The Curse of the Corporation

Part XIII – 1246 CE to 1364 CE


1246 CE - Mongolia - Guyuk is elected the new Great Khan of the Mongolian Empire. He claimed that all empires from sunrise to sunset have been given to us, and we own them. General Batu retained command of Kazakhstan, Khorezm, Western Siberia and his recent conquests of the Volga basin, north Caucasus, the Cuman steppes and Russia. This vast territory is called Juchi's Ulus region. The Franciscan Priest, John Karpini wrote the Tartars share their food. This Christian belief is no longer being practiced in the Roman Church. The men hardly ever grow beards. It is noteworthy that the American Indians also do not grow beards. They always carry their dwellings with them, even into war. They have more horses than all the rest of the world. They consider it a great sin to waste food in any way. The Tartars practice Shamanism and they believe in heaven. The Tartars, however, encourage the practice of other religions. Religious tolerance is considered a heresy in the Middle East and Europe. John Karpini, upon reaching the city of Karaquarm, Mongolia is shocked to discover Eastern Christians among the Mongol peoples. He is astonished to find Islam and Buddhism being practiced in the city. The Great Khan says he controls the lands from the rising sun to the setting sun, and asks what right has the Pope to say he speaks for God. He says the Great Khan speaks for God and the Pope is ordered to come before the Khan and pay tribute. The Franciscan Priest John Karpini refused to allow a delegation on Tartars to return to Rome because he feared the Mongol would discover that Europe is in disarray and could be easily conquered.

1248 CE - Castille (Spain) - Ferdinand III of Castilla conquers Sevilla, capital of the Almohads (Arabs), and the Almohads are left with the state of Granada.

Cathedral of Köln

1248 - 1280 CE - Germany - The Cathedral of Köln (Cologne) is built. [$12]

1248 - 1314 CE - France - Geoffroy de Charney born in Anjou. [p212&]

1248 - 1254 CE - Palestine - In 1244 CE, the Khwarezmians retook Jerusalem, after the end of a 10-year truce following the Sixth Crusade. The fall of Jerusalem, no longer an earth-shattering event to European Christians who had seen the city pass from Christian to Muslim control numerous times in the past two centuries, did not prompt an immediate call for a new crusade. Pope Innocent IV and Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor were more concerned with the struggle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, and Henry III of England was still struggling with Simon de Montfort and other problems in England. The only man interested in beginning another crusade was Louis IX, who declared his intent to go the East in 1245 CE.

France was perhaps the strongest state in Europe at the time, as Provence had mostly fallen under Parisian control after the Albigensian Crusade, and Toulouse was led by Louis IX's brother Alphonse, who joined him on his crusade in 1245 CE. Another brother, Charles I of Anjou, also joined Louis. For the next three years Louis collected money (mostly from church tithes), and in 1248 CE he and his approximately 20 000-strong army sailed from the ports of Aigues-Mortes and Marseilles.

They sailed first to Cyprus and spent the winter on the island, negotiating with various other powers in the east; the Latin Empire set up after the Fourth Crusade asked for his help against the Byzantine Empire of Nicaea, and the Principality of Antioch and the Knights Templar wanted his help in Syria, where the Muslims had recently captured Sidon. However, Egypt was the object of his crusade, and he landed in 1249 CE, at Damietta on the Nile. Egypt was the object of the crusade, as it would, Louis thought, provide a base from which to attack Jerusalem, and its wealth and supply of grain would keep the crusaders fed and equipped.

On June 6, Damietta was taken with little resistance from the Egyptians, who withdrew further up the Nile. Louis ignored the agreement made during the Fifth Crusade that Damietta should be given to the nominal King of Jerusalem (at the time John of Brienne; in 1249 CE, Conrad IV of Germany), but he did set up an archbishopric there (under the authority of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem) and used the city as a base to direct military operations against the Muslims of Syria.

Louis attacks Damietta

In November, Louis marched towards Cairo, and almost at the same time, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, as-Salih Ayyub, died. A force led by Robert of Artois and the Templars attacked the Egyptian camp at al-Mansourah, but they were defeated and Robert was killed. Meanwhile, Louis' main force was attacked by the Mameluk Baibars, the commander of the army and a future sultan himself. Louis was defeated as well, but he did not withdraw to Damietta for months, preferring to besiege Mansourah, which ended in starvation and death for the crusaders rather than the Muslims. In March 1250 CE, Louis finally returned to Damietta, but he was taken captive on the way there. In May he was ransomed in return for Damietta and 400,000 livres, and he immediately left Egypt for Acre, one of the few remaining possessions of the crusaders in Syria. Meanwhile, the Mameluk soldiers of Egypt revolted. Turanshah, as-Salih's successor, and took control of Cairo, creating a Mameluk dynasty that would eventually conquer the last of the crusader territories.

Louis made an alliance with the Mameluks, and from his new base in Acre began to rebuild the other crusader cities. Although the Kingdom of Cyprus claimed authority there, Louis was the de facto ruler. Louis also negotiated with the Mongols, who had began to appear in the east and whom the Christians, encouraged by legends of a Nestorian kingdom among them (c. f. Prester John), hoped would help them fight the Muslims and restore the Crusader States. They, like the Muslims who were similarly negotiating with the Mongols against the Christians, were unaware that the Mongols were not interested in helping either side and would eventually be disastrous for both. Louis' embassy to the Mongol ruler Möngke Khan, headed by William of Rubruck, was a failure. The Khan rejected Louis' invitation to convert to Christianity, and instead suggested Louis submit to him.

In 1254 CE, Louis' money ran out, and his presence was needed in France where his mother and regent Blanche of Castile had recently died. His crusade was a failure, but he was considered a saint by many, and his fame gave him an even greater authority in Europe than the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1270 CE, he attempted another crusade, though it too would end in failure.

Dunstaffnage Castle

Dunollie Castle

1249 CE - Ireland - Ewen MacDougall, the Viking, retained the clan's allegiance to his motherland and the King of Norway despite threats from the King of Ireland. The MacDougall strongholds included the castles Dunstaffnage and Dunollie on the Firth of Lorne.

1250 CE - Russia - The Lithuanians moved eastward into the Novgorodok region of the upper Nieman River, currently Mongolian Russia Empire lands. They entered into association with the Mongolian Russians but retained loyalty to the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

1250 CE - Palestine - Mamiuk begins an extensive building program and most Muslim buildings in the Old City of Jerusalem are built between 1250 - 1450 CE.

1250 - 1300 CE - Spain - The Alhambra Palace of Granada is built. [$]

1251 CE - Germany - German emperor Friederich II dies and is succeeded by his son Konrad IV. Pope Innocent IV returned triumphantly to Italy from Germany. This pope significantly lowered the prestige of the papacy by scandalously using spiritual powers to raise money, buy friends and injure foes.

1251 CE - Europe - The Great Khan again mobilized an army to secure his Western Empire. Huligo is the Commander who led his 150,000 man army into the Middle East. They destroyed Baghdad, Iraq because they did not submit and resisted the Mongol warnings. Persia (Iran) and the balance of Iraq immediately submitted and sent tribute to Huligo. The Tartar army entered Dimasticas (Damascus), Syria without a fight. The Eastern Christians pressed for treaty with the Tartars. The Roman Christians (Western Christians) were sure that Jerusalem was next to fall. The Tartars however placed no significance on Jerusalem and begin planning the conquest of Egypt that they consider as the last unconquered Empire of the West. It is noteworthy to remember that Egypt was recently conquered by the Turkish slaves called the Manalooks in 1250 CE. The Tartar (Mongol) sent notice to Egypt of their intent, but plans of invasion are put on hold when the Great Khan died. The bulk of the Tartar army is withdrawn to Iran leaving 10,000 men to hold Syria.

1252 CE - Egypt - The Turkish-Egyptians began to mobilize against the Tartar. They entered into alliance with the Christians. The Christians would supply provisions but would not join into the fight against their common foe. The Christians would later regret this decision, as it would cost them their Middle East holdings.

1252 CE - Italy - Pope Innocent IV established the Inquisition as a permanent institution in Italy and a papal bull sanctioned the use of torture to extract confessions.

1252 CE - Castile (Spain) - Alfonso X (23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284) was a Castilian monarch who ruled as the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1252 until his death in 1275. He also was elected King of the Germans (formally King of the Romans) in 1257, though the Papacy prevented his confirmation. Alfonso X moves the capital to Sevilla and turns the Alcazar into the Reales Alcazares.

1252 CE - France - Bruges joins the Hanseatic League.

1253 CE - Russia - Daniel Galicia, a Russian Prince who has a Khan patent to hold the position, seeks Papal support for a rebellion against the Mongolian Russian Empire. Pope Innocent IV agrees, provided the Mongolian Russian clergy recognizes his authority. Rome doesn't send troops because there is a delay in recognition of his authority by the Mongol Russian clergy. Daniel doesn't press the clergy because the Pope didn't sent troops.

1253 CE - Iraq - Hulagu, son of Tolui, a grandson of Genghis Khan, is ordered to capture Baghdad, Islam's greatest city. He assembled an army of 150,000 men that included Chinese, Armenians, Georgians, Persians and Turks. This is believed to be one of the largest Mongol armies ever put into the field.

Theodore II Lascaris

1254 - 1258 CE - Turkey - Theodore II Lascaris becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1254 CE - Italy - Emperor Friedrich's illegitimate son Manfred seizes southern Italy.

Alexander IV

1254 - 1261 CE - Italy - Alexander IV, alias Rinaldo, count of Segni, a nephew of Pope Gregory IX, is elected pope at Naples because the mayor had bolted the gates to Rome. Rome is racked by power struggles and the pope generally resided at Viterbo. He reversed many of the papal provisions imposed by Pope Innocent IV that had divided the Roman populous and sought to establish a crusade against the Mongols.

Alexander IV excommunicated Manfred, the new king of Apulia and Sicily. He canonized St. Clair and decreed the stigmata of St. Francis to be genuine. In particular, he fought against the "Flagellants," who had become widspread in Perugia.

1254 CE - Germany - The Teutonic Order launched a full-scale crusade to rescue their beleaguered brethren in Prussia. Rudolf of Habsburg and Ottokar II of Bohemia led an army of 60,000 German and Czech soldiers. The Sambians, the foremost Prussian tribe, is conquered and by 1260 CE had overcome all the western tribes as well. The Teutonic Order believed that he who fights the Order, fights Jesus Christ. They gave no quarter and tribes disappeared without a trace, their villages obliterated.

The German emperor Konrad IV dies.

1254 CE - Afghanistan - Hulagu, the Mongol, veered into the Elburz Mountains to destroy the Assassins, a violent Islamic sect. The Assassins, dagger-wielding fanatics, had murdered many Islamic rulers who rejected their extremist tenets. They are said to strike while under the influence of hashish, hence the word assassin, from the Arabic hashshashin, or hashish eaters. The Assassins' eagle nest fortress fell and the sect's Grand Master Rukn ad Din is taken prisoner. Later he is kicked to a pulp and then put to the sword.

