The Curse of the Corporation (A) (B) (C)

Part XI – 900 CE to 1099 CE


Benedict IV

900 - 903 CE - Italy - Benedict IV, an upper class Roman of the Formosan Party, is elected bishop of Rome while the clergy is still in turbulence. In the Alban Hills, fifteen miles from Rome, lived the famous Conti – the Counts Alberic of Tusculum. This warlord family took complete control of papal elections. Seven bishops of Rome came from this one family, three in succession and almost without exception they helped shape this Roman Church period of shame. From 880 to about 1020 CE, thirty-five pontiffs reigned on average only four years. Many of these bishops of Rome are in their early twenties, several are teenagers. Some only lasted twenty days, a month, or three months. Six of them are dethroned, a number are murdered.

900 CE - England - Lord Julian of Goathland, a Viking, according to legend ruled the Germanic-Saxon of England. Julian built his stronghold in Northumbria and following tradition, built within its walls a living object. Julian is claimed to have selected Gytha of the Mill, a fourteen-year-old virgin, who he entombed alive within the walls.

900 - 911 CE - Germany - Louis the Child inherits the throne of Germany upon the death of Arnulf.

900 - 924 CE - England - Edward I, the Elder, son of Alfred the Great, immediately succeeded his father to the throne. His main achievement was to use the military platform created by his father to bring back, under English control, the whole of the Danelaw, south of the Humber River.

900 CE - Iceland - Iceland had a population of 20,000 with many of them being of mixed blood as a result of Viking slave trade in Scot, Irish and English stock. It is noteworthy that Icelandic, Viking and English are all Germanic peoples. Few Icelanders died of natural causes, most by murder, ambush, burning and human sacrifices. Murder of Vikings usually resulted in compensation or banishment, being normally sent to the west. Banishment is usually for a limited time being one to four years.

900 CE - Netherlands - The Bogomils appeared on the Balkan Peninsula and over the Byzantine empire, disappearing after the Turkish conquest. [$3]

901 - 907 CE - Turkey - Nicholas I Mysticus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

902 CE - Ireland - The Viking are driven out of Dublin, Ireland to Chester and York in Northern England.

St. Leo V

Sergius III

903 - 903 CE - Italy - Leo V, not of the Roman clergy but a pro-Formosan, is elected bishop of Rome. Cardinal Christopher, 903 - 904 CE, a Roman also of the Formosan party, staged a revolution and imprisoned Leo and made himself bishop of Rome. Sergius III, a Roman, staged another revolution and imprisoned Christopher, eventually murdering him and Leo.

904 - 911 CE - Italy - Leo V had reigned for one month before being imprisoned by Cardinal Christopher. Anti-bishop of Rome Sergius III had solved the problem by slaughtering them both. Sergius Buish of Rome of the Stephen Party once more exhumed the remains of Formosus which had been recovered by his followers. Sergius condemned the ten-year-old remains and again threw them in the Tiber River. The bishop of Rome press-ganged the clergy to declare previous synods null and void. Many priests were forced to be ordained afresh and confusion was indescribable.

Pope Sergius III enjoyed sex with underaged girls. According to the historian Baronius, Sergius III was "the slave of every vice". Sergius III took fifteen year old Marozia as his mistress at age forty-five. Marozia is the daughter of a chief senator of Rome and her mother had already made and unmade two bishops of Rome. A son is born of this union who would become John XI. Sergius issued a canon to Constantinople disregarding the strictness of eastern canon law causing confusion and controversy.

905 CE - Navarre (Spain) - The lordship of Pamplona became the Kingdom of Navarre. It was a Basque land bounded in the west by Castile and in the east by Aragon and Sobrarbe.

905 CE - Navarre (Spain) - Sancho Garcés I rules as king of Navarre until 925 CE.

907 - 1125 CE - Tartar Dynasties of China - "Tartar" is a European rendering of Persian Tâtâr. The extra "r" seems to have crept in from Greek/Latin Tartarus, the deepest region of Hades, i.e. Hell. This reflects the judgment that the Tartars were like demons from Hell, which is more or less what the Chinese and ultimately other objects of Mongol conquest would have thought themselves. The earlier "Tartar" dynasties were not in the same league as the Mongols, and were ultimately Mongol victims, but were regarded as no less alien by the Chinese.

Chinese writers referred to the Mongols as the Mengkul. The Chinese believed the Mengku are related if not subjects of the Turks. The Mongol, or Sni Wei, are closely related by language to the Turks, Uighurs and Khitans. To the East of the Mengkul at this time is the Juchen Tartars and founders of the Kin Empire. To the South are the Mengku cousins – the Khitan, and to the West and South the Uighurs.

The Sung restored the unity of China, but it would never have the power or empire of the T'ang. "Tartar" states, the Hsi Hsia and Liao, hemmed it in from the north, forshadowing the era of barbarian domination that would overwhelm the Huang He valley under the Jurchen and then all of China under the Mongols. Nevertheless, the Sung would be remembered along with the T'ang as the classic period of Chinese civilization, so that Chu Yüan-chang, founder of the Ming, would promise the restoration of "the T'ang and the Sung."

The Tartar Dynasties were gradually conquered by the Mongols between 1217 and 1234 CE.

907 - 912 CE - Turkey - Euthymius I Syncellus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

910 CE - Asturias (Spain) - Garcia, king of Leon until 914 CE, expands the kingdom and builds castles along the upper rio Ebro, thus creating Castilla (hence the name Castile).

In 909 CE, the King of León took the Imperial title to emphasize Leónese dominance over the other Christian states which were becoming separate Kingdoms in their own right. The Kingdom of León evolved out of the Kingdom of Asturias in the year 910 CE. León was the largest of the Catholic Christian states and included the Galician counties and the County of Castile except when these were independent.

911 CE - France - The Viking, Rollo, invaded France and created Northman Country, or Normandy, in Northern France. The establishment of this Viking enclave basically ended the attacks on northern France. East Frank under Conrad I, duke of Franconia established the German tribal duchies into a loose kingdom of Lorraine, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia and Bavaria.

Anastasius III

911 - 913 CE - Italy - Anti-bishop of Rome Sergius III died in his bed with a married woman. Anastasius III, a Roman, is elected bishop of Rome, but the papacy is effectively controlled by Theophylact (d. - 920 CE) and his wife Theodora the Elder (d. - after 916 CE), who are considered an unscrupulous family.

911 - 918 CE - Germany - Ludwig das Kind, last of the Carolingian rulers in the East, dies and the stem dukes elect Konrad I, duke of Franconia.

911 - 947 CE - Barcelona (Spain) - Barcelona was a country in the Spanish March, however, no longer dependent on France. Sunyear was an independent count of Barcelona.

Alexander

912 - 913 CE - Turkey - Alexander becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. Alexander succeeded his brother, Leo VI, ruling for two years. In turn, Alexander was succeded by Leo's son Constantine VII.

912 - 925 CE - Turkey - Nicholas I Mysticus, restored, becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

Constantine VII with his mother Zoe

913 - 959 CE - Turkey - Constantine VII (Constantine VII Porphygenitus) acceded after the brief reign of his uncle Alexander, who succeeded Constantine's father, Leo VI. A regency (913 - 920 CE) was followed by the rule (920 - 944 CE) of the usurper Romanus I. In 945 CE, Constantine overthrew Romanus I, expelling the sons of Romanus I and began his personal rule. His main interests lay in legal reforms, in the fair redistribution of land among the peasants, and in the encouragement of art and learning. He was succeeded by his son, Romanus II.

Lando

913 - 914 CE - Italy - Lando was elected Pope in either July or August 913 CE, and was therefore Bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church. Lando died about six months later in either February or March 914 CE. He was born in Sabina, Italy. His father was reportedly named "Taino".

Lando is thought to have had powerful friends who helped him get elected Pope (apparently a common occurrence during this time period). Little more is known about him. He was one of the last Popes (but not the last) to use his given name as an official name during his reign. He had been the last Pope to use a papal name which had not been used before until Pope John Paul I did so in 1978 CE.

914 CE - León (Spain) - Ordoño II rules as king of León until 923 CE.

John X

914 - 928 CE - Italy - Theodora, mother of Marozia, placed her lover John X in the papal office as bishop of Rome. He prided himself with organizing resistance to stopping Muslim attacks on central Italy, which had been recurring over the past sixty years. He elected a five-year-old boy to an Archbishopric. In 928 CE, Theodora had John X imprisoned and, the following year, had him suffocated.

915 CE - Italy - Berengar I dies and no emperor is appointed, resulting in an "interregnum."

917 CE - Ireland - The Vikings from Chester and York, England again recapture Dublin, Ireland. The Vikings become a permanent part of the Irish culture.

918 CE - Germany - Konrad I dies and the dukes elect the Saxon duke Heinrich I (Henry), first of the Ottonen.

Henry the Fowler, 919 - 936 CE, a Germanic-Saxon is considered by some to be the first Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire lasted from 800 to 1806 CE in one form or another. The Roman Catholic Church attempted to keep the power of the Roman Empire alive during this period, however the Holy Roman Empire was never an Empire nor was it Holy. The Germanic-Saxon clan controlled the Empire from 919 to 1002 CE.

918 CE - Italy - Leo VI, a Roman, is elected as bishop of Rome, but died before John X likely making him an anti-bishop of Rome. Stephen VIII, a Roman also was elected before the death of John X, also making him an anti-bishop of Rome. Marozia, as head of the house of Theophylact and effective ruler of Rome, elected and controlled both anti-bishops of Rome.

920 - 1003 CE - India - Pope Sylvester II allegedly visited the Nine Unknown Men in India. [IllHis]

Romanus I Lecapenus

Romanus with son Christopher

920 - 944 CE - Turkey - Romanus I Lecapenus becomes co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. After the usurper Romanus Lecapenus was crowned in 920 CE, he tried to remove Constantine VII from the throne and to create his own dynasty. Constantine's portrait was removed from the coinage from 921 - 931 CE; in its place, Romanus is shown with his son Christopher. Finally, in 944 CE, Constantine VII was restored to the throne as sole emperor.

921 - 931 CE - Turkey - Christopher Lecapenus, son of Romanus I Lecapenus, becomes co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

922 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Andregoto Galíndez rules as Count of Aragon until 925 CE.

922 CE - Holland - The Viking ruler Dirk I founded the Egmont Benedictine monastery in Haarlem.

Effigy of Æthelstan in Malmesbury Abbey

924 - 940 CE - England - The grandson of Alfred the Great, Æthelstan succeeded his father, Edward the Elder, to the throne of Wessex. He was the first English sovereign ever to be crowned on the King's Stone at Kingston-upon-Thames in 925 CE. Incorrectly claimed by some to be the first King of All England, Æthelstan was a great warrior, nonetheless, whose fame stemmed from his conquests in Cornwall and Wales, and his defeat of a combined force of Scots, Welsh and Vikings at the battle of Brunanburh. Æthelstan was a patron of monastic communities and especially supported the monastery at Malmesbury, where his tomb is located. He died in 939 CE and was succeeded by his brother Edmund.

924 - 945 CE - Turkey - Stephen Lecapenus becomes co-emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

924 - 929 CE - León (Spain) - Alfonso IV rules as king of León.

925 - 971 CE - Aragon - Navarre (Spain) - García Sánchez I was Count of Aragon and king of Navarre. Aragon at this time was under Navarese Hegemony.

925 - 928 CE - Turkey - Stephan II of Amasea becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

926 (936?) CE - England - Edwin, a mytyical son of Æthelstan, presided, according to tradition, over a Masonic meeting at York, where certain charges where agreed upon for the government of the Brotherhood. [p40-2]

Leo VI

Stephen VII

928 - 928 CE - Italy - Leo VI was elected by the will of Marozia. Leo VI, a Roman, succeeded Pope John X, and reigned seven months and a few days - the exact dates are not known. Leo VI was son of the primicerius Cristopher and held the title of Cardinal-Priest of St. Susanna before being elected Pope.

928 - 931 CE - Italy - The validity of Stephen VII's papacy is subject to question. Like his predecessor, Leo VI, he was elected while Pope John X was still alive and in prison. Thus, if John's removal from office was invalid, then neither the election of Leo nor of Stephen was valid and they weren't genuine popes. In any event, Leo and Stephen had brief reigns, are not well remembered and are not likely to have greatly impacted Catholic policy. Stephen's reign was brief and few records remain.

928 - 931 CE - Turkey - Tryphon becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

930 CE - Castilla (Spain) - Burgos' count Fernan Gonzalez secedes from Leon and gains independence for Castilla.

930 - 951 CE - León (Spain) - Ramiro II becomes king of León.

930 CE - England - The first legislation against witchcraft (and banning of Sunday trade) is made by King Æthelstan. [p14H]

John XI

931 - 935 CE - Italy - Marozia, mistress of Sergius III, imprisoned John X, effectively taking control of Rome for her son John XI and also dominated the Curia. John X is murdered in prison, having been deposed sometime between 928 and 930 CE.

John XI was the son of Marozia and Alberic. According to Liutprand and the "Liber Pontificalis", he was the natural son of Pope Sergius III. ("Johannes, natione Romanus ex patre Sergio papa", "Liber Pont." ed. Duchesne, II, 243).

His mother was the Roman ruler at the time, resulting in his appointment to the Chair of Peter. Marozia was thus able to exert complete control over the Pope.

John XI, a Roman, is placed on the throne, being the son of Sergius III and Marozia. Marozia married her brother-in-law Hugh of Provence, King of Italy. The people are not pleased and stormed the castle in 932 CE. Marozia's second son, Alberic Junior, imprisoned his half-brother John and his own mother. He elevated himself to Prince of Rome, Senator of all the Romans, count and patrician. He kept John as his personal slave.

At the overthrow of Marozia, John XI became subject to the control of Alberic II (932 - 954 CE), his younger brother. The only control left to the Pope was the exercise of his purely spiritual duties. All other jurisdiction was exercised through Alberic II. This was not only the case in secular, but also in ecclesiastical affairs.

It was at the insistence of Alberic II that the pallium was given to Theophylactus, Patriarch of Constantinople (935 CE), and also to Artold, Archbishop of Reims (933 CE). It was John XI who sat in the Chair of Peter during its deepest humiliation, but it was also he who granted many privileges to the Congregation of Cluny, which was later on so powerful an agent of Church reform.

931 - 970 CE - Castilla (Spain) - Count Fernán González, count of Burgos (later, Castile), marked the rise of the counts of Burgos. By intrigue and alliance with the Muslims, he expanded his domain at the expense of Leon, and made the country of Castile autonomous and hereditary. His progress was arrested by Sancho the Fat of Leon (d. 966 CE), who was in alliance with Abd ar-Rahman III.

933 CE - France - South and North Burgundy are united in the kingdom of Burgundy.

933 - 956 CE - Turkey - Theophylactus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

936 - 961 CE - Germany - Otto I ascends to the throne of the East.

Leo VII

Stephen VIII

936 - 939 CE - Italy - Leo VII, a Roman, is appointed by Alberic II, 932 - 954 CE, as prince of Rome.

937 CE - Italy - Leo VII appointed Archbishop Frederick of Mainz as apostolic vicar and legate for all Germany, instructing him to expel any Jews who refused to be baptized. The Magyars nearly reached Rome this year.

939 - 942 CE - Italy - Stephen VIII, a Roman, is appointed bishop of Rome by Alberic II. Another tradition suggests Stephen is of German descent imposed on the holy see by Otto I, 962 - 973 CE, King of Germany.

940 - 946 CE - England - Son of Edward the Elder, Edmund I succeeded his half-brother, Æthelstan, with whom he had fought at Brunanburh. He combated the Norse Vikings in Northumbria and subdued them in Cumbria and Strathclyde. He entrusted these lands to an ally, Malcolm I of Scotland. Edmund met his death when he was killed at Pucklechurch, in Gloucestershire, by a robber.

