 - 1379 CE - Germany - The Tarot Cards are first mentioned in Chronicles. [p28-]
1378 - 1389 CE - Italy - The election of the next Pope drew a crowd of 30,000 Romans, who demanded they pick a Roman or an Italian. The French naturally are determined to keep the papacy to themselves. Rioting broke out, the conclave was invaded and the cardinals pacified the crowd by telling them an elderly Roman had been elected. However, although Bartolomeo Prignano is selected by sixteen cardinals to become Pope Urban VI, he is not Roman. He turned out to be a vile-tempered, spiteful alcoholic pontiff. Many believed he is deranged and incapable of being pope. The cardinals slowly abandoned him, meeting in Anagni and published a declaration that his election was invalid being under the fear of mob violence. The cardinals elected Robert of Geneva, alias Robert Amadeus, as pope taking the name Clement VII, considered an antipope, creating what some refer as the Great Schism, which lasted until 1417 CE. Europe divided into two religious churches, the Clements' being France, Burgundy, Savoy, Naples and Scotland, the Urbans' being England, Germany, most of Italy and other countries of central Europe. Catherine of Siena, Spain remained neutral. The whole curia defected to Pope Clement, so Pope Urban VI created a new one naming twenty-nine new cardinals. Each church excommunicated the others' members.
1378 - 1484 CE - France - Christian Rosenkreutz is born. According to the second Rosicrucian manifesto, the Confessio Fraternitatis was first published in 1615 CE in Latin (together with the Consideratio Brevis) and later that same year in German. Although some manuscripts exist of English translations dating from the 1620's, an English version was not published till 1652 CE. This was issued under the name of Thomas Vaughan, the alchemical writer.
1379 CE - Italy - The Clement Church army met the Urban Church army at Marino and Clement's army is crushed.
1379 CE - Turkey - John V (restored) becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire until 1391 CE.
1379 - 1388 CE - Turkey - Nilus Kerameus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1380 CE - Italy - Nicolo Zeno was a Venetian navigator, born in Venice about 1340 CE, and died in Newfoundland about 1391 CE. He was a member of a patrician family in Venice, and about 1375 CE went at his own expense on a voyage to the northern seas, but was wrecked on what he describes as the island of Frislanda (probably in the Faroe group), and rescued by Zichmin, the chief of a neighboring island, into whose service he entered. He remained with Zichmin for some time, assisted in the conquest of Frislanda, and invited his brother Antonio to join him.
They visited Greenland (which they named Engronelanda) and Newfoundland, and in company with fishermen navigated along the coast of North America as far, it is claimed, as Virginia. Nicolo died four years after Antonio's arrival, often sending to a third brother, Carlo, grand-admiral of Venice, accounts of his discoveries. Antonio remained ten years more in the service of Zichmin, and then returned to Venice, where he died about 1405 CE.
Zeno wrote an account of his voyages, which he showed to several persons, but his papers were partly burned by Antonio's young grandson, Caterino (born in Venice in 1515 CE). The latter, realizing afterward the value of his grand-uncle's papers, was able, with a few letters that had been sent from Frislanda to Carlo, to compile from them a narrative, which he published under the title "Scoprimento dellas isolas Frislanda, Eslanda, Engronelanda, Estotilanda, et Icaria" (Venice, 1558 CE, with a map of North America dated 1390 CE).
Zeno Map - Published 1558 CE
The authenticity of the two brothers' discoveries was attacked during the following centuries, and even their existence was doubted, but later researches have proved that Marco Barbaro, in his Discendenze Patrizie (Venice, 1526 CE), knew of the existence of Zeno's letters, narrative, and map thirty years before their publication.
The Hakluyt society published an English translation, with an introduction and notes, entitled "The Voyages of the Venetian Brothers, Nicolo and Antonio Zeno, to the Northern Seas in the 14th Century, comprising the latest known Accounts of the Lost Colony of Greenland, and of the Northmen in America, before Columbus," translated by Richard Henry Major (London, 1873 CE).
Zeno's map of Greenland, Newfoundland, and the northern coast of America is remarkably accurate, and his narrative demonstrates also the existence, more than a century before the time of Columbus, of the remains of the Scandinavian colonies that are mentioned by Adam of Bremen in the 11th century, and by Odericus Vitalis in the 12th century, and whose history was recently written by Karl C. Rain. See also Placido Zurla's "Dissertazione interne ai viaggi e scoperte setten-trionali di Nicolo ed Antonio, fratelli Zeni," which includes a copy of the original text and also a chart (Venice, 1808 CE).
1381 - 1501 CE - Iran - The Timurid dynasty rules Iran, with Timur, 1381 - 1405 CE, as its leader.
1381 CE - England - A rebel priest in England, because of the cruelty and greed of the Roman Catholic Church, called for the removal of all Bishops, Archbishops and Nobles. It is believed the Pope Urban VI is taxing the English to support the French in their war against England. The sixty to one hundred thousand peasants under the loose leadership of Wat Tyler, Jack Straw and Jogn Ball stormed London and executed the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is also the King's Chancellor and therefore one of the oppressive establishment. Wat Tyler is treacherously killed while negotiating with King Richard II, and not long after, King Richard gained the upper hand and executed fifteen hundred peasants as an example.
1382 CE - Netherlands - Tokhtamysh led a Mongolian army on Moscow, looting and burning the city in retaliation for their failed battle of 1380 CE.
1383 CE - Netherlands - Christian Rosenkreutz lived after his parents death in the monastery of St. Agnethen at Zwolle, in the Netherlands, according to prof. J. S. Semler. [p8K]
1384 CE - Italy - Pope Urban VI imprisoned and brutally tortured six cardinals who conspired against the deranged pope, claiming he was incapacitated. Five of the cardinals mysteriously disappeared and foul play is suspected.
1385 CE - Lithuania - Poland - A treaty of union is signed between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland. Queen Jadwiga of Poland wed the Grand Duke of Lithuania, creating an empire from the Baltic to the Black sea. This empire reached its maximum size by the fifteenth century.
The Gothic Cathedral of Milan
1386 CE - Italy - The first part of the Gothic Cathedral of Milan is built. [$]
1387 - 1395 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Juan I becomes king of Aragonia.
1387 CE - Greece - The Ottomans invade Greece.
1389 CE - Serbia (Yugoslavia) - The Ottoman Turks defeated the Serbian Empire (Yugoslavia) at the battle of Kosovo where Serbian independence is lost for the next five hundred years. The Slavs of Bosnia-Herzegovina (Yugoslavia) are slowly converted to Islam (Muslim) during this period.
1389 - 1404 CE - Italy - Pope Urban VI died as a result of poisoning. His temperament alienated the population, the treasury is empty and several of his own appointed Roman cardinals deserted him for the Clement Church. Boniface IX, alias Pietro Tomacelli, a Roman is elected Pope of the Urban Church.
Born in Naples, Boniface IX was elected at 30 years of age. He tried to find an understanding with the anti-pope Clement VII, who subsequently died. In his place Benedict XIII was elected who showed himself to be even more hostile than his predecessor. Boniface IX called and celebrated the Holy Year of 1400 CE. The behavior of Boniface was very questionable as he used to sell ecclesiastical indulgences and benefits at the highest prices to gather large sums of money.
1389 - 1390 CE - Turkey - Antony IV becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1390 CE - Turkey - John VII usurps the throne from his grandfather, John V, for a brief period of time as emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.
1390 CE - Europe - Gypsies begin to appear in Europe. [IllHis]
1390 CE - England - The old Anglo-Saxon language continued to be spoken by ordinary people but is no longer written for the past three hundred years. The new English that borrowed so much from the Norman French began to be used by the ruling and literate class in England.
1390 - 1391 CE - Turkey - Macarius, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1391 CE - Spain - The Jews of Iberia are forced to convert to Catholicism.
Manuel II Palaiologos
1391 - 1425 CE - Turkey - Manuel II Palaiologos becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.
1391 - 1397 CE - Turkey - Antony IV, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1393 CE - Bulgaria - Wallachia - The Ottomans, under Murad's son Bayazid I, conquer Bulgaria and Wallachia.
1393 CE - Turkey - Ottoman sultan Bayezid I, son of Murad, besieges Constantinople.
1394 CE - Germany - Basilius Valentinus, an alchemist, is born. His book entitled the 'Twelve Keys' appears to have first been published in 'Ein kurtz summarischer Tractat, von dem grossen Stein der Uralten … ', Eisleben, 1599 CE, and a number of editions were issued during the 17th and 18th centuries, in Latin, French, English and German. The important text was also included in a number of compendia, such as the Musæum Hermeticum. The identity of Basilius Valentinus (Basil Valentine) is unknown and it appears that the writings attributed to him were the product of the last decade of the 16th Century.
1394 CE - France - Under King Charles VI, the French banished all Jews from France.
1394 - 1417 CE - Spain - Benedict XIII, alias Pedro de Luna, is elected pope of the Clement Church by twenty-one cardinals. He was a doctor of canon law and as cardinal (1375 CE) became an outstanding member of the Curia Romana. He supported the election of Urban VI, but later switched his allegiance to Robert of Geneva, who, as Antipope Clement VII, launched the Great Schism. As Robert's legate in Spain, Cardinal de Luna secured the adherence of his country to the Avignon obedience. On Robert's death, the cardinals at Avignon elected Cardinal de Luna, having first elicited his promise to abdicate should that be necessary to bring an end to the schism. As Benedict XIII, the new antipope proved himself the most able of all of the popes and antipopes of the period. He showed himself unwilling, however, to negotiate an end to the schism. His outright refusal to abdicate at the Council of Pisa only made matters worse, and Benedict lost all his obedience except Scotland, Sicily, Castile, and Aragón. The Council of Constance moved Benedict to even greater intransigence, deposing him in 1417 CE. Benedict, forsaken by all but his household, lived on in his fortress at Peñiscola (near Valencia), claiming to be the rightful pope until his death.
1395 CE - Russia - After an eight-year war, Tamerlane of Samarkand defeated the Mongol Tokhtamysh and during the course of the war destroyed most of the major cities of the Golden Horde. Tamerlane then marched on Moscow, but after observing the Russian army led by Basil I, 1389 - 1425 CE, retreated, deciding the encounter would be costly and not worth the trouble. The Russians ascribed the unexpected retreat to the miraculous intercession of the Holy Virgin. Moscow became a semi-autonomous state.
1395 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Martin I becomes king of Aragonia, ruling until 1410.
1397 CE - Turkey - Callistus II Xanothopoulos becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1397 - 1410 CE - Turkey - Matthew I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1398 CE - Italy - Pope Boniface IX of the Roman Urban Church, made himself the undisputed master of Rome by appointing the senators. He exercised no serious steps to eliminate the schism, instead spending his time consolidating his power. All offices of the papacy or Imperial offices are for sale to the highest bidder. Indulgences are extended to cities far beyond Rome for a price. Future Pope John XXIII is assigned to assist in the Papal financial business.
1398 CE - France - Pope Benedict XIII is urged to abdicate by Charles VI of France as well as the English and Germans. The pope stated that the abdication of a lawful pope is sinful. To end the stalemate the French court and a national synod withdrew French support and revenue from their pope. The cardinals, with no incoming funds, withdrew support from Pope Benedict and deserted him. Pope Benedict XIII is imprisoned, but he escaped and regained French support.
1399 CE - England - The death of King Richard II ends the Angevins dynasty in England.
1399 CE - Spain - The Holy Grail is brought to Martin the Humane, King of Aragón, to his palace in Zaragoza, according to Catholic tradition.
1400 - 1600 CE - India - Bengal is conquered by the Muslims. Ancient universities suddenly vanished, which were probably burned down by Muslims.
1400 CE - Mexico - Temple II of Tenochtitlan, which is today's Mexico City, is built. According to myth, the great Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was founded at the place where one of Huitzilopochtli's priests saw an eagle perched upon a large nopal cactus. This mythic location is depicted on the back of a sculpted throne, known as the Teocalli of Sacred War, which might have been the royal seat of the emperor Motecuhzoma. Tenochtitlan was built on an island in ancient Lake Texcoco and was connected to the mainland by three long causeways. According to Spanish accounts, Tenochtitlan contained elaborate palaces, marketplaces, pyramids, and a central ceremonial center that was focused around the Templo Mayor, or Great Pyramid.