1255 - 1259 CE - Turkey - Arsenius Autoreianus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1256 - 1265 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Mongol (Il-Khanid) dynasty rules Persia, with Hulagu as its leader.

1256 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Assassins library and castles at Alamut are destroyed. All books of their doctrine and ritual where burned by the Mongols, led by Hulagu Khan. [p22G]

1257 CE - China - Russia - The Mongol Empire relocated their capital city from Karakorum, Mongolia to Shangtu, China until 1260 CE. The Great Khan Guyuk orders a general population census of the Mongol Empire. Guyuk appoints Alexander Nevsky to the throne of Kiev. He put down a rebellion in Novgorod gaining independence for collection of taxes in the future and a promise that Mongolian officials would withdraw after the census.

1258 CE - Iraq - Iran - Caliph Mustasim, the ruler of Baghdad, sent his troops out to meet the Mongol Hulagu. The Mongols broke a dike behind them, trapping them with floodwaters, and killed at least 12,000 of the Caliph's army. When Baghdad fell, some historians said that the Christian Georgians and Armenians in Hulagu's army vented their hatred of Islam by slaughtering the civilians. The Abbassid Dynasty, 750 - 1258 CE, ended when Baghdad and Iraq fell to the Mongol Empire this year. Some historians put the death toll of the Hulagu campaign as high as two million people. A Chinese envoy in 1260 CE said of Baghdad that many tens of thousands were killed. Caliph Mustasim, the ruler of Baghdad, and his sons were sewn in carpets and trampled to death by horses. Hulagu's Empire included Iraq, Iran and Syria. Hulagu learned that Khagan Mongke is dead and anticipated a succession struggle, he withdrew, leaving only 10,000 troops to hold the region.

John IV Lascaris

Michael VIII Paleologus

1258 - 1261 CE - Turkey - John IV Lascaris becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, marking the last ruler of the Lascarid Dynasty in Nicaea.

1259 - 1282 CE - Turkey - Michael VIII Paleologus becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, marking the beginning of the Palaeologi dynasty.

1260 CE - Russia - Daniel Galicia, a Russian Prince, starts a rebellion against the Mongolian Russia Empire that is quickly put down. He fled to Poland, then to Hungary and died in 1264 CE, thoroughly disillusioned. The Mongol army devastates Galicia and Volynia.

1260 CE - Syria - The Mamluks stop the Mongols in Syria and annex Syria.

1260 CE - China - A civil war broke out between two of the Mongol brothers and Kubli (Kubilay), 1260 - 1294 CE, won the war. The Mongol Empire capital city moved for the third and final time to Khanbaligh (Tatu), (Peking), China.

1260 CE - Syria - The Turkish-Egyptian army defeated the 10,000 man Tarter army in Syria.

1260 CE - Persia (Iran) - The 110,000 man Tarter (Mongol) army in Iran is never driven out or conquered, they are simply absorbed into the local culture.

1260 - 1261 CE - Turkey - Nicephorus II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1260 CE - Denmark - Hammerhus, at the time one of northern Europes biggest fortresses, built at Bornholm. [$3]

1260 - 1327 CE - Germany - Meister Johannes Eckhart, a German philosopher, the first of the great speculative mystics is born. Extremely little is known of his life; the date and place of his birth are equally uncertain. According to some accounts, he was a native of Strassburg, with which he was afterwards closely connected; according to others, he was born in Saxony, or at Hochheim near Gotha. Trithemius, one of the best authorities, speaks of him merely as Teutonicus. 1260 CE has frequently been given as the date of his birth; it was in all probability some years earlier, for we know that he was advanced in age at the time of his death, about 1327 CE. He appears to have entered the Dominican order, and to have acted for some time as professor at one of the colleges in Paris. His reputation for learning was very high, and in 1302 CE he was summoned to Rome by Boniface VIII, to assist in the controversy then being carried on with Philip of France. From Boniface he received the degree of doctor. In 1304 CE, he became provincial of his order for Saxony, and in 1307 CE was vicar-general for Bohemia. In both provinces he was distinguished for his practical reforms and for his power in preaching. Towards 1325 CE he is preaching with great effect at Cologne, where he gathered round him a numerous band of followers. Before this time, and in all probability at Strassburg, where he appears to have been for some years, he had come in contact with the Beghards and Brethren of the Free Spirit, whose fundamental notions he may, indeed, be said to have systematized and expounded, in the highest form to which they could attain. In 1327 CE the opponents of the Beghards laid hold of certain propositions contained in Eckharts works, and he was summoned before the Inquisition at Cologne. The history of this accusation is by no means clear. Eckhart appears, however, to have made a conditional recantation, that is, he professed to disavow whatever in his writings could be shown to be erroneous. Further appeal, perhaps at his own request, was made to Pope John XXII, and in 1329 CE a bull was published condemning certain propositions extracted from Eckhart's works. But before its publication, Eckhart had died. The exact date of his death is unknown. Of his writings, several of which are enumerated by Trithemius, there remain only the sermons and a few tractates. Until the middle of the 16th century, the majority of these were attributed to Johann Tauler, and it is only from Pfeiffer's careful edition (Deutsche Mystiker d. XIV. Jahrhunderts, vol. ii., 1857) that one has been able to gather a true idea of Eckhart's activity. From his works it is evident that he was deeply learned in all the philosophy of the time. He was a thorough Aristotelian, but by preference appears to have been drawn towards the mystical writings of the Neoplatonists and the pseudo-Dionysius. His style is unsystematic, brief and abounding in symbolical expression. His manner of thinking is clear, calm and logical, and he has certainly given the most complete exposition of what may be called Christian pantheism.

Eckhart has been called the first of the speculative mystics. In his theories the element of mystical speculation for the first time comes to the front as all-important. By its means the church doctrines are made intelligible to the many, and from it the church dogmas receive their true significance. It was but natural that he should diverge more and more widely from the traditional doctrine, so that at length the relation between his teaching and that of the church appeared to be one of opposition rather than of reconciliation. Eckhart is in truth the first who attempted with perfect freedom and logical consistency to give a speculative basis to religious doctrines. The two most important points in his, as in all mystical theories, are first, his doctrine of the divine nature, and second, his explanation of the relation between God and human thought.

Urban IV

1261 - 1264 CE - France - Urban IV, alias Jacques Pantaleon, a Frenchman and patriarch of Jerusalem, is elected pope by eight cardinals at Viterbo after three months of debate. He named fourteen new cardinals, six being Frenchmen. He never resided in Rome due to political instability.

Urban IV refused to recognize Manfred as king of Sicily which caused Manfred to invade the Pontifical State. Urban IV asked the king of France for help, offering him the Sicilian crown, who in turn suggested giving it to his brother, Charles d'Anjou. Urban IV established the holy day of Corpus Domini, and also modified the rules of the Inquisition.

1261 - 1267 CE - Turkey - Arsenius Autoreianus, restored, once again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1262 CE - Spain - The construction of the Cathedral of Valencia begins.

1263 CE - Spain - The Kabbalist Moses Ben Nachman is in dispute with the Catholic Pablo Christiani, trying to decide once and for all which religion is the true one.

It was during one of these efforts to get the Jews to convert to Christianity that the great Kabbalist and Torah-Talmud scholar known as Nachmanides came to prominence.

Nachmanides, Rabbi Moses ben Nachman, better known as Ramban (not to be confused with Rambam or Maimonides) was born in Christian Barcelona in 1194 CE. He became the defender of the Jews in the great Disputation of 1263 CE – the most famous of the debates in which the Christians attempted to prove to Jews their religion was wrong in order to get them to convert.

In 1263 CE, a debate was staged in front of the Spanish King James of Aragon, and Nachmanides was given the royal permission to speak without fear of retribution. Nachmanides took full of advantage of this and didn't mince any words.

His opponent was a Jew who had converted to Christianity named Pablo Christiani (a name he adopted after his conversion). It was Pablo's idea to challenge the great scholar to this debate. Realizing that Pablo might need some help, the Church sent the generals of the Dominican and Franciscan orders as his advisors.

The debate revolved around three questions –

Has the Messiah come, as the Christians say, or has he yet to come as the Jews say?

Is the Messiah divine, as the Christians say, or human as the Jews say?

Do the Jews practice the true law or do the Christians?

Nachmanides answered that had the Messiah come the Biblical prophecies of his coming would have been fulfilled. Since the lion wasn't lying down with the lamb and peace did not rule the planet, clearly the Messiah had not come. Indeed, noted Nachmanides, "from the time of Jesus until the present the world has been filled with violence and injustice, and the Christians have shed more blood than other peoples."

As for the divinity of Jesus, Nachmanides said that it was just impossible for any Jew to believe that "the Creator of heaven and earth resorted to the womb of a certain Jewish woman … and was born an infant … and then was betrayed into the hands of his enemies and sentenced to death … The mind of a Jew, or any other person, cannot tolerate this."

At the end of the debate, which was interrupted as the Church scrambled to minimize the damage, the king said, "I have never seen a man support a wrong cause so well," and gave Nachmanides 300 solidos (pieces of gold) and the promise of continued immunity.

Unfortunately, the promise did not hold. The Church ordered Nachmanides to be tried on the charge of blasphemy, and he was forced to leave Spain. In 1267 CE, he arrived in Jerusalem, where there were so few Jews at the time that he could not find ten men for a minyan in order to pray.

Determined to set up a synagogue, he sent to Hebron and imported a couple of Jews. His original synagogue was outside the city walls on Mount Zion, though after his death in 1270 CE it was moved inside. (After the 1967 CE Six-Day War, the synagogue – which in the meantime had been turned into a dumpsite – was restored and is a vibrant place of worship today. Incidentally, the Ramban Synagogue is a subterranean synagogue because at the time Muslim law forbid any Jewish place of worship to be taller than any Muslim place of worship).

In Europe, the Church was still trying to undo the damage of Nachmanides' tour de force. The consequences unfortunately were not good for the Jews. The Church ordered a censorship of all Jewish books containing any anti-Christian references. If any such books were found – without the pages ripped out or otherwise obliterated – they were burned. Pope Clement IV issued a papal bull entitled Turbato Corde, which would later become the basis for the Inquisition policy for persecuting "Judaizers."

1264 CE - China - Kubli (Kubilay), 1260 - 1294 CE, the Mongolian, is the fifth Great Khan to rule the largest Empire in the history of the world. All major appointments in Europe must be approved by the Great Khan until the Ming dynasty begins in 1368 CE. Kubli Khan (Lord) began to march on the Sung Empire that is the last hold out to the Mongolian Empire.

1265 CE - Italy - In May, the author Dante Alighieri is born, 1265 - 1321 CE.

1265 CE - France - Jacques de Molay joined the Knights Templar at Beaune. [p135++]

The Temple (Knights Templar) sets the gold and silver standards for coin weight, throughout the whole of Europe, the Templar cross can still be seen on British coinage today used as a proof mark.