Marinus II

942 - 946 CE - Italy - Marinus II (or Martin III), born in Rome, was Pope from 942 to 946 CE. He was elevated to the papacy through intervention of Alberic II (932 - 954 CE) of Spoleto and concentrated on administrative aspects of the papacy.

944 CE - Turkey - Edessa was won back from the Arabs by the Emperor Romanus I Lakapenus. [p111&]

On August 15, The Mandylion, a picture of Christ, "not made by human hands", (acheiropoieton), arrived at the church of Our Lady at Blachernae in Constantinople from Edessa. [p167-168&]

945 CE - Turkey - On August 16, The sermon of "Narratio de Imagine Edessena" was held in the chapel at Pharos, Constantinople. [p111&]

Agapetus II

946 - 955 CE - Italy - Agapetus II (born in Rome; died November 8, 955 CE) was Pope from May 10, 946 CE until his death in 955 CE, at the time when Alberic II (932 - 954 CE), son of Marozia, was governing the independent republic of Rome under the title of "Prince and Senator of the Romans."

Agapetus II, a man of some force of character, attempted to put a stop to the so-called Pornocracy, which lasted from the accession of Pope Sergius III in 904 CE to the deposition of Pope John XII in 964 CE. His appeal to Otto I the Great (936 - 973 CE) to intervene in Rome remained without immediate effect, since Alberic II's position was too strong to be attacked, but it bore fruit after his death.

Pornocracy is a term that has been used to mean government by or domination of government by prostitutes. The Pornocracy, or The Rule of the Harlots, described a period in the history of the Papacy starting in 904 CE that lasted between thirty to sixty years.

In 954 CE, Alberic II died, leaving a liberated Rome. He was probably the most independent of the Alberic-nominated popes, but he was forced by Alberic (on his deathbed) to decree that Alberic's son Octavian was to be his successor. Octavian also became temporal leader (i.e. prince) as well as pope.

946 - 955 CE - England - Eadred was King of Wessex and was also acknowledged as overlord of Mercia, the Danelaw and Northumbria. A challenge to Eadred, which serves to illustrate one of his chief qualities, developed in the north, in the early 950's. Eric Bloodaxe, an aptly named, ferocious, Norse Viking who had been deposed by his own people, established himself as king of Northumbria at York, apparently with the fearful acquiescence of the Northumbrians. Eadred responded by marching north with a considerable force to meet the threat. He proceeded to ravage the Norse-held territories, then moved back to the south. He was attacked on the way home by Eric's forces. Eadred was so enraged that he threatened to go back to Northumbria and ravage the entire land.

This prospect frightened the already frightened Northumbrians into abandoning Eric Bloodaxe. It must be that they viewed Eadred as more formidable than a bloodthirsty Viking, who had been thrown out of a society known for its bloodthirstiness, because he was too bloodthirsty and tyrannical for them. In any case, according to the AngloSaxon Chronicle, "the Northumbrians expelled Eric."

As to his personal side, William of Malmesbury provides some illumination. He says that Eadred was afflicted with some lingering physical malady, since he was, "constantly oppressed by sickness, and of so weak a digestion as to be unable to swallow more than the juices of the food he had masticated, to the great annoyance of his guests." Regarding his spiritual side, apparently the pillaging, ravaging and laying waste that he did, had no deleterious effects on him. As Malmesbury states, he devoted his life to God, "endured with patience his frequent bodily pains, prolonged his prayers and made his palace altogether the school of virtue." He died while still a young man, as had so many of the kings of Wessex, "accompanied with the utmost grief of men but joy of angels."

947 CE - Mexico - The "historical" Quetzalcoatl is born at the Mexican highland site of Xochicalco. [p29MF]

947 - 992 CE - Barcelona (Spain) - Barcelona was a country in the Spanish March, however, is no longer dependent on France. Borrell II was an independent count of Barcelona.

950 CE - Greece - Al Azif translated into Greek as Necronomicon. [IllHis]

951 - 956 CE - León (Spain) - Ordoño III becomes king of León.

954 CE - Germany - An Hungarian army of 100,000 horsemen invaded Lorraine, Burgundy and Italy, with the Germanic Holy Roman Empire ultimately besieging Augsburg. King Otto I, the Germanic-Saxon, finally stopped the Hungarian advances driving them beyond Vienna and destroying their army.

954 CE - Italy - Agapetus II endorsed Alberic's bastard son Octavian (John XII) as Prince of Rome and supreme pontiff of the Roman Church.

John XII

955 - 964 CE - Italy - The grandson of Marozia, an 18 year old boy called Octavian the bastard, became John XII, being the second bishop of Rome to change his name, John II in 533 CE was the first. This violated canon law thereby making this papal appointment null and void. This anti-bishop of Rome is disinterested in spiritual things, addicted to boorish pleasures and uninhibitedly debauched life. Before he took office he made a toast to the devil and continued his devilish lifestyle. The people said he turned the papacy into a brothel. The scandal-mongering Bishop Liutprand of Cremonia said that dissolute boy died of amorous excess while making love.

955 - 959 CE - England - On the death of Eadred, who had no children, Eadwig was chosen to be king since he was the oldest of the children in the natural line of the House of Wessex. He became king at 16 and displayed some of the tendencies one could expect in one so young, royalty or not. Historians have not treated Eadwig especially well, and it is unfortunate for him that he ran afoul of the influential Bishop Dunstan (friend and advisor to the recently deceased king, Eadred, future Archbishop of Canterbury and future saint), early in his reign.

An incident, which occurred on the day of Eadwig's consecration as king, purportedly, illustrates the character of the young king. According to the report of the reliable William of Malmesbury, all the dignitaries and officials of the kingdom were meeting to discuss state business, when the absence of the new king was noticed. Dunstan was dispatched, along with another bishop, to find the missing youth. He was found with his mind on matters other than those of state, in the company of the daughter of a noble woman of the kingdom. Malmesbury writes, Dunstan, "regardless of the royal indignation, dragged the lascivious boy from the chamber and … compelling him to repudiate the strumpet made him his enemy forever." The record of this incident was picked up by future monastic chroniclers and made to be the definitive word on the character of Eadwig, mainly because of St. Dunstan's role in it.

Dunstan was, after that incident, never exactly a favorite of Eadwig's, and it may be fair to say that Eadwig even hated Dunstan, for he apparently exiled him soon after this. Eadwig went on to marry Ælgifu, the girl with whom he was keeping company at the time of Dunstan's intrusion. For her part, "the strumpet" was eventually referred to as among "the most illustrious of women", and Eadwig, in his short reign, was generous in making grants to the church and other religious institutions. He died, possibly of the Wessex family ailment, when he was only 20.

956 - 958 & 959 - 966 CE - León (Spain) - Sancho I the Fat rules as king of León.

956 - 970 CE - Turkey - Polyeuctus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

959 - 963 CE - Turkey - Romanus II becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

959 - 975 CE - England - Edgar was made King of Mercia and Northumbria in 957 CE and succeeded to the throne of Wessex at his brother Eadwig's death in 959 CE. With this, Edgar was King of Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex (the three most powerful kingdoms in England at that time), simultaneously and could be considered the first ruler of a United England. Some of his predecessors were Kings of All England by virtue of being King of Wessex and, at the same time, enjoying a temporary military ascendancy over the other kingdoms.

He was formally crowned in 973 and received the ceremonial submission of all the other kings in Britain. He wisely recalled (St.) Dunstan from exile and made him Archbishop of Canterbury and his closest personal advisor. His reign was prosperous and peaceful and he is generally credited with the revival of the English church.

961 CE - Italy - The Pope asks Otto I for protection against Berengar II. A synod of sixteen cardinals is called to charge John XII who became the bishop of Rome at age 18 to answer serious charges. Bishop of Cremona recorded "Everyone, clergy as well as laity, accuses you, Holiness, of homicide, perjury, sacrilege, incest with your relatives, including two of your sisters, and with having, like a pagan, invoked Jupiter, Venus and other demons." It is said he toasted the Devil at the high altar of the mother church of Christendom. The citizens said this bishop of Rome had invented sin not known since the beginning of the world, including sleeping with his mother. John XII responded by threat of excommunication to them all. Later, a jealous husband found 24-year old John in bed with his wife and killed him. The Romans noted that this is the climax of his career.

961 CE - Crete - The Greeks sent 3,000 vessels against Crete and after a six-month siege, it fell in March.

962 CE - Italy - King Otto I, the Germanic-Saxon of the Roman Empire, quietly marched into Italy in February claiming the title Emperor of the Holy Empire. Missionary activity is taken out of the hands of the corrupt John XII, as is the reform of a clergy corrupted by simony and the commercial exploitation of shrines and relics. The new emperor Otto re-established the imperial right to sanction papal elections and to make the bishop of Rome subject to the State.

962 CE - Ireland - Brian Boru, 941 - 1014 CE, leads a small band of rebels on his first attack against the Irish Viking.

963 CE - Italy - Emperor Otto I called a synod of Bishops at Rome to deal with the crimes of John XII. The scandal-mongering bishop Liutprand of Cremona claims that the dissolute boy John XII died of amorous excess while making love. This synod established a period of 100 years of German domination of the Roman Papacy.

Nicephorus II Phocas

963 - 969 CE - Turkey - Nicephorus II Phocas becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. Nicephorus threw the German deputies who adressed him as him King of the Greeks in jail because the Byzantines still claimed they were the successors of the Ancient Roman Empire. This would later prove to be part of the downfall of the Eastern Roman Empire, as the Europeans gave no military support to the Eastern Empire because they had become the mainstay of the "Holy Roman Empire" under the Catholic Church.

Leo VIII

963 - 965 CE - Italy - Leo VIII, a Roman by birth, held the lay office of protoserinus when he was elected to the papal chair at the insistance of Emperor Otto I the Great (936 - 973 CE), by the Roman synod which deposed Pope John XII in December 963 CE.

Having been hurried with unseemly haste through all the intermediate orders, he received consecration two days after his election, which was unacceptable to the people. In February 964 CE, the Emperor having withdrawn from the city, Leo VIII found it necessary to seek safety in flight, whereupon he was deposed by a synod held under the presidency of John XII. On the sudden death of the latter, the populace chose Pope Benedict V as his successor; but Otto I, returning and laying siege to the city, compelled their acceptance of Leo VIII. It is usually said that, at the synod which deposed Benedict V, Leo VIII conceded to the Emperor and his successors as sovereign of Italy full rights of investiture, but the genuineness of the document on which this allegation rests is more than doubtful.

Leo VIII was succeeded, after the deposition of Benedict V, by Pope John XIII. Leo VIII is widely rumoured to have died during sexual intercourse.

Benedict V

John XIII

964 - 966 CE - Italy - John XII instigated a revolt to have the anti-bishop of Rome Leo VIII removed from power. Imperial troops crushed the revolt. John called a synod that deposed and excommunicated Leo. Leo is ignored and Benedict V is elected bishop of the duchy of Rome. Otto's army besieged the hunger-stricken city. Leo is reinstalled and called a synod to depose and degrade Benedict, bishop of Rome. The oldest record in the Vatican archives dates to this year. Most records from this period are highly suspect, with many forgeries being created during the 11th century concerning this period of history.

964 CE - Ireland - Brian Boru is near defeat in his war against the Irish Viking when other clans joined his war.

965 - 972 CE - Italy - John XIII, a Roman, is appointed bishop of the duchy of Rome by two bishops of Emperor Otto I (962 - 973 CE). The people revolted and assaulted John and banished him to a prison at Campagna.

965 CE - Russia - Sviatoslav, 964 - 972 CE, began expanding the Slav-Russian Kievan state by conquering the Khazars.

966 - 985 CE - León (Spain) - Ramiro III ruled as king of León.

966 CE - Italy - Emperor Otto I (962 - 973 CE) marched on Rome deposed Benedict V and restored John XIII as bishop of Rome and with gruesome brutality punished those involved in the Papal revolution. Military force is required to hold the papacy.

966 CE - Poland - Miezko I converted to Christianity gaining the protection of the holy see setting the stage for the creation of Poland.

967 CE - Europe - Sviatoslav at the request of the Greek Byzantine Emperor attacked the Slav-Bulgars on the Danube. He entrenched his headquarters at Pereyaslavet on the Danube. He wrote, here are all of the good things, gold, cloth, wines, and fruits of the Greeks, silver and horses of the Slav-Czechs and Hungarians and furs, wax, honey and slaves from Russia. As he wrote, a Turkish tribe called the Pecheniegs began to invade from the south.

968 CE - Ireland - The first major victory of Brian Boru against the Irish-Viking occurred when he took the town of Lymrick. All those fit for war are killed and the rest are enslaved.

John I Tzimiskes

969 - 976 CE - Turkey - John I Tzimiskes becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

970 - 995 CE - Castilla (Spain) - Garcia Fernandez became count of Castilla.

970 - 974 CE - Turkey - Basil I Skamandrenus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

971 CE - Bulgaria - Sviatoslav is forced to give up Bulgaria.

971 - 994 CE - Aragon - Navarre (Spain) - Sancho Garcés II ruled as Count of Aragon and king of Navarre from 925 - 970 CE. Aragon at this time was under Navarese Hegemony.

972 CE - Italy - According to the chronicles of Liutprand, John XIII, bishop of Rome, tore out his enemy's eyes and put half the population to the sword.

Pope John XIII (965 - 972 CE) was condemned as an adulterer who "defiled his father's concubine and his own niece". He was said to have died at the hands of an enraged husband, caught in the act of adultery - just like his father, Pope John XII.

973 CE - Italy - Emperor Otto I attacked Moslem Sicily and was defeated, losing southern Italy from the Holy Roman Empire. Otto I of the Germanic Roman Empire died this year, being replaced by his son Otto II, who ascends to the throne, and, being a child, is tutored by French Benedectine monk Gerbert d'Aurillac.

Benedict VI

Benedict VII

973 - 974 CE - Italy - Benedict VI, the son of a Roman monk, is elected bishop of Rome. He strictly forbid bishops to charge fees for ordinations and consecrations. A nationalist party revolted against the bishop of Rome and Benedict VI is seized and imprisoned. Benedict VI, alias Bonifatius and Malefatius, being imprisoned, Boniface VII, alias Franco a Roman, is elected bishop of the duchy of Rome.

974 - 983 CE - Italy - Benedict VII, a Roman, is also elected bishop of Rome. Boniface is listed as bishop of Rome in the ancient list, and therefore Benedict VII would be an anti-bishop of Rome. He immediately held a synod and excommunicated Boniface VII. Some claim Boniface VII had murdered Benedict VI by smothering him to secure his position. Boniface VII fled Rome with the treasury of St. Peter's, some critics accused him of dishonoring a young girl. Some suggest he returned to Rome and was killed by a jealous husband. He did return in 980 CE and assumed the papal office during the absence of Benedict VII. Troops drove Boniface VII to Constantinople in 981 CE. In 984 CE, Boniface VII returned and imprisoned Benedict VII. Boniface's corpse, the legend says, with a hundred dagger wounds, was dragged through the streets before being tossed into a cesspool.

974 - 980 CE - Turkey - Anthony III Studites becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

975 - 978 CE - England - Edward II, the Martyr, the elder son of King Edgar, succeeded to the throne as a boy of 12, and in so doing, aroused rival claims on behalf of his even younger half-brother, Æthelred II, the Unready. He was murdered by members of Æthelred's household at Corfe Castle in 978 CE.