The Templo Mayor is one of the most important religious sites of the old Aztec Capital. It is no small coincidence that the Spaniards built the Catedral Metropolitana right on or around the site. Excavation of the site started in 1978 CE after a workman, digging on the east side of the Catedral found an Aztec stone carving of the Aztec Moon Goddess Coyolxauhqui. Although a small corner of the site had been exposed for years, it was the discovery of the carving that led to the more large-scale excavation. The Templo Mayor is also known as the Pyramid of Huitzilopochtli.
1400 CE - England - Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a Medieval English romance in the Arthurian tradition. The text is thought to have been composed in the mid- to late fourteenth century. The only extant manuscript, MS. Cotton Nero A.x. in the British Library, is itself a copy of an earlier original, and dates from around 1400. The anonymous author is today called alternately "The Pearl Poet," after the poem Pearl in the same manuscript, or "The Gawain Poet." The same author is also thought to have composed the other two poems in the manuscript, Cleanness and Patience. Nothing conclusive is known of the author's identity or biography.
1400 CE - Wales - Owain Glyndwer is proclaimed Prince of Wales and sustained a long guerrilla war with England. He is never captured, but is unable to remove the yoke of England from the Welsh neck.
1400 CE - Africa - The Swahili of Africa are trading with China, India and Persia. China sent a fleet of ships with trade goods to Africa.
1400 CE - Bulgaria - Serbia - Bulgaria, Serbia and the mainland of Greece fell under Turkish Moslem rule.
1400 CE - Italy - Pope Boniface IX says he is ready to preach a crusade (war) against the Turks, only on condition that the Greek church recognizes his authority. Christian Hungary led a crusade against the Ottoman Empire (Turks) but was unsuccessful.
1400 CE - Korea - China - Tibet - The use of movable type in Korea, China and Tibet long predates it use in Europe.
1400 CE - Germany - Rupert of Germany from the House of Wittelsbach (5 May 1352 – 18 May 1410) was Elector Palatine from 1398 and German King (rex Romanorum) from 1400 until his death. He was the son of Elector Palatine Rupert II and Princess Beatrix, daughter of King Peter II of Sicily, and a great-grandnephew of Emperor Louis IV.
1401 CE - England - King Henry IV introduced into England for the first time the idea of executing those guilty of heresy by burning, a Catholic practice.
1402 CE - Turkey - Timur defeats the Ottomans at Ankara and captures the Ottoman sultan Bayazid I.
1402 CE - Canary Islands - Juan de Bethencourt became the first European to settle in the Canary Islands and made slaves of several natives, thereby heralding the beginning of the black slave trade. At this time slavery had been practically eliminated in Europe, thanks to the influence of the Church. The Holy Roman Church later would not only condone and support slavery, even of those baptized into the Roman Catholic Church, but also would hold their own slaves. Europe, led by Spain, would begin over four centuries of slave trading that included some twenty million Africans alone, of which half died in transit. Permanent colonization of the Canary Islands began a pattern for the exploitation of other Atlantic Islands using forced labor of Africans.
1402 CE - Portugal - Jewish children deported from Portugal during the Inquisition, settle Sao Tome e Principe, two islands 320 kilometers west of Gabon. It then became a transit point for the slave trade. Pope John Paul II in 1992 CE deplored the Roman Catholic Church's condoning of that sad offense to human dignity.
1404 - 1406 CE - Italy - Pope Benedict XIII of the Clement Church, proposed a council to resolve the schism, but Pope Boniface IX of the Urban church refused any reconciliation and died shortly thereafter. Innocent VII, alias Cosimo Gentile de' Migliorati, a Roman, is elected Pope by eight cardinals of the Urban Church in Rome. The new pope had to vow, if elected, to do everything in his power to end the schism, if necessary abdicating. Pope Innocent rejected a proposal by Pope Benedict to meet and end the schism. Pope Benedict is under the same vow.
1405 CE - China - China engaged a large fleet of ships some 317 ships with 27,500 men, five times the size of anything in Europe to bring "all under heaven" to be civilized in Confucian harmony. The Chinese had the technology to sail and circle the world. China had a fleet of 6,500 ships that previously are not allowed to put out to sea. China at this time is the richest, technically most advanced Empire on earth. It is stable, at relative peace and did not want to change this tranquility for the barbaric influence of the Middle East and Europe. It seems inconceivable that China didn't sail to America at this time. Admiral Zheng He, aka Ma He (Cheng Ho), 1371 - 1435 CE, was in command of the ocean going armada. It is claimed he personally made seven voyages and was ordered each time to go further than the last both to the east and west. He was to collect tribute from the barbarians from beyond the seas. The first voyage of discovery, from 1405 to 1406 CE, is to the western sea with Wang Ching-Hung to find traces of the previous Emperor Jianwen Hue who had fled to the East. This fleet consisted of 62 ships. Some ships were diverted to trade and tribute while the others continued in exploration. Some believe this or later expeditions reached America and established colonies likely as a result of shipwreck. Sanbao created twenty-four maps of Admiral Zheng He's explorations. Those who did not offer homage or pay tribute were taken back to China in chains.
1405 - 1447 CE - Iran - The Timurid dynasty rules Iran, with Shahrokh, 1405 - 1447 CE, as its leader.
Coat of Arms
1406 CE - England - Henry IV's second great seal showed that the French quartering had been changed to the modern arms, "Azure three fleurs-de-lis or." The same arms continued for Henry V, Henry VI, Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III, Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth. Around 1555 CE, during Mary's reign, the arms of England were sometimes impaled with the arms of King Philip II of Spain, her husband.
1406 - 1415 CE - Italy - Gregory XII, alias Angelo Correr, is elected pope on the condition he would abdicate if Pope Benedict XIII also did or if he should die. Pope Gregory XII would later state that abdication is heretical and would imprison those who held the belief and declared that he intended to die as pope. This was the most critical period for the schism as for several years there were three popes at one time. At the Council of Constance all three popes were deposed. Gregory XII retired to Recanati after his resignation where he died in 1417 CE. He is considered a legitimate pope.
1409 CE - China - Admiral Zheng He conducted the third expedition to the Western Sea to address rebellious Ceylon that likely was reported from the second expedition. He captured Ceylon and installed a new ruler. The previous leader of Ceylon was executed in China.
1409 CE - Italy - A council of cardinals charged both popes with bad faith and collusion, with both being deposed as schismatic, obdurate heretics and perjurers. The holy see is declared vacant. Cardinal Pietro Fhilarghi a Greek of Milan is unanimously elected Pope Alexander V by the joint conclave cardinals of the Urban and Clement Churches. The only theological problem is that Pope Gregory XII of Rome and Pope Benedict XIII of Avignon both still claimed to be Pope. The citizens coined a new creed for the church, "I believe in three holy catholic churches."
1409 CE - Poland - King Wladyslaw and Grand Duke Vitautas had their fill of the Teutonic Order and assembled 150,000 troops together with a large contingent of Tartars, Cossacks, also Czech, Vlach and Hungarian mercenaries under command of Jan Zizka. The Teutonic Order could field 80,000 knights, mercenaries and volunteers.
1410 CE - Prussia - The Teutonic Order is destroyed at the battle of Tannenberg in Prussia by the Poles, Czechs, Lithuanian and Mongol armies. The Order lost 18,000 in the field with another 14,000 taken prisoner, tortured and beheaded. The bishops gave the Poles a triumphant welcome. The Order lost Dobrzyn Land to Poland and Samaiten Land to Lithuania. The Teutonic Order could no longer claim that 'he who fights the Order fights Jesus Christ.' No longer could the Knights count on a martyr's crown if they fell in battle since their enemies are fellow Christians. Thus ended the Teutonic Order of Knights crusades of the Baltic.
1410 CE - Italy - John XXIII, alias Baldassare Cossa, is elected pope. Tradition suggests he seduced more than two hundred women during his legation. It is claimed he poisoned Pope Alexander V to gain the papacy. This pope had military experience and commanded support from France, England and several Italian and German states.
1410 CE - Hungary - Croatia - Sigismund (14 February 1368 – 9 December 1437) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387 to 1437, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last Emperor of the House of Luxemburg. He was also King of Bohemia from 1419, of Lombardy from 1431, and of Germany from 1411. Sigismund was one of the driving forces behind the Council of Constance that ended the Papal Schism, but which in the end also led to the Hussite Wars that dominated the later period of Sigismund's life.
1410 - 1412 CE - Aragon (Spain) - There was no king of Aragonia during these few years, as there was an interregnum.
1410 - 1416 CE - Turkey - Euthymius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1411 CE - Italy - Pope John XXIII, with the help of Louis of Anjou, defeated Ladislas at Roccasecca allowing the pope to establish himself at Rome.
1411 CE - England - Guildhall, within the City of London, built between 1411 and 1440, was designed to reflect the importance of London's ruling elite. In the twenty-first century its splendour is still awe-inspiring, and within the walls of this national treasure lie six spectacular rooms providing unique surroundings for corporate and private hospitality. Guildhall has been the City powerhouse since the twelfth century. In an era when the Lord Mayor of London rivalled the monarch for influence and prestige, this was where he and the ruling merchant class held court, fine-tuned the laws and trading regulations that helped create London's wealth.
The Guildhall is the centre of the life of the City, and speaks ot us of its municipal government and the stirring scenes that were enacted within its walls. The importance and power and traditions of the City were so great that its citizens claimed to be independent of the State. London claimed to govern itself. Such is the "Law of London," they said; and the dispute was at an end. [see p. 51]
1412 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Fernando I becomes king of Aragonia. He rules until 1416 CE.
1413 CE - Turkey - Timur's empire collapses and the Ottomans, led by Bayazid's son Mehmet I, recover their terroritories.
1413 CE - England - King Henry IV of England died and his son Henry V became king.
1413 CE - Italy - Ladislas drove Pope John XXIII from Rome.
1413 CE - China - Admiral Zheng He, on his fourth voyage of discovery (1414 - 1415 CE) with 30,000 men, sailed to Arabia and the Red Sea to extract tribute, which he did. He also brought back African animals as tribute.
1414 CE - Germany - The Grand Council of the Roman Catholic Church, forced by Sigismund, German King and later Holy Roman Emperor (1433 - 1437 CE), on Pope John XXIII to resolve the schism. They proclaimed that the General Council has authority immediately from Christ and all men including the Pope himself is bound to obey it in matters of faith. This declaration of faith is authored to deal with the current fragmentation of the church. This Council had three Popes to contend with, one charged with piracy, murder, rape, sodomy and incest. German, French and English cardinals argued for the abdication of all three papal claimants. Pope John XXIII yielded to pressure, but haggled for a week over the terms and conditions of his abdication. He then fled the city hoping to disrupt the Grand Council. He is captured, placed on trial and convicted of simony, perjury and grossest misconduct and deposed. Pope John XXIII recanted and declared the Grand Council infallible and renounced any right to the papacy.
1415 CE - England - Henry V of England allies with Burgundy, defeats the French at the battle of Agincourt, takes prisoner the duke of Orleans and proceeds to reconquer Normandy from France.
1415 CE - Portugal - Prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal seizes Ceuta from the Muslims.
1415 CE - Czechoslovakia - Jan Hus (c. 1372 - 1415 CE), rector of the University at Prague, is excommunicated from the Church and burned by Pope John XXIII in Rome for heresy. Jan Hus spoke openly of the greed and ambition of monks, cardinals and even the Pope, describing their covetousness, their luxury, and their sloth. He refused to recant insisting that no teaching of his had been contrary to God's holy word. He never did recant and was martyred by the Church. A Grand Council of the Church deposed and imprisoned Pope John XXIII, and Pope Gregory XII was forced to resign.
In 1415, the Church of Rome took an extraordinary step to destroy all knowledge of two Second Century Jewish books that it said contained 'the true name of Jesus Christ.' The Antipope Benedict XIII first singled out for condemnation a secret Latin treatise called 'Mar Yesu' and then issued instructions to destroy all copies of the Book of Elxai. No editions of these writings now publicly exist, but church archives recorded that they were once in popular circulation and known to the early presbyters … The Rabbinic fraternity once held the destroyed manuscripts with great reverence for they were comprehensive original records reporting the 'Life of Rabbi Jesus.'