Clement IV

1265 - 1268 CE - France - Clement IV, alias Guy Foulques, a Frenchmen, is elected pope at Perugia after four months of debate by the cardinals. He had two daughters and took his papal orders after his wife's death. He also resided at Perugia and Viterbo due to instability in Rome.

Before beginning his clerical career, he was a soldier and then secretary of King Louis IX. Clement IV crowned Charles d'Anjou who defeated Manfred in battle and inspired the 8th and last crusade, which ended in defeat. Clement IV died in Viterbo.

1266 CE - Russia - Berke the Mongol died, being replaced by Mangu Temir who exempted the Mongol Russian church from both taxes and conscription. He also guaranteed the constitutional autonomy of Novgord and its rights to free trade. These actions made the Russian princes quite loyal to the Tsar as the Mongol Russians called the Khan.

1266 CE - Sicily - Scotland and Norway entered into an honorable treaty that formally ended the Viking occupation of Scotland. Norse inhabitants of Northern territories are given the option to stay or depart with all their goods.

1266 - 1307 CE - England - Guillaume de Gisors becomes Grand Master of the Prieuré de Sion. [p133+]

1266 CE - Sicily - With papal support, Charles I, count of Anjou and brother of Louis IX of France, seized control of the kingdom of Due Sicilie, defeating Manfred. Charles is crowned king of Sicily, thus ending German rule, causing the decline of the German empire and asserting French supremacy over Europe. Charles subjected the Sicilian people to cruel and tyrannical treatment at the hands of the French bureaucrats and soldiers. In 1282 CE, Sicilians revolted against his oppressive rule. The revolt, known as the Sicilian Vespers, began with a massacre of French soldiers.

Soon thereafter, the Kingdom of the Due Sicilie was divided. Naples remained under the control of the house of Anjou, but the island of Sicily became independent and chose as King Pedro III, king of Aragón, who was connected by marriage with the house of Hohenstaufen. In 1296 CE, the island was separated from Aragón, Spain and for more than a century it was ruled by a branch of the Aragonese dynasty.

1267 CE - China - Kublai Khan during the Yuan dynasty, meaning "origin or primal," founded Beijing, China as his new capital city, naming it Daidu which meant "great capital." A wall encloses the city eighteen miles around.

1267 CE - Turkey - Germanus III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1267 - 1275 CE - Turkey - Joseph I Galesiotes becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1268 - 1271 CE - Italy - The Papacy remains vacant until 1271 CE.

1270 - 1272 CE - Palestine - The seventh Holy War is conducted to the Holy land. Henry of Susa, cardinal of Ostia, (d. 1271 CE) preached that infidel nations are not legitimate, their rulers lacked recognized jurisdiction and lands of such nations could be appropriated without composition. He argued in favor of universal papal domination over pagans, whom he alleged had lost their sovereignty to Christ. Sovereignty is an invention by Kings and Popes to justify conquests of other people using divine law that evolved out of classical Roman, Medieval Christianity and Feudal concepts.

1270 CE - France - Louis IX dies and is succeeded by Philippe III. King Louis IX of France is canonized as St. Louis in 1297 CE. Louis was noted for his insistence of the most barbarous treatment of Jews and Heretics. The Cathari hierarchy fades. [IllHis]

1271 CE - China - Marco Polo, encouraged by reports from Turkish traders who traded with the Mongols, decided to eliminate the Persian (Mongol) middlemen and establish direct trading along the ancient trade route to China. Kubla, the Great Khan, had established 1,000 way stations along his great road between China and Europe.

Blessed Gregory X

1271 - 1276 CE - Italy - Gregory X, alias Tedaldo Visconti, a war monger, is elected by a committee of six after being locked in the papal palace at Viterbo with the roof removed and threatened with a starvation diet. In order to counterbalance the excessive power that Charles d'Anjou had won, Gregory X offered the imperial crown to Rudolf of Hapsburg.

1272 CE - France - The alleged bones of Mary Magdalene are found in the southern France town of Saint-Maximin after excavations in a 4th-century crypt. A cathedral was later erected on the site. [p77&]

1272 CE - England - King Edward I became King of England with a burning desire to bring the rest of Britain under his control. He allowed his lords to extend their control up the Welsh River Valley. As a result, a new class of people developed, a mixture of Norman, Welsh and French, but not English. Edward I ordered that all those who made twenty pounds a year or greater must be made knights and many esquires are made into knights.

1272 CE - Austria - Rudolf, 1273 - 1291 CE, of the Hapsburg family began the long rule of the Archduchy of Austria, 1273 - 1806 CE. The Hapsburg is from a Swiss-Alsatian tribe. Other dynasties occurred during the fourteenth century.

1273 CE - Persia (Iran) - Marco Polo passed through Persia and described in his Travels the fortress of Alamut. [p117ES]

1274 CE - France - The Capetian kings promote French as the national language

The Comtat Venaissin, a papal possession in southern France until 1791 CE (though not a part of the Papal States), was acquired in 1274 CE.

1274 CE - Russia - The Mongols ordered another general census of the Mongolian Russia Empire. One army recruit is required out of every ten males. The standing army is therefore composed of about 5 percent of the total population.

1274 CE - Italy - An Ecumenical Council established that cardinals must assemble within ten days of a pope's death at the place where he died. They must stay together without contact to the outside world and be subjected to progressive austere conditions the longer the election process took. Various abuses of unduly long vacancies of benefices, pluralism and absenteeism are condemned. Severe restrictions are imposed on religious orders except the Franciscans and Dominicans.

1274 CE - Japan - The Kublai Khan attempted to conquer Japan from South Korea, but the attempt failed when a storm forced his fleet to retreat.

1275 CE - France - The writings of Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas, 1225 - 1274 CE, came under severe censure at the University of Paris by Roman Catholics. Theologians made attempts to prune Aristotle's writings to suit their purposes. St. Thomas Aquinas, the Italian Dominican, believed women are defective by nature and not created in God's image. He believed women had to be punished for bringing sin into the world. The theology of Thomas Aquinas only became acceptable in 1879 CE. He also attempted to resolve the theological differences between the Eastern and Western Churches.

1275 CE - Spain - Yakub arrived in Spain with his Moroccan army and swept up to Jerez, killing and burning. He retired only to return in 1279 CE to again terrify the Spanish.

1275 CE - Germany - Rudolf I von Habsburg is elected German emperor after a long interregnum from the death of Friedrich II.

1275 - 1282 CE - Turkey - John XI Bekkos becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1276 CE - Spain - Felipe the Fair gains Navarra by marriage.

1276 - 1285 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Pedro III becomes king of Aragon (Aragonia).

1276 CE - China - The Sung Empire fell to the Mongol Kubli Khan who didn't plunder their cities. The city of Hangzhou is the juiciest plum, being the largest city in the world, numbering at least one million people. On the advice of his wife, he proclaimed himself as the Emperor of China so as to start a new dynasty (Yuon Dynasty?). Emperor Kubli Khan created a caste system in China with the Mongolian people being the ruling class. The Sung people are the lowest class, with the Chin and Hsi-Hsia being the middle class. He nationalized all gold and silver mines and personal ownership of precious metals is not allowed. He created a paper currency, a banking system and a central Government for the Greater Chinese Empire stretching from Europe to the Pacific Ocean. Emperor Kubli built a great navy for exploration and trade. Trade routes are established as far as the Mongolian-Persian Gulf. The Chinese Emperor encouraged foreign traders to visit China. Russian, Turkish and Persian traders established trading houses and brought their religions.

Blessed Innocent V

Hadrian V

1276 - 1276 CE - Italy - Innocent V, alias Pierre of Tarentaise, a Dominican, is elected pope at Arezzo. He protected the religious orders and urged them to observe their rules strictly.

1276 - 1276 CE - Italy - Hadrian V, alias Ottonono Fieschi, is subsequently elected pope. His papacy was so brief that he had not even arrived at his coronation, which was postponed, in order to allow him to go to Viterbo for a cure.

1276 - 1277 CE - Italy - John XXI alias Pedro Juliao, a Portuguese from Lisbon, became the third pope to be elected this year. He delegated most decision making to Cardinal Orsini (future Pope Nicholas III) who had desired the papacy, but stood no chance to be elected to the papacy at that time. John XXI is charged with moral instability and a dislike of religious orders.

John XXI

Nicholas III

Being not very well versed in political and church matteres, John left the care of the Church to the cardinal Orsini while he continued to occupy himself with his studies. Old and ill, he retired to Viterbo, but he was a victim of the collapse of the palace where he resided.

1277 - 1280 CE - Italy - Nicholas III is elected pope after seven cardinals took six months to decide the election. He swore to restore papal supremacy in Italy and established his residence as the Vatican palace. Dante consigned this pope to hell because of his nepotism and avariciousness.

The foundations of the Vatican Palace were laid this year. [#] Nicholas III also built the gardens and the famous "Passetto do Borgo". He was considered nepotistic and miserly.

1278 CE - England - Two hundred and seventy eight Jews are hanged in London for clipping coins. Christians guilty of the same offense are fined.

1280 - 1368 CE - Yuan Dynasty of China - The Mongol Empire completed its conquest of China. It eliminated the Sung Dynasty in central and south China, creating the Empire of the Great Khan. The Batu (Kipchak) Empire, IL Khan Empire of Hulagu, a grandson of Jenghis, and the Empire of Jagatai, the second son of Jenghis, paying tribute. This extraordinary achievement of a few small tribes implies an organizational genius in the Jenghis Khan ruling family.

1280 CE - England - Roger Bacon, deviser of early eyeglasses, independently invents gunpowder. [IllHis]

1280 - 1286 CE - Spain - The Zohar is written by the Jew Moses de Leon. [p22Q]

1280 - 1435 CE - Sweden - The Cathedral of Uppsala is built.

1281 CE - Korea - China - Kublai Khan, grandson of Jenghis the first Mongol Emperor, is determined to invade Japan, having failed in 1274 CE, and sent nine hundred warships with some forty thousand warriors to invade. The invasion is launched from Korea and Hangzhou, China. An epidemic killed three thousand warriors slowing their progress, when in June three thousand five hundred ships arrived with more than one hundred thousand men. On August 14, a deadly typhoon ravaged Japan for two days, destroying Kublai Khan's armada. Only two hundred ships returned to China and it is estimated that one hundred thousand men died or are later killed by the Japanese.

Martin IV

1281 - 1285 CE - Italy - Turkey - Martin IV, alias Simon de Brie or Brion, a Frenchman, is elected pope at Viterbo. His election was practically forced by Charles d'Anjou, a friend of his. The Romans refused him entry to the Vatican due to his unconcealed pro-French stance, so he resided at Orvieto.

During his pontificate, a fierce and bloody rebellion against the French in Sicily erupted which is known as "the Sicilian Vespers." Martin excommunicated all those who were against Charles, but when Charles died, Martin had to flee Rome. He settled in Perugia where he died.

The excommunication of Michael Palaeologus by Pope Martin IV ruptured the union which had been effected with the Eastern Church in 1274 CE.

1282 CE - Southern Russia - The new Shaybanid khan Uzbek converts the Shaybanid horde to Islam and his horde becomes known as the Uzbeks.