Basil II

976 - 1025 CE - Turkey - Basil II becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

976 CE - Ireland - Brian Boru becomes King of Munster and begins uniting Ireland.

978 - 1016 CE - England - Æthelred succeeded to the throne at the age of ten after the murder of his half-brother, Edward II, the Martyr. His reign was plagued by poor advice from his personal favorites and suspicions of his complicity in Edward's murder. His was a rather long and ineffective reign, which was notable for little other than the payment of the Danegeld, an attempt to buy off the Viking invaders with money. The relentless invasions by the Danish Vikings, coupled with their ever-escalating demands for more money, forced him to abandon his throne in 1013. He fled to Normandy for safety, but was later recalled to his old throne at the death of Svein Forkbeard in 1014. He died in London in 1016.

980 CE - Russia - Vladimir I, the illegitimate son of Sviatoslav, established himself as the sole ruler of Kiev (Russia). Like his predecessor, he engaged in ceaseless warfare. He introduced the Christian faith into Russia.

981 CE - Greenland - Erik the Red (Erik Thorvaldsson), an habitual Viking criminal, his father had previously been banished from Norway, sailed from Iceland under a three year banishment order for Gunnbjorn land (Greenland). Earlier Ulf Kragesson was storm-driven to Greenland and Snaebjorn Hog had discovered a grave of previous voyages to Greenland. Between 932 and 981 CE the Viking made many voyages to Greenland.

Erik started out with 25 ships, arrived with 14 ships and 450 settlers establishing two colonies, one at Eriksford the other at Eriksey. Erik was probably in search of Aris, his kinsmen and with intent to raid the Westman settlements. Some of the Westman are semi-religious, starving hermits who mortify their flesh. The Viking called these people Papas. Erik discovered Celtic habitation but no people. They apparently fled, either back to Ireland or further west that is the more probable option. The declining use of European materials by the Celts suggest that most of them fled west to Canada. The following year, Erik explored the west coast of Greenland north to cape Burnil, then crossed Davis strait and explored the Cumberland peninsula of Baffin Island, collecting walrus ivory for trade.

981 CE - Spain - Castilla declares its independence from the Franks.

983 CE - Greenland - Erik the Red wintered on the island of Hulm near Cape Burnil, where much driftwood was found. He explored the Greenland coast up to Greenstrups Glacier. In 984 CE, Erik returned to Eriksey for the winter, then in the following spring, returned to Iceland.

983 CE - Germany - Otto II, "The Red," Holy Roman Emperor, dies this year and is succeeded by Otto III as King of Germany.

John XIV

983 - 984 CE - Italy - John XIV of Pava is appointed bishop of the duchy of Rome by Emperor Otto (973 - 983 CE) without consulting the Roman clergy or people. Boniface VII, living in Constantinople, excommunicated John XIV. Cardinal Baronius called the pontiffs of this period invaders of the Holy See, less apostles than apostates.

Boniface VII returned to Rome and imprisoned John XIV, bishop of the duchy of Rome, had him deposed and eventually murdered in the Castle Sant'Angelo. Boniface VII died in the act of adultery at the hands of an enraged husband. Ancient lists include him as a bishop of Rome, a later listing records him as an anti-bishop of Rome.

984 - 996 CE - Turkey - Nicholas II Chrysoberges becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

985 CE - Greenland - Erik the Red returned to Eriksfiord and named the land Greenland. Twelve chieftains were established and were widely spaced in different fjords. In the autumn, one final ship arrived with Herjolf, who established a prime trading port not far north of cape Farewell. In late summer, Bjarni Herjolfsson sailed for Greenland to meet up with his father Herjolf. A storm drove him off course to Newfoundland. The land was heavily forested with no ice-covered mountains, therefore it was definitely not Greenland. Bjarni determined that he was 800 nautical miles south-west of Greenland. Bjarni sailed north and recorded no sign of human habitation. Bjarni cleared Cape St. Francis and encountered Labrador. The next land sighting was the Kaumajet peninsula of northern Labrador. They then sailed due east for Greenland.

John XV

985 - 996 CE - Italy - Boniface VII, bishop of Rome, is smothered to death. John XV, a Roman son of a priest, is elected bishop of Rome. John XV aligned himself with the nobility and alienated himself from his clergy. The French Bishops are acting independently of Rome, being convinced that the papacy had lost all moral or spiritual authority.

985 - 999 CE - León (Spain) - Vermudo II rules as king of León.

986 - 1000 CE - Greenland - Leif Eriksson sailed from Greenland to America. [p99:6]

Leif Eriksson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland. Around A.D. 1000, Eriksson sailed to Norway, where King Olaf I converted him to Christianity. According to one school of thought, Eriksson sailed off course on his way back to Greenland and landed on the North American continent, where he explored a region he called Vinland. He may also have sought out Vinland based on stories of an earlier voyage by an Icelandic trader. After spending the winter in Vinland, Leif sailed back to Greenland, and never returned to North American shores. He is generally believed to be the first European to reach the North American continent, over four centuries years before Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492.

Leif Eriksson’s Early Life and Conversion to Christianity

Leif Eriksson (spelling variations include Eiriksson, Erikson or Ericson), known as “Leif the Lucky,” was the second of three sons of the famed Norse explorer Erik the Red, who established a settlement in Greenland after being expelled from Iceland around A.D. 980. The date of Leif Eriksson’s birth is uncertain, but he is believed to have grown up in Greenland. According to the 13th-century Icelandic Eiriks saga (or “Saga of Erik the Red”), Eriksson sailed from Greenland to Norway around 1000. On the way, he was believed to have stopped in the Hebrides, where he had a son, Thorgils, with Thorgunna, daughter of a local chief. In Norway, King Olaf I Tryggvason converted Eriksson to Christianity, and a year later sent him back to Greenland with a commission to spread the faith among the settlers there.

After Leif Eriksson returned to Greenland, his brother Thorvald led another Viking expedition to Vinland, but all future efforts to settle in the region failed due to bitter clashes between the Norsemen and the local Native American population. Thorvald himself died in a skirmish somewhere north of the Viking base.

Eriksson’s Voyage to Vinland

Historical accounts differ on the subsequent events. According to the Eiriks saga, Eriksson sailed off course on his return to Greenland and landed on the North American continent. He called the region where he landed Vinland after the wild grapes that grew in abundance there and the general fertility of the land. Another Icelandic saga, the Groenlendinga saga (or “Saga of the Greenlanders”), which scholars consider more reliable that the Eiriks saga, holds that Leif Eriksson heard about Vinland from the Icelandic trader Bjarni Herjulfsson, who had sighted the North American continent from his ship 14 years before Leif’s voyage but not set foot on land.

Recreated Norse long house, L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Leif Ericson U.S. commemorative stamp, issued 1968

In addition to uncertainty about the context of Eriksson’s arrival in North America, the exact location of his landing is also in doubt. The Groenlendinga saga claims he made three landfalls at Helluland (possibly Labrador), Markland (possibly Newfoundland) and Vinland. The location of Vinland has been debated over the centuries, and has been identified as a variety of spots along the northern Atlantic coast. In the early 1960s, excavations at L’Anse aux Meadows, on the northernmost tip of Newfoundland, turned up evidence of what is generally believed to be the base camp of the 11th-century Viking exploration, though others believe that the region is too far north to correspond to the Vinland described in the Icelandic sagas.

Eriksson’s Later Life in Greenland and Legacy

After his time in Vinland, Eriksson returned to Greenland, and he would never return to North American shores. Though his father proved unreceptive to the Christian faith, Leif was able to convert his mother, Thjodhild, who had Greenland&rquo:s first Christian church built at Brattahild. When Erik the Red died, Leif Eriksson took over as chief of the Greenland settlement. His son Thorgils was sent by his mother (whom Leif never married) to live in Greenland, but was apparently unpopular. Another (presumably legitimate) son, Thorkel Leifsson, became chief by 1025, after his father’s death. Nothing further is known about Leif”s descendants.

Beginning in the late 19th century, many Nordic Americans celebrated Leif Eriksson as the first European explorer of the New World. In 1925, in honor of the 100th anniversary of the arrival of the first official group of Norwegian immigrants in the United States, President Calvin Coolidge announced to a Minnesota crowd that Eriksson had been the first European to discover America. And in September 1964, Congress approved a public resolution that authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to declare October 9 as “Leif Eriksson Day.” (1)

987 CE - Mexico - Topiltzin-Quetzalcoatl and his followers left the city of Tollan and migrated to Yucatán. [p55LR]

987 CE - France - Hugh Capet is elected King of the Western Franks, who had evolved into a feudal society. Feudalism first emerged in Burgundy of central France and in the German Rhineland. In England, Northern Italy, Spain, and Central Germany, feudalism assumed a special form; beyond those frontiers, in Scandinavia and Byzantium, they never sank deep roots. Feudalism is a European term for a caste system. The peasantry are slaves being bound to a life of servitude by grinding obligations. The slave is considered a beast of burden with a host of duties and few rights.

988 CE - Russia - Vladimir I of Kiev, Russia (according to legend) examined the faith of the Jews, Mohammedians, Roman Catholics and Christian Orthodox sects before embracing Christianty. The Eastern Church had a closer contact with the original faith and preserved Christianity in its purest form. The Roman Church had gone its own way, adopting a more materialist aspect. Vladimir I converted to the Christian Orthodox Church and organized a general christening of his subjects in 990 CE. Many would be baptized by force. He chose his wife from Byzance, the sister of the Emperor, claiming supreme authority over the church and promoting the autonomy of the Russian Orthodox Church.

990 CE - Mexico - Topiltzin-Quetzalcoatl founded the city of Mayapan. [p42MF]

991 CE - Italy - At the synod of Saint Basle, Verzy established that papal approval is not required for a synod to depose a bishop.

992 - 1017 CE - Barcelona (Spain) - Barcelona was a country in the Spanish March, however Ramón Borrell was an independent count of Barcelona.

993 CE - Italy - The synod of Chelles proclaimed that a bishop of Rome who transgressed the decrees of the fathers is no better than a heretic. John XV would be driven from office for transgressions.

994 - 1000 CE - Aragon - Navarre (Spain) - Sancho Garcés II was Count of Aragon and king of Navarre from 925 - 970 CE. Aragon at this time was under the Navarese Hegemony.

995 CE - Greenland - Lief Ericksson, son of Erik the Red, is determined to visit Bjarni land to obtain lumber and continue searching for the Westman colony. He bought Gjarni's ship and set sail with thirty five men, visiting Helluland, meaning flat-stone land (now Baffin island), Markland meaning woodland (Labrador) and Vineland meaning wine berry (probably Trinity Bay, Newfoundland), where he spent the winter. Contact between the Viking, Dorsek or Beothuk of Newfoundland is not recorded in this visit. Others contend Epaves Bay (L'Anse Au Meadows) which is actually Meduse Bay was the first wintering site, however this does not appear to be a main Viking settlement. When Lief returned from Vineland the following year he discovered a ship-wrecked crew of fifteen Germanic-Norwegian traders led by Thorer and returned them to Greenland.

995 - 1017 CE - Castilla (Spain) - Sancho Garcia became count of Castilla.

Gregory V

996 - 999 CE - Italy - Gregory V, a German, is appointed bishop of Rome by Emperor Otto III, 996 - 1002 CE. Gregory is a relative of Otto, being the son of his cousin Duke Otto of Cartintha, a priest. The Romans led by Crescentius II resented any foreign bishop of Rome in their land and revolted driving the bishop from Rome. The bishopric of Rome is considered a political position not the Chair of St. Peter or Paul.

996 CE - France - The French king Hugh Capet dies and is succeeded by another Capet, Robert II the Pious.

996 - 998 CE - Turkey - Sisinnius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

997 CE - Italy - John XVI, alias John Philagathos, a Greek, is elected bishop of Rome but is immediately excommunicated by Gregory V bishop of Rome.

998 CE - Italy - Emperor Otto marched on Rome. Gregory V is restored by force to Rome. The revolutionary leaders are either mutilated, deposed, imprisoned or killed. He excommunicated King Robert II of France, who had married his own cousin Bertha.

999 - 1027 CE - León (Spain) - Alfonso V the Noble ruled as king of León.

Sylvester II

999 - 1003 CE - Italy - Emperor Otto III, a Germanic-Saxon of the Holy Empire, installed his mentor Gerbert as Sylvester II as the first French bishop of Rome. This bishop would be deposed after the Emperor's death in 1002 CE. Romans would accept a foreign bishop of Rome. Sylvester II denounced simony (buying and selling of offices) and nepotism (biases toward family members while in office), called for celibacy and insisted on free elections of abbots by monks.

Some claim that the Bishop of Rome never pronounced upon any doctrinal point addressed to the Roman Catholic World on his own special authority. He did not interfere between bishops and his flock in ordinary diocesan affairs or collect money except within his own immediate Episcopal jurisdiction.

999 - 1019 CE - Turkey - Sergius II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1000 CE - Poland - Hungary - Otto III absorbs Poland and Hungary within his sphere of control.

1000 CE - Europe - 7 million people are currently living in France, 7 million in Iberia, 5 million in Italy, 4 million in Germany and 2 million in England.

1000 - 1035 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Sancho Garcés III (Sancho the Great) becomes ruler of Aragon. He was Count of Aragon, which at this time was under Navarese Hegemony. He also gained Castile upon his marriage and absorbed the Basque county of Ribagorza in 1018 CE. He conquered León, and assumed the crown in 1033 CE.

1000 - 1400 CE - Peru - The Chimu people flourished in Peru, with Chan-Chan as their capital. [p113LR]

1000 CE - Italy - The Roman Catholic Church under Canon Episcopal forbids anyone to believe that witches could fly through the air. Some believe this Roman Church belief in witches can be traced to a Council of Ancyra in the ninth century. They concluded it is an illusion produced by the Devil. Five hundred years later anyone who claimed it is an illusion is classified as being in league with the Devil. Others argue this belief didn't appear until the fourteenth century. Evidence suggests that the belief in witches is a creation of the Roman Church and did not exist at this time or in scriptures. The belief in witches that eventually became a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church is a diversion philosophy. Ancient people tended to blame their leaders during times of famine or natural disaster. The Church diverted this blame first to the Jews, then to heretics and then to witches.

1000 CE - England - Aethelred ordered all Viking in England to be slaughtered on St. Brice's day. Among them is Sweyn Forkbeard's sister. The Viking at Dublin are constructing a wall to keep out the barbarian English and Irish. Dublin is a major Viking trading settlement and inter-marriage with the Celt is common. About 10% of England's population are slaves. The Greek and Roman principles of slavery are supported by the Roman Catholic Church throughout Europe as dogma.

1000 CE - Hungary - Poland - The Magyars of Hungary adopted Roman Catholic tradition. The Polanie people united with other Slavic tribes of the Warta River region to create the duchy of Poland.

1000 CE - Russia - The early Russian Orthodox Church had two groups of clergy, the Black Clergy (monks) and the White Clergy (priests and deacons). Only monks were ordained to bishops. Russian priests were usually chosen from among married men. Russia at this time maintained slaves and a slave trade, with slaves being able to buy their freedom. The balance of the citizens is a free society under a form of democracy.

1001 CE - Spain - Sancho unifies Castilla and Navarra.

1001 CE - Italy - Dissatisfied with foreign rule, the Romans revolted and the Emperor Otto III and Silvester II, alias Gerbert, a Frenchman and bishop of Rome fled the city. John II Crescentius, (d. 1012 CE) who now ruled Rome allowed the bishop of Rome to return to the city. Legend suggests this bishop of Rome is a magician who made a pact with the devil.

1002 - 1024 CE - Germany - Henry II made himself Emperor by seizing the Spear of Destiny (Celtic spear of Longinus) that some believed its mere possession carried the right to any Roman throne including the bishop (duchy) of Rome.