The Bible Fraud, Tony Bushby, 271 pages, PacificBlue Group (January 2001) ISBN: 0957900716.
1416 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Alfonso V becomes king of Aragonia, ruling for forty-two years until 1458 CE.
1416 - 1439 CE - Turkey - Joseph II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1417 CE - France - The Armagnacs and Burgundians, two factions of French noblemen, had been fighting for control of France since 1411 CE. A popular uprising in Paris resulted in the imprisonment of all the Armagnacs who are later slaughtered.
1417 - 1431 CE - Italy - A comparatively united church consisting of twenty-two cardinals and thirty representatives of five nations hoping to arrest the century decline of the papacy elects Cardinal Otto Colonna Pope Martin V. It is noteworthy that Pope Martin V had remained loyal to Pope John XXIII until his flight from the Grand Council. Popes Benedict XIII and John XXIII held out as popes for several years, but had only minute followings. Ruler after ruler deprived Rome of the right to appoint bishops, tax the clergy or take appeals from local courts.
1420 CE - France - Henry V captured most of Normandy, and by treaty of Troyes is recognized as heir to the king of France, Charles VI. Henry V married Katherine of Valois, the king's daughter.
1420 CE - Italy - Pope Martin V entered Rome and secured the removal of Neapolitan troops through concessions with Queen Joanna II of Naples, 1414 - 1435 CE.
1421 CE - China - Admiral Zheng He, on his sixth voyage (1421 - 1422 CE), sailed up the west coast of Africa. He is believed to have discovered Europe (Portugal, France & Holland). He described the Hollanders as mostly tall people, some with red hair and beard, long noses, deep eye sockets and long feet. Some suggest he continued on to America. At this time the Chinese fleet was split up into a number of smaller groups to sail to the countries beyond the horizon, all the way to the end of the earth. The fleet contained 62 flag ships that were 475 feet long by 193 feet wide and could hold a crew of 1,100 and some claim some of the ships were 600 feet in length. Excluding the flag ships another 250 ships or more were involved in the fleet.
Chinese records claim they circumnavigated the world in March 1421 to October 1423. Xeheng He (Zheng) and a 100 man crew accomplished the feat. The Chinese Ocean fleet is believed to be composed of 317 vessels and 28,000 men. Many ships are engaged in other exploration and maintaining trading routes.
1422 CE - England - France - Both King Henry V of England and King Charles VI of France died. Nine-month old Henry VI became King of England and France. He grew up to be called the simple-minded and book-loving king who gave way to periods of mental illness. England found it is easier to conquer France than to keep it. John Duke of Bedford, Henry V's brother expanded English control, but the French twice defeated the English army.
1422 CE - Italy - Pope Martin V denounced violent anti-Jewish preaching and forbid compulsory baptism of Jewish children under twelve.
1423 CE - Italy - Clement VIII, alias Gil Sanchez Munoz, is elected pope by three cardinals as successor to Pope Benedict XIII. Cardinal Jean Carrier, a supporter of Pope Benedict, felt the Clement election is not valid and elected his own pope, Bernard Garnier, who took the name Pope Benedict XIV, about whom little is known.
1424 CE - Portugal - Prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal sends the first expedition to Africa.
1425 - 1448 CE - Turkey - John VIII becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.
1428 CE - Portugal - The King of Portugal's eldest son obtained copies of Chinese maps of the world and incorporated them into his maps.
1428 CE - Italy - Pope Martin V dug up and burned the remains of the English Oxford professor John Wycliffe who died 1384 CE, because he had attacked the corruption and wealth of the Popes and had denied papal infallibility. Martin was elected to end the Great Schism (1378 - 1417 CE) and to end Papal abuses over papal taxation and provisions which he failed to do. At this time the Pope, although adverse, was subject to councils and therefore had no papal infallibility. He himself obeyed the decree Frequens of October 5, 1417 CE.
1429 CE - France - Joan of Arc was born at Domrémy, circa January 6, 1412 CE. Citing a mandate from God to drive the English out of France, she was eventually given an escort to bring her before Charles of Ponthieu (later known as King Charles VII). After gaining the approval of the Church scholars at Poitiers in March 1429 CE, she was granted titular command of an army which quickly lifted the siege of Orléans on May 8, 1429 CE, captured Jargeau, Meung-sur-Loire, and Beaugency in mid-June, and defeated an English army at Patay on June 18.
Joan of Arc with her Standard
After accepting the surrender of the city of Troyes and other towns, the army escorted Charles to the city of Rheims for his coronation on July 17. An unsuccessful attack was made on Paris on September 8, followed by the successful capture of St-Pierre-le-Moutier on November 4. As a reward for her service, Charles VII granted her noble status along with her family on December 29, 1429 CE. She returned to the field the following year, despite predicting her own defeat.
Captured at Compiègne on May 23, 1430 CE and transferred to the English, she was placed on trial in Rouen by a selected group of pro-English clergy, many of whom nevertheless had to be coerced into voting for a guilty verdict. Convicted and executed on May 30, 1431 CE, she was subsequently declared innocent by the Inquisition on July 7, 1456 CE after a lengthy re-trial process which was initiated shortly after the English were finally driven from Rouen, thereby allowing access to the documents and witnesses associated with her trial; the presiding Inquisitor, Jean Bréhal, ruled that the original trial had been tainted by fraud, illegal procedures, and intimidation of both the defendant and many of the clergy who had taken part in the trial, and she was therefore described as a martyr by the Inquisitor. After the usual lengthy delay associated with the sluggish process of canonization, she was beatified on April 11, 1909 CE and canonized as a saint on May 16, 1920 CE.
1429 CE - Italy - Pope Martin V crushed the opposing forces of Northern Italy. His cardinals considered him a hard and harsh man.
1430 CE - China - Admiral Zheng He is ordered by Emperor Zhu Zhanji, 1425 - 1435 CE, to conduct the seventh expedition and he again went to the west, some called this a dignified tour of the world just to collect tribute. His flag ship was 400 feet long, whereas European ships were no more than 100 feet long. He commanded a fleet of 317 ocean going ships that included hundreds of sailors per ship including women and children. They carried homing pigeons in case of shipwreck. Marco Polo reported the Chinese had four masted ocean going craft with 60 cabins and 300 men crews. It is noteworthy the ships carried gardens and all provisions required so as not to depend on barbarian suppliers. It is not know where the balance of the Chinese fleet voyaged this year. The first written account of Admiral Zheng He titled Adventure to the Western Ocean was written in 1597 CE.
1430 CE - Africa - Portugal trades slaves within Africa.
1431 - 1447 CE - Italy - Eugene IV, alias Gabriele Condulmaro, a relative of Pope Gregory XII, is elected pope.
1431 CE - France - Henry VI of England is crowned king of France in Paris.
1434 CE - Italy - On January 13, Eugene IV, issued Sicut Dudum, which condemned the enslavement of black natives in the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa. The Portuguese stole the peoples homes and goods, committed various illicit and evil deeds and enslaved the people. If these injustices are not corrected within 15 days, those guilty parties will be excommunicated ipso facto.
Later, Pope Eugene IV fled Rome being driven out by people who pelted his person. The Colonna family had agitated the people against the pope because he confiscated some of their lands and failed to call a council.
1434 CE - Africa - Portuguese explorer Gil Eanes reaches the Cape and explores the western coast of Africa on behalf of Prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal.
1436 CE - Africa - Afonso de Baldaya reaches Rio de Oro on behalf of Prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal.
1438 CE - Austria - Hungary - Emperor Albert II (d. 1439 CE) the King of Bohemia (Austria) and Hungary is elected Emperor. Albert II had acquired Hungary by marrying the daughter of the king.
1439 CE - Italy - An ecumenical council in Florence, Italy with the Byzantines to discuss the union of the Roman and Greek churches ended with only one dissenting vote among the prelates of the Greek church. In Constantinople a considerable group of clergy and the majority of the people refused to accept the union. Isidor, a Greek or Hellenized Slav strongly supported the union for Russia. His support resulted in a promotion to cardinal. The Moscow clergy refused to accept the union and Grand Duke Basil II ordered Isidor's temporary arrest. Cardinal Isidor returned to Rome is assigned to Constantinople and eventually taken prisoner by the Turks. A schism developed and Felix V is elected pope after the Council of Basle (1431 - 1449 CE) deposes Pope Eugene IV. Pope Eugene IV had effectively eliminated democracy from the government of the Roman Church and on his deathbed he bitterly regretted ever having left his monastery.
1440 CE - Serbia - Yugoslavia - The Ottomans under Murad II annex Serbia and besiege Belgrade.
1440 CE - Austria - Hungary - The Hapsburg dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, 1440 - 1806 CE, began with Frederick III, 1440 - 1493 CE.
1440 - 1443 CE - Turkey - Metrophanes II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1441 CE - Portugal - The Portuguese pirates returned this year with the first recorded cargo of African slaves, or Moors as they called them. Henry of Portugal, a devout Roman Catholic, considered his pirates and slave traders as Christian crusaders bringing the word of god to these African heathens. He even sought and received the support of Pope Eugene IV in these activities.
1441 CE - Europe - The Hanseatic League is defeated by the Dutch.
1443 - 1450 CE - Turkey - Gregory III Mammas becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1444 CE - Portugal - The first public sale of African slaves by Europeans takes place at Lagos.
1444 CE - Italy - In support of Pope Eugene IV's commitment to the union of the Roman and Greek Churches, the Vatican started a second war against the Moslems. Christian Hungary attempted a second unsuccessful crusade against the Moslem Ottoman Empire at Varna, Bulgaria and is defeated.
1445 CE - Scotland - Earl William Sinclair starts to build Rosslyn Chapel to hold some of the Templar Mysteries, and to create a book in stone to enshrine for posterity the Templar ideals. The Chapel is built using the Golden Mean.
The Templar order is never proscribed in Scotland. Its lands are not confiscated, they are administered by the Order of the Hospital, but ownership is never transferred to the Hospitallers. Sandilands, the last Master of the Hospital in Scotland, sells the lands of Balentradoch to the Dundas family.
The Principality of Drem is created. The Guarde De Ecosse still draws its members from Scottish Templar Families.
1445 CE - Romania - Prince Vlad Dracul of Wallachia transports some 12,000 persons "who looked like Egyptians" from Bulgaria for slave labour.
1447 - 1455 CE - Italy - Nicholas V, alias Tommaso Parentucelli, is elected pope. It was to his merit that a positive solution to the schism was found with the resignation of Felix V, whom Nicholas made cardinal. During his pontificate the eastern Roman Empire came to an end when Mohammed II captured Constantinople. He began the construction of the new St Peter's basilica and brought the two Lateran libraries to the Vatican which was the foundation of the Vatican Library.
Constantine XI (XIII) Dragases
1449 - 1453 CE - Turkey - Constantine XI (XIII) Dragases becomes the last emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.
1450 CE - England - England is ruled by about sixty noble families, most of them related through marriage, and held their own standing armies, like the Duke of Buckingham who had a two thousand man army. The once plentiful beaver is now extinct in England. Mayors and sheriffs are permitted to wear marten and squirrel. Rare furs such as ermine and sable are restricted to royalty, the nobility and persons who give at least 100 pounds annually to the church.
1450 - 1453 CE - Turkey - Athanasius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1451 CE - Czechoslovakia - John Hus, a philosophy professor led a protest movement against doctrinal positions of the Roman Catholic Church. On July 6, 1415 CE, he is burned at the stake for heresy. His followers established the first Protestant Church called the Moravian Church named after the region in Slovakia where it originated. Their motto is: "In essentials unity, in nonessentials liberty, and in all things love."
1452 CE - Italy - To understand the connection between the Doctrine of Christian Discovery and the laws of the United States, we must recall certain documents issued forty years before Columbus' historic voyage. In 1452 CE, Pope Nicholas V issued two documents "Dum Diversas" 1452, and "Romans Pontifex" 1455 CE which granted King Alfonso of Portugal the right to enslave "Saracens, pagans [i.e. Black people], and other Infidels, and other enemies of Christ," to take all their possessions and property, and "to put them into perpetual slavery," first in West Africa, and then in any area conquered by the king before or after 1452 CE.