1282 CE - Sicily - After twenty years of brutal French rule, Sicily rebelled killing more than two thousand the first day, including Sicilian women married to Frenchmen, butchering their children and even ripped out the wombs of women suspected of having been made pregnant by Frenchmen. This revolt was known as the "Sicilian Vespers." The Anjou were removed and Aragonian (Spain) king Pedro III was installed as king of Sicily, who moved the capital to Napoli. Sicily offered to become a papal vassalage, but Pope Martin IV refused the offer, demanding they submit to King Charles, 1266 - 1285 CE.

Andronicus II

1282 - 1328 CE - Turkey - Andronicus II becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1283 - 1289 CE - Turkey - Gregory II Cyprius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1283 CE - England - The Statute of Acton Bumel, 11 Edw. I., is enacted. It is the first law to enable foreign merchants to collect debts by summary process and arbitrary seizure of property and imprisonment. Jews are specifically excluded from the benefits of this law.

1284 CE - England - King Edward I united West Wales and England, driving many Welsh into the hills, giving their land to Anglo farmers. Others are being forced into the army to fight the Scotch and French, teaching the Anglo's their longbow skills.

1284 CE - Wales - The English kill Liewelyn, the last Prince of Wales.

1284 CE - Spain - King Sancho IV, 1284 - 1294 CE, made little progress against the Moors, but did secure Tarifa.

1285 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Alfonso III becomes king of Aragon (Aragonia), 1285 - 1291 CE.

Honorius IV

1285 - 1287 CE - Italy - Honorius IV, alias Giacomo Savelli, a Roman, is unanimously elected pope at Perugia. In Rome, his election is enthusiastically received.

Born of the Savelli family, Honorius IV tried immediately to bring order back to Rome. He was on the side of the Angevins and would not recognized Peter of Aragon as king of Sicily. He introduced the study of oriental languages at the University of Paris.

1285 CE - France - Philippe IV of France reforms the government.

1287 CE - China - Marco Polo, with his father and uncle, came from Venice as merchants to work for China, being employed as an official in the salt trade. Marco is greatly impressed with the advanced technology of China as compared to the backwater culture of Europe.

1287 CE - Portugal - The Alcantara Order of Knights aided King Dinis of Portugal against his brother Dom Afonso. Lack of strong authority and being employed on purely secular campaigns weakened the religious order.

Nicholas IV

1288 - 1292 CE - Italy - Nicholas IV, a Roman Franciscan, is elected pope. The election took eleven months, six cardinals died from heat exhaustion and most others fell sick, causing suspension of the conclave because the cardinals were so divided.

Nicholas IV was the first pope of the Franciscan order elected after the papacy had been vacant for one year because a pestilence had struck Rome. He promoted missionary work among the Mongols and Tartars. Nicholas IV established that half of the income of the Church is to go to the cardinals. He had the mosaics in the basilicas of St. John Lateran and Santa Maria Maggiore created.

1288 CE - China - The Chinese invented the gun about this time. They also made bombs, grenades, rockets, land mines and other arms using gunpowder.

1289 CE - China - Pope Nicholas IV sent Giovanni di Monte Corvino (d. 1330 CE), a Franciscan friar, to the court of the Great Kubla Khan, establishing the first Roman Catholic Church in China.

1289 - 1293 CE - Turkey - Athanasius I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1290 CE - Scotland - King Edward I invaded Scotland and put John de Balliol, 1292 - 1296 CE, on the Scottish throne.

1290 CE - England - The Exchequer of the Jews, a small Jewish Community in England, earned its living by lending money and lived under Royal protection. A large number of Knights were in debt to the Jews. The Jews foreclosed on the Knights land for failure to pay, and sold it to recover their money. The King feared land would thereby accumulate in too few hands and challenge the Kings power base. Using this pretext, the Jews in London and York are massacred and the Jewish ghettos sacked during the Baron wars. The remaining Jews are forced to France, after being relieved of their possessions.

1290 CE - Turkey - The Ottoman Turks began to organize into a religious military clan about this time in northwestern Anatolia (Turkey). The Christians are routed out of the Middle East by the Islamic army.

1290 CE - Prussia - The Teutonic Knights conquer all of Prussia.

1291 CE - Syria - Cyprus - Italy - On July 12, Acre, the last Christian fortress in Syria is lost to the Moslems. [p114++] Theobald Gaudin, Grand Master of the Knights Templar managed to escape from Acre to Cyprus with the treasure and relics the Knights Templars. [p135++] The Teutonic Knights move their headquarters from Acre to Venice. With the fall of Acre, the Templars found themselves distanced from the Holy Land and lacking support from some European kings.

1291 CE - Switzerland - The Swiss cantons form a confederation under a republican form of government called the "League Of Upper Germany".

1291 - 1327 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Aragonian king Alfonso III dies and his brother Jaime II becomes king of Aragonia.

1291 CE - Spain - On August 3, the Templar Castle of Tortosa surrendered. [p135++]

1291 CE - Germany - On August 14, the Templar Castle of Atlit surrendered. [p135++]

1291 - 1309 CE - Cyprus - The Order of St. John is sited at Cyprus. [10$]

1292 - 1298 CE - Germany - Adolf (or Adolph) (c. 1255 – 2 July 1298) was the King of Germany from 1292 until 1298. Though his title in his lifetime was Rex Romanorum (King of the Romans), he is usually known as Adolf of Nassau. He was never crowned by the Pope, which would have secured him the title of Holy Roman Emperor. He was the only sane king of the Holy Roman Empire deposed by the prince-electors without being excommunicated by the Pope.

1292 CE - Sumatra - Java - The Mongol Chinese Empire by orders of the Emperor Kublai Khan invaded Sumatra and Java with 1,000 ships during 1292 - 1293 CE. They returned to China in defeat.

1293 CE - Turkey - In Asia Minor, Osman I established the beginning of the Ottoman dynasty in 1293 CE. Osman's successor Ohkran conquered most of western Asia Minor. By 1354 CE, the Turks had a base at Gallipoli, a peninsula on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

While the Mamlukes were taking power in the southern part of the Middle East, the Ottoman Turks were gathering strength in Asia Minor and spilling over into Europe. Their success was due to good organization and early exploitation of the power of firearms, which was not realized by other Muslim antagonists. The Mamlukes had been Turkish slaves of the Arabs; the Ottomans in turn created a soldier caste of Janissaries (Yeni Ceri, meaning New Troops), who were Christians conscripted or captured at any early age and raised as fanatic Muslims. They originally served as the personal guard of the Sultan. After the 1380s, Sultan Selim I recruited them by taxation in human form called devshirmeh. The sultan's men would conscript a number of non-Muslim, usually Christian, boys - at first at random, later by strict selection - and take them to be trained.

1294 CE - China - The Chinese Emperor Kublai Khan died this year, leaving the worlds largest Empire from the Black Sea and the Persian Gulf to the Pacific Ocean.

1294 CE - Scotland - Scotland is again invaded by the English who captured all the main Scottish castles.

Celestine IV

Boniface VIII

1294 - 1294 CE - Italy - Celestine V, alias Pietro del Morrone, a hermit, is elected pope after twelve cardinals argued for twenty-seven months before coming to a 2/3 vote. Pietro del Morrone is alleged to have prophesied that divine retribution would follow if a pope is not soon selected. Pope Celestine is reputed to be a puppet manipulated by King Charles II of Sicily and Naples. He appointed twelve cardinals (seven Frenchmen) nominated by King Charles and appointed more of his creatures to key positions of the curia and the papal state. He abdicated the papacy and begged the cardinals to swiftly elect a new pope for the good of the church. To avoid a schism, the Pope is arrested and imprisoned.

1294 - 1303 CE - Italy - Benedict Gaetani (Caetani) became Pope Boniface VIII by effectively deposing, some say by killing, Pope Celestine V. He immediately annulled most of Pope Celestine's appointments and revoked the privileges Celestine had granted. He demanded blind submission to his authority, the universal authority of the papacy. He is a believer in amulets, magic and a skeptic in religion. He is rude beyond belief, domineering and well hated, his primary objective is to increase the power of the Caetani family.

1294 CE - Spain - King Ferdinand IV, 1294 - 1312 CE, of Spain made little progress against the Moors, but did capture Gibraltar, attacking from the seaward side. The rock is too exposed to attract settlers, so he made it a safe haven for all criminals, robbers, murderers and women who ran away from their husbands.

1294 CE - England - Roger Bacon dies.

1294 - 1303 CE - Turkey - John XII becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1295 - 1304 CE - Iran - The Mongol dynasty rules Iran, with Ghazan Khan as its leader.

1295 CE - Scotland - France - Scotland entered into a secret alliance with France against the English, with an agreement that if England attacked one, the other would make trouble behind England's back. France saw her biggest problem being the Duke of Burgundy and the English King Edward I, who is also Duke of Aquitaine, as they refused to recognize the French King Philip IV's (1285 - 1314 CE) over-lordship.

1296 CE - France - King Philip IV of France raised money for war by taxing the clergy. Pope Boniface issued a bull banning the practice and King Philip retaliated by prohibiting the export of money and valuables and expelled foreign merchants.

William Wallace

1297 CE - Scotland - William Wallace, a Norman-Scottish Knight rose against English rule, is defeated, executed and his head is put on a pole on London bridge by King Edward I.

1297 CE - Italy - The powerful Colonna family who had supported Pope Boniface VIII's election, became disenchanted with his high-handed style, opposed his Sicilian policy and joined the Franciscan Spirituals in questioning the validity of Celestine V's abdication and Boniface's election. They called for a general council to adjudicate his legitimacy as pope and investigate his alleged murder of Pope Celestine. The Pope deposed and excommunicated two of the Colonna's cardinals and organized a holy war against them, razed their fortresses, seized their lands and exploited them to enrich the Vatican.

1298 - 1308 CE - Germany - Albert I of Habsburg was King of the Romans, Duke of Austria, and eldest son of German King Rudolph I of Habsburg and Gertrude of Hohenburg.

1298 CE - England - Jaques de Molay becomes Grandmaster of Knights Templars.

1300 CE - Tibet - Bardo Thos Grol, the Tibetan Book of the Dead, was probably compiled during the 14th century. However, according to Tibetan Scripts it was written down during the life of Padma Sambhava, during the 8th century. [$5] [p178TD]

1300 CE - France - King Philip IV began an attack on the Knights Templar Order, jealous of their power and privileges and envious of their wealth. The Inquisition accused them of blasphemy and idolatry. They are accused of denying Christian doctrines, giving homage to Satan and worshipping an idol called Baphomet (Mahomet).

The first part of the Gothic cathedral of Saint-Maximin was consecrated. [p77&]

1300 CE - China - The White Lotus Society is founded in China. [IllHis]

1300 CE - Italy - The papal theory … made the Pope alone God's representative on earth and maintained that the Emperor received his right to rule from St. Peter's successor … It was upheld by Nicholas I, Hildebrand, Alexander III, Innocent III, and culminated with Boniface VIII at the jubilee of 1300 when, seated on the throne of Constantine, girded with the imperial sword, wearing a crown, and waving a sceptre, he shouted to the throng of loyal pilgrims: "I am Caesar, I am Emperor."