1002 CE - Ireland - King Brian Boru became High King of all Ireland. About this time, direct hereditary rights became familiar and with it a tendency for a ruling king to keep the succession in his own line by exterminating claimants of the other house. The evolving new law of succession is not universally accepted throughout Scotland during this century.

John XVII

John XVIII

1003 - 1003 CE - Italy - John XVII Sicco is listed as bishop of the duchy of Rome by the House of Crescentian. John II Crescentius prevented John XVII from taking any significant actions as his pontificate lasted only six months.

1003 - 1009 CE - Italy - John XVIII, alias John Fasanus (Cock), a Roman, is appointed by John II Crescentius as bishop of Rome. John XVIII crowned Henry II of Bavaria king of Italy at Pavia. The city rebelled due to the vexations of the German troops, so Henry conquered Rome and sacked it. John XVIII did not intervene to prevent its destruction. He died in the monastery of St. Paul outside the walls where he had retired.

1004 CE - Spain - Sancho, the ruler of Castilla, is made a king by the Holy Roman Emperor and founded the Sanchez dynasty.

1007 CE - England - Sweyn Forkbeard, (d. 1014 CE) in retaliation for the murder of his sister by Aethelred, took York and advanced toward London. He eventually took Canterbury and London by 1014 CE and his son took Wessex by 1015 CE.

Sergius IV

Benedict VIII

1009 - 1012 CE - Italy - Bands of Norman Viking mercenaries are in Italy. Sergius IV, a Roman, became bishop of Rome by the House of Crescentian. An encyclical asking the faithful to prepare an armed expedition to avenge the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is reported issued.

1010 CE - Egypt - The Nile River in Africa has frozen over this year for the second known time.

1012 - 1024 CE - Italy - Benedict VIII (Tusculan) is appointed bishop of Rome by the Roman House of Tusculan, while the house of Crescentian elected Gregory, alias Theophylact, as bishop of Rome. The house of Crescentian had appointed the last three bishops (duchy) of Rome. The Tusculan army crushed the Crescentian army in their mountain stronghold. Benedict's brother Romanus, later to become John XIX, took over the civil government of Rome. Gregory fled to Germany to plead his cause before Henry II who eventually recognized Benedict for certain concessions. Gregory pleaded with King Pohlde in Saxony without success.

1013 CE - England - The Viking Empire (Danes, Swedes and Norwegians) had conquered all of England under Sweyn I by this date, also ruling Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Poland and the coast of the Baltic States. They also controlled access to Iceland, Greenland and North America.

1014 CE - Ireland - High King Brian Boru of Munster, Ireland lost his life in a war with the Anglo-Viking (Celt?) at Clontarf. The Anglo-Viking army is destroyed. Contrary to popular legend King Beru (Boru) united Ireland with the assistance of the Viking who are at least two generations Irish by this time. About this time the Viking Princes not finding sufficient territory to govern are exploring, raiding and settling throughout Europe.

1016 - 1035 CE - Denmark - The Danish (Viking) and the Celt, Anglo and Saxon peoples are joined as a people by the reign of Emperor Canute (Knot) the Great, a Viking. England became part of the Viking Northern Empire that also included Denmark and Norway. Ireland however remained relatively free at this time.

1016 CE - England - Edmund was King of England for only a few months. After the death of his father, Æthelred II, in April 1016, Edmund led the defense of the City of London against the invading Knut Sveinsson (Canute), and was proclaimed king by the Londoners. Meanwhile, the Witan (Council), meeting at Southampton, chose Canute as King. After a series of inconclusive military engagements, in which Edmund performed brilliantly and earned the nickname "Ironside", he defeated the Danish forces at Oxford, Kent, but was routed by Canute's forces at Ashingdon, Essex. A subsequent peace agreement was made, with Edmund controlling Wessex and Canute controlling Mercia and Northumbria. It was also agreed that whoever survived the other would take control of the whole realm. Unfortunately for Edmund, he died in November, 1016, transferring the Kingship of All England completely to Canute.

1016 CE - Italy - Benedict VIII, bishop of the duchy of Rome, by force of arms restored papal authority in the Campagna and Roman Tuscany. He formed an alliance with Pisa and Genoa, defeated Arab invaders in northern Italy in a sea battle in which he took part and liberated Sardinia. He supported a rebellion against Byzantine rule, putting Norman knights at the disposal of the rebel leaders.

1016 CE - Khazaria (Southern Russia) - The campaign by the Byzantine-Rus defeat the country of Khazaria.

1017 - 1035 CE - Barcelona (Spain) - Barcelona was a country in the Spanish March, however Berenguer Ramón I was an independent count of Barcelona.

1017 - 1028 CE - Castilla (Spain) - Garcia became count of Castilla.

1018 CE - Holland - Dirk III is appointed first count of Holland.

1018 - 1029 CE - India - The Chandela dynasty ruler Vidyadhar marked a turning-point for Khajuraho. After this it was only a minor religious centre. [p85KH]

1019 CE - France - The Byzantine crushed the rebels at Canne and advanced north. Benedict VIII fled to Germany to seek the German Emperor Henry's help.

1019 - 1025 CE - Turkey - Eustathius I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1020 CE - Peru - This era marks the beginning of the Inca dynasty at Cuzco. [p111LR]

1022 CE - Italy - Emperor Henry marched with Benedict VIII and a large army to southern Italy. They didn't achieve a decisive victory but stopped the northern advance of the Byzantine. The Constantinople bishop excommunicated Benedict. The synod of Pavia prohibited marriage or concubines for all clergy, thereby reducing the children of such unions to serfdom. The main concern is to protect church property.

1022 CE - France - During the Middle Ages, the burning of heretics was not unusual in the two hundred years leading up to the Inquisition (which officially started in 1227 - 1231 CE). Often, the burnings were instigated by secular authorities or by mob action. One of the first known Medieval burnings of heretics was by Robert the Pious, King of France, in 1022 CE, who ordered unrepentant heretics to the flames. Mob actions in Milan in c. 1028 CE, in Soissons in 1114 CE, and in Cologne in 1143 CE resulted in the death of heretics at the stake, when angry mobs pulled unrepentant heretics out of ecclesiastical prisons. Thus, the idea of consigning "heretics" to burning at the stake was well ingrained by the time of the start of the Inquisition in 1227 - 1231 CE.

1023 CE - Spain - Abbad ibn-Muhammad abu-Amr, a Muslim War Lord 1023 - 1042 CE, conducted endemic border warfare in central Spain.

John XIX

1024 - 1032 CE - Italy - John XIX, alias Romanus (Tusculan), a layman and brother of Benedict VIII is elected bishop of the duchy of Rome by lavish bribery and by the Roman Tusculan family, who now considered the papacy as their private property.

1024 - 1039 CE - Germany - Konrad II becomes German emperor, thus establishing the Salian dynasty.

1025 CE - North America - The Norse trader Gudleif discovers the Icelander Bjorn Asbrandson on the coast of North America, both men having been driven there by adverse weather.

1025 - 1028 CE - Turkey - Constantine VIII (IX) becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1025 - 1043 CE - Turkey - Alexus I Studites becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1027 - 1037 CE - León (Spain) - Vermudo III ruled as king of León.

1027 CE - Spain - Gascon Sancho William and Aquitanian William V under a Christian banner, attacked Moslem Spain, which is currently controlled by King Sancho III of Navarre, 994 - 1035 CE.

1028 - 1034 CE - Turkey - Romanus III Argyrus ruled as emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1030 CE - Italy - The Norman Viking are garrisoned in a fortress at Aversa, Italy near Naples.

1031 CE - France - The French king Robert II the Pious dies and Henri I succeeds him.

Benedict IX

1032 - 1044 CE - Italy - The Holy Roman Empire is in a state of anarchy when Count Alberic II paid a fortune to elect his son bishop of Rome – Theophylact becoming Benedict IX of the Roman House of Tusculan. The child-pope Benedict IX, who became Pope at the age of 12, was bisexual, sodomized animals, ordered murders and dabbled in witchcraft and Satanism. Others contend he is in his twenties, but admit his reign is scandalously violent and dissolute. He loved to throw wild, bisexual orgies. Benedict IX held the office of Pope in the years 1032 - 1044 CE, 1045 CE and 1047 - 1048 CE. He was described as "A demon from hell in the disguise of a priest … ", and St. Peter Damian said of him: "That wretch, from the beginning of his pontificate to the end of his life, feasted on immorality." Dante estimated that under Benedict IX the papacy reached an all-time low in immorality and debauchery. When he was 23 he survived an assassination attempt of being strangled at the altar during Mass. Benedict IX went on to marry his cousin and sell the papacy to his godfather, Gregory VI.

1033 - 1035 CE - Castilla (Spain) - Sancho the Great ruled as king of Navarre and León.

Michael IV the Paphlagonian

1034 - 1041 CE - Turkey - Michael IV the Paphlagonian becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1034 CE - Scotland - Duncan, grandson of Malcolm II, already ruler in Strathclyde, becomes King of a United Scotland.

1035 - 1040 CE - England - The death of the Viking Emperor Canute (Knot) of England divided the kingdom by splitting Norway to King Harlald the grandson of Olaf the Saint, Denmark went to King Sweyn Estrithson and the Scandinavian countries reverted back to Europe. Boleslav the Great took over parts of Poland. King Harold I, an Anglo-Saxon, became King of England.

1035 CE - Castilla - Aragon - Navarra (Spain) - Sancho of Castilla dies and is succeeded by Fernando I as king of Castilla, by Ramiro as king of Aragonia, by Garcia IV (1035 - 1054 CE), eldest son of Sancho the Great) as king of Navarra, and by Gonzalo.

1035 - 1076 CE - Barcelona (Spain) - Barcelona was a country in the Spanish March, however, Ramón Berenguer I was an independent count of Barcelona.

1035 - 1064 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Ramiro I became the first king of Aragon. He was the illegitimate son of Sancho the Great of Navarre.

1035 - 1065 CE - Castilla (Spain) - Ferdinand I became king of Castile. Ferdinand I was the second son of Sancho the Great of Navarre. He was crowned king of Castile by Vermudo III of León, who he later killed, thus acquiring the Leónese crown as well.

1037 CE - León - Castilla (Spain) - Ferdinand (Fernando) I, of Castile, completed the work begun by Sancho the Great by conquering León and assuming the title of king of León.

1037 - 1086 CE - Iberian Peninsula (Spain) - The Muluk al-Tawa'if (Party Kings). These were petty dynasties founded on the ruins of the Umayyad caliphate: the Hammudids of Malaga (from 1016 CE onward) and of Algeciras (1039 CE-); the Abbadids of Sevilla (1031 CE-); the Zayrids of Granada (1012 CE-); the Jahwarids of Córdoba (1031 CE-); the Dhul-Nunids of Toledo (1035 CE-); the Amirids of Valencia (1021 CE-); the Tojibids and Hudids of Saragossa (1019 CE- and 1031 CE-). Most of these dynasties were absorbed by the most distinguished of them, the Abbadids, who summoned the Almoravids from Africa to aid them against Alfonso VI of Castile. This lack of Muslim unity encouraged expansion of the northern Christian kingdoms towards the south.

1039 - 1056 CE - Germany - Emperor Konrad II died and his son Heinrich III became emperor of Germany.

1039 CE - Germany - Under the protection of German emperor Heinrich III, Cluny's abbot Odilo turned his monastery into the head of a monastic feudal system whose influence spread all over Europe.

1041 - 1042 CE - Turkey - Michael V Calaphates became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1041 CE - Sicily - The Viking took Sicily this year.

1040 - 1042 CE - England - Harthacanute, son of Canute, was King of England for a short reign.

1042 - 1066 CE - England - Edward Æthelred, an Anglo-Saxon, becomes King of England. He was known widely as "The Confessor," as he spent most of the time attending to the church, building a church in every village. He brought many Viking Norman's to England, which did not sit well with the Saxon.

The penultimate Anglo-Saxon king, Edward was the oldest son of Æthelred II and Emma. He had gone to Normandy in 1013 CE, when his father and mother had fled from England. He stayed there during the reign of Canute and, at his death in 1035 CE, led an abortive attempt to capture the crown for himself. He was recalled, for some reason, to the court of Harthacanute, his half-brother.

Canute had placed the local control of the shires into the hands of several powerful earls: Leofric of Mercia (Lady Godiva's husband), Siward of Northumbria and Godwin of Wessex, the most formidable of all. Through Godwin's influence, Edward took the throne at the untimely death of Harthacanute in 1042 CE. In 1045 CE, he married Godwin's only daughter, Edith.

Resulting from the connections made during Edward's years in Normandy, he surrounded himself with his Norman favorites and was unduly influenced by them. This Norman "affinity" produced great displeasure among the Saxon nobles. The anti-Norman faction was led by Godwin of Wessex and his son, Harold Godwinsson, who took every available opportunity to undermine the kings' favorites. Edward sought to revenge himself on Godwin by insulting his own wife and Godwin's daughter, Edith, and confining her to the monastery of Wherwell. Disputes also arose over the issue of royal patronage and Edward's inclination to reward his Norman friends.

A Norman, Robert Champart, who had been Bishop of London, was made Archbishop of Canterbury by Edward in 1051 CE, a promotion that displeased Godwin immensely. The Godwins were banished from the kingdom after staging an unsuccessful rebellion against the king but returned, landing an invasionary force in the south of England in 1052 CE. They received great popular support, and in the face of this, the king was forced to restore the Godwins to favor in 1053 CE.

Edward's greatest achievement was the construction of a new cathedral, where virtually all English monarchs from William the Conqueror onward would be crowned. It was determined that the minster should not be built in London, and so a place was found to the west of the city, deriving the name of "Westminster." The new church was consecrated at Christmas, 1065 CE, but Edward could not attend due to illness.

On his deathbed, Edward named Harold as his successor, instead of the legitimate heir, his grandson, Edgar the Ætheling. The question of succession had been an issue for some years and remained unsettled at Edward's death in January, 1066 CE. It was neatly resolved, however, by William the Conqueror, just nine months later.

There is some question as to what kind of person Edward was. After his death, he was the object of a religious cult and was canonized in 1161 CE, but that could be viewed as a strictly political move. Some say, probably correctly, that he was a weak, but violent man and that his reputation for saintliness was overstated, possibly a sham perpetrated by the monks of Westminster in the twelfth century. Others seem to think that he was deeply religious man and a patient and peaceable ruler.

1042 CE - Italy - The Norman Viking occupied Gaeta, Italy this year.

Zoe

Constantine IX Monomchus

1042 CE - Turkey - Zoe and Theodora became co-emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1042 - 1055 CE - Turkey - Constantine IX Monomchus became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1043 - 1099 CE - Spain - Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, better known as El Cid Campeador ("The Lord Champion"), was born, near Burgos, in 1043 CE and died in Valencia in 1099 CE. El Cid is a famous Spanish national folk hero and the embodiment of chivalry and virtue. El Cid grew up in the the household of the future king, Sancho II of Castile, being very close to Sancho. Prince Sancho was the eldest son of King Ferdinand I. When the king died, he divided his kingdom among his five children. Sancho was given Castile, Alfonso was given Leon, Garcia was given Galicia, Urraca was given Zamora, and Elvira was given Toro. When prince Sancho became King Sancho II in 1065 CE, he gave Rodrigo the highest position at court. Rodrigo was given the position of Standard Bearer or Head of Royal Armies. Sancho believed that the kingdom should stay united and Rodrigo stood by him. Urraca resisted uniting the kingdom, as well as Sancho's other siblings. Sancho was assassinated in 1072 CE. The Castillians proclaimed that Alfonso would be their king. Alfonso was now the King of Castile as well as King of Leon.