Roman Catholicism is a universal secular government domiciled at the Vatican City State in Rome. It's sovereign, the Pope, is an absolute ruler who is deemed infallible. In the political context, the Roman Catholic Church has been determined by the United States District courts to be a foreign State (1) . The Roman Catholic Church State, if it may so be called, requires universal obedience to the decrees of its omnipotent pope and his various councils. Vatican Council II’s Constitutions on the Church (1964 CE) requires secular officials, “whoever they are, to expend all their energy for the growth of the church and its continuous sanctification.”
1453 CE - Europe - Qualifications of the Holy Roman Emperor
The office was not hereditary, but elective. However, from 1453 to 1740 CE, a Habsburg was always Emperor. The last Habsburg Charles VI died leaving only daughters, and the Elector of Bavaria was elected as Charles VII in 1742 CE, but he died in 1745 CE and Charles VI's son-in-law Francis of Lorraine was elected emperor in 1745 CE; until the end of the Empire in 1806 CE, the imperial crown was in the Habsburg-Lorraine family.
The Emperor had to be a worthy man, aged 18 or more, reside in the Empire, be of noble birth (all four grandparents had to be noble, according to the Schwabenspiegel), and of lay status (this was not explicitly stated). No law required that he be Catholic, and, although the text in a number of laws assumes that the emperor is Catholic, jurists saw no obstacle to the choice of a Protestant prince. Nor did he have to be German, as the examples of Alfonso of Castile and Charles V showed. By the 17th century, however, it seemed wise for any candidate to possess an estate within the boundaries of the Empire: when the French weighed in 1648 CE whether to let Alsace remain within the Empire, it was because it might allow the king of France to be a candidate for the throne. Similarly, in 1737 CE, the duke of Lorraine was allowed to retain the county of Falkenstein so as not to jeopardize his future candidacy.
The King of the Romans bore his arms on a shield on the breast of a single-headed eagle sable (as opposed to the double-headed eagle of the Emperor). He had royal rank and came immediately after the Emperor in precedence. He succeeded the emperor immediately, without need for another coronation or Wahlkapitulation, since he had already been crowned and sworn a capitulation at the time of his election. He also ruled the empire in case the emperor was incapacitated (as did Joseph I in the last days of his father's reign), but stayed out of the government of the empire otherwise, according to the oath he took upon election.
If no king of the Romans existed, and if either the Emperor was incapacitated or under age (sede pleana), or there was no emperor (sede vacante, case of an interregnum), the imperial authority was held jointly by two Imperial Vicars (Reichsvikarien), although exercised in the name of the emperor in the first case. By virtue of the Golden Bull, these were the Elector Palatine and the Elector of Saxony, and each had special authority over a part of the empire, depending on which type of law was in force: the Elector Palatine in regions of Franconian law (Franconia, Swabia, the Rhine, southern Germany), while the Elector of Saxony in regions of Saxon law (Saxony, Westphalia, northern Germany, Hannover). The boundaries between the two areas (particularly in Hesse, Julich, Cleve, Berg, Liége, Ostfriesland) were disputed until 1750 CE, and some regions (Bohemia, Austria) did not recognize any vicar. In Italy, the titular vicar was the duke of Savoy.
1453 CE - France - England lost the Duchy of Gascony in France and the alliance the Bretons and Burgundians broke down. France expelled the English, marking the end of the "Hundred Years' War."
1453 CE - Turkey - In retaliation for two failed crusades and the Papal agreement between Greece and Rome, the Turks marched on Greece. A seventy thousand man Turkish army from the Moslem Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople and killed the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI. The Turks almost reached Vienna, Austria. This action ended forever the thousand-year-old Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire. It is one of the last remnants of the vast Roman Empire, with only the Roman Catholic Church remaining. Constantinople remains Turkish to this day. The Turks, however, did not destroy the Greek Church and allowed a new patriarch to be elected. The Greeks returned to Orthodoxy. In 1458 CE, Pope Pius II declared a Holy War or crusade, but no princes would join him, so he assembled his own fleet.
1454 - 1456 CE - Turkey - Gennadius II Scholarius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1454 CE - Czechoslovakia - Jews are driven out of the town of Moravia, Czechoslovakia.
1455 - 1458 CE - Italy - Callistus III, alias Alfonso de Borja or Borgia, is elected pope and immediately began organizing a crusade to recapture Constantinople. He said he is prepared to give up his life in support of this Holy War. He dispatched clergy armed with indulgences for sale throughout Europe to fund the planned war.
Born in Spain, Callistus III was obsessed with the idea of recapturing Constantinople and the Holy Land as well as defeating the Turks who were a real threat. However, Callistus III practised nepotism and made his nephew Rodrigo a cardinal, the future pope Alexander VI Borgia.
1456 - 1462 CE - Romania - Prince Vlad Dracula II of Wallachia (Romania) the madman during his reign, killed between fifty and one hundred thousand people. At Brasov (Romania) in 1459 CE, for no apparent reason, he impaled thousands of Saxon Burghers and dined amid the gruesome scene. His life inspired the fictional vampire "Dracula" character created by author Bram Stoker.
1456 CE - Italy - Pope Callistus III reopened the case of witchcraft and heresy against Joan of Arc and declared her innocence. This same year he revived the harsh legislation, allowed to lapse by his predecessors, banning the social intercourse of Roman Christians with Jews. Alexander VI, alias Rodrigo de Borgia, purchased a Cardinalship to become one of the richest Cardinals. This is a common practice within the Roman Church at this time. He also took a concubine, another common practice.
1456 CE - Germany - Johann Gutenberg invented the printing press using moveable type and prints the Bible in Mainz, Germany. This would be considered the most important invention of all time including into the twenty first century.
1456 - 1462 CE - Turkey - Isidore II Xanthopoulos becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1457 CE - Italy - Resentment against Pope Callistus III's war tithes (tax) began in France and Germany as well as Naples. In Italy, the favors he lavished on relatives and compatriots aroused great bitterness. To protect himself, he hired Spanish commanders and garrisoned himself in the papal state.
1458 - 1464 CE - Italy - Pius II, alias Enea Silvio Piccolomini, a secretary to Pope Felix V, is elected pope. A crusade is never far from his thoughts throughout his reign. Inquisitor Nicholas Jaquerius claimed that modern witchcraft is a new sect with night flying, which is marked with a cloven hoof mark on their body. Mozzolino, a Dominican General, affirmed the new sect theory and claimed it started in 1404 CE. Pope Pius II was a well known author of erotic literature, and had fathered about twelve illegitimate children.
1458 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Juan II becomes king of Aragonia, ruling until 1479 CE.
1459 CE - France - Inquisition trials begin at Arras, France which accused and burnt witches under the name Vaudois, a title applied to the Waldensian heretics. The trials are plots against rich and highly placed persons. The French Parliament instituted an inquiry that annulled the sentences, ordered restitution and said masses for those executed.
1460 CE - Greece - The Ottomans conquer Greece.
1460 CE - France - Louis XI annexes Burgundy.
1461 CE - England - Henry VI, son of Henry V, rules England until being deposed in 1461 CE. He dies imprisoned in the tower of London.
1461 CE - Armenia - The Ottomans capture Trebizond, on the Black Sea in the province of Armenia, now known as Trabzon.
When the army of the Fourth Crusade overthrew (1204 CE) the Byzantine Empire and established the Latin Empire of Constantinople, several Greek successor states sprang up. These were the empire of Nicaea, the despotate of Epirus, and the empire of Trebizond. The last of these was founded by two members of the former imperial Comnenus family, David and his brother Alexius I (reigned 1204 - 1222 CE) of Trebizond, who took the titles of Grand Comnenus and emperor, which were assumed by all his successors. The empire comprised the entire southern coastal region of the Black Sea except its westernmost section, which belonged to Nicaea. Trebizond, the capital, and Sinope were the chief cities. The western part of the empire was the conquest of David Comnenus, who soon lost his dominions to Nicaea. The empire of Trebizond was further diminished when Sinope fell (1214 CE) to the Seljuk Turks, and the emperor became a vassal of the sultan of Iconium; for the remainder of its existence Trebizond was restricted to the southeast Black Sea coastal region. When the Byzantine Empire was restored (1261 CE) under Nicaean leadership, Trebizond remained separate and independent, although it was often forced to pay tribute to the succeeding dominant powers of Asia Minor. After the Mongol invasion the empire experienced tremendous economic prosperity. It became the commercial route through Asia Minor, leading into the great trade route to East Asia that the Mongols had opened, and its position on the trade routes from Russia and from the Middle East to Europe furthered its importance. Its commercial life was controlled by the Genoese and the Venetians, and the empire profited much from the added opportunity to export the produce of its own rich hinterland. The empire reached its greatest prosperity under Alexius II (1297 - 1330 CE), but with the decline of Mongol power after 1320, Trebizond suffered increasingly from Turkish attacks, civil wars, and domestic intrigues. In this period the emperors attempted to gain strength by marrying the princesses of the Comnenus dynasty to Turkish princes. Relations between Trebizond and the Muslims were generally friendly, but after the Turkish conquest of Constantinople (1453 CE), David Comnenus, the last emperor of Trebizond, promoted an alliance of the non-Ottoman Asian states against Sultan Muhammad II. In 1461 CE, Muhammad forced David to surrender, and a few years later the sultan had him put to death together with all the Comnenus males but one. Trebizond was annexed to the Ottoman Empire. At the height of its wealth and power the court of the Grand Comneni was a great artistic and cultural center and made Trebizond the last refuge of Hellenistic civilization.
1461 - 1491 CE - Iran - The Ottoman Turks entered northwest of Iran and pushed Timurids towards the east.
1462 CE - Russia - The first of the self appointed Tsar, or Caesar, Grand Princes, Ivan III, the Great, 1462 - 1505 CE, began the process to unite Russia against Mongol rule. Living around Moscow, or Muscovy, are the Bielorussian and Russian who are believed descended from the Viking (Rus) Rurik the Red, to the east the Slav (Bielorussian or White Russians and Ukrainian or Little Russian), to the south east the Tartars ruled, who are descendants of the Mongol and the Samoed, Votiak, Bashkir, Mordvian, Kazak and Kalmuk. Along the frontiers of Orthodox Christendom lived the Cossack, to the west are the Polish-Lithuanian powers that also controlled the Ukraine.
1462 CE - Scotland - The Orkney Islands underwent an extended period of economic decline following the transfer of political control from Norway to Scotland. They refer to this period as the Age of Starvation.
1462 - 1464 CE - Turkey - Sophronius I Syropoulos becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1464 CE - France - France establishes a postal system.
1464 - 1471 CE - Italy - Paul II, alias Pietro Barbo, nephew of Pope Eugene IV is elected pope on condition he call a General Council within three years. Upon election he rejected the rules saying they are only guidelines.
Paul II supported with success the Albanian hero Skanderbeg who fought against the Turks. He again took up the construction of St Peter's, entrusting the work to Giuliano da Sangallo. Paul II ruled that a Holy Year was to be held every 25 years that each generation could benefit from forgiveness.
The homosexual Pope Paul II liked to see naked men being racked and tortured. Alledgedly, he died of a heart attack whilst being sodomized by one of his favorite boys.
1464 CE - Turkey - Joasaph I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1466 CE - Prussia - Kazimierz IV's Polish army defeats the Teutonic Knights and annexes western Prussia to Poland.
1466 CE - Italy - Pope Paul II imprisoned and tortured the historian Bartolomco Platina (1421 - 1481 CE) because he protested the Pope's abolition of papal scholars and literary college.
1466 CE - Poland - The Teutonic Hochmeister after years of warring finally surrendered when both sides had lost 100,000 men. Poland received Danzig, henceforth to be known as Royal Prussia. The Order kept the East, but in future fewer than half of the Teutonic Knights are to be Poles. The Order is to pay homage for their Prussian lands to the Polish King with a humiliating ceremony. The treaty divided the Order between Prussia, Livonia and Germany, all becoming more independent.