Boniface VIII commissioned or permitted the erection of so many statues of himself the some people accused him of encouraging idolatry. Pope Celestine V had said of him "You leaped on the throne like a fox, you will reign like a lion, you will die like a dog." He proclaimed 1300 CE a year of jubilee (a holy year) with plenary indulgences for pilgrims to the Apostles shrines. Pope Boniface VIII made three of his nephews cardinals, bestowing vast lands and possessions on them. The Pope had a married woman and her daughter as his mistresses. Dante said he turned Peter's burial-place into a sewer. Pope Boniface VIII, in a foul mood having leveled Palestrina, killing some 6,000 people, prepared a new Bull to the universal church ––

"There is but one holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church outside of which there is no salvation or remission of sins. I, the Pope, am the one head, with Christ and Peter, of the church. This church is the Ark of Salvation; anyone outside it is doomed to drown forever, especially Greek Christians who refuse to admit the pope is Shepherd of the whole flock. He who denies that the temporal sword is in the power of Peter wrongly interprets the Lord's words. Both swords, the spiritual and the material are in the power of the Church. The spiritual is wielded by the Church; the material for the Church. The one by the hand of the priest; the other by the hand of kings and knights at the will and sufferance of the priest. One sword has to be under the other; the material under the spiritual, as temporal authority in general is under the spiritual. We declare, announce and define that it is altogether necessary for salvation for every creature to be subject to the Roman Pontiff.

An insane Pope speaks to the universal church on matters of faith and morals and all future Popes must take up the two swords against the laws of Jesus Christ and millions of innocent people will die. The Roman Church had become the beast. Now the whole Roman Church knew that God's things are God's and Caesar's things are God's too.

The Roman Church taught that women should obey their husbands, be pure and holy. Like Eve, they could not be trusted and are a moral danger to men. Such religious teaching led men both to worship and also to look down on women and led women to give in to men's authority. A disobedient wife is usually beaten and the Church supports this practice until the Twentieth century.

1300 CE - Mongolia - China - Russia - The Mongolian Horde held to a principle of religious tolerance and practiced a form of Sky worship and Shamanism. The Golden Horde officially endorsed Islam and in China endorsed Buddhism. In Southern Mongolian Russia Empire they wavered between Christianity and Islam.

1300 CE - England - The Norman Lords loved hunting and drove the English peasants out of the forests, punishing them severely if they killed any forest animals.

1300 CE - Poland - King Wenceslas II ascends the throne in Poland.

Anatolia

1301 CE - Anatolia (Turkey) - Osman founds the Ottoman dynasty in Anatolia (Ankara).

1302 CE - Rome - Pope Boniface VIII issued the bull Unam Sanctam, concerning the unity of the Church and the temporal power of princes, against the background of a struggle with Philip IV of France; it was the most famous medieval document on the subject.

In this bull, Obedience to the Pope was declared necessary for Salvation –

"We, moreover, proclaim, declare and pronounce that it is altogether necessary to salvation for every human being to be subject to the Roman Pontiff."

1303 CE - Italy - King Philip IV of France sent a small force to Rome to sack the Vatican and imprison Boniface VIII over the right to tax the French clergy. Guillaume de Nogaret, emissary of Philip IV of France, kidnaps Pope Boniface VIII and beats him. His imprisonment unhinged him and he kept banging his head against a wall and nibbled his arm incessantly like a dog worrying a bone. The pope is rescued by Italians from Anagni, but dies shortly thereafter in Rome, probably as a result of his injuries. His death ends the struggle between Philip IV of France and the pope over papal powers in France.

Blessed Benedict XI

1303 - 1304 CE - Italy - Benedict XI, alias Niccolo Boccasino, a Dominican, is unanimously elected pope. The Colonna cardinals being excommunicated are excluded from the election. He absolved the Colonna family from excommunication, but did not restore the cardinals nor return confiscated property. The other Roman families are outraged and the pope fled Rome.

1303 CE - Sweden - Birgitta (Bridget) is born. She died in Rome in 1373 CE. [$]

1303 - 1310 CE - Turkey - Athanasius I once again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1304 - 1316 CE - Iran - The Mongol dynasty rules Iran, with Uljaitu as its leader.

1305 CE - Spain - Moses de Leon dies. [J]

Clement V

1305 - 1314 CE - France - Clement V, alias Bertrand de Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, is elected pope after eleven months of bitter debate and intrigue. The pope created ten new cardinals, nine are French of which four are nephews; further creations in 1310 and 1312 CE ensuring French domination. He intended on returning to Rome but, on the King's insistence, settled in Avignon in 1309 CE. Romans considered this the beginning of a seventy-year Babylonian captivity of the papacy.

1306 CE - France - Philippe IV expels the Jews from France.

1306 CE - Scotland - On March 27, Robert the Bruce is crowned King at Scone, using the real Stone of Destiny, not the Stone of Scone. King Robert Bruce I, 1306 - 1329 CE, an Anglo-Norman (Viking) of Scotland had not the sympathy of Scotland. The new king is struggling in the west and is all but cut off at Dalry near Tydrum by the Chief of the MacDougall, a Gaelic-Viking, whose descendants long possessed the Brooch of Lorn, said to have been torn from his shoulder in this action. Bruce defeated the English army in Scotland in 1307 CE. Edward I died on the way to battle and on his grave is written, Hammer of the Scots. Pope Clement V excommunicated Robert I and two bishops who supported this Scottish rebel.

1307 CE - France - On October 13, Philippe IV of France ordered arrest of all Knights Templars, including Jaques de Molay, the Grand Master of the Temple. [p70+] More than 600 of the 3,000 Templars in France were imprisoned, according to Inquisition records. [p36G]

1307 - 1321 CE - Italy - Divina Commedia is written by Dante Alighieri. [^]

1308 CE - Germany - The assassination of Holy Roman Emperor Albert I, 1250 - 1308 CE, Holy Roman Emperor, 1298 - 1308 CE, the son of Rudolf I, occurred. Albert was invested with Austria and Styria in 1282 CE by his father, who also hoped to secure the succession as king of the Germans for Albert. However, on Rudolf's death in 1291 CE, the electors rejected Albert's candidacy in order to check the growing power of the Hapsburgs and to prevent the crown from becoming hereditary within the Hapsburg dynasty. They chose Adolf of Nassau as king. Albert later engineered Adolf's deposition and replaced him. As king, Albert attempted to strengthen Hapsburg claims for a hereditary dynasty by allying in 1299 CE with Philip IV of France, by supporting the Rhine towns against the Rhenish imperial electors, and by unsuccessfully attempting in 1300 CE to add Holland and Zeeland to the Hapsburg domains. These actions provoked a revolt, between 1300 until 1302 CE, by the Rhenish electors, backed by Pope Boniface VIII, which Albert suppressed. He later reached an agreement with Boniface, who recognized his title in 1303 CE. Albert attempted to expand his dominion to the east by preventing Wenceslaus II of Bohemia from acquiring Hungary, but his campaign was unsuccessful until Wenceslaus's death in 1305 CE. Albert's son, Rudolf, succeeded Wenceslaus III in 1306 CE. Albert was assassinated by a band of conspirators that included his nephew. Henry of Luxemburg (Henry VII) was elected to succeed him.

1308 CE - France - On June 24, the Knights Templar held an annual chapter in Poitiers for three days, displaying "The Mysterious Head" according to Etienne de Troyes." [p203&]

1308 CE - Scotland - King Robert Bruce I overran the north, turned to the west and made himself master of the MacDougall stronghold of Dunstaffnage.

1308 CE - Italy - The Archbishop of Riga and his four bishops wanting to control the city asked Pope Clement V to suppress the Teutonic Order because of its luxury, cruelty and injustice. They would later accuse them of sodomy and witchcraft. The clergy also appealed to the heathen Lithuanians to oust the Order.

1309 CE - Prussia - In September, the Teutonic Knights moved their headquarters to Marienberg, Prussia. [p43G]

1309 CE - France - Avignon became the residence of the Pope in 1309 CE, at which time the town and the surrounding Comtat Venaissin was under the rule of the kings of Sicily (the house of Anjou). In 1348 CE, Pope Clement VI bought it from Queen Joanna I of Sicily for 80,000 gold gulden, and it remained a papal possession until 1791 CE, when, during the disorder of the French Revolution, it was incorporated with France.

The Pope's Palace in Avignon, France

Seven popes have resided there –

Pope Clement V
Pope John XXII
Pope Benedict XII
Pope Clement VI
Pope Innocent VI
Pope Urban V
Pope Gregory XI

From 1309 to 1417 CE, during the "Babylonian Captivity" at Avignon and the Great Schism, the Papal States were in chaotic condition, only temporarily relieved by the efforts of Cardinal Albornoz. It was called the Babylonian Captivity in reference to the Israelites' enslavement in biblical times. The analogy fitted Avignon in another sense - the venality of the papal court caused the city to become infamously corrupt, much as Babylon had been accused of being. The poet Petrarch condemned the city's corruption, contributing to the papacy's return to Rome out of sheer embarrassment as much as anything else.

During the Renaissance the papal territory expanded greatly, notably under Pope Alexander VI and Pope Julius II. The Pope became one of Italy's most important secular rulers as well as the head of the Church. Much of the territory was only nominally controlled by the Pope, and most of the papal states were ruled by minor princes. Control was always contested, indeed it took until the 16th Century for the Pope to have any genuine control over all his territories, at which point the Pope's temporal power started to decline. Because of the weak control of the area the Papal States became one of the most lawless and poorest parts of Italy.

1309 CE - Greece - The Hospitallers conquer the island of Rhodes and move their capital there, establishing an ecclesiastical principality under the eastern Roman empire. [10$]

1309 CE - Scotland - On October 6, Edward II ordered the arrest of all Templars in Scotland. [p99+']

1310 CE - Scotland - The Hebridean Kingdom of MacDougall is lost to their related clan of MacDonald.

1310 - 1354 CE - France - The Knights Templar are burned to death in France. [(]

1312 CE - Europe - The Hospitallers are awarded the Templars' possessions in western Europe, Cyprus, and Greece (kingdom of Achaia).

1310 - 1314 CE - Turkey - Nephon I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1311 CE - China - The Mongol began the extermination of Chinese peasantry and 35,000,000 people are killed between 1311 - 1340 CE. Some suggest this is not true. Others say that Khubilai Khan, who ruled China until his death in 1294 CE, was reported by Chinese writers of having killed 18,480,000 Chinese to maintain his throne. Some place the overall murder of Chinese over the centuries in the range from 34 million to 90 million. The Yuan Dynasty (1279 - 1368 CE) was considered particularly brutal toward the Chinese. It is suggested more Chinese are killed maintaining the Dynasty than in the actual conquest. These likely inflated figures (35 million) likely include the deaths by flooding of the Yellow River because the Mongols failed to maintain the irrigation systems.