El Cid accused Alfonso of taking part in the murder of his brother, Sancho and El Cid made Alfonso swear that he had not taken any part in the assassination of Sancho. El Cid continued in the royal service and married Alfonso's neice Jimena in 1074 CE. El Cid was sent to Sevilla as an ambassador and he was accused of keeping money and treasures that were for King Alfonso. El Cid was disinherited and exiled; he sought to serve several Arab kings. He spent his first decade of exile fighting for various Christian and Moslem rulers. He remained loyal to King Alfonso despite the King's refusal to forgive him.

In 1090 CE, El Cid, with both the kings of Saragossa and Aragon, concentrated on resisting the advance of the Berber Almoravids in eastern Spain. In November 1092 CE, he began a siege of Valencia. In 1094 CE, El Cid conquered the region of Valencia with his troops and offered Valencia to King Alfonso. Alfonso accepted his offer of Valencia and El Cid was made Lord of Valencia . The Cid tried to maintain the Christian presence in the largely Moslem town. He ruled there until his death on July 10, 1099 CE. His widow Jimena continued to rule, but in 1102 CE she was forced to abandon Valencia to the Almoravids.

To this day, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar is known as a hero of Christian Spain. El Cid was also a great war hero due to his excellent acheivements in the the Reconquest of Spain. El Cid was a superior and extremely successful soldier of fortune who apparently never lost a battle.

1043 - 1058 CE - Turkey - Michael I Cerularius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1044 CE - Italy - Benedict IX, alias Theophylact, fled Rome due to a bloody insurrection partly because of his loose life. The Stephanian branch of the Crescentian family elected John of Sabina as Silvester III who died in 1063 CE.

Silvester III

Benedict IX

1045 - 1045 CE - Italy - Sylvester III is elected bishop of Rome, but stepped aside when an attempt to kill Benedict IX failed. He was deposed fifty days after his election through the intervention of the counts of Tuscolo, who had brought Benedict back to Rome. It is not known how he ended his life.

Gregory VI is also elected, but the army of Emperor Conrad II of the Holy Roman Empire put Benedict IX back in power. Benedict IX excommunicated Sylvester III, and expelled him from Rome.

Benedict IX resigned 1045 CE, devoted to pleasure, taking the whole of Peter's Pence received from England. Benedict IX claimed that he had not been bought off, he had simply recovered his father's original investment. Benedict IX wanted to marry, and, abdicated in favor of his godfather, John Graten. Graten paid a huge sum of money for the position, was elected and takes the name Gregory VI, bishop of Rome.

Gregory VI

Clement II

1045 - 1046 CE - Italy - Henry III of Germany called a Synod, Sylvester III is judged an impostor, Benedict IX had resigned, Gregory VI is forced to resign and declared that the devil had forced him into the election. The bishop of Rome is a political position rather than a moral or religious position and has been such for over a century. Some suggest this is the reason for murder, heresy, schism and simony in the Roman Catholic Church.

1046 - 1047 CE - Italy - Henry III chose Clement II as bishop of Rome who would also crown Henry as Emperor of The Holy Roman Empire. Henry III took Clement II and the papacy to Germany, where Clement died in 1047 CE.

1046 CE - Germany - King Henry III, 1039 - 1056 CE, of Germany is crowned Emperor of Rome by his German pope Clement II, alias Suidger, who he appointed bishop of Rome having deposed three other bishops: Benedict IX, Sylvester III and Damasus II. Some believe King Henry is trying to bring order back to the papacy by appointing the next three bishops of Rome. Benedict IX would again reign in absentia (1047 - 1048 CE) and is described as a demon from hell in the disguise of a priest. King Henry established himself as the one to take the lead in appointing future bishops of Rome.

Benedict IX

1047 - 1048 CE - Italy - The counts of Tuscolo family brought Benedict IX back to the papacy for the third time. Fortunately for the good of the Church and following the sage advice of the monk Bartholomew, he retired to the monastery of Grottaferrata, near Rome, where he died and was buried.

1047 CE - Norway - Harald Hårdråde is king of Norway. He tried to conquer Denmark and England. [p99:6]

1047 CE - Germany - A synod controlled by King Henry II sharply condemned simony and decreed a forty-day penance for any that had knowingly been ordained by a simoniacal bishop.

Damasus II

1048 - 1048 CE - Italy - Damasus II, alias Poppo, a Bavarian is nominated by Emperor Henry III as bishop of Rome. Many wanted Gregory VI, the bishop of Rome now in exile, restored to political power. Benedict IX re-emerged and seized the Roman papal throne. Emperor Henry III threatened to return to Rome and install the new bishop (duchy) of Rome. Benedict IX is expelled from Rome and Damasus II is installed as bishop of Rome.

St. Leo IX

1049 - 1054 CE - Italy - A synod at Lateran excommunicated Benedict IX because he continued to consider himself as the rightful bishop of Rome. Emperor Henry III appoints Leo IX as bishop of Rome. Leo IX, an Alsatian nobleman and a near relative of the Emperor was bishop of Toul. Some suggest Emperor Henry said the appointment is subject to ratification of the Roman clergy and people but this is highly unlikely. The new bishop of Rome confirmed the Emperors stand against simony and for clericals being unchaste. Two bishops are deposed for simony. He wanted to degrade these simoniacal and unchaste clergy, but they were too numerous for this to be practicable. He refused to be bogged down with Roman politics, and spent less than six months in Rome during his five-year reign. Hildebrand of Moyenmoutier, a Roman clerk, is placed in charge of the papal estates to safeguard them from aristocratic depredation and to restore the material resources of the papacy. The papacy up to this point in time had little notion of the papacy as a universal power. The bishops of Rome had no concept of themselves as leaders of Western Catholics let alone Eastern Christians.

1049 CE - France - The Norman warlord Robert Guiscard conquered Puglia from Byzantium.

1050 CE - Holland - Farmers in the Utrecht district built dykes to gain land from the sea.

1050 CE - Europe - The catapult is re-discovered (the "Trebuchet").

"In Western civilization until about 1500 A.D., the most important reason why some weapons were considered unfair was because they enabled their users to kill from a distance and from behind cover. The victim being unable to retaliate, such weapons obscured the vital distinction between war and plain murder … [An example was] the catapult, which was perceived as a device that would render valor superfluous in war."

     Technology and War, Martin Van Creveld, Macmillan, Inc., New York, 1989.

1050 CE - Italy - Humbert of Moyenmoutier, is made cardinal-bishop of Silva Candida. He surrounded himself with advisors and helpers who are remote from the Roman aristocracy to distance him from political pressures. Leo IX insisted that clergy and people must elect bishops and abbots. He re-ordained many men who had been ordained by simoniacal bishops. About this time, the Orthodox Christian Church and Roman Catholic Churches began to separate even further. The Orthodox Church includes the Armenian, Bulgarian, Ethiopian, Georgian, Greek, and Russian Churches. The Eastern Orthodox Church always distrusted Augustine theology as being too humanistic. The first book of canon law put together in Rome is titled 'Collection in 74 titles.' Its prime objective is to establish the position of bishop of Rome as Pope as the universal authority. It carefully avoided any attack on the rights of the laity or the position of the king in the church. It used papal letters, including forged documents, to support its position rather than on the Fathers or on synod decrees.

1053 CE - Italy - The Viking Robert Guiscard occupied Apulia, Italy. He co-ordinated the defeat of the Greeks taking Calabria, Brindisi and Taranto. Leo IX led a small army against the Viking, but failed. The bishop of Rome was captured and held prisoner by the Viking for nine months. He was well treated, but likely had to make humiliating concessions.

1054 CE - China - Japan - On July 4, 1054 CE, a bright star appeared in the sky. For twenty three days, it was bright enough to be seen in the daytime. It gradually dimmed, until it was no longer visible on April 17, 1056 CE. This new star was recorded in China and Japan. No record of it has been found in Korea (the records were probably lost), Europe, or the Arab countries. Such a new star is now called a supernova, an exploding star which is brighter than all the rest of the stars of the galaxy, put together.

The Crab Nebula

The new star was recorded to be near Zeta Tauri, a dim star. Today, near Zeta Tauri is the Crab Nebula, also known as M1. This is an irregular splotch of gasses, which bears a slight resemblance to a crab. It is called M1, because it is first on Messier's list of fuzzy objects (nebulas, clusters, and galaxies) that might be mistaken for a comet. Messier was a comet fanatic, having discovered a few comets, but today he is famous for his list. The Crab Nebula is not exactly where the Chinese records say the star was, but it is very close. The nebula is expanding, and seems to have started from a point source in about the year 1140 CE. This discrepancy of the year seems to have been explained by an acceleration due to a magnetic field. The magnetic field is deduced from other features of the light from the nebula, the fact that it is related to synchrotron radiation.

The Crab Nebula is a strong source of radio waves. In 1969 CE, the radio waves were shown to pulse, to turn on and off, thirty times a second. It was half-jokingly suggested that LGM (little green men) had been discovered. This pulsing phenomenon is caused by a pulsar, a pulsing star. The pulsing is like the light from a lighthouse, the flashing off and on of a spinning object. Near the center of the Crab nebula is a dim star called NP0532. This star has been shown to be the pulsar, and its visible light turns on and off at the same frequency as the radio waves. This star is spinning at a rate of 30 times per second, and is a tiny (about 10 km. or 6 mi. in diameter) neutron star, also called a "supernova remnant." Such stars spin very rapidly, because they were spinning (slowly) when they were much larger. They spin faster as they shrink, just as a spinning figure skater spins faster by pulling his/her arms close to his/her body.

1054 CE - Italy - Turkey - Some historians credit the church reformers of Lorraine and Burgundy through King Henry II, 1039 - 1056 CE, of Germany and Leo IX with changing the papacy from a political duchy of Rome to a more Papal position. They consider he changed the position from an object of shame and scandal to a serious churchman position. Leo IX sent a delegation headed by cardinal Humbert to Constantinople to claim universal authority for the papacy, causing an open breach between the two churches.

Thus began the East-West Split of 1054 CE - The Roman Catholic Church split with the Eastern (Orthodox) Church and officially condemned the Eastern Church "as heretics." The split might have been repaired had it not been for the beginning of the Crusades in 1095 CE.

Immorality, pride, power and envy led to the official split of east and west when in 1054 CE, the Pope sent his envoy, Humbert, to Constantinople, with a bull flung into the Church of Sophia (Holy Wisdom) which accused the eastern church of allowing priests to marry, re-baptizing Roman Christians and had deleted "and the Son" from the Nicene Creed. When Hubert threw the bull he shouted "Let God look and judge!", Rome had effectively excommunicated the Eastern Church.

1054 - 1076 CE - Castilla - Aragon - Navarra (Spain) - Sancho became king of Navarre, being the eldest son of Garcia IV.

Victor II

1055 - 1057 CE - Italy - Victor II, alias Gebhard of Dollenstein-Hirschberg, a Swabian, is nominated by Emperor Henry III as bishop of Rome. He had blocked military aid to Leo IX in his campaign against the Viking. He endorsed that stance against simony and any clerical that are unchaste, as well as the alienation of church property. Several bishops are deposed.

1055 - 1056 CE - Turkey - Theodora Porphyrogenita became empress of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1056 - 1057 CE - Turkey - Michael VI Stratioticus became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1056 CE - Germany - Heinrich III dies and is succeeded by Heinrich IV.

1056 - 1147 CE - Iberian Peninsula (Spain) - The Almoravids, a Puritanical Berber sect founded by the Berber prophet Abdullah ibn Tashfin. They conquered Morocco and part of Algeria and were called into Spain by the Abbadids to help in the defense against the Christians. They defeated Alfonso of Castile at Zallaka (1086 CE) and proceeded to annex Moorish Spain, with the exception of Toledo and Saragossa.

Isaac I Comnenos

1057 - 1059 CE - Greece - Isaac I Comnenos became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1057 CE - Scotland - The House of Canmore saw a succession of Celtic-Scottish Kings from 1057 CE to 1260 CE.

Stephen IX

1057 - 1058 CE - Italy - Stephen IX, alias Frederick of Lorraine, a leading member of the curia, is elected bishop of the duchy of Rome. He is the brother of Duke Godfrey of Lorraine the most powerful person in central Italy. The bishop advocated poverty, denounced clerical marriage, marriage within the forbidden degrees and is hostile toward simony and clerics who are unchaste. He also campaigned to raise an army against the Viking (Norman) in southern Italy.

1058 - 1111 CE - Iran - Ghazzali, a Moslem theologian, is born. He wrote The Revival of The Sciences of Religion, which combines scolastic dogma and Sufi mysticism, which caused Sufism to be accepted by orthodox Moslems. [#]

1058 CE - Italy - Benedict X, alias John Mincius, a Roman and bishop of Florence (d. 1073 CE), is elected bishop of the duchy of Rome by a clique of nobles led by the Tusculin family. Godfrey of Lorraine naturally approved the appointment. The assumption is that bribery would carry the day as it had in the past. The important clergy had all fled from Rome, likely expecting retaliation for the sudden death of Stephen X.

Constantine X (IX) Ducas

Nicholas II

1059 - 1067 CE - Greece - Constantine X (IX) Ducas became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1059 - 1061 CE - Italy - The cardinals drive from Rome the elected Nicholas II of Lorraine (French Burgundy) at Siena, as he is considered an anti-bishop of Rome. The result is a schism within the Roman Church.

Nicholas II, alias Gerard, anti-bishop of Rome, excommunicated Benedict X as an invader of the Holy See and as a perjurer for breaking his oath to the Emperor. The Italian Benedictine Cardinal Hildebrand, who later became bishop of the duchy of Rome as Gregory VII, pressured Nicholas II to decree that the election of the bishop of Rome be taken out of the hands of the Roman nobility and placed into the hands of a college of cardinals who must conform to the reformers principles. It allowed non-Roman cleric elections including those conducted outside Rome. This edict is intended to prevent Roman noblemen from electing another Benedict and legitimizing the irregularities of his own election. The bishop of the duchy of Rome entered into an alliance with the Viking in southern Italy and Sicily. The Germans are enraged and declared the alliance null and void.

1059 - 1063 CE - Turkey - Constantine III Lichoudas becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1060 CE - Italy - Benedict X, bishop of the duchy of Rome, is not officially deposed and degraded until this year.

1061 CE - Sicily - The Normans, under Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger I of Sicily, began the conquest of Sicily, which was completed in 1091 CE. In 1127 CE, Roger II, count of Sicily, was recognized duke of Apulia and Calabria, and in 1130 CE, he assumed the title of king of Sicily. The domain of Roger II was sometimes called the Kingdom of the Due Sicilie, because the southern part of the Italian mainland was known as "Sicily on this side of Cape Faro."

Alexander II

1061 - 1073 CE - Italy - Alexander II, alias Lucca, an Anselm born near Milan, is elected bishop of the duchy of Rome and installed by Viking troops because of disturbances in Rome. The German court countered by electing Honorius II, alias Cadalus of Parma, as bishop of the duchy of Rome. This resulted in another schism within the Roman church that lasted until 1071 CE.

1062 CE - Italy - Honorius marched on Rome defeating Alexander's troops. He failed to capitalize on his success. Alexander II, bishop of the duchy of Rome, is humiliated by having to leave Rome to await a decision on his election to the papacy.

1063 CE - Italy - Alexander II sent banners and granted indulgences to Norman (Viking) warriors and French knights fighting against Muslims in Sicily and Spain. Honorius again sieges Rome holding it for several months.

1064 CE - Ireland - The Viking Irish from Dublin are building ships.

1064 CE - Italy - Alexander II, bishop of Rome, at a synod at Mantua had to answer charges he obtained the papacy by simony and force of arms. After swearing an oath, he is freed from all charges. Benedictine Cardinal Hildebrand, who became Gregory VII, dictated the theology of the church during this period.

