The Curse of the Corporation

Part VII – 0 CE to 226 CE


1 CE - Palestine - Some of the various future Christian sects and cults began counting time from this date having erroneously assumed it is the birth date of Jesus the Christ, alias Joshua the Messiah (6 BCE - 33 CE). It is also noteworthy to remind ourselves that during this period of the Dead Sea Scrolls it is considered normal to rewrite biblical stories by expanding, combining or revising them with new or different details in accordance with the scribes understanding and beliefs. As an example the current book of Jeremiah contains 52 chapters whereas the book Jeremiah of the Essenes only contains 17 chapters. The Book of Esther is completely excluded from the Essenes Sect writings. It is also noteworthy that 127 of the Dead Sea Scrolls apply to generally accepted Biblical text and that the actual writing of the Bible spans more than 1,000 years. At this time the common language of the various Judaism sects in Palestine is Arabic and their writings is Syro-Chaldaic, but most people also understand the Greek language. Hebrew is very rare, almost extinct, at this time. Many historians discount the writings of this period based on their personal set of beliefs and values. The Essenes reference to the "teacher of Righteousness" is speculated to be Jesus, John the Baptist, the Apostles John or James, or maybe one of the Maccabean Kings of Judea.

Jerusalem, Damascus and the Sinai are presently under the control of the Nabatean Empire (Saudi Arabia) who had their capital at Petra just south of Jerusalem.

Flavious Josephus, alias Joseph Ben Matthias (37 - 100 CE), the Jewish historian, records that the Essene Judaism sect study the writings of the ancients and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body. The Essene Judaism scribes wrote in Aramaic, Greek and Hebrew. Hebrew is often used for writings attributed to the mythical Moses and Aramaic is considered the language of the Angels and is often used to record testaments, incantations and the like. The Essene Judaism sect is a Messianic sect and some suggest they retreated into the wilderness (Qumran) to make straight the Way in the Wilderness for God. They expected to be visited by the Heavenly Host (spirits) for the War against all evil on this earth. Other accounts suggest that every city and town contains large numbers of the Essene Judaism Sect. Philo recorded the Essenes avoided all cities on account of the habitual lawlessness of those who inhabit them. The Essenes have nothing to do with war, commerce, or slavery that last evil being against "the ordinances of nature." Philo is not entirely correct as the Essenes Judaism sect include some Zealots who readily engage in war. There are also some that live in cities and engage in commerce. Both Philo and Josephus agree there are some 4,000 followers of the Essene way.

1 CE - Japan - A Caucasian race called the Ainu occupied Japan. Some believe they are the original people of China.

2 CE - Greece - During the time of Christ, Apollonius came to be the best known healer, prophet and religious authority in the known world. He was born in 2 CE, and died approximately 98 or 99 CE, a Cappadocian Greek. His mother had been visited by the god Proteus, who told her that she would bear his incarnation. Born to a wealthy family, he recieved the best education. He learned medicine at the School of Æsculapius, philosophy at the School of Pythagoris. After graduation, he traveled the Mediterranian as a gymnosoph (a naked philosopher), healing the sick and preaching the gospel of Pythagoris. He entered the Temple of Apollo Daphne at Antioch and learned the mysteries of their priesthood.

Apollonius of Tyana

Apollonius was devoted to discovering and understanding all of the secret doctrines of all of the world's religions. To this end, he made two seperate trips to India, from which he brought back the teachings of Krishna (born 3333 BCE, regarded as an incarnation of Vishnu). Krishna, to the Greeks, was known as "Christos." It was Apollonius' writings about Krishna, that Bishop Marcian discovered in Asia Minor a century later and translated from Samaritan into Greek and Latin, to produce the first compiled "Christian" Bible.