1466 CE - Turkey - Marcus II Xylokaraves becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1466 CE - Turkey - Symeon I of Trebizond becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1466 - 1471 CE - Turkey - Dionysius I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1468 CE - Italy - Pope Paul II suppressed the Roman academy, accusing them of cultivating pagan rituals and ideas. He also imposed a ban on the study of pagan poets by Roman children. Emperor Frederick III of Germany failed to convince the pope to call a General Council. Louis XI of France also requested a General Council. The papal biographer took his revenge by painting his portrait in the blackest colors.
1469 CE - Spain - Aragonia and Castilla are united through the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragonia and Isabella of Castilla.
1471 - 1484 CE - Italy - Sixtus IV (A), alias Francesco della Rovere, a Franciscan, is elected pope. He had six illegitimate sons, of which one was the result of an incestuous relationship with his sister. He lavished gifts on the Duke of Milan to secure the election. He had ruthless determination and believed the end justified the means. Pope Sixtus IV is the first Pope to impose a license on brothels and a special tax on priests who kept a mistress. He also established the practice of selling indulgences to be applied to the dead.
1471 - 1474 CE - Turkey - Symeon I of Trebizond, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1472 CE - Italy - Pope Sixtus IV arranged the marriage of Tsar Ivan III of Russia and Sophia Paleologus (his second wife) a niece of the last Byzantine Emperor. The Roman Church hoped to bring Russia into the fold and to gain assistance against the Ottoman Turks. Sophia, however, changed from Roman Catholic to Greek Orthodoxy.
1475 CE - North America - According to the great binding law Gayanashagowa of the Constitution of the Iroquois Nations, the Iriquous were the "Ongwehonweh," which stood for the "original people." The word "aboriginal" has been used over the past few centuries to describe the Native American Indian. Sir Matthew Hale gives an example of the Latin phrase "ab origine" in his History of the Common Law of England. The Latin word "ab" means "from." For example, "ab initio" means "from the beginning." The Latin word "origine" means "original." Thus, the word "aboriginal" is the Anglicized version of the ancient Latin term "ab origine," meaning "from the original."
Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
1475 CE - Spain - Built between 1475 and 1483 CE, in the time of Pope Sixtus IV della Rovere, the Sistine Chapel had originally served as a Palatine Chapel. The chapel is rectangular in shape and measures 40.93 meters long by 13.41 meters wide, i.e. the exact dimensions of the Temple of Solomon, as given in the Old Testament. It is 20.70 meters high and is roofed by a flattened barrel vault, with little side vaults over the centered windows.
The architectural plans were made by Baccio Pontelli and the construction work was supervised by Giovannino de' Dolci. The first Mass in the Sistine Chapel was celebrated on August 9, 1483 CE.
The wall paintings were executed by Pietro Perugino, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Cosimo Rosselli, Luca Signorelli and their respective workshops, which included Pinturicchio, Piero di Cosimo and Bartolomeo della Gatta.
Michelangelo Buonarroti was commissioned by Pope Julius II della Rovere in 1508 CE to repaint the ceiling; the work was completed between 1508 and 1512 CE. He painted the Last Judgement over the altar, between 1535 and 1541 CE, being commissioned by Pope Paul III Farnese.
1475 - 1476 CE - Turkey - Raphael I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1476 - 1481 CE - Turkey - Maximus III Manasses becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1478 CE - Spain - Medieval Spain had been the most racially tolerant land in Europe. Christians, Mohammedan and Jews lived side by side in peace. The proudest Christian families in Spain had intermarried with Jews. Hebrew blood flowed in the veins of the greatest prelates in the land. Some suggest that Ferdinand and Queen Isabella driven by a desire for racial purity requested the Holy Inquisition by Pope Sixtus IV. In Spain racial purity and religious orthodoxy had become mutually dependent. Many zealots believed God guides the Holy Inquisition for His praise and honor. The Inquisition in Spain employed a form of secret police and suspects were arrested in secret, placed in secret prisons or disappeared without a trace.
Pope Sixtus IV, at the urging of the Catholic King Ferdinand of Spain, approved establishment of the Spanish Inquisition for dealing with Jewish and Moorish converts accused of heresy by issuing a papal bull. The institution, which was peculiar to Spain and its colonies in America, acquired jurisdiction over other cases as well and fell into disrepute because of its procedures, cruelty and the manner in which it served the Spanish crown, rather than the accused and the good of the Church.
While the Inquisition in other European countries tended to focus on cases of heresy, Spanish inquisitors directed their energies towards persecuting the Jews, conversos (Jews converted to Catholicism), Muslims, suspected sympathizers, and certain types of criminals. The Spanish intent was to drive out Jews, Protestants and other non-believers from Spain. Bishop Creighton said of Pope Sixtus IV, "he lowered the moral tone of Europe." Pope Sixtus condoned the murder of Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici by his brother Girolamo. Pope Sixtus IV also annulled the decrees of the Grand Council of 1414 - 1417 CE destroying any accountability of the pope. The Inquisition is reported to have lasted until 1834 CE, while others have suggested it finished in 1808 CE. The Office of the Inquisition did not close, however, until January 1968 CE. It was begun in 1233 CE by Pope Gregory IX.
1479 CE - Aragon - Castille (Spain) - Fernando II becomes king of Aragonia, ruling until 1516. King Ferdinand of Aragon married Queen Isabella, 1474 - 1504 CE, of Castille, Spain, thereby uniting the two Kingdoms. Castille was the larger Kingdom, being a much different culture than Aragon. Queen Isabella is a rigorous ruler, depriving the nobles of many of their most cherished privileges. Power is shifted to civil servants steeped in absolutist traditions of Roman Law or to priests who owed their position to royal patronage. Spanish clergymen appealed to Catholic King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella, promising them that confiscation of Jewish property and wealth would be worth a great deal. Father Tomas de Torquemada is the first appointed Inquisitor in 1483 CE. During the first eighteen years of the Spanish Inquisition an estimated 8,800 people are burned and some 90,000 tortured and imprisoned. Some suggest the martyrs of the Spanish Inquisition would run into the millions before it ran its course in the nineteenth century.
1480 CE - Aragon - Castille (Spain) - Queen Isabella and Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros, 1436 - 1517 CE, Archbishop of Toledo, issued drastic Church reforms. Concubinage is abolished, reforming the moral habits and learning of the clergy. The appointment of foreigners to office in the Spanish Church is strictly forbidden. The Crown appointed almost all the higher ecclesiastical offices. Nowhere in Catholic Europe has the Pope less authority.
1480 CE - Russia - Ivan III finally frees Russia from 240 years of Mongol domination.
1481 - 1486 CE - Turkey - Symeon I of Trebizond, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1482 CE - Portugal - Portugal founds the first European trading post in Africa (Elmina, Gold Coast).
1482 CE - Scotland - King Edward IV's army occupied Edinburgh and claimed lordship for Scotland's role in the hundred-year war. The Gaelic tribes, meaning clan or children of one family, began to mean groups of people occupying an area of land and who followed a particular chief in Scotland. Not all members of a clan are related to each other. Clan Donald of the Highland district is one of the most powerful.
1482 CE - Aragon - Castille (Spain) - King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella restricted the power of Rome over the Spanish Church, including the various Orders of the Knights.
1483 CE - Germany - Frederick of Habsburg (September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493) and his son Maximilian I begin joint rule of Germany.
1483 CE - Aragon - Castille (Spain) - Pope Sixtus IV confirmed Father Tomas de Torquemada as the Grand Inquisitor or Inquisitor General of Spain. This same year, he imposed a ban on appeals to General Councils of the Roman Church. It is said of the thirty-four cardinals he created, six being nephews, are men of little worth. Some claim he was responsible for the murder of 2,000 people. The Inquisition has been defined as psychotic fanatics with a taste for blood, who tortured innocent people to obtain false confessions, then sent them off to be burnt at the stake.
Two Dominican Monks, Miguel de Morillo and Juad de San Martin, also headed the Inquisition in Spain. In Seville, 700 Conversos are burned, 5,000 were arrested, repented and were not executed. Many however were still imprisoned and their property confiscated.
1484 - 1492 CE - Italy - Giuliano della Rovere (future Pope Julius II) and nephew of Pope Sixtus IV, intrigued to elect a puppet pope. Innocent VIII, alias Giovanni Battiste Cibo, is elected pope. Pope Innocent VIII sired eight illegitimate sons and probably as many daughters, of whom he openly acknowledged. He now provided for them by arranging marriages into princely houses. His reign as Pope was known as 'The Golden Age of Bastards'. On his death bed a wet nurse was found for his final craving - woman's milk.
He created unneeded offices, selling them to raise funds. He issued a bull ordering the Inquisition in Germany to proceed with the utmost severity against witches. Witches are those wicked women, reverting to Satan, and seduced by the illusions and phantasms of demons, believe and profess that they ride at night with the goddess Diana on certain beasts. Witches have slain infants yet in mother's womb, the offspring of cattle, have blasted the produce of the earth, the grapes of the vine, the fruits of trees and all other abominations. Any unexplained event resulted in the cry burn the witches. It is estimated that 100,000 witches are burnt in Germany and 300,000 throughout Europe by the 17th century.
1485 CE - England - Henry VII began a century of Tudor rule until 1603 CE, and he believed that war and glories are bad for business and that business is good for the State. He therefore avoided quarrels with Scotland or France.
1486 CE - England - King Henry VII, who was half Welsh, made an important trade agreement with the Netherlands that allowed English trade to grow. He acquired all lands from the defeated or dead nobility and forbade anyone, except himself, to keep a standing army. He never spent money unless he had to and only spent lavishly on his fleet of merchant ships that he believed were the future.
1486 CE - Italy - Pope Innocent VIII recognized Henry VII as rightful king of England on the grounds of conquest, inheritance and national choice. This same year he banned discussion and study of the thesis of Pico della Mirandola, 1463 - 1494 CE, the exponent of Renaissance Platoism.
1486 - 1488 CE - Turkey - Nephon II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1487 CE - Africa - Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias rounds the Cape of Good Hope in Africa and thus proves that the Atlantic is connected to the Indian Ocean.
1489 - 1491 CE - Turkey - Dionysius I, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1489 CE - Italy - Pope Innocent VIII entered into agreement with the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II, 1481 - 1512 CE, for 40,000 ducats yearly and the gift of the Holy Lance (supposed to have pierced Christ's side at his crucifixion) to detain the sultan's fugitive brother at Rome. Pope Innocent VIII believed in the ancient Celtic practice of shunamitism that is the belief that a younger person can transfer vital energies to an older one. The Pope employed healthy children to stroke him and so transfer their energy to him. This form of sex therapy is also practiced in Greece.
1490 CE - Spain - The Inquisition caused all the Hebrew Bibles to be burned; and Father Torquemada alone destroyed 6,000 volumes at Salamanca.
1491 - 1497 CE - Turkey - Maximus IV becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1492 CE - Spain - Spain conquers Granada, ending the Moorish Kingdom. Father Torquemada of Spain orders the Jews to convert to Christianity or leave the country. It is estimated that about 50,000 "accepted" conversion, and 100,000 - 200,000 left Spain. Tens of thousands died before reaching safety, many being killed on the way. Forced Jewish converts were known as Marranos (meaning "swine"), conversos, or "New Christians". While the Inquisition had no authority over practicing Jews (who could not be branded as Christian heretics), the Inquisition had great authority over the conversos, many of whom continued to worship as Jews in secret. Ferdinand V and Isabella expelled the Jews from Granada and the Moors, in 1502 CE, from Castille, after the taking of Granada. Pope Innocent VIII awarded Ferdinand of Spain and his successors the title Catholic Kings. Pope Innocent VIII proclaimed a racist edict against the Jews in Spain to banish them from the peninsula.
Financed in part by the Royal Treasurers of the Crusade, Colon (Christopher Columbus) made his famous journey across the Sea of Darkness on the basis of the same militaristic doctrine promulgated by Pope Nicholas V. Accordingly, Colon 'claimed' for the use and profit of Catholic Spain and the Christian world, all the lands he 'discovered.' When Pope Alexander VI heard of Colon's successful voyage of "discovery," he promptly issued several papal decrees confirming the "discovered" lands to the monarchs of Spain, while protecting Portuguese interests previously affirmed by the Catholic Church.