1064 - 1094 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Sancho Ramírez becomes the king of Aragon. He was the eldest son of Ramiro I.

1064 - 1075 CE - Turkey - John VIII Xiphilinus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1065 - 1109 CE - León - Castilla (Spain) - Alfonso VI becomes king of León and Castile. He was the second son of Ferdinand of León and Castile.

1065 - 1071 CE - Galacia (Spain) - Galacia was largely only a county of Leon, having a short history as independent Kingdom under Garcia, which included the embryonic nation of Portugal until its independence. Garcia was only king of Galacia, and was the third son of Ferdinand of León and Castile.

1066 CE - England - Harold II, Godwinson, had become the Earl of East Anglia in 1044 CE. Upon his father's death in April 1053 CE, he succeeded to the Earldom of Wessex and from that time was at the right hand of the king. In 1063 CE, supported by his brother, Tostig, Earl of Northumbria, he commanded a brilliantly conducted campaign against the Welsh. He was successful in bringing them into submission, and by doing so, solidified his reputation as an able general.

Harold acted as an emissary from Edward the Confessor to the court of William of Normandy in 1064 CE, during which time he allegedly swore an oath of fealty to William, relinquishing any personal claim to the throne. This oath, which may have been given lightly, or possibly under duress, would figure directly in William's own claim, two years later. He would claim that the promise Harold made to him had been broken, giving William the right to challenge Harold in a battle for the crown.

While on his deathbed, the Confessor named Harold as his successor, overlooking his grandson, the rightful heir, Edgar the Ætheling and ignoring a promise that he allegedly made (according to French sources) to William of Normandy. Upon Edward's death, Harold wasted no time securing ecclesiastical blessing on his claim by having himself crowned immediately.

Harold's brother, Tostig, had been exiled since the autumn of 1065 CE and had joined with Harald Hardrada of Norway. A combined force landed in Yorkshire in September 1066 CE. Until this time, Harold's attention had been directed toward the south and the invasion that he knew would come from Normandy. But, now, Harold had to break away and march north to meet the new threat that had come. He defeated the forces of his traitorous brother and the King of Norway decisively at the battle of Stamford Bridge on the 25th of September.

Meanwhile, the favorable winds that the Normans had been waiting for had come and they had set sail across the channel, landing at Pevensey on the 28th. As soon as Harold heard this distressing news, he marched his force at top speed to the south. He reached London on October 5 and stopped to give his weary troops a rest and to gather reinforcements for the battle which lay ahead.

Harold as King of England doesn't have the support of the English Viking. William the Bastard (later called the Conqueror), a Viking conqueror from Normandy with less than 15,000 men, took England. England only fielded 8,000 men. Most of his men didn't even reach the field of battle including the archers. The Viking had attacked the English from the north drawing King Harold's men from the Norman landing to the south. The English fought on foot whereas the Viking fought on horseback. England had regressed back to Anglo and Saxon rule after the death of Canute the Viking in 1035 CE. William, on Christmas day, crowns himself King of England. The Viking Frank dynasty (1066 - 1154 CE), also called the Norman, firmly established their culture in England that remains to current times. William controlled some one million Anglo and Saxons with fewer than one thousand men. This is the start of an increased French influence on the English and their language.

Duke William of Normandy left St. Valery in Normandy with about 600 ships and 10,000 - 12,000 men on September 27, 1066 CE.

William and his barons had been recruiting and preparing the invasion of England since early spring of that year. He was a seasoned general and master tactician, using cavalry, archers and infantry and had fought many notable battles. Off Beachy Head, his ship, the Mora, arrived ahead of the fleet. William waited and ate a hearty breakfast. As his fleet straggled into place behind him they moved eastward to the first sheltered bay to provide protection for his armada. Pevensey and Bulverhythe were the villages on each promontory. Pevensey, to the west, was protected by an old Roman Fort and behind the fort there was much flat acreage to house his large army. To suggest this landing was not pre-planned, is not in keeping with the preparatory time taken by William, or his track record. There had been much intelligence gathering in the past few months.

The bay, wide enough for maneuverability of this large fleet, was flat shored. William is said to have fallen on the beach, grasped the sand, and declared "This is my country" or words to that effect. Next, the ships were disembarked without resistance. They included 2,500 horses, prefabricated forts, and the material and equipment was prepared for any contingency. The ships shuttled in and out of the bay with precision. A fort was built inside Pevensey Roman Fort as a a headquarters, while the army camped behind it. William and Fitz Osborn scouted the land. He was unhappy with the terrain, but it had proved to be a satisfactory landing beach. Taking his army around Pevensey Bay, he camped eight miles to the east, north of what is now known as Hastings, all of which was most likely pre-planned. He camped to the east outside the friendly territory of the Norman Monks of Fecamp, who may have been alerted and were waiting for his probable arrival. William waited. Perhaps he was waiting to know of the outcome of the battle to the north. In those two weeks, William could have marched on London and taken it. He was obviously waiting for something.

Harold, far to the north in York at Stamford Bridge, was engaged in a life and death struggle against his brother who had teamed up with the Viking King Hadrada to invade England. Whether this was a planned Norman tactic, part of a pincer movement north and south, is not known, but students of Norman and Viking history might find it very feasible. The timing of each invasion was impeccable, and probably less than coincidental. Harold managed to resist the invasion to the north and killed both commanders. He was advised of the landing to the south by William.

Bringing the remnants of his army south, Harold camped outside London at Waltham. For two weeks he gathered reinforcements, and exchanged taunts, threats and counterclaims to the Crown of England with William. Finally he moved his army south to a position about six miles north of where William waited.

Perhaps one of the most devastating events preceeding the battle was Harold's sudden awareness that he had been excommunicated by the Pope, and that William was wearing the papal ring. It is most likely this had been arranged by fellow Norman Robert Guiscard who had conquered most of southern Italy and was patron of the Pope who was indebted to him for saving the Vatican. Harold's spirit flagged. William was leading what might perhaps by called the first Crusade. The whole world was against Harold.

Battle of Hastings

William moved up to Harold's position and set up in what was then the conventional European style. Archers, infantry and cavalry in the rear. A set piece, each assigned to their own duties.

Harold waited. He and his brother Gyrth arranged a mass of men along a high ground ridge 8 deep, 800 yards long . A fixed corridor of tightly wedged humanity. Strategically, given the relative equipment of each side, it was hopeless from the start. To William it was almost a formality. Harold's men were hemmed in by their own elbows. William, with total mobility, held his Breton, Maine and Anjou contingents to the left of the line, the Normans the main thrust, the Flemish and French to his right. The flanking movements paid off. How long the battle took has varying estimates. Some say as little as two hours, others as long as six hours. The latter seems more reasonable simply because of the numbers involved.

This battle would later be called Senlac, a river of blood. It demolished most of the remnants of the Saxon fighting men of the island at very little cost to William.

It is very doubtful if Harold was shot in the eye with an arrow from over the ranks of his front line. He was probably run through by William's lance, accompanied by three others who were in at the kill, and who savaged him brutally.

Thus began a three century Norman occupation of England, Wales and Scotland, and later Ireland, which started at Pevensey.

"As the result of one day's fighting (14 October), England received a new royal dynasty, a new aristocracy, a virtually new Church, a new art, a new architecture and new language."

William was a more distant heir to the throne than Harold, so the succession of the British kings was changed at this time. This succession would be properly aligned at a future point in time when Harold's line married back into William's line of descents, thereby reuniting the lineage of the throne of England.

William the Conqueror

During Harold's brief reign, the government continued to function as before, but there is no reliable way to judge what Harold might have been like as a king. He was certainly a capable field commander and a leader who inspired loyalty and confidence. His death has been recorded as coming in the midst of the final battle by way of a Norman arrow that penetrated his eye. Whether or not that is true, his memory lingers on as the last of the Anglo-Saxon kings and the last monarch of England to suffer defeat at the hands of a foreign invader.

William, the bastard eigne of Robert, Duke of Normandy, was a Viking Norman, or Frenchman. Upon gaining the control of the English empire, William proceeded to place the natives of England under bondage through a variety of means, some of which included giving title of all the land to other Normans, pillaging the wealth of the nation, destroying the churches, and corrupting the language to the point where the natives could not understand the use of ancient Latin within the legal system.

The Roman Emperors and the Pontifices drew imposts from all the nations of the world. The Pope, in like manner, had his Peter's pence, under which name all Europe paid him tribute. It was the policy of the Roman Emperors to make the Latin tongue the common language of all nations; the Popes desired the same thing-which was the secret reason for their wishing the service always be in Latin, the language of the See.

     Anacalypsis, Godfrey Higgins, Vol. II, Book II, p. 54, 1833.

As the ancient cave man's weapon was his club, the Indian's weapon was his bow and arrow, and the soldier's weapon is his gun, so a lawyer's weapon has always been the artful use of words. "Words and phrases are the tools of the lawyer's trade." (2) After all, the pen IS mightier than the sword.

And from hence alfo arifes another inference; that the liberties of Englifhmen are not (as fome arbitrary writers would reprefent them) mere infringements of the king's prerogative, extorted from our princes by taking advantage of their weaknefs; but a reftoration of that antient conftitution, of which our anceftors had been defrauded by the art and fineffe of the Norman lawyers, rather than deprived by the force of the Norman arms.

     Blackstone's Commentaries, Book II, Chapter 4, p. 52, 1765.


How William the Conqueror caused the law to be in an unknown tongue.

It is reported of Caligula that when he intended to make advantage of his penall edicts, he caused the letter to be written so small, & the volumes of them to be placed so high, that it was almost impossible for any man to read them, so William the Conqueror caused part of those laws which [he] established to be written in the Norman language, which was a barbarous & broken French, not well understood of the naturall French, and not at all of the vulgar English, the rest were not written at all, but left almost arbitrary to be determined by reason and discretion, at large hereupon it followed partly through the ignorance of the people that many were extreamely tangled, many dangered, many rather made away than justly executed. The ancient lawes of the land he abbrogated, for the most part ordained new, nothing so equall or so easie to be kept, which his laws although they nearely concerned the English, and therefore ought to have bin fully known were not withstanding written in the harsh Norman tongue which they understood not.

     "A Glasse of Truth," John Coales, regarding the way the law was changed in England after the Norman conquest in 1066, 1649.


In the mean time the families of all our nobility and gentry groaned under the intolerable burthens, which (in confequence of the fiction adopted after the conqueft) were introduced and laid upon them by the fubtlety and fineffe of the Norman lawyers.

     Blackstone's Commentaries, Book II, Chapter 5, p. 76, 1765.


To keep the laity in the darkest ignorance, and to monopolize the little science, which then existed entirely among the monkish clergy, were deep-rooted principles of papal policy. And, as the bishops of Rome affected in all points to mimic the imperial grandeur, as the spiritual prerogatives were moulded on the pattern of the temporal, so the canon law process was formed on the model of the civil law : the prelates embracing, with the utmost ardour, a method of judicial proceedings, which was carried on in a language unknown to the bulk of the people, which banished the intervention of a jury, (that bulwark of Gothic liberty) and which placed an arbitrary power of decision in the breast of a single man.

     Tucker on Blackstone's Commentaries, Book III, Chapter 7, pp. 99-100, 1803.


Dick: The first thing we do, let's kill all the lawyers.

Cade: Nay, that I mean to do. Is not this a lamentable thing, that of the skin of an innocent lamb should be made parchment? that parchment, being scribbled o'er, should undo a man? Some say the bee stings: but I say, 'tis the bee's wax; for I did but seal once to a thing, and I was never mine own man since.

     II Henry VI. Act iv, scene 2, line 83, by William Shakespeare.

This language system was maintained because "what is generally denominated law-latin, is in reality a mere technical language, calculated for eternal duration, and easy to be apprehended both in present and future times;" Sir William Blackstone stated that the law would be "more serviceable … in a dead and immutable language than in any flax or living one." The use of latin still exists throughout the British and American legal systems.

Being under English control, the people on the American continent were also under the same oppressive legal system, as signified in a booklet by John Coales, written forty years after America began to be colonized through the means of British plantations.

During this same period, Ansgar the staller, who was Portreeve of the City of London at the time of the Conquest, received the charter from William in the name of the City. The Portreeve accounted to the King for his dues and corresponded to the Lord Mayor of later times. He was the justice and was elected by the citizens with the approval of the King. Under him were the aldermen of the wards, answering to the lords of manors or sokes. The people had their folkmote, their weekly hustings which became a "county court," and there was a wardmote which eventually abolished the proprietary aldermen and elected them by vote of the wards. Hence it will be seen that the constitution of the City [of London] corresponded to that of a county, as Bishop Stubbs and Freeman have pointed out. A great increase to the power and influence of the city was given by the grant of the whole of Middlesex to the citizens by Henry I., a grant that was not revoked until 1888 by Act of Parliament. [see pp. 23-24]

1067 CE - Ghana, Africa - The Empire of Ghana, West Africa had a standing army of 200,000 men including 40,000 bowmen to maintain law and order in the gulf trade between Africa and the Arabs. Al-Bakri an Arab scholar wrote about Ghana legal system, the empires great wealth, it's advanced political structure complete with subordinate kings and governors.

Romanus IV Diogenes

1068 - 1071 CE - Turkey - Romanus IV Diogenes becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

In 1068 CE, Romanus married Eudocia Macrembolitissa, widow of the emperor Constantine X Ducas. He led military expeditions against the Seljuq Turks but was defeated and captured by them at the Battle of Manzikert (1071 CE). On his release Romanus found that Constantine X's son had been crowned sole ruler as Michael VII Ducas. Romanus was blinded and exiled to the island of Prote in the Sea of Marmara, where he died.

1070 CE - Ghana, Africa - Kumbi, alias Ghana (warrior King), aka 'the land of gold,' is one of the most powerful empires in the world.

1070 CE - France - The Society of Ormus moved to territory in France owned by Godfroi de Bouillon, the first Grand Master of the Prieuré de Sion. There Ormus changed its name to the "Ordre de Sion" and the monks were given a tract of land owned by one Bernard of Clairvaux. St. Bernard, who was the founder of the Cistercian Order of monks, also wrote of the Rule of the Templars. The Society of Ormus, which became the Ordre de Sion, then became the Prieuré de Sion.

"The 'Prieuré documents' imply that … an abbey existed by 1100 and housed an order of the … name [Ordre de Sion] which may have been formed earlier … It is known that in 1070, twenty-nine years before the First Crusade, a specific band of monks from Calabria in southern Italy arrived in the vicinity of the Ardennes Forrest, part of Godfroi de Bouillon's domains. According to Gérard de Sède this band of monks was led by an individual called Ursus - a name the 'Prieuré documents' consistently associate with the Merovingian bloodline … [A]t Orval, not far from Stenay, where Dagobert II had been assassinated some five hundred years earlier … an abbey was established to house the monks … By 1108 they had mysteriously disappeared … Orval, by 1131, had become one of the fiefs owned by Saint Bernard … [p113, 122 HBHG]

During medieval times, the Knights Templar were involved in the financing and otherwise lending support to the building of over 1,000 churches and cathedrals throughout Europe, many in honor of the Black Virgin. Following the dissolution of the Templars in 1307, the Prieuré de Sion carried on quietly mainstreaming the Black Virgin, particularly in France. The astrological configuration of the French cathedrals has been noted: "In accordance with the Hermetic principle of 'As above, so below', the combined ground-plan of the Notre Dame cathedrals replicates the Virgo constellation … HBHG]

Virgo and the pattern of Notre Dames in France

The 'Notre Dame' cathedrals (3) … were mainly the work of the 'Children of Solomon' - a guild of masons instructed by St. Bernard's Cistercian Order." [pp 264-266 BHG]

The Black Virgin was, in reality, Virgo, the Great Mother Goddess known to the Egyptians as Isis, who was christened in Alexandria as Mary Magdalene. According to The Cult of the Black Virgin, the full name of the Prieuré is the Order of the Prieuré Notre Dame de Sion. Former Grand Master of the Prieuré, Pierre Plantard de Saint Clair, has identified Notre Dame as Our Lady of the Light, i.e. Lucifer, the Light-Bearer. (4)

1070 CE - Palestine - The Hospital of Saint John is founded in Jerusalem by Amalfi merchants. The origin of the Hospitallers was an 11th-century hospital in Jerusalem, host to the church of St. John the Baptist, founded by Italian merchants from Amalfi to care for sick pilgrims. After the crusaders' conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 CE, the hospital's superior, a monk named Gerard, intensified his work in Jerusalem and founded hostels in Provençal and Italian cities on the route to the Holy Land. On Feb. 15, 1113 CE, the hospital was taken under papal protection, a status confirmed by later popes. Raymond de Puy, who succeeded Gerard in 1120 CE, substituted the Augustinian rule for the Benedictine and took the title of master of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. Under Raymond the hospital was soon involved in responsibilities entirely transcending its original eleemosynary character. Grateful crusader knights healed of their wounds in the hospital bestowed on it portions of their estates, while others remained in the Holy Land as members of the hospital, which thus developed into a wealthy and powerful body, dedicated to combining the task of tending the sick and poor with waging war on Islam in the Levant.