1312 CE - Scotland - Following false charges, the Order of the Knights Templar is dissolved by Papal decree and subjected to a cruel persecution, but not in Scotland where Templars fleeing France found refuge under an excommunicated King Robert the Bruce. Bruce welcomes the Templar Order to a divided and excommunicate Scotland.

1312 CE - France - The King of France abolishes the Order of Knights Templar, accusing them of witchcraft. Pope Clement V disbanded the Knights Templar Order for heresy involving magic.

1314 - 1347 CE - Germany - Louis IV (1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was the King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314, the King of Italy from 1327 and the Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.

1314 CE - France - On March 18, Jacques de Molay, the grand master of the Templars, and Geoffroi de Charney are roasted to death over a slow fire on the Ile de la Cité in the Seine. [p175++]

1314 CE - Scotland - The Battle of Bannockburn occurred on the 24th of June, Midsummer's day, the Feast day of John the Baptist. Scotland fought under Robert the Bruce with Templar help for freedom. England under Edward II was, against all odds, defeated.

Bruce creates the Order of Heridom and the Brothers of the Rosy Cross, later to be Kilwinning. They hold lands in Argyllshire near Sadell Abbey. Part of the Templar Fleet becomes integrated into the Lords of the Isles and the Northern (Sinclair) Fleet.

Balentrodoch comes under the protection of the St. Clairs of Rosslyn, although it is administered by the Order of the Hospital, as well as the Cistercians from Newbattle Abbey, farming the land and continuing to mine coal.

1315 CE - Scotland - Robert the Bruce protects the Order of Heridom and the Temple keeps its land in Scotland.

1315 CE - India - Virvarman II, the last (?) of the Chandela kings, ruling over Khajuraho. [p4KH]

1315 - 1320 CE - Turkey - John XIII Glykys becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

John XXII

1316 - 1334 CE - France - John XXII alias Jacques Duese, is elected pope after two years debate split along country lines. John XXII introduced the Most Holy Trinity holiday and canonized St. Thomas Aquinas. He established the court called Sacra Rota.

1316 CE - Scotland - Robert the Bruce established, according to old Masonic tradition, the Royal Order of Scotland and appointed the St. Clairs as hereditary Grand Masters. Many prominent Templars became members. [p49G]

1318 CE - Portugal - The Portugese Templars became the Order of Christ and received the approval of Pope John XXII. [p167@] King Dinis did not appreciate the power of the Order of Knights in Portugal and appealed to Pope John XXII to expropriate the Orders' land holdings. The Pope refused, so King Dinis created his own Order of the Knights of Christ, installing them in all Templar locations.

Muslim Territory - 1300 CE

Granada - 1300 CE

1319 CE - Spain - Two regents of Castilian perished in the disaster of the Vega and the frontier towns are so horrified they formed a league to make peace with the Islamic Kingdom of Granada (southern Spain) at any cost.

1320 CE - Scotland - The Signing of the Declaration of Arbroath, possibly enshrining the first rights of man, his community and his culture.

Although the English armies under Edward II were routed at Bannockburn in 1314 CE, by 1319 CE, with the recapture of Berwick and effectively expelled from Scottish soil, they continued to mount attacks into Robert the Bruce's Scotland over the succeeding years. The Pope had not accepted Scottish independence, perhaps partially because Robert the Bruce had been excommunicated for killing John Comyn in a church in Dumfries in 1306 CE (Comyn had formed an alliance with Edward II, but perhaps had more of a right to be King than Bruce).

Thus the Declaration of Arbroath was prepared as a formal Declaration of Independence. It was drawn up in Arbroath Abbey on the 6th April 1320 CE, most likely by the Abbot, Bernard de Linton, who was also the Chancellor of Scotland.

The Declaration urged the Pope to see things from a Scottish perspective and not to take the English claim on Scotland seriously. It used stong words, indicating that without acceptance of the Scottish case that the wars would continue and the resultant deaths would be the responsibility of the Pope.

1320 CE - France - King Philip V of France made skin disease a capital crime, accusing lepers of conspiring against the government and put many to death.

Witchcraft was added to the list of heresies against the Roman Catholic Church. The tortures imposed to obtain confessions to witchcraft were of the most depraved ever imagined by man. They were believed by many to be demonic in nature.

1320 - 1321 CE - Turkey - Gerasimus I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1321 CE - France - Large numbers of Jews are massacred by Frenchmen based on a rumor that Jews had poisoned the wells in Paris.

1322 CE - Italy - The Franciscan order of Spirituals at Perugia pronounced, in defiance of a decision of the Inquisition, that Christ and the Apostles owned nothing as their own. Pope John XXII considered it heresy to believe that Christ wanted the clergy to give up money and property to follow him in his declaration of 1323 CE. The entire order of Franciscan Spirituals is outraged and some members branded Pope John XXII as a heretic and a large number went into schism.

1323 - 1334 CE - Turkey - Isaias I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1324 CE - France - The French King Charles IV seized part of Gascony south of Aquitaine in France. The Duke of Burgundy then made an alliance with England against France. Louis IV, the Bavarian and future Emperor, is excommunicated for supporting the renegade Franciscans who held the doctrine of poverty. Louis IV branded Pope John XXII as a heretic and made plans to march on Rome.

A zealous Franciscan, the bishop of Ossory, accused Lady Alice Kyteler of witchcraft and sorcery. Lady Kyteler had four husbands and the children involved claimed she bewitched the men into making unjust wills. Lady Alice escaped to England, but her maid and some others implicated are burned. The children seized their rights and the bishop likely received his share.

Marsilius of Padua completed Defensor Pacis, a work condemned by Pope John XXII as heretical because of its denial of papal primacy and the hierarchical structure of the Church, and for other reasons. It was a charter for conciliarism (an ecumenical council is superior to the pope in authority).

1324 CE - Spain - The Christian Order of Knights continued to raid Islamic communities. An Islamic army from Granada took Baza and Matos, Spain.

1325 CE - Mexico - The Mexica or Tenochas established the city of Tenochtitlán (Mexico City). [p28LR]

1327 - 1336 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Alfonso IV becomes king of Aragonia.

1327 CE - France - Meister Johannes Eckart was born around 1260 CE in Hochheim, Franconia, and died in 1327 CE in Avignon. He studied in Cologne, entered the Dominican Order, studied for a while in Paris, where he received his master's degree. Meister Eckhart wrote four treatises in German.

He preached that life on earth was vane, nil, that the man who overcame his personality would discover his similarity with god, that there was an identity between god and the human soul and that man should give up his personality and seek the identity with god without questioning.

Given a professorship in Cologne, Eckhart was accused of being a heretic; during the process, which was drawn to the papal court at Avignon, he died.

Edward II

1327 CE - England - Edward II, king of England, son of Edward I, was born at Carnarvon (Caernarfon) in 1284 CE. He succeeded his father in 1307 CE, and was governed by his favourites, Gaveston and the Despensers, which occasioned the barons to rise against him. Edward II married Isabella, daughter of Philip of France in 1308 CE; the marriage was not a success - he later referred to her as the 'she-wolf of France.' His deposition took place in 1327 CE, and after resigning his crown, he was confined in Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, and was there traitorously murdered by the contrivance of his queen, Isabella, and her favourite, Roger Mortimer, the Earl of March, in 1328 CE. His eleven year old son Edward III became king.

1327 CE - England - King Edward III of England and his advisors gave up their claim of Lordship over Scotland.

1328 CE - Italy - Louis IV, the Bavarian, entered Rome and is crowned Emperor and captain of the people. He published a decree declaring Jacques of Cahors, Pope John XXII, as deposed on grounds of heresy and had a straw effigy of him in pontifical robes solemnly burned at the stake. Nicholas V, alias Pietro Rainalducci, is elected pope by thirteen chosen from the Roman clergy. Pietro had abandoned his wife of five years and joined the Franciscans in 1310 CE. He created nine cardinals and a score of bishops. Louis IV departed Rome, taking his pope with him.

1328 - 1341 CE - Turkey - Andronicus III becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1328 CE - France - Charles IV, the last Capetian king of France dies, his daughter Jeanne is disqualified from occupying the French throne, and Edward III of England claims the French throne, whereas the French nobility choose Philippe of Valois, the first Valois king.

1328 CE - Spain - Navarra declares its independence from France.

1328 CE - Scotland - In February, the treaty of Edinburgh is signed by the Scots and English Kings, enshrining Scottish sovereignty. It was later ratified by the Treaty of Northampton in October 1328 CE, by which the Scots were offered the return of the Stone of Scone, but somehow the English never got around to fulfilling their end of the bargain. The Stone of Destiny remained in London until British Prime Minister John Major, with the approval of Her Majesty the Queen, arranged to right this persistent historical oversight in 1996 CE.

The origin of this famous Stone is shrouded in myth. According to legend, it came from the Holy Land, where Jacob supposedly used it as a pillow in Biblical times. Transported through Egypt, Sicily and Spain, it was taken to Ireland, where Saint Patrick himself blessed this rock for use in crowning the kings of the emerald isle. It is certainly possible that the Stone may have been used in the coronation ceremonies of the Irish Kingdom of Dalriada from roughly 400 CE until 850 CE, when Kenneth I, the 36th King of Dalriada, moved his capital of his expanding empire from Ireland to Scone (pronounced "scoon") in what is now Perthshire, Scotland. The Stone was moved several times after that, and used on the remote, western island of Iona, then in Dunadd, in Dunstaffnage and finally in Scone again for the installation of Dalriadic monarchs.

The Stone was last used in a coronation in Scotland in 1292 CE, when John Balliol was proclaimed King. Four years later, in 1296 CE, the English monarch, Edward I (infamous as the "hammer of the Scots," and nemesis of Scottish national hero William Wallace) invaded Scotland. Among the booty that Edward's army removed was the legendary Stone, which the English king apparently regarded as an important symbol of Scottish sovereignty. The present Coronation Throne was made to house the stone in 1301 CE.

According to the treaty of Northampton of 1328 CE, peace was restored between the warring neighbors, and King Edward III of England promised to return the Stone to its rightful owners forthwith. The Scots were offered the return of the Stone of Scone, which they politely declined.

On November 15, 1996 CE, the Stone of Destiny, on which Scottish kings had been crowned since time immemorial, was brought back to Scotland 700 years after the army of King Edward I of England carted it off to Westminster Abbey in London. Now safely ensconced in Edinburgh Castle, the 152 kg rock popularly known outside Scotland as the "Stone of Scone" has joined the other Scottish royal regalia – crown, scepter, sword and jewels – in a closely-guarded museum.

Dunfermline Abbey

1329 CE - Scotland - King Robert the Bruce died of leprosy at Cardross Castle on the Firth of Clyde. His body was buried at Dunfermline Abbey and his heart was interred at Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire, after being carried to the Crusades. Templar Ritual is used. He was buried with his hand on his sword and his legs crossed, wrapped in a silk Lion rampart, the flag of the people, not the Saltire which was the flag of the country. His daughter Marjorie married Walter the High Steward, their son Robert II initiating the Stewart line of royalty.