Philostratus told of when Apollonius was at Ephesus, he sought admission to the mysteries of the Ephesian goddess, which he was refused, and his life threatened by the priests. He then prophesied, before fleeing, that a fearful pestilence would come over Ephesus and that they would be glad for his healing powers. The pestilence came and Apollonius was sent for, whereupon he banished the pestilence and healed the sick. He again demanded entry into the mysteries of the goddess and this time was welcomed by the priests.

Apollonius became a major influence, leading pagans to abandon animal sacrifice. Wherever he traveled, he recieved invitations to partake of an animal sacrifice to this or that god or goddess. He politely pulled out some frankincense and burned it instead, insisting it to be the proper sacrifice. He became such an expert that he could often defend his preference of sacrifice upon the teachings of the local religion.

Apollonius had become famous by prophesying on the fate of emperors from Nero to Nerva. Most were murdered. When Apollonius predicted the fate of Domitian in the presence of an informer, that Domitian would be assassinated, and Nerva would succeed him, both were cast in prison. When called to face Domitian, he conducted himself with disturbing self possession. "Prince," he said, "what support shall I ask for in my defense? I shall invoke the memory of your father Vespasian, who visited me in Egypt before he became emperor. It was I who prophesied to him his future greatness; you are therefore under natural obligation to me, following him to the throne. I used no enchantments to entice him to attempt the conquest of the empire; I never flattered myself in his presence …" "Give ear no longer, O prince, to vile spies who accuse me of conspiring against you, with or without Nerva. Nerva is a wise man. If it is true that I have innocently talked of destiny, if I have cited, which I may well have done, one or two princes as my examples, I said that the divine will is irresistible … If that is conspiricy, examine yourself the fates of Preneste and you will be guilty of conspiring against yourself! But it would be better, prince, if you spent your time gaining the favor of heaven by showing clemency and justice; for each head you cut off, each patrimony you confiscate, each exile to whom you become an enemy adds a formidable risk to your fate. Condemn me now if it is your caprice, but know that my destiny is not made to perish in your hands." Domitian was frozen by Apollonius' language. The accounts conflict on whether Apollonius vanished in mid-air or slowly left the Pretorium, but leave he did, unhindered. Domitian did consult the fates and shaken by what he heard, called the astrologer Ascletarion who gave him the same answers. "And you," asked the emperor, "Do you know how your end shall come?" "I shall be eaten by dogs." replyed Ascletarion. "To prove to you the foolishness of your predictions, I shall have your head cut off and your body burned to ashes and thrown into the Tiber." said Domitian, who had the order carried out immediately, but when the flames reached the body, a rain-storm came on suddenly which put out the fire. The executioners took refuge from the storm. When they returned to finish the job, the body was being consumed by a pack of wild dogs. Domitian, himself, soon had his throat cut by his wife's servants and was succeeded by Nerva. Apollonius was now in Ephesus, teaching, when he fell into a swoon and cried out: "Strike, strike, the gods command it!" When he awoke, he declared that the tyrant was dead. It was at that very hour that Domitian was slain.

Though literate, nothing written by Apollonius, himself, has passed down to us, as having been written by Apollonius (see "A Short History of Gnosticism"). Fortunately, Apollonius' longest standing disciple, Damis, kept detailed records. These had been edited into a biography entitled: "The Life of Apollonius of Tyana" by Philostratus (which survived) along with a few assorted legends. If, in fact, as Hierocles claimed, it was Apollonius' library that was plagerized to produce the New Testament, then Apollonius must have been the basis for the character of Paul of Tarsus. Paul, like Apollonius, was not married, something most anomolous for a Hebrew Rabbi. Paul also had an intimacy with the Christ's teachings that for having met Christ only once, was most extraordinary, and he often wrote in his epistles as if those teachings were his own, not saying whose they were. Both had the benefit of being Roman citizens. Apollonius' passion for learning the secrets of every religion he encountered occasioned to get him into trouble. He was reputed to have forced his way into the Holy of Holies, by feats of magick, and got jailed for it. The Pharasees wanted him killed, but to his Roman jailers, this was not a killing offense, but neither could they release him. They sought to flog him, but Apollonius stood on his Roman citizenship and the jailers backed down. Eventually, he was transferred out. He was also reported to have been imprisoned in Damascus, because of similar efforts. These jailers treated him well, because they knew of him by reputation and respected him, but could not release him without inciting a mob to riot. After a time, Apollonius was smuggled out of a window and into a wicker basket, similar to a story told of Paul (2 Co. 11:33). If Paul were not Apollonius, then he should be exceedingly suspect for his apparent hatred of Jews in his claim that they murdered the Christ –