1070 CE - France - A rabbinical, cabalistic and esoteric school, headed by Rashi (Rabbi Solomon Ben Isaac 1040 - 1105 CE) was begun in Troyes, Champagne. [p318+] On February 9, Hugues de Payen was born. [p483+]

1071 CE - Turkey - The Seliuqs defeat the Byzantine army, capture Jerusalem and establish a sultanate in central Anatolia.

Michael VII Ducas

1071 - 1078 CE - Turkey - Michael VII Ducas is appointed emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire by his uncle John Ducas.

1071 CE - Italy - The Viking Robert Guiscard took Bari, and by 1076 CE eliminated Greek (Byzantium) rule from southern Italy. His son Bohemond went on to attack the towns of Epirus and Thessaly of Greece.

1072 - 1092 CE - Iran - The Saljug dynasty, lead by Malik Shah, Sultan of Baghdad, who had taken possession of Antioch from Suleyman, father of Kilij Arslan, began in 1085 CE when Suleyman died.

The Seljuk Turks were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. The Seljuks migrated from the north into Persia, fighting and conquering various tribes on their Transoxiana.

The Seljuk Turks are regarded as the ancestors of the Western Turks, the present-day inhabitants of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan. The Seljuk Turks and their descendants, the Ottoman Turks, played a major role in medieval history by creating a barrier to Europe against the Mongol invaders from the East, defending the Islamic world against Crusaders from the West, and conquering the Byzantine Empire.

Under Alp Arslan's successor Malik Shah I and his vizier Nizam al-Mulk, the Seljuk state expanded in various directions so that it bordered China in the East and the Byzantine Empire in the West. When Malik Shah died in 1092 CE the empire split, as his brother and four sons quarrelled over the apportioning of the empire among themselves. In 1118 CE, the third son Ahmed Sanjar, unsatisfied by his portion of the inheritance, took over the empire. His brothers did not recognize his claim to the throne and Mahmud II proclaimed himself Sultan and established a capital in Baghdad. Ahmed Sanjar was captured and held captive by Turkish nomads from 1153 to 1156 CE, and died the following year.

Despite several attempts to reunite the Seljuks in the centuries following Malik Shah's death, the Crusades prevented them from regaining their former empire. For a brief period, Togrül III, was the Sultan of all Seljuk except for Anatolia. In 1194 CE, Togrül was defeated by Ala ad-Din Tekish, the Shah of Khwarezm, and the Seljuk finally collapsed. Of the former Great Seljuk Empire, only the Sultanate of Rüm in Anatolia remained. As the dynasty declined in the middle of the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Anatolia in the 1260s and divided it into small emirates called the Anatolian beyliks, which in turn were later conquered by the Ottomans.

1072 CE - Italy - The Normans conquer Sicily, Calabria and Napoli, and establish a kingdom over southern Italy. Under the Normans, the South of Italy became the most powerful medieval Italian realm, referred to by chroniclers simply as "Lo Regno," The Kingdom. Regalis is the Latin word for "regal," royal or king-like.

1072 CE - England - The Saxon clan of the north until this time had been attempting to stop the Viking Norman King William from retaining control of England.

St. Gregory VII

1073 - 1085 CE - Italy - Hildebrand of Moyenmoutier became Gregory VII and sent word to the young Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, 1056 - 1106 CE, begging for recognition. Others suggest he did not seek confirmation of the Emperor. His opponents complained that he removed the cardinals from the council of the Holy See. Gregory VII is known to have employed the Viking Robert Guiscard his 'vassal,' as the previous bishop of Rome called him. Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire is advised that Hildebrand is dangerous and bent on breaking princes once and for all, as he considered them all corrupt. Henry IV did not listen to his advisors. Gregory VII became the last bishop of Rome whose election had to be confirmed by the Emperor and he became the first bishop of Rome to canonize himself. He forbade Catholics to call anyone 'pope' except the bishop of Rome. The Christian Church of Milan, the see of St. Ambrose, regarded itself the equal of the bishopric of Rome.

1073 CE - France - Spain - Guy Godfrey, Duke of Aquitaine, invaded Spain on the pretext to bring Roman Christianity to the Moslem population.

1074 CE - Italy - A Roman synod ordered the disposition of all simoniacal priests. All married priests are forbidden to celebrate mass. These decrees provoked hostile reaction in England, France and Germany.

1075 CE - Italy - Pope Gregory VII demands that the German emperor Heinrich IV abandon the habit of "lay investiture" (the emperor appoints the bishops). Pope Gregory VII, whom Saint Peter Damian described as "a Holy Satan," is determined to declare unholy war on the Kings and Princes of Europe. Canon law at this time did not allow the church to interfere in the internal affairs of other metropolitans. His weapons would be forged documents to support his Dictatus, or list of twenty-seven theses of power as Peter's vicar. The historical forgeries are immediately inserted into Canon Law turning "today" into "always was and always will be." This is the beginning of Systematic Secular Religion.

Pope Gregory, following a Pagan tradition proclaimed:

No one can judge the Pope on earth.
The Roman church has never erred, nor can it err until the end of time.
The Pope alone can depose Bishops.
He alone is entitled to Imperial Insignia.
He can dethrone Emperors and Kings and absolve their subjects from allegiance.
All princes are obliged to kiss his feet.
His legates, even when not priests, have precedence over all Bishops.
A rightly elected Pope is, without question, a saint, made so by the merits of Peter.

Pope Gregory VII claimed to be enforcing the old law of the church but the authority of canons supports few of his axioms. He ordered his assistants to find or create justification to support his views. It is little wonder that for seven centuries the Greeks had called Rome the home of forgeries. The Papal Paper Revolution had begun in earnest. The Pope had in effect placed the Papacy above scriptures, Christ and God. St. Thomas Aquinas, 1225 - 1274 CE, would later write heretics should be executed on the same basis as forgers should. "You will be able to tell them by their fruits for a bad tree cannot bear good fruit." By this time Catholics lost their historic right to elect new popes. This right is restricted to cardinals. French and Germans are enraged and use their over-riding powers to overcome most of the rules. The pope's edict of interference in church appointments created a greater storm and brought him in collision with Henry IV. The decree is not immediately enforced to prevent another schism. Gregory VII began to scheme against the Kings and princes of Europe. The pope proclaimed as a matter of faith that disobedience to the pope is disobedience to God's will.

1075 - 1081 CE - Turkey - Cosmas I becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1076 - 1096 CE - Barcelona (Spain) - Barcelona was a county in the Spanish March, however, Ramón Berenguer II was an independent count of Barcelona.

1076 CE - Germany - Henry IV requested a German synod at Worms to depose the pope and demand that he abdicate. The Italian Lombard bishops joined the German bishops in withdrawing their obedience to the pope. A group of Italian Bishops held a council in Pavia and excommunicated Pope Gregory VII for separating husbands and wives, and for preferring licentiousness among the clergy to honorable marriage. They claimed that Pope Gregory VII is no longer pope but a false monk. The German clergy wanted to know when Pope Gregory VII had driven men out of the priesthood, where would he find the angels to replace them.

Pope Gregory VII appealed to all opposition parties throughout Europe to oppose Henry and the German princes. He excommunicated Henry and all bishops who opposed him. Next Pope Gregory VII turned to simony, the buying and selling of sacred things. Excommunication for this offense seemed excessive to the Cardinals, who knew that everything in the church from the Papacy down had its price. Pope Gregory VII held firm to excommunicate clerics who received a living from a layman, be he Duke or Prince. He forced all Bishops to take a personal oath of loyalty to him. Any Bishop could be dismissed if he conflicts with the Pope. The Archbishop of Bremen considered Gregory a dangerous man who wanted to suspend bishops without due process of law. The bishops lost all power and authority previously given to them by the Holy Spirit.

Pope Gregory VII had waited for his opportunity to test his newly proclaimed powers, when he accused King Henry IV, 1056 - 1106 CE, of the Holy Roman Empire, of interfering in the affairs of the church and of simony. King Henry IV called a council at Worms and declared the election void. The Pope responded by declaring, "On the part of God the omnipotent, I forbid Henry to govern the Kingdom of Italy and Germany. I absolve all his subjects from every oath they have taken or may take; and I excommunicate every person who shall serve him as King." Pope Gregory backed Rodolph, Duke of Swabia, as next in line to the throne. Henry crossed the Alps and is joined by a huge Lombard army who hoped he is on the way to put the Pope in his place, they are disappointed, and Henry only wanted compromise. The Pope humiliated Henry for four days with barbarous cruelty. Henry asked nothing except to have his censure lifted. Pope Gregory VII's own pompous arrogance would be his downfall but he placed the church on an irreversible course that would bring much bloodshed to Europe.

1076 CE - England - England introduced beheading but restricted it's use to those of noble birth convicted of treason.

1077 CE - Austria - Salzburg (the name means salt fortress) castle in Austria is built this year of wood, being named due to the salt mines nearby. Eventually it would be built of stone and contain 7,000 men that would protect the silver and gold mines also located nearby. This castle never fell to an invasion. The Salzach River slices through the town its water a curious milky green caused by runoff from the mineral rich mountains.

Nicephorus III Botaniates

1078 - 1081 CE - Turkey - Nicephorus III Botaniates, revolted against Michael VII, and became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. Other military generals, Nicephorus Bryennius and Nicephorus Basilacius, had revolted at the same time.

1078 CE - Italy - Pope Gregory VII proclaimed that his subjects are forbidden to deal with excommunicated Emperors and Kings, as they are only fit to be dethroned. He would depose the Greek Emperor as well as Boleslaus, the Polish King, forbidding Poland ever again to call itself a Kingdom. Jews are forced to wear a badge of shame. Jews are forbidden contact with Christians, barred from administration, deprived of lands, forbidden to own shops and herded into ghettos that are bolted at night. The Vatican would sow civil unrest, rebellions and civil wars. Millions would die because of the intrigue of Rome.

1080 CE - Italy - When King Henry IV returned from Italy, he declared war on Rodolph, Duke of Swabia, who had been set up by the Pope, causing Pope Gregory to impose censures all over again on King Henry. This renewal of the excommunication of Henry is regarded as an act of persecution and public opinion in Germany turned against the pope. King Henry IV called a council to depose Pope Gregory VII and chose Guibert of Ravenna as Pope Clement III. Pope Gregory VII prophesied King Henry IV (1056 - 1106 CE) would die within a year. Instead after a couple of resounding victories, Henry marched on Rome and put Pope Clement III (considered an anti-pope) on the throne. Pope Gregory VII fled, old, tired and abandoned by thirteen of his Cardinals, to Salerno in the Kingdom of Naples. He made little use of the College of Cardinals, so it is not surprising when they abandoned him. He excommunicated Henry the so-called King for the fourth time, so that even a pontiff with divine powers could not redeem him. The majority of the Italian populous however had turned against this arrogant pope. The pope had plans to lead a crusade to free the Byzantine from the Turks and restore the Eastern Church to Rome. He died a miserable old man in exile in 1085 CE in Norman hands at Salerno. Pope Clement III is considered the pope who created the College of Cardinals as a reward to those thirteen cardinals who abandoned Pope Gregory for his camp.

1080 - 1081 CE - Turkey - Nicephorus Melissenus becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1080 (1099?) CE - Palestine - The Order of St. John is founded in Jerusalem. [10$] [13$P27]

Alexius I Comnenus

1081 - 1118 CE - Turkey - Alexius I Comnenus becomes emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1081 - 1084 CE - Turkey - Eustratius Garidas becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1083 CE - Spain - Alfonso VI of Castilla defeats the Arabs at Toledo. El Cid led the Moslems (Moors) to victory over the Christian king of Aragon. [p141)]

1083 CE - Italy - Thirteen of the cardinals abandoned any cause in support of Pope Gregory VII. There is scarcely a king or prince with whom Gregory is on good terms. Gregory had even denounced Philip I of France as a tyrant who incited his people to evil by example of his actions and morals.

1084 CE - Italy - The exiled Pope Gregory VII, hoping to break a siege of Rome by Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, called upon the Norman Robert Guiscard for aid. The Norman army of thirty six thousand men, mainly Muslims recruited by the Norman, successfully broke the siege, but then proceeded to sack the city. The army set fires, massacred thousands and took thousands more as slaves. The people blamed their plight on the pope.

1084 - 1111 CE - Turkey - Nicholas III Grammaticus becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1085 CE - Italy - Heinrich IV invades Italy and drives Pope Gregory VII out of Rome, and the Pope dies in exile. Pope Gregory VII died a failure, but influenced the imposition of the Roman cultural pattern of papal monarchy on the Catholic Church. Historians have traced seventy-five bloody battles directly to Pope Gregory's feuding with the Emperor. Napoleon wrote his epitaph saying "If I were not me, I would like to be Gregory VII."

1086 CE - England - Twenty years after the arrival of the Viking Norman in England, only two of the greater landlords and two Bishops are Saxon. William the Conqueror gave the Saxon lands to his Norman nobles. Two hundred Normans replaced over four thousand Saxon landlords. He carefully gave half the farmland to the Norman nobles, a quarter to the Church and kept a fifth for himself, retaining the sheriff system to keep check on the nobles. The King owned all the land, but is held by others called vassals in return for service and goods. An economic census is conducted of all England to establish a base for taxation and is called the Domesday (Doomsday) Book by the people.

The Domesday Book records that Jews are living in Jewry, or separate quarters, in compliance with the mandate of Pope Gregory VII of 1078 CE.

William the Conqueror died and his son Robert acquired Normandy and his second son William II, known as Rufus (Latin for red) because of his red hair and face, acquired England.

Blessed Victor III

Blessed Urban II

1086 - 1087 CE - Italy - Under pressure of the Viking prince, The Reform Party of Rome elects Jordan of Capua, Victor III, alias Desiderius Monte Cassino, as pope. The people rioted and drove Pope Victor III from Rome and he retired to Monte Cassino laying aside the papal insignia.

1088 - 1099 CE - Italy - Urban II is elected bishop of Rome at Terracina south of Rome against the wishes of the Emperor and despite the firm entrenchment of Pope Victor III in Rome.