When Cristobal Colon (Columbus) first set foot on the white sands of Guanahani Island, he performed a ceremony to "take possession" of the land for the Catholic king and queen of Spain. Although the story is a familiar one, few people are aware of the basis for the Spanish Admiral's act of "possession."
Under the laws of Spain and of Catholic Christendom, Columbus laid claim to Guanahani and subsequent lands on the basis of the Doctrine of Christian Discovery. In 1992 CE much of the Western world commemorated Colon's voyage. And this ancient Christian doctrine, of what was then the Catholic world, still serves as the foundation of federal Indian law in the United States.
With this document Pope Nicholas V declared war against all non-Christians throughout the world. Because at that time Christians viewed themselves as being at war with all non-Christians, it was customary for Christians to view "infidels" as enemies, to be treated as wild animals, or beasts of prey. Under Christian International Law, heathens and infidels were considered to be less than human, which does not lend itself to basic biblical Christian tenets and principles.
1492 - 1503 CE - Italy - Alexander VI, alias Rodrigo de Borgia, nephew of Pope Callistus III and the second-richest cardinal, is elected pope. He lived an openly licentious life, fathering several bastard children and awarding them a rich diocese. He often left his daughter, Lucrezia, as virtual regent in charge of official papal business during his absence. Some believe this may be the basis of the Pope Joan legend. It is said the pope loved his children to excess, but married off his daughter at age 13 to a man twice her age to expand his political power. One of his bastard children was Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, 1475 - 1507 CE, son of the then-Cardinal and his mistress in Spain. He was made archbishop of Valencia this year and cardinal in 1493 CE. Two other sons were Giovanni Borgia, the Duke of Gandia and Benevento Borgia.
1493 CE - Italy - In the Inter Cætera bull of May 4, 1493 CE, Pope Alexander VI declared it to be his desire that "the Catholic faith and Christian religion be everywhere increased and spread," and that "barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself." This doctrine would be enforced by the Society of Jesus (A) and the pope's army of Jesuit soldiers.
Pope Alexander VI, at the insistence of the Castilian sovereigns, divides the new world between Spain and Portugal, drawing a line of demarcation a hundred leagues west of the Azores. This is interesting given that Christopher Columbus had proposed he discovered Asia. It is common knowledge at this time that China is a highly civilized country, obviously living better than Europe without the blessings of Roman Christianity. This anomaly would trouble the church for centuries.
The original grants were handed out to the heirs of the king, nobility and loyal subjects of the crown through a religious doctrine, claiming vast areas of land if it was not already inhabited by any "Christian prince or State," in conjunction with the 1493 Inter Cætera by Pope Alexander VI. As "defender of the faith," the King of England was apparently in violation of several tenets of the "faith" that he professed to defend according to the Bible of both the Protestant and Catholic Churches. The Native American Indians had the original right to ownership of the soil. In order to regain absolute title to the soil, the original inhabitants would have to produce an elder title, though the soil was theirs through custom, prescriptive use and immemorial possession even according to the standards of English law.
In United States law, early documents of "discovery" and conquest, issued by a number of fifteenth century popes, form the basis for the denial of the rights of Indian nations and peoples. As a result, the United States continues to deny that Indians have complete rights of sovereignty and territorial integrity, simply because Indians were not Christians at the time of Christendom's arrival to the Western hemisphere. By dehumanizing Indian people, and by considering their territories as being, with "respect to Christians," "inhabited only by brute animals," the Christian world created a system of colonization that has not yet ended.
In 1573, Pope Gregory XIII issued the papal bull Sublimis Deus, which denounced the idea that Native Americans "should be treated like irrational animals and used exclusively for our profit and our service," and Pope Urban VIII (1623 - 1644 CE) formally excommunicated anyone still holding Indian slaves. By this time, however, the Doctrine of Discovery was deeply rooted and led nonetheless to the conquest of non-Christian lands and people in every corner of the world. Although the U.S. was founded on freedom from such tyranny, the idea that white people and Christians had certain divine rights was nevertheless ingrained in the young nation's policies. The slave trade, for example, and centuries of violence against black people depended upon the idea that non-Whites were less than human. The theft of Native American lands required a similar justification.
The nations of Europe adopted the principle that the discovery of any part of America gave title to the government by whose subjects, or by whose authority it was made, against all European governments. The European powers fought among themselves for title to America. Grants made by the King were given to the nobility and relatives of the king prior to obtaining any lawful title from the local inhabitants of America (A), the European title being completely fabricated in complete disregard to any title held by Native Americans, even though having their own laws and constitutions approximately 100 to 200 years prior to European settlers arriving. As there were natives already inhabiting the land, the American continent, therefore, was already "discovered." It is alleged that the Europeans held the right of "occupancy" to inhabit the American continents, but even Sir William Blackstone states that occupancy was only the "temporary" use of the soil, and that it was exclusive use to all but the "owner" provided that no one already occupied the land. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Joseph Story's Commentaries on the History of the Constitution, also confirm that the Indian Nations held absolute title to the soil, but have not properly protested the English grants, thus forcing the Native Americans to deal with the European powers on the basis of European law.
The law of the Native American Indian was the land was vested as a birthright. The only way for any European power to gain possession of the land would be done on the judicial doctrine of what is known as a legal fiction, which even by definition, is a contrivance. The arrogance of the European nobility regarding this fictional doctrine of discovery is shown in the landmark case of Johnson v. M'Intosh of 1823, wherein the nobility dicker among themselves as to who owns the American soil, continually overlooking ANY title the "aboriginals" held. European powers held no title to lands in America prior to granting any private letters patent to form business corporations on the North American Continent.
Sir William Blackstone and Chief Justice Story are both evasive of the point on the right of the European powers to claim title to the lands in America and drive out the natives.
"A right cannot die." Dormit aliquando jus, moritur nunquam. For of such an high estimation is right in the eye of the law, as the law preserveth it from death and destruction: trodden downe it may bee, but never trodden out.
The First Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England Sir Edward Coke (in his commentary upon Littleton) Section 279b.
The modern day attitude taken by the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs has changed to that of claiming responsibility for it's prior actions with the Native American Indians. Time will be the witness to the fulfillment of this change of heart.
1494 CE - Spain - The Spanish king Felipe the Fair inherits the "Low Countries" (Holland) when Maximilian I is made Holy Roman Emperor.
1494 CE - Italy - Charles VIII of France invades Firenze, Rome, Napoli, but a league of Milan, Venezia, emperor Maximilian, pope Alexander VI and Ferdinando of Aragonia, led by Francesco Gonzaga, forces him to retreat. Future Pope Julius II, alias Giuliano della Rovere, fled Italy to France fearing assassination by Pope Alexander VI. Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere urged Charles VIII of France to order the invasion of Italy with an army of 40,000 men, setting a pattern for French foreign policy and remained at war until 1559 CE. Giuliano became Pope Julius II. The treaty of Tordesillas modified Pope Alexander VI's demarcation of the new world because it favored Spain and granted the monarchs control of the church in the lands they colonized.
1494 CE - Italy - The Treaty of Tordesillas modified Pope Alexander VI's demarcation of the new world because it favored Spain and granted the monarchs control of the church in the lands they colonized.
Pope Alexander VI formed the Holy League designed to expel the invaders and included Spain, Milan, Venice and later England. French soldiers in Naples spread syphilis throughout Europe. It is believed to be a new strain as it killed its host within months of contracting the disease. Syphilis has been around Europe, in Italy since 700 BCE. In 1496 CE, Italy is free of the French armies.
1495 CE - Portugal - Manuel I becomes king of Portugal.
1496 CE - Portugal - Jews and Muslims are expelled from Portugal.
1497 CE - Spain - The Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sails to America on behalf of Spain.
1497 CE - Italy - Juan, Duke of Gandia, the favorite son of Pope Alexander VI, is murdered and thrown into the river. Suspicion fell on his brother, the Bishop Cesare. The Pope refused to believe his own son is guilty of this murder. Many at this time believe that the Papacy is totally corrupt.
1497 - 1498 CE - Turkey - Nephon II, restored for the first time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1498 CE - Portugal - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama sails from Portugal to India.
1498 CE - France - Charles VIII dies and Louis XII becomes king of France
1498 CE - Spain - The inquisitor, Dominican Friar Thomas of Torquemada, Spain, in fifteen years, his victims or martyrs totaled 114,000 of which 10,220 are burned to death.
1498 CE - Italy - The Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola and his two chief lieutenants are burned at the stake in Florence for proclaiming the unforgivable corruption of the church and the need for universal reform.
1498 - 1502 CE - Turkey - Joachim I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1499 CE - Switzerland - Switzerland gains independence from the German empire.
1499 CE - Italy - The French King Louis XII ordered his army to reoccupy Italy to gain Milan. Pope Alexander VI abetted King Louis XII's Italian plans and his desire for a divorce, in return for French support for the ambitious secular career of the Pope's son, Cesare Borgia.
1500 CE - Uzbekistan - The Uzbeks cross the Syr Darya river and enter Transoxiana (Uzbekistan).
1500 CE - Germany - At the request of Maximilian I, the Augsburg Reichstag declares Gypsy (Roma) traitors to the Christian countries, and accuses them of witchcraft, kidnapping of children, and banditry.
1500 CE - Brazil - Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral sails across the Atlantic Ocean and discovers Brazil.
1501 CE - Brazil - The Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci sails to Brazil on behalf of Portugal and realizes that he is exploring a new continent.
1501 CE - Persia (Iran) - Afghanistan - Shah Ismail I (a 14-year old boy who claims to be a descendant of the 12th imam) proclaimed in 1501 CE in Tabriz, unites Iran/Persia and most of Afghanistan, founds the Safavid dynasty with the capital in Isfahan and declares Shiism as the state religion.
In the confusion left by the retreating Mongols of Tamerlane, the Safavid dynasty took power in Persia in 1501 CE, and established a strong independent state, though it eventually had to cede Baghdad and all of Iraq to the Ottoman Turks. Persians fought against western incursions, against the Uzbeks and against Sunni Muslims. In particular, the first Safavid Shah, Ismail I, pursued a policy of persecuting Muslims and interfering with Ottoman interests. This attracted the ire of the Turkish Sultans, who inflicted a decisive defeat on the Persians in 1514 CE, causing the loss of northern Iraq and eastern Asia minor. The Safavid's ruled until 1732 CE.
1501 CE - Italy - Pope Alexander VI and his son, Bishop Cesare Borgia, began a systematic crushing of the Great Roman families to acquire their lands, using assassination to achieve their ends. Bishop Cesare Borgia is a very cruel commander. Many of the families believed that Pope Alexander VI used a family poison to remove his enemies.
The Papal Bull Erasmus, Enchirdion Militis Christiani orders the burning of books against the authority of the church.
Tomb of Francis II of Brittany and his Wife Marguerite de Foix
erected by Anne of Brittany 1502 - 1507
1502 CE - France - The Gothic Cathedral of Nantes holds the amazing black and white marble tomb of the parents of Anne of Brittany, ornamented with allegorical statues, one with the faces of an old man and a young woman. The main portion of the tomb is of marble, with black mouldings somewhat shattered in places, but not so much so as to affect the contour or design. The effigies lie recumbent upon a slab, their feet resting on a lion and a greyhound, upheld by a series of miniature figures of the twelve apostles in niches of red marble. At the corners are four nearly life-size figures, depicting justice, with sword and scales, said to be a portrait of the Duchess Anne; Power, strangling the dragon of Heresy; Prudence, a double face, showing also Wisdom, with mirror and compass; and Temperance, bearing a curb-bit and a lantern. A tablet at the head bears the figures of St. Louis and Charlemagne, and one at the foot, those of St. Francis of Assisi and Ste. Marguerite, the patrons of the duke and duchess.