1329 CE - Germany - The Tarot makes its first appearance in Germany. [IllHis]

1329 CE - France - All orthodox Fransciscan Spirituals are excommunicated for their belief about personal poverty. Pope John XXII issued an infalliblity bull stating that the right to hold property pre-dated the Fall of Man, and that scripture depicted the Apostles as owning personal possessions. The Roman Church hung its head in shame, for the Vatican has great wealth and is unable to follow Christ.

1330 CE - Palestine - A group of Scottish Knights and Templars under the commandership of the good Sir James Douglas take the heart of Robert of Bruce to the Holy Land. On the way they make a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostella in Spain, and take part in the first great successful battle against the Moors at Teba, Calavatra. This is where the name Braveheart comes from when Douglas throws the heart of Bruce in a silver casket forward into the Moorish lines, and calls "Go Braveheart and we, your Knights will follow."

The Scots lead by Sir James Douglas use a Templar Turcopolier tactic, they charge in a wedge shape with such ferocity that they divide the Moorish army, which wins the battle for the Christians. Only four out of twenty-two Scottish Knights survive and return to Scotland. Young Simon of Lee becomes the Lockhart.

The Order of St. James is created. King Alphonse XI is so impressed by the bravery of the Scottish knights that he appealed to the Pope to have the excommunication of Bruce and the people of Scotland lifted.

1330 CE - England - John Wycliff is born in Yorkshire.

1330 CE - Scotland - Sir Henry de St. Clair, who fought with Robert Bruce at Bannockburn, was buried in Templar fashion close to the Rosslyn Chapel in Roslin, Scotland. [p3] [p49G]

Rosslyn Chapel is located in a village called Roslin, which is only six miles south of the centre of Edinburgh, on the A703 road to Penicuik (see arrow)

1331 CE - Turkey - The Ottomans conquer Nicaea.

1331 CE - France - Pope John XXII held the doctrine that the souls of the saints are not in paradise but are held until the final judgement. The majority of theologians he consulted considered this heresy contending the saints are already in heaven. It is alleged that Pope John XXII made a partial retraction on his deathbed. He personally accumulated a considerable fortune, showering money and material gifts on his relatives and compatriots.

1331 CE - Poland - King Wladyslaw, the Dwarf of Poland, called on the Teutonic Knights to repress a rebellion at Danzig. After completing the job the Teutonic Order kept the town for themselves. The Poles routed the Knights at Plowce the following year, but are unable to defeat them decisively.

1333 CE - Scotland - During the Battle of Halidon Hill, Adam De Vipont, Knight Templar, is captured by Edward III. The King says "Vipont thy cross shield and tunic shows ill, warring against a Christian king." Adam de Vipont responded "Sire, I was a Scotsman ere I was a Templar, sworn to my Order, yet I knew my country." It was in this battle that the Holy Rood of St. Margaret was lost to the Scots, to be kept in Durham Cathedral. Near the battlefield, Edward III dedicates a chapel and calls it the Holy Rood, to celebrate his victory.

Sir Archibald Douglas (guardian of David II) was routed by Edward Balliol and Edward III. Scots losses were nearly 600, English losses amounted to only 14.

1333 CE - Spain - The Christian Order of Knights continued to raid Islamic communities. An Islam army from Granada recaptured Gibraltar.

Benedict XII

1334 - 1342 CE - France - Benedict XII , alias Jasques Fournier, a loud-voiced, indefatigable Inquisitor, skillful at extracting confessions from suspected heretics and with blood on his hands, is elected pope. Others were passed over because they refused to promise to restore the Holy See to Rome. He finished the work on the papal palace. With his policy of rigor and economy he managed to accumulate a veritable treasure.

Pope Benedict XII was such a hardened drinker that the expression "drunk as a pope" became popular in his lifetime. Pope Benedict XII started building the papal palace in Avignon. Though basically austere, he was smitten by the sister of Francesco Petrarch, 1304 - 1374 CE, the great poet and scholar of the time and offered to make him cardinal if he could have her. When Francesco refused, the pope turned to his brother, Gerardo, and won her.

1334 CE - Scotland - David II, King of Scots, in exile in the French court, creates The Guarde De Ecosse. Sons from all the best, most loyal, families in Scotland become the personal bodyguard to the French (Valios) Kings, in perpetuity, instead of David giving Fealty of Scotland to the French king. In many ways this bodyguard/Order became the vessel which contains all the best Templar traditions.

The Templar Ideals and philosophies are kept within the best of the Scottish Noble families. The Scottish nobles from the Bruce Line become the heritors of the Templar Order, and its knowledge; the head of the Jacobite line becomes the Unknown Superior and secret protectors of the Templar Order. The St. Clairs being the cupbearer, feature prominently.

1334 - 1347 CE - Turkey - John XIV Kalekas becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1336 CE - India - The sultans' failure to hold securely the Deccan and South India resulted in the rise of competing southern dynasties: the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate (1347 - 1527 CE) and the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire (1336 - 1565 CE). Zafar Khan, a former provincial governor under the Tughluqs, revolted against his Turkic overlord and proclaimed himself sultan, taking the title Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in 1347 CE. The Bahmani Sultanate, located in the northern Deccan, lasted for almost two centuries, until it fragmented into five smaller states in 1527 CE. The Bahmani Sultanate adopted the patterns established by the Delhi overlords in tax collection and administration, but its downfall was caused in large measure by the competition and hatred between deccani (domiciled Muslim immigrants and local converts) and paradesi (foreigners or officials in temporary service). The Bahmani Sultanate initiated a process of cultural synthesis visible in Hyderabad, where cultural flowering is still expressed in vigorous schools of deccani architecture and painting.

Southern Dynasties in India

Founded in 1336 CE, the empire of Vijayanagar (named for its capital Vijayanagar, "City of Victory," in present-day Karnataka) expanded rapidly toward Madurai in the south and Goa in the west and exerted intermittent control over the east coast and the extreme southwest. Vijayanagar rulers closely followed Chola precedents, especially in collecting agricultural and trade revenues, in giving encouragement to commercial guilds, and in honoring temples with lavish endowments. Added revenue needed for waging war against the Bahmani sultans was raised by introducing a set of taxes on commercial enterprises, professions, and industries. Political rivalry between the Bahmani and the Vijayanagar rulers involved control over the Krishna-Tunghabadhra river basin, which shifted hands depending on whose military was superior at any given time. The Vijayanagar rulers' capacity for gaining victory over their enemies was contingent on ensuring a constant supply of horses – initially through Arab traders but later through the Portuguese – and maintaining internal roads and communication networks. Merchant guilds enjoyed a wide sphere of operation and were able to offset the power of landlords and Brahmans in court politics. Commerce and shipping eventually passed largely into the hands of foreigners, and special facilities and tax concessions were provided for them by the ruler. Arabs and Portuguese competed for influence and control of west coast ports, and, in 1510 CE, Goa passed into Portuguese possession.

The city of Vijayanagar itself contained numerous temples with rich ornamentation, especially the gateways, and a cluster of shrines for the deities. Most prominent among the temples was the one dedicated to Virupaksha, a manifestation of Shiva, the patron-deity of the Vijayanagar rulers. Temples continued to be the nuclei of diverse cultural and intellectual activities, but these activities were based more on tradition than on contemporary political realities. (However, the first Vijayanagar ruler – Harihara I – was a Hindu who converted to Islam and then reconverted to Hinduism for political expediency.) The temples sponsored no intellectual exchange with Islamic theologians because Muslims were generally assigned to an "impure" status and were thus excluded from entering temples. When the five rulers of what was once the Bahmani Sultanate combined their forces and attacked Vijayanagar in 1565 CE, the empire crumbled at the Battle of Talikot.

1336 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Pedro IV becomes king of Aragonia from 1136 until 1387 CE.

1336 CE - Lithuania - Prussia - There is an unending war between the Teutonic Order and the subjects of Lithuanian Grand Dukes. As an example, between 1345 - 1377 CE, seventy Teutonic expeditions are launched from Prussia and thirty from Livland. The Lithuanians dreaded the Teutonic Order. This year the Knights besieged and stormed a fort at Pilenai on the Niemen, and, rather than be captured, the Lithuanians burnt all their goods, killed their women and children and then beheaded each other. An old priestess decapitated more than 100 warriors with an axe before splitting her own head as the Knights broke into the fort. Pope Benedict XII promised full spiritual privileges to crusaders who assisted the Teutonic Order. The princes and noblemen of Europe flocked to fight the Lithuanians. Henry of Derby, later King Henry IV of England joined in the hunt.

1337 CE - England - France - King Edward III declared war on King Philip VI of France claiming the right to the French Crown, in what has historically become known as "The Hundred Years' War." He forbids the speaking of French in his army to make them more aware of their Englishness. This would begin the one hundred-year war that would not end until 1453 CE, with England losing all its possessions in France except for the port of Calais in northern France. An English edict is passed stating only nobles and clerks earning more than 100 pounds annually could wear furs. The complaint is that it is becoming impossible to distinguish an innkeeper's wife from a gentlewoman.

1338 CE - Germany - Four years after the death of Pope John XXII, who had opposed Louis IV of Bavaria in a years-long controversy, electoral princes declared at the Diet of Rhense that the emperor did not need papal confirmation of his title and right to rule. The Frankfurt manifesto, Fidem Catholicam, proclaimed the doctrine that Imperial authority derives from God, not from the Pope. Licet Iuris declared that the Imperial rank and power that depend on God alone, lawfully belong to him who had been duly chosen by the electors; confirmation or consent of the Holy See is not required. Charles IV later (1356 CE) said the same thing in a Golden Bull, eliminating papal rights in the election of emperors.

1338 CE - England - Edward III grants extensive privileges to the Hansa (Hanseatic League) in return for funds to redeem his Queen's jewels pawned to money merchants in Cologne.

1340 CE - Spain - King Alfonso XI, the avenger of Spain, decisively defeated the Spanish and Moroccan Moslems, ending the African threat to Spain forever. He attempted to merge the brotherhood of the knights into a single Royal Military Order, but their resistance forced him to place them under firm control. His subjects feared him even more than the Moors, as he used treachery and murder to intimidate the nobles, killing rebels without trial.

1340 CE - England - Edward III first invaded France from the Low Countries between 1339 and 1340 CE, winning small success on land. In June of 1340, the English under Edward III decided to attack the French fleet at Sluys in order to pre-empt a French invasion. Guns are fired from ships for the first time at the battle of Sluys. After a nine hour battle, that featured both archer attacks and hand-to-hand combat, the English fleet of 200 ships destroyed the French forces; close to 16,000 men died, mostly French. The major outcome of the battle was that it permanently stopped all ideas of a French invasion of England and determined that the majority of the warfare would be conducted in France. The victory occurred after Philip VI of France had dismissed two squadrons of Levantine mercenary ships.