Urban II, from the French Prior of Cluny (Reformed Benedictines) was of the 'Eudes' family, not only the name of the King of the Franks, Eudes, who ruled 888 to 898 CE and considered one of the antecedent kings of the Capetian House of France, but also the name of the Royal Capetian line of Burgundy, great-grandson of Hugh Capet, Eudes I the Red of Burgundy who acceeded 1079, nine years before Urban (Eudes) became pope. And Eudes the Red acceeded in that specific year because his brother, Hugh I of Burgundy, had abdicated to become the Prior of Cluny! Both were sons of Henry of Burgundy who married Sibylle of Barcelona. Henry was son of Robert I of Burgundy, who was the son of Hugh Capet. Barcelona, home of their mother, was part of the Spanish March connected to Septimania and, here too, the Duke of Aquitaine in 1012 was Eudes of Aquitaine! And Aquitaine and Septimania are extremely significant.

"It happens that Septimania (Languedoc) is exactly where the Jesus-Magdalene heresy flourished, and where there was a large population of Cathar Jews who were given independent status by Pepin, Carolingian King. Thence their own kings ruled as: 'seed of the Royal House of David', each acknowledged as 'King of the Jews', most famous of whom was Guillem de Gellone, the Prince of Orange. Confusing this issue, these kings also claimed to be of Merovingian descent; but not confusing when one realizes that Jesus was of the House of David and Mary Magdalene, from the town Magdala, 4 miles from Tiberius, founded by Herod Antipas, who was an Edomite descendant of Esau with whom Benjaminites married. Additionally, Absolom, David's son, who pulled a coup d'etat on his own father in an attempt to take his throne, had a rebel following who would have joined the Benjaminite cause. Absalom died when his long hair got caught in branches in the forest during the coup. (2 Sam:18:9) And the Merovingians, first Dynasty of French kings, were the Long Haired Kings.

"The details of the separate kingdom of Septimania were erased from history books; but the descendant bloodlines were apparently the 'heretical Royal Bloodlines' as : Dukes of Aquitaine, Dukes of Lorraine, Dukes of Guise; Counts of Barcelona, Counts of Toulouse, Counts of Auvergne; Counts of Razes. [p368-371 HBHG]

It was a Duke of Aquitaine who founded Cluny. Thus, Septimania now becomes extremely important, for now Urban II, descendant of the Eudes of Septimania and Cluny Prior, is the pope who will call the first Crusades resulting in the crowning of a direct lineal descendant of Guillem de Gellone, named Godfroi de Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, as King of Jerusalem! Aquitaine is so-named on maps of Second Century Roman Empire and comprised then, the whole area from Languedoc, South France, to Poitou and Anjou. Septimania was the area that was later known as the Languedoc.

1090 - 1153 CE - France - Bernard, the founding abbot of Clairvaux Abbey in Burgundy, was one of the most commanding Church leaders in the first half of the twelfth century as well as one of the greatest spiritual masters of all times and the most powerful propagator of the Cistercian reform. He was born in Fontaines-les-Dijon in 1090 CE and entered the Abbey of Citeaux in 1112 CE, bringing thirty of his relatives with him, including five of his brothers – his youngest brother and his widowed father followed later. After receiving a monastic formation from St. Stephen Harding, he was sent in 1115 CE to begin a new monastery near Aube: Clairvaux, the Valley of Light. As a young abbot he published a series of sermons on the Annunciation. These marked him not only as a most gifted spiritual writer but also as the "cithara of Mary," especially noted for his development of Mary's mediatorial role.

Hasan ibn-al-Sabbah

1090 CE - Iraq - Afghanistan - While the methods and weapons used by such groups may be new, their spiritual heritage … stretches back at least to the days of the murderous Persian (Persia is now known as Iran) Hasan ibn-al-Sabbah (c. 1034 - 1124 CE). [Sayyidna Hasan bin Sabbah or Hasan ben-Shaybah or Hassan Ben Sabbat or] Al-Hasan b. Al-Sabbah, commonly known as Hasan-i-Sabbah, First Grand Master of the Order of Assassins (A) (B), … came from obscure origins. He was born of lower middle class parents at Rayy, an old city a few kilometers to the south of modern Teheran. Hassan Ben Sabbah was … a dedicated member of the Ishmaili sect, which venerated the Imams, religious leaders descended from Ali II, the Prophet Mohammad's son-in-law. The Ishmailis had broken away from the larger Muslim Shia sect owing to differences over the accession of an Imam.

From a high mountain fortress, ibn-al-Sabbah directed a ruthless campaign against the overlords of other sects in Persia, Iraq, and Syria. Northwest of Qazwin, atop the Elburz Mountains, on a lonely ridge 6,000 feet above the sea, … stood the castle of Alamut (eagle's nest). Commanding a royal view of the valley below, accessible only by a single, almost vertical pathway, the remote fortress was an ideal hideout and headquarters. In 1090 CE, Hasan seized the fortress of Alamut, and the castle henceforth received the name of the Abode of Fortune. The position of Alamut … caused its prince to receive the title of Sheikh al Jebal (i.e. Sheikh, or Prince of the Mountains); and the double sense of the word Sheikh, which means both prince and old man, has occasioned the historians of the Crusades, and the celebrated Marco Polo, to call him the "Old Man of the Mountain."

Alamut

His feared organization's sinister name came from its member's ritual use of the drug hashish, and the popular Arabic name for hashish smokers, [hashsäshïn, hashishin, hashishiyyin, ashishin, hashishyum, hashisyun, hashishim, hashishiyya, heyssessini, haisasins, hashisham, hashshishoun, haschishin, hashishinn, haschischin, hashschin, hashisheen, hasheesheen, hashashin, hashshishin, aschishin, assassis, accini, axasin, assacis or assassini] is the root of our word, assassin. The crusaders, soldier-Christians who battled the Muslims for control of the Holy Land, used the word assassin to mean political murder.

For the immediate attainment of their objects, the order was less in need of heads than arms; and did not employ pens, but daggers, whose points were everywhere, while their hilts were in the hand of the grand-master. With poison and dagger as their means of dealing death to carefully selected victims, the Assassins - the fedavi, [fedawis, fidais, fida'is, fedais, fedayeens, fedaree] or "devoted ones" - struck terror wherever they appeared. From 1090 to about 1256 CE, the Assassins … unsettled everyone who opposed them. Emirs, governors of cities, commanders of fortresses, and even religious dignitaries all took to wearing a coat of chain mail at all times.

Hassan Ben Sabbah conditioned and organized a band of fearless political killers such as had never been seen before. His method of indoctrination was unique. He constructed a secret garden and furnished it with all the delights promised in the Koran … to the faithful when they reached paradise. The chosen were drugged, one or two at a time, and taken to this garden by night. When they woke up in the morning they were surrounded by beautiful and scantily clad houris [in Muslim belief, women who live with the blessed in paradise] who would minister to their every need and desire. After being allowed to savor this false - but pleasant and sensual - paradise for a day or so, they were again drugged before being taken back to awaken in their own squalid hovel or cave dwelling. To them, it was as if it had been a vivid dream. Ben Sabbah then sent for them, told them Allah had given them a preview of paradise, and surprised them by telling them exactly what each had been up to while in the secret garden. So successful was he in this method of conditioning and indoctrination that it was said he once astounded a visiting emir whom he wanted to impress with his power by sending for one of his men and ordering him to kill himself - which he immediately did. When an Assassin was sent out by ibn-al-Sabbah to carry out some violent death, the Assassin was just as dedicated. So convinced were the Assassins that they would be rewarded in paradise that they never hesitated to fulfill their missions of murder, even though this often meant their victims' bodyguards would kill them immediately afterward.

Hasan and the grand masters who ruled the order after him wielded great political power until the coming of the Mongols. The Mongols, led by Hulagu Khan, destroyed the Nizari base in Alamut in 1256 CE, but the Nizari sect has survived to this day. Scattered in many countries of Asia, Africa and the West, the Ismailis currently acknowledge the Aga Khan as their 49th imam.

1090 CE - Italy - Henry IV's successful Italian campaign secured Rome for Pope Clement III and drove Pope Urban to seek refuge with the Viking (Norman) in southern Italy. Most Popes prior to Pope Urban II are content merely to instigate, encourage or bless war efforts as a noble Christian cause. Pope Urban would create a series of Holy Wars. Priests would tell the people that going to war is to serve the will of God.

1090 CE - Palestine - Sionis Prioratus, (the Prieuré de Sion) is founded in Jerusalem according to itself.   [p381+-]

1091 CE - Italy - The Normans defeat the Arabs and extend the Kingdom of Sicily over most of Italy.

1093 CE - Portugal - Alfonso VI of Castilla appoints Henri of Burgundy count of Portugal.

1093 CE - Italy - Pope Urban II with his Viking army decisively returned to Rome using bribery to secure his position.

El Cid

1094 CE - Spain - El Cid took the city of Valencia. [p141)]

1094 - 1104 CE - Aragon (Spain) - Pedro I becomes the king of Aragon.

1095 CE - Turkey - Pope Urban II, responding to an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios Komnenos, starts the first Crusade against the Muslims. Pope Urban II, at the Council of Clermont, urged Christians to take up the sword, and commanded the first of nine Crusades which spanned 177 years, not ending until 1272 CE. The first Holy War, 1095 - 1099 CE, progressed through Constantinople to Antioch. Crusaders slaughtered the Jewish communities along the Rhine Valley on their way to the Holy Land. Many of the crusaders are sent as a penance for atrocious offences such as rape and murder, and they eventually reverted to their unpleasant habits even when the war ended. The Roman Catholic Church, even to present times, refuses to proclaim war as intrinsically evil. It is noteworthy that the Moslems held Jerusalem since 638 CE and a large Christian population lived in the city, namely the Maronite, Melkite, Syrian and Armenian Christians.

Urban II introduced the callagium, a sex tax which allowed the clergy to keep mistresses, provided they paid an annual fee to the papacy. This had the immediate effect of reducing the use of concubines and hugely increasing clerical homosexuality.

William II of England only recognized Pope Urban II after significant concessions.

1096 CE - Palestine - Pope Urban II's armies captured Jerusalem from the Muslims after a month long siege. It is said, as the Crusaders rushed to pray at the tomb of Jesus, that they waded ankle deep through blood. The Crusaders slaughtered many of the Jewish and Muslim inhabitants. The Chassidim Jews of the Rhine Valley who survived the Massacre of the Pope Urban II crusade, fled to Poland, Lithuania, Russia and Agngray. The Franks remained in Jerusalem creating great baronies and fiefdoms. The Jerusalem Kingdoms stretched from Antioch to the Sinai Peninsula. The Crusaders didn't have enough armies to really secure the roadways through Syria and Palestine, so they created a number of forts along the way.

1096 - 1131 CE - Barcelona (Spain) - Barcelona was a country in the Spanish March, however, Ramón Berenguer III was an independent count of Barcelona.

1098 CE - Turkey - The alleged Holy Lance of the Passion is found by the Crusaders in Antiochia in the Church of St. Peter. [p55-] [p336)]

1098 CE - Italy - Pope Clement III is driven out of Rome by the Piericoni family. Pope Urban II and many others rejoiced at the recovery of the ancient Celtic Spear of Destiny (Spear of Longinus) from the Arabs. Many believe the spear mere possession carries the right to the throne. Some believe it is the same spear used to kill Christ and a relic, but its legend is Celtic in nature.

Crosier of Saint Robert of Molesme
Dijon - Musée des Beaux-Arts

1098 CE - France - In March, a small group of reformist monks from the Clunaic Monastery of Molesme led by their abbot Robert (1028 - 1111 CE), took over some unattractive swamp land they had been given in a forest at Citeaux (Cistercium in Latin) in Burgundy, intent on finally setting up a monastic house true to real Benedictine ideals. The Cistercian order had been born. The Monastery of Citeaux was then built, with the Holy Cistercian Order being founded in this remote wilderness of France. The new monastery was founded to restore the purity of the Rule of St. Benedict.

The serpent-headed crosier is an ancient pagan symbol of power, still prevalently used in the Catholic church today.

1099 CE - Palestine - The Christian knights swept through the Middle East brutally putting the Islamic peoples and the Muslim to the sword. The Roman Catholics captured Jerusalem and massacred 70,000 Muslims over three days. There were so many bodies that an epidemic broke out. They burned Jews alive in their synagogue. Europe is taught to regard Jews and Muslims as the enemies of God. The also held a deep antagonism toward Greek Orthodox Christians of Byzantium who they believed made them feel barbarous and inferior. Both along the route and in Jerusalem, the slaughter of Jews and Muslims was horrifying. Cities were devastated, women were raped, and both adults and children were killed without mercy. The captured lands were divided into new principalities.

The Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon reached the Holy Land and took Jerusalem in a bloodbath that spared no one. Their first contact with the Assassins seems to have been at Apamea, where Syrian Assassins had recently burrowed under the wall and slain the ruler of the city and his household. The Regent of Antioch, Tancred, took the town, held some of the Assassins for ransom, and turned their leader over to the ruler's surviving sons, who tortured him to death. Yet this intervention by the Christians does not seem to have roused the ire of the Assassins, who remained much more concerned with their Islamic enemies.

In fact, because of the enemies they had in common with the Crusaders, they took refuge among them, while still trying to take mountain strongholds in Syria as a base for further operations. One Assassin leader joined Raymond of Antioch, against Nuraddin, the lord of Aleppo, and fell with him in battle. Yet at other times they fought the Westerners, even murdering Count Raymond II of Tripoli. For this the Crusaders made war on the Assassins and even imposed tribute.

The pretext for the First Crusade - recovery of the Temple treasures and sacred sites - concealed the real motive of the Merovingians, which was to rebuild the ancient Temple of Solomon.

"In 1118, nine Knights Crusaders in the East, among whom were Geoffroi de Saint-Omer and Hugues de Payens, consecrated themselves to religion, and took an oath between the hands of the Patriarch of Constantinople, a See always secretly or openly hostile to that of Rome from the time of Photius. The avowed objective of the Templars was to protect the Christians who came to visit the Holy Places: their secret object was the re-building of the Temple of Solomon on the model prophesied by Ezekiel.

      Morals and Dogma, Chap. XXX, "Knight Kadosh," Albert Pike, 1871.

A secondary objective of the Knights Templar may have been to deposit the Merovingian "Holy Grail" cache at Jerusalem. These artifacts will probably be "discovered" in the future as "proof" of Merovingian claims of their "divine" blood. In The Second Messiah, authors Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas identify the Merovingian families which conspired with the Merovingian pope – truly a Jewish fifth column within the Catholic Church – to recapture the Holy Land. (5) An additional conjecture -

"The First Crusade could then conceivably have been an attempt to restore an heir of the Davidic bloodline to the throne of Jerusalem in the person of Godfroi of Bouillon (also known as Godfroi of Lorraine), who was, according to legend, of Merovingian lineage … This secret cabal called the Priory of Sion, was reputed to have been formed by Godfroi of Lorraine to protect the interests of the bloodline." [ALA]

Paschal II

1099 - 1118 CE - Italy - Paschal II is elected pope, but considered abdication in 1111 CE. He endorsed the successful Middle East war (Crusades). In 1099 CE, the Merovingian Jews in collusion with Pope Urban II, also a Merovingian, launched the First Crusade. Urban II was not the first Merovingian pope, but the 6th in a succession of French Merovingian popes beginning in 999 CE. [MJ]

In a council at the Lateran, he renewed the excommunication for Henry IV, and Clement III, who, taking advantage of the empty chair, was returned to Rome. He had to face Henry V, who meanwhile had dethroned his father Henry IV. The point of contention was always the same: which of the two powers had the supremacy over the other? During his pontificate various knightly orders were created: the Templars, the Teutonic Knights, the Knights Hospitallers.

1099 CE - Palestine - Godfroy founded the Order of Sion. [p280+] Sionis Prioratus, the Prieuré de Sion, is founded in Jerusalem. [p292+-]


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