Head of old man on back of statue of Prudence
Prudence - front view
The alchemical imagery is elucidated by this androgynous statue of Prudence in the cathedral of Nantes in France. New Agers indicated that the fusion of male and female is the outcome of spiritual transformation:
" … One alchemical symbol that is widely acknowledged by modern scholars is that of an old bearded man, the back of whose head shows a young woman looking into a mirror. A statue with this image graces the exterior of Nantes cathedral, as does a bearded king with the body of a woman, in the porch at Chartres that depicts the Queen of Sheba. "The hermaphrodite is a pure alchemical symbol, representing the perfect balance achieved in the Great Work, and the perfect being, in which the alchemist himself is transformed and transmuted spiritually - and, as many believe, physically as well. It was a 'consummation devoutly to be wished' and had little, if anything, to do with sexuality as we understand it today. The Great Work was an explosion of the potential into the actual, where the mystical quest takes on concrete form. As the alchemists said, 'as above, so below' - this process was believed to make spirit into matter and transmute one sort of matter into another. It made a man into a god." [PS2] (1)
1502 CE - Brazil - The first Portuguese colonists settle in Brazil.
1502 CE - Italy - King Ferdinand of Spain formed an alliance with King Louis XII of France to expel the King Federigo of Naples, Italy. The Spanish-French army marched into Rome and Pope Alexander VI declared King Federigo deposed and invested Kings Ferdinand and Louis with the Kingdom. The French took Capua and the Spanish took Taranto. France and Spain went to war over the spoils.
1502 CE - Turkey - Nephon II, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1503 CE - Italy - Actual control by the papacy of its territories began in the 16th century, when Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI, conquered the petty states of the Romagna and Marche; after his fall in 1503 CE, most of them passed directly under papal rule.
1503 - 1503 CE - Italy - Pope Alexander VI and his son, Bishop Cesare Borgis, are believed victims of poison intended for a Cardinal who was their host at dinner that was mistakenly given to themselves. The son survived but the Pope died. Pius III, alias Francesco Todeschini, a nephew of Pope Pius II is elected pope, but died ten days later.
1503 - 1513 CE - Italy - Julius II, alias Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of Pope Sixtus IV, with the help of lavish promises and bribes, is unanimously elected pope. As a cardinal, he fathered three daughters and is nicknamed Il Terriblee. The Pope ordered the burning at the stake of a Monk who made the prophecy that the Roman Catholic Church would begin to crumble.
Giuliano della Rovere in his lust for power held eight bishoprics in four different countries, besides various abbeys. He became Pope Julius II and is named the warrior-diplomat-pope. Voltaire's famous quip, "the Holy Roman Empire is neither Holy, nor Roman nor an Empire." It is a confused, corrupt conglomerate containing more than 2,000 knights who owed allegiance to no one.
Pope Julius II, who commissioned Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the the Sistine Chapel, was a paedophile and spent much of his time with small boys and male prostitutes.
1503 - 1566 CE - France - The renowned prophet Nostradamus (Michel de Nostradame) was born on December 14, 1503 CE in St. Remy, Provence, France, and died in 1566 CE. Christianity is forced on the family by the edict of September 26, 1501 CE that forced all Jews to become Christian within three months or leave Provence.
Roma (Gypsy) are prohibited by Louis XII from living in France. The punishment is banishment.
1503 - 1504 CE - Turkey - Pachomius I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1504 CE - Italy - Spain defeated France at Gaeta in the Italy campaign. Ferdinand V of Castile, who had also been king of Sicily since 1468 CE, made himself master of the kingdom of Naples in 1504 CE, and the Spanish crown retained both countries until the War of the Spanish Succession (1701 - 1713 CE). Spain controlled southern Italy as well as Sicily and the French held Milan in northern Italy. The southern half of Italy remained for the next two centuries a possession of Spain.
1504 CE - Uzbekistan - The Shaybanid Horde (Uzbeks) under Muhammad Shaybani expel the Timurids from Transoxiana and capture Samarkand.
1504 CE - Turkey - Joachim I, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1504 - 1513 CE - Turkey - Pachomius I, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1505 CE - India - Francisco de Almeida sets up a trade outpost for Portugal in India.
1506 CE - Italy - Pope Julius II issued a bull declaring papal elections nullified by simony, effectively nullifying his own election, thereby making him an anti-pope. Anti-pope Julius II, in full armor, led his troops to conquer Perugia and Bologna.
1506 CE - India - Japan - Francis Xavier, 1506 - 1552 CE, as a knight of Spanish-Rome, evangelized India and Japan.
1506 CE - Uzbekistan - Afghanistan - The Uzbek Shaybanids capture Bukhara (Uzbekistan) and Herat (Afghanistan), bringing to an end the Timurid dynasty.
1509 CE - Egypt - The sultan of Egypt attacks the Portuguese navy in the Indian Ocean near Diu and is defeated, thus turning Portugal into the dominating power in India.
1509 CE - Holland - The Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus publishes The Praise of Folie, which advocates a return to the moral values of early Christianity.
1509 CE - France - John Calvin (Jean Cauvin), 1509 - 1564 CE, is born in Noyon, Northern France. He would witness the excommunication of his father and brother for allegedly flirting with forbidden ideas.
1509 CE - England - King Henry VII died and Henry VIII became King. He is a cruel, wasteful and self-centered individual.
1509 CE - Spain - At this time Spain is the most powerful nation in Europe because it is united with the Holy Roman Empire which controlled much of central Europe and is in possession of southern Italy. France is now much more powerful than England. Pope Julius II joined the League of Cambrai between France, Germany and Spain excommunicating Venice. Marching on Venice, they are forced to give up Rimini and Faenza including taxation to the pope. The Pope began conspiring with Venice and Spain against France.
Bartolome de Las Casas, the Roman Catholic Bishop at Chiapas, Spain, proposes that each Spanish settler to America should being a certain number of slaves. This proposal marks the start of the infamous African/American slave trade.
1510 CE - Italy - Anti-pope Julius II first attacked Ferrara an ally of France, then he seized Modena and captured Mirandola in 1511 CE. Louis XII of France retaliated by capturing Bologna and calling for a synod to depose the Pope.
1510 CE - Spain - King Ferdinard of Spain authorized the purchase of 250 African slaves in Lisbon for his territories in New Spain. This begun one of the most brutal colonial slavery cultures.
1510 CE - France - Gypsy (Roma) are prohibited by the Grand Council of France from residence. The punishment is banishment, with the second offence resulting in hanging.
1510 CE - India - Portugal occupies Goa in India.
1511 CE - Morocco - The Marinid dynasty collapses in Morocco and is succeeded by the Sadid synasty.
1511 CE - Malaysia - Portuguese captures Malacca in Malaysia, an outpost to trade spices with China.
1511 CE - Italy - The synod of Pisa suspended Pope Julius II. The pope retaliated by banding together a Holy Roman League of Venice, Spain and Henry VIII of England against France.
1512 CE - Italy - Anti-pope Julius II's Holy Roman League army is severely defeated at Ravenna, but the arrival of the Spanish and Swiss army forced the French to quit Italy. Parma, Piacenza, and Reggio Emilia are added to the Spanish Papal State. Spain effectively controlled all of Italy. A Papal Bull is issued, declaring King Jean D'Albert of Navarre (Spain) deposed and grants the territories to the first who should occupy them. King Ferdinand of Spain and his son-in-law Henry VIII allied to recover the former English possession of Gascony in southern France, while King Ferdinard claimed Navarre for Spain. Historians (likely French) said there is nothing of the priest about the pope except the dress and name.
1512 CE - Spain - Ferdinand the Catholic conquers most of Navarra.
1512 CE - Poland - Nicholas Copernicus, 1473 - 1513 CE, a Polish astronomer and mathematician proposed the sun is the center of the solar system and not the earth. He also proposed the orbits of the planets are irregular. The Catholic Church believed that angles caused planetary motion and irregularity is against divine order. The Catholic Church would ban his work for over two hundred years.
1512 CE - Sweden - Gypsy (Roma) are first recorded in Sweden on 29 September. A company of about thirty families, lead by a "Count Anthonius" arrives in Stockholm, claiming that they came from "Little Egypt". They are welcomed by the city and given lodging and money for their stay. A few years later, King Gustav Vasa, 1521 - 1560 CE, suspects that the Roma are spies and orders that they be driven out from the country.
1513 CE - Scotland - Henry VIII's army destroyed the Scottish army at Flodden, and James IV, married to Henry's daughter Margaret, is killed along with twenty Scottish nobles. Henry VIII would also march against James V who is badly defeated and died shortly thereafter.
1513 - 1521 CE - Italy - Leo X, alias Giovanni de Medici, a commander in the papal army, is elected pope some say without the use of simony. His objective is to make Spanish-Italy and his own Florence free from foreign domination and to advance his family influence outside Florence.
He sold indulgences to raise funds to finance the construction of St.Peter's Basilica, which was the last straw that led to the rebellion and reform of the Augustinian monk Luther. He established the pawnshop.
"How well we know what a profitable superstition this fable of Christ has been for us."
Quote by Leo X, 1513 - 1521 CE.
1513 CE - Panama (Central America) - Vasco Nunez de Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean.
1513 - 1522 CE - Turkey - Theoleptus I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1514 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Ottomans, under Selim I the Turk, defeat Shah Ismail's I (Safavid) army at Chaldiran, and in 1515 CE conquered Armenia and Kurdistan.
1514 CE - Italy - Pope Leo X renewed the system of sale of indulgence for the reconstruction of St. Peter's.
1514 CE - Hungary - On April 16, Cardinal Thomas Bakocz published a papal bull calling for a Hungarian Crusade against the Turks. The Hungarian King had already concluded peace with the Turks and the Hungarian lords saw no reason for the Pope to encourage the surfs to abandon their duties in the fields. On May 23, the King ordered the Crusade, suspended the command, and ordered the surfs to return to the land. The peasant army of one hundred thousand refused to disband and swarmed across the country slaughtering the Lords. Janos Zapolya lead an army that crushed the peasant army, leaving more than seventy thousand dead as a result of the Papal error.
1514 CE - Spain - King Ferdinand forbid the publication of any papal bull or rescript in Spain without preliminary examination by the Royal Council and without Royal approval. This order remained in force permanently and is enforced with utmost vigor.
1515 CE - France - Francois (Francis) I becomes king of France. Francis I defeated the Vatican's Holy Roman League at Marignano recovering Milan for France. Pope Leo X met with the king of Bologna and agreed to a settlement, surrendering Parma and Piacenza but saving Florence intact for his Medici family. A concordat with France allowed the French crown to nominate all higher church offices, reserving only lesser offices to the pope.
1516 CE - Spain - Ferdinando the Catholic dies and Carlos (Charles) I, son of Felipe the Fair, of the Hapsburg family inherits Spain (first ruler of a unified Spain), the "Low Countries," the American colonies and Napoli. Charles I, 1500 - 1558 CE, of Ghent, a Flemish boy raised in Flanders, appointed Guillaume de Croy, another Flemish boy, to the office of Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain, which is the most powerful Church position except for the pope.
1516 CE - Italy - Italy is divided into two spheres of influence, French in the north and Spanish in the south, which is referred to as the "Peace of Noyon."
The first Jewish quarter to be called a ghetto is created in Venice about this time.
1516 CE - Africa - The Ottomans defeat the Mamluks and annex Syria, Palestine, Egypt and western Arabia.
1517 CE - Germany - On October 31 at the castle church of Wittenberg, Germany, Martin Luther, 1483 - 1546 CE, a Saxon professor of divinity, posted his ninety-five theses or arguments calling for a disputation on the abuses of the traffic in indulgences, thus beginning the Protestant Reformation. Pope Julius II had been anxious to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome and was selling indulgences that forgave the purchaser's sins and excused him from punishment. A deacon guilty of murder, as an example, could be absolved for twenty crowns, an abbot or Bishop for assassinating a foe, three hundred livre, and to anyone else who cared to buy them. Any civil magistrate who tried to stop them is excommunicated, losing all rights as a man or citizen.
Subsequently, Luther broke completely from doctrinal orthodoxy in discourses and three published works between 1519 and 1520 CE, was excommunicated on more than forty charges of heresy in 1521 CE and remained the dominant figure in the Reformation in Germany until his death in 1546 CE.
1517 CE - Palestine - Egypt - Syria - The Ottoman army conquers Jerusalem, the Mameluke kingdom of Egypt and Syria. Turkey now occupied Egypt and the Holy places of Mecca. Sultan Selim I takes control of Jerusalem, yet very few Ottoman Turks settle in the city. They pressed on, taking Algeria by 1519 CE.