In 1346 CE, Edward III won the battle of Crécy and besieged Calais, which surrendered in 1347 CE. In 1356 CE, the English won the battle of Poitiers, capturing King John II of France. After prolonged negotiations, the Treaty of Brétigny was signed in 1360 CE; England received Calais and practically all of Aquitaine, as well as a large ransom for the captive king.

Coat of Arms
Edward III

Edward III claimed the French throne and the Royal Arms have reflected this claim by being quartered Arms of France, "Azure semy of fleurs-de-lis," until 1801 CE when when the anachronistic title "King of France" was abandoned by English monarchs at the Peace of Amiens.

The statement that the King of England is also the the King of France is referred to in the 1620 CE Mayflower Compact, and also occurs in the North American charters granted by the British kings –

1341 CE - Turkey - John V becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, ruling until 1391 CE. He was deposed in 1376 CE by his son Andronicus IV, but was restored in 1379 CE.

1341 CE - France - France imposes the first Gabelle (salt tax) to help defray the cost of war against England's Edward III.

Clement VI

1342 - 1352 CE - France - Clement VI, alias Pierre Roger, is elected pope. A Roman delegation begged the new pope to return the papacy to Rome. The pope however took steps to entrench the church at Avignon. The pope built a luxurious court and gorgeous retinue equal to a secular prince, not a prince of the church. He delighted in banquets and colorful festivities declaring that his predecessors did not know how to live as a pope. He lavished gifts and offices on relatives. His sexual abuses cannot be explained away.

Within a short time he squandered the huge treasure accumulated by his predecessor. He bought the city of Avignon from Queen Joanna I of Naples. At the beginning of his papacy, he supported Cola di Rienzo in Rome, but when the latter converted to a regime of excesses, the people and patricians organized a rebellion. Cola do Rienzo was caught and sent to the pope in Avignon, who excommunicated him and kept him as a prisoner.

1343 CE - Germany - The Hanseatic League is formalized in Cologne, and is used for the first time to denote the confederation of Baltic traders now so prominent in fish export.

1343 CE - England - Dialogues by the English scholastic philosopher William of Ockham (or Occam) lays the foundation of modern theory of independence of church and state. Ockam, 43, had been imprisoned after defending evangelical poverty against Pope John XXII in his Opus Nonaginta Dierum of 1330 CE, but had escaped and was living in Munich, where he sided with the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV in contesting the temporal power of the pope.

1343 CE - Italy - Florence's Peruzzi banking house fails as England's Edward III repudiates his debts and the bankers are unable to collect despite measures they have taken to protect themselves from default.

1344 CE - England - Edward III vowed to establish an order like Arthur's at Windsor. The round table still exists and was decorated in 1486 CE with the figure of Arthur and the names of twenty-four knights. [p959FW]

1344 CE - Italy - Florentine banking prestige plummets with the failure of the Bardi banking house that comes on the heels of last year's Peruzzi collapse as England's Edward III repudiates his debts. Florence's Bardi banking house fails in January, going the way of the Scali, Peruzzi, Acciauoli, and Frescobaldi houses. The Bardis have had to keep loaning funds to England in order to assure continued supplies of raw wool for their textile industry.

Civil war begins in Florence, the commune is restored under the sway of a businessmen's oligarchy, the smaller guilds lose power, and workers who belong to no guild are further exploited as the Florentine oligarchy seeks access to the sea, expansion in Tuscany to dominate trade routes, and support of the popes in order to retain papal banking business.

Notre Dame

1345 CE - France - The Cathedral of Notre Dame on the Ile de la Cité in the Seine at Paris is completed in Gothic style after 182 years of construction.

1346 CE - Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) - Charles IV (14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378), born Wenceslaus (Václav), was the second king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and Holy Roman Emperor.

1346 CE - Scotland - England - In compliance with their alliance with France, the King of Scotland attacked England and lost the battle. The English raided as far north as Edinburgh, destroying and looting. King Edward III and his eldest son, the Black Prince, created a code of chivalry to convince the Knights and people that war is a noble and glorious thing. War is also very profitable to some Nobles, Lords and Knights. Cruelty, death, destruction and theft are the reality of war.

1346 CE - Europe - Mariners returning to Europe from China and India reported a deadly plague is killing thousands. An Italian-Christian trading post called Caffa, on the northern shores of the Dead Sea, are the first to experience the Black Death in Europe. Their post is under siege when the attacking army contracted the Black Death. This army catapulted their dead into Caffa, so they also would suffer the Death. The survivors of Caffa fled in ships back to Italy, carrying the Black Death with them. Italian ships, swarming with infested rats, imported the Black Plague into Sicily. The "Black Death" spread throughout Europe and killed 25 million people, roughly one third of the European population. It killed 1.5 million people in Britain.

John VI Cantancuzenus

1347 - 1354 CE - Turkey - John VI Cantancuzenus becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1347 - 1350 CE - Turkey - Isidore I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1348 CE - Europe - Christians blamed the Jews for causing the plague. In Basel, Switzerland, on the Rhine River, Jews are burned alive in wooden buildings. In Speyer, Germany, they are put into wine casks and rolled into the river. Thousands of Jews are sacrificed to rid the country of the plague. Other suggested that the Pope Clement VI and the whores of his New Babylon Church have caused the plague. By 1351 CE, an estimated twenty five million people had died in Europe, about one third of the world's population. The people of Europe were terrified because if one died without the last rights of the Roman Church their soul is lost to hell or purgatory. The number of deaths precluded the possibility of last rights. To avoid a complete breakdown of religious authority, Pope Clement VI proclaimed that all those who died of the Black Death are forgiven of their sins. Despite this precaution, there is a rapid rise of a religious order called the Flagellants. The Flagellants attempted to avoid the Black Plague by harshly scourging themselves so that God would forgive their sins. The Flagellants blamed the Jews for the Black Death and burned down the Jewish communities, killing the people.

1348 CE - England - On April 23, the Order of the Garter is formally founded on St. George Day, by Edward III of England. "Honi soit qui mal y pense" – "Let him who thinks ill there be shamed," became its motto. [EW]

1349 CE - Germany - Günther von Schwarzburg (1304 – 1349), German king, was a descendant of the counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII, count of Blankenburg, becoming a rival to Charles IV.

1350 CE - France - Pope Innocent VI ordered a grimoire called The Book of Solomon, probably The Key of Solomon, to be burned. [p158H] [EW] A grimoire is a magical workbook with information on rituals, magickal properties of natural objects, preparation of ritual equipment. Many include a 'catalog of spirits'.

1350 - 1354 CE - Turkey - Callistus I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1352 CE - Italy - On December 3, a thunderstorm hit Rome, with St. Peter's basilica suffering a direct hit, melting the church bells. In the market, everyone started celebrating the death of Pope Clement VI. The people said he is dead and buried deep in hell.

Pope Innocent VI

Innocent VI

1352 - 1362 CE - France - Innocent VI, alias Etienne Aubert, is elected pope by twenty-five cardinals at Avignon. Pope Innocent VI personally ordered some of the Spiritual Franciscans to prison and the stake under the Inquisition law. The Saintly Bridget of Sweden publicly denounced the pope as a persecutor of Christ's sheep.

Innocent VI was determined to reorganize the Papal State and assigned this task to Cardinal Albornoz. Cola di Rienzo was named governor, but he became more tyrannical than ever. The outraged populace killed di Rienzo at the foot of the Campidoglio and tore his body into pieces.

1352 CE - France - The Order of the Star, or The Order of Our Lady of the Noble Lineage, is founded by Geoffroy de Charny. [p217&]

1353 CE - Switzerland - The league of Switzerland is formed.

1353 CE - Germany - The German monk Berthold Schwarz (possibly a fictitious person) invents the cannon, and the catapult becomes rapidly obsolete.

1354 CE - Turkey - The Ottoman Turks acquired Gallipoli (Gelibolue, Turkey) from the Byzantines.

1354 - 1355 CE - Turkey - Philotheus Kokkinos becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1355 - 1363 CE - Turkey - Callistus I, restored, once again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1356 CE - France - England captures the French king and one third of France at the battle of Poitiers.

On September 19, Geoffroy de Charny, the first documented owner of the Shroud of Jesus, died at Poitiers. [p213&]

1356 CE - Germany - German emperor Karl IV (Charles IV) issues the "Golden Bull" to codify the election of German emperors by seven electors – the archbishops of Trier, Mainz and Cologne, the king of Bohemia, the count Palatine of the Rhine, the duke of Saxony and the margrave of Brandenburg. In 1648 CE, the Duke of Bavaria and in 1692 CE, the Elector of Hanover – Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg were added. The Emperor, however, has now become a figurehead, having no power or authority other than over his own hereditary lands. Charles IV, 1347 - 1378 CE, is the present Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

1357 CE - France - Janibeg, 1342 - 1357 CE, son of Uzbeg the Mongol, died, resulting in a protracted political crisis among the Golden Horde, especially his sons. Some mark this time as the beginning of the decline and fall of the European Mongol Empire and the true emergence of Russia. The southern Mongolian Russia Empire however continued until 1480 CE.

1358 CE - France - King John, 1350 - 1364 CE, is King of France. The peasants, as Jacques Bonhomme and the nobility of Northern France called them, revolted against the entire aristocracy, vowing to exterminate them. They committed horrible atrocities and the nobility responded with equally brutal atrocities. In the town of Meaux, France, near Paris, it is said that seven thousand peasants died in one clash alone. The revolt ended in June.

1360 CE - France - English King Edward III re-established control over all Aquitaine, Gascony, parts of Normandy, Brittany, and the port of Calais. This year marks the approximate date of the earliest known Satanic cults. Black masses were celebrated in France. [IllHis]

1361 CE - Spain - Pedro I rules Portugal from 1357 - 1367 CE. Peter the Cruel was king of Castille from 1350 - 1366 CE and 1367 - 1369 CE. Peter IV ruled Aragon from 1336 - 1387 CE. Charles II (The Bald) ruled Navarre from 1349 - 1387 CE.

1362 - 1460 CE - Germany - Abraham the Mage (Jew) is born. [EW]

1362 CE - Lithuania - The Grand Duke, Olgerd of Lithuania, son of Gedymin, occupied Kiev.

Blessed Urban V

1362 - 1370 CE - France - Urban V, alias Guillaume de Grimoard, is elected pope. The popes' desire to unite the east and west churches and to conduct a crusade influenced his moving the papacy to Rome. He later changed his mind, deserting the Imperial city.

Urban had a third crown added to the papal tiara symbolizing the temporal power.

1363 CE - Russia - Grand Duke Olgerd of Lithuania combined with the Russian army and marched south to the Black Sea. The Russian-Lithuania army defeated the Mongols at the mouth of the Bug River, giving them control of a large part of Ukraine. Olgerd the Mongol, in alliance with Tver, marched on Moscow against Grand Duke Dmitri, but failed on two attempts to storm the Kremlin.

1364 CE - France - King Charles V prepared for war with the English, driving them from France into their coastal enclave in Aquitaine.

1364 - 1376 CE - Turkey - Philotheus Kokkinos, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.


Part XII       Home       Part XIV