1517 CE - Italy - A number of cardinals plotted to poison Pope Leo X, their leader Alfonso Petrucci is executed and several others are imprisoned. Pope Leo X then packed the sacred college by creating thirty-one new cardinals.
1518 CE - Spain - License to import 4,000 African slaves to Spanish American Colonies is granted to Lorens de Gominot.
1519 CE - Spain - Austria - Emperor Charles V (Habsburg) of Ghent, King of Spain, is elected Holy Roman Emperor on the death of his grandfather Maximilian I. Charles changed his name to Karl V, thus unifying Spain and Austria. The Spanish people revolted against the Flemish rule and their absent king. The revolt lasted until 1522 CE.
1519 CE - Mexico - Spaniard Hernando Cortes tours Mexico City at the invitation of the Aztec king Montezuma.
1520 CE - Italy - Pope Leo X condemned Martin Luther for daring to say that burning heretics is against the will of God, amongst other things unless he recant. Luther appealed to a General Council and for twenty-five years, the Pope and Curia refused the appeal to the only forum capable of settling the grave issues in the church. Pope Leo X is the great uncle of Catherine de Medici, future Queen of France.
1520 CE - Sweden - King Christan II of Denmark and Norway defeated a Spanish army at Lake Asundeu and was crowned King of Sweden. He then renounced his offer for amnesty and massacred most of the Swedish leaders, about 600 nobles.
1520 CE - America - The Spanish are considered the Bastille of Roman Christianity with a mandate to subject the Americans for Spain, the Papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. Southern Italy at this time is a possession of Spain. Their critics said they hunger like pigs for the gold, their bodies swelling with greed and their hunger is ravenous. The Spanish Christian policy is, if the natives refused to submit to slavery, the death and devastation that followed would be their own responsibility. This essentially freed the Spanish from any sin against the American people. They effectively and systematically destroyed the Aztec universities, libraries, astronomic structures, zoos and agricultural systems that in many respects, like their mathematics, are more advanced that Europe. While the bestiality of the Spanish is the normal policy, a few Spaniards spoke out against the evil practices.
1521 CE - Mexico - The Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes attacked Tenochtitlan, Mexico, killing 100,000 Aztecs.
1521 CE - Portugal - Manuel I of Portugal dies, having extended Portugal's dominions over four continents. Sardinia, Sicily and southern Italy were still under Spanish rule until 1713 CE.
1521 CE - Yugoslavia - Belgrade (Beograd), Yugoslavia fell to Turkey as the Ottoman Empire expanded into Europe under command of Sultan Suleyman I the Magnificent, 1520 - 1566 CE. Hungary is threatened and Rhodes is besieged.
1521 CE - Germany - France - War erupts between Francis I of France and Karl V of Germany (Carlos I of Spain).
1521 CE - Philippine Islands - Ferdinand Magellan, a Portugese, had renounced his citizenship and joined the Spanish. On March 16, 1521 he landed Archipelago of San Lazaro. He named the Philippines after the Spanish King Felipe. He attempted to subdue the people of the Island of Mactan while waging war against Lapu Lapu, who killed him in battle with a poisoned arrow, dying on April 27, 1521 CE. Duarte Barbosa and Serrano where also killed on the Island of Cebu.
1521 CE - Germany - On January 3, Martin Luther is excommunicated, but the papal nuncio in Germany reported that nine-tenths of all Germans cried for Luther and the other tenth cried death to Pope Leo X.
1521 CE - Italy - Pope Leo X conspired with the Habsburg Emperor Charles I (Karl V) against France. Pope Leo X raised an army of 20,000 under Prospero Colonna and drove the French out of Milan. The German and French prayers are answered and the infamous Pope Leo died.
1522 CE - Afghanistan - Babur captures Afghanistan.
1522 - 1523 CE - Italy - Pope Hadrian VI, alias Adrian Florensz Dedal, an inquisitor for Aragon and Navarre in 1516 CE and inquisitor for Castile and Leon in 1518 CE, is elected pope. The Pope is the old tutor of Emperor Charles I of Spain. The Roman curia turned against him because he is reluctant to distribute lucrative benefices. He confessed to the Diet of Nuremberg that all evils in the church proceeded from the Roman Curia. He also stated in 1523 CE, that many Roman pontiffs are heretics, the last being John XXII and that they can err even in matters touching the faith. He acknowledged the greed and excess of the papal court under Pope Leo X.
Pope Hadrian VI had condemned Martin Luther as an inquisitor in Spain, and believed he should be punished for heresy and his teachings banned. As a result, some German Imperial knights waged scattered raids on the Romanist monasteries, plundering abbeys and assaulting well-fortified ecclesiastical cities. Some Princes crushed their efforts in 1523 CE, but others joined the Lutheranism resistance movement.
1522 CE - Greece - The Island of Rhodes (Greece) fell to the Turkish advance.
1522 CE - England - England declared war on France and Scotland.
1522 - 1545 CE - Turkey - Jeremias I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
1523 CE - Germany - Martin Luther spoke out in defense of the Jews, saying that our Lord Jesus Christ was born a Jew. He also argued that the Letters of St. James the Just, brother of Jesus, should not be included in the New Testament.
1523 - 1534 CE - Italy - The first burning of heretics of the Christian Reformation took place at Brussels this year under the reign of Pope Clement VII. Clement VII, alias Giulio de Medici, the bastard son of Giuliano de Medici (Pope Leo X), is elected pope. He is largely responsible for measures taken against the German reformer Luther.
Clement VII only moved to defend his family's private interests. In the contest between Charles V and Francis I, he took the side of the latter. After the victory of Charles V over the French king, Charles V punished the pope by ferociously sacking Rome in 1527 CE for 6 months by the Landsknechte, the German mercenaries. During his papacy there was the schism of the English Church provoked by Henry VIII who named himself spiritual head of the English Church.
1524 CE - Germany - On July 19, 1524 CE, about 250,000 peasants from the Black Forest of Germany, revolted, demanding the right to select their preacher, the abolition of tithes and slavery and the right to hunt and fish where they pleased. On May 15, 1525 CE, the revolt is put down when one hundred thousand peasants' martyrs are killed in a blood bath. When Bishop Conrad recaptures Wurzberg, the event is celebrated with sixty-four executions. He then toured his diocese with his executioner, who took care of another 272 people.
1524 CE - Iran - The Safavid dynasty of Iran is ruled by Shah Tahmasp until 1576 CE.
1524 CE - Italy - Francis I of France re-conquered Milan and Pope Clement VII aligned with France and Venice against Emperor Charles V (Charles I) of Spain.
1525 CE - Spain - All residents of Spain are forced to convert to Catholicism. A royal edict ordered all pasture lands brought under tillage during the first eight years of the Emperors reign be restored to its original state and placed at the disposal of sheep-farmers. Agriculture is considered the lowest form of occupation. Gentlemen and Catholics don't till the land.
1525 CE - Prussia - The grand master of the Teutonic Knights is appointed duke of Prussia.
1525 CE - Italy - Karl V, aka Carlos I, takes Milan from the French.
1525 CE - Switzerland - The Anabaptist movement started in Zurich, Switzerland. They rejected infant baptism, forbid violence, divorce and materialism as described in the Bible. They also considered Holy Communion as the "Bread of Idolatry".
1525 CE - Holland - Charles V issues an edict in Holland ordering all those that call themselves Egyptians (Gypsy) to leave the country within two days.
1525 CE - Germany - Martin Luther married the former nun Katherine Von Bora, having previously rejected celibacy. Luther at this time began defending Jews, but later in life became a strong anti-Jewish preacher, saying they should be exterminated.
1525 CE - England - Six thousand copies of William Tyndale's English translation of the New Testament were printed in Cologne, Germany, and smuggled into England-and then burned by the English church.
1526 CE - Hungary - Czechoslavakia - Ferdinand I Habsburg is elected king of western Hungary, Bohemia and Slovakia.
1526 CE - India - The great-grandson of Tamerlane, Babar, who on his mother's side was descended from the famous Genghiz Khan, came to India in 1526 CE at the request of an Indian governor who sought Babar's help in his fight against Ibrahim Lodi, the last head of the Delhi Sultanate. Babar defeated Lodi at Panipat, not far from Delhi, and so came to establish the Mughal Empire in India. Babar ruled until 1530 CE, and was succeeded by his son Humayun, who gave the empire its first distinctive features. But it is Humayun's son, Akbar the Great, who is conventionally described as the glory of the empire.
1526 CE - Hungary - The Hungarian army is defeated at the battle of Mohacs by the Ottomans and Hungary is partitioned between the Ottoman Empire and the Hapsburgs, with Hungary proper under Ottoman occupation, Transylvania as a Turkish protectorate and Slovakia is annexed by the Hapsburg Monarchy.
1526 CE - England - Henry VIII is married to Catherine of Aragon, widow of Henry's brother Arthur. King Charles I of Spain (also Emperor Charles V (1519 - 1556 CE) of the Holy Roman Empire) is her nephew. Henry wanted a divorce so that he could produce a son, however King Charles I of Spain and of the Holy Roman Empire forced Pope Clement VII to forbid Henry's divorce, for political advantage. Pope Clement VII is unable to juggle the rival ambitions of the growing national powers of Europe. Some suggest he attempted to perpetuate the dying Medici line through his bastard sons Alessandro and Lorenzo from a Moorish slave. Catherine de Medici, his niece, is also being considered to enhance his position. He made a fundamental error when he created the Holy League of Cognac, uniting the French and numerous Italian Princes against Emperor Charles (Karl) V of the Holy Roman Empire, which included Spain and Italy.
As the Pope wages war against the Holy Roman Empire, Turkey is quietly invading from the east up the Danube valley. Turkey defeated Hungary in the battle of Mohacs then turned toward Vienna.
1526 CE - Holland - Portugal - The first anti-Gypsy laws are passed in Holland and Portugal.
1527 CE - Italy - Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, sent an army of 20,000 mercenaries, mostly Germans and Spaniards against Rome. The city is put to the most terrible sacking for revolting against the Holy Empire. Pope Clement VII is made a prisoner for six months. He would remain subservient to the Emperor. On May 6, 1527 CE, the Duke of Bourbon, a Celtic-Frenchman, had led the sacking of Rome and began a nine-month continuous orgy of violence and destruction, attacking clergy, nobility, merchants and other Spanish-Roman citizens. Eight days of looting, rapine and killing resulted in more than 12,000 bodies.
The Holy Roman Emperor and Henry VIII of England had agreed to divide up France, giving the Duke of Bourbon a significant share. King Francis I, however, would only give the Duke of Bourbon the Duchy of Milan and no funds to support his army. The Duke had sacked Rome to fund his army. Pope Clement VII paid a ransom of 112,000 ducats that he raised by selling cardinal's hats. Rome declared itself a republic and proceeded to rid itself of all vestiges of the loathed Medici name. They again encouraged the French to invade Spanish Italy.
1527 CE - Peru - Spaniard Francisco Pizzaro begins the invasion of Peru, and introduces a smallpox epidemic among the native peoples.
1528 CE - Spain - The Spanish government issues "asientos" (contracts) to private companies for the trade of African slaves.
1528 CE - Italy - The great Genoese Admiral Andre Doria deserted the French bringing with him his republic and it great fleet into Spanish dependency. Spain again marched against Italy driving the French from their short-term gains.
1528 CE - Switzerland - Members of the Anabaptist movement are banished from Switzerland, Germany and Austria. The Anabaptist split into the Hutterite, Mennonites and Amish clans. One group fled to Moravia, Czechoslovakia and settled into communal living.
1529 CE - France - The peace of Cambrai assigns Burgundy to France and Italy to Karl V (Carlos I).
1529 CE - Austria - The Ottoman Empire (Turks) crushed the Hungarians and laid siege to Vienna, the capital of the Holy Roman Empire. After a few weeks they withdrew back to Hungary.
1529 CE - Italy - Pope Clement VII's League of Cognac broke up after the second French army is defeated attempting to capture Italy from Spain. Spain extracted tribute from France and the crown of Italy from the defeated pope. Spain dominated the Church and Europe.
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