For ye, brethren, became imitators of the churches of God which are in Judaea in Christ Jesus: for ye also suffered the same things of your own countrymen, even as they did of the Jews; who both killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets, and drove out us, and pleased not God, and are contrary to all men; 1 Thes. 2:14-15

Other comparisons to Christ and the origins of Christianity include the following –

Buddha

Although most people think of Buddha as being one person who lived around 500 BCE, the character commonly portrayed as Buddha can also be demonstrated to be a compilation of godmen, legends and sayings of various holy men both preceding and succeeding the period attributed to the Buddha.

The Buddha character has the following in common with the Christ figure:

Horus of Egypt

The stories of Jesus and Horus are very similar, with Horus even contributing the name of Jesus Christ. Horus and his once-and-future Father, Osiris, are frequently interchangeable in the mythos ("I and my Father are one"). The legends of Horus go back thousands of years, and he shares the following in common with Jesus:

In fact, in the catacombs at Rome are pictures of the baby Horus being held by the virgin mother Isis - the original "Madonna and Child" - and the Vatican itself is built upon the papacy of Mithra, who shares many qualities with Jesus and who existed as a deity long before the Jesus character was formalized. The Christian hierarchy is nearly identical to the Mithraic version it replaced. Virtually all of the elements of the Catholic ritual, from miter to wafer to water to altar to doxology, are directly taken from earlier pagan mystery religions.

Mithra, Sungod of Persia

The story of Mithra precedes the Christian fable by at least 600 years. According to Wheless, the cult of Mithra was, shortly before the Christian era, "the most popular and widely spread 'Pagan' religion of the times." Mithra has the following in common with the Christ character –

Krishna of India

The similarities between the Christian character and the Indian messiah are many. Indeed, Massey finds over 100 similarities between the Hindu and Christian saviors, and Graves, who includes the various noncanonical gospels in his analysis, lists over 300 likenesses. It should be noted that a common earlier English spelling of Krishna was "Christna," which reveals its relation to '"Christ." It should also be noted that, like the Jewish godman, many people have believed in a historical, carnalized Krishna.

Prometheus of Greece

The Greek god Prometheus has been claimed to have come from Egypt, but his drama took place in the Caucasus mountains. Prometheus shares a number of striking similarities with the Christ character.

3 CE - Palestine - Evidence suggests that the Star of Bethlehem may have been a conjunction of Venus and Jupiter in the constellation Leo on August 12, 3 BCE.

4 - 7 CE - Persia (Iran) - Orodes III rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

4 CE - Palestine - The death of Herod occurs. His Jewish kingdom was divided into three parts after his death, with the largest portion, Judea, becoming a Roman province in 4 CE - after a period of anarchy which saw the Jews petition Rome for inclusion as a province into the Empire.

4 - 39 CE - Palestine - Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea. He was responsible for the death of John the Baptist, and Pontius Pilate later sent Jesus to him for questioning. [#]

5 CE - Italy - Lombard tribes that have established themselves on the lower Elbe River are defeated by Roman legions.

7 - 12 CE - Persia (Iran) - Vonones I rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

Battle of the Teutoberg Forest

Arminius

9 CE - Germany - In the last two decades of the 1st centure BCE, the frontier of the Roman empire in northern Europe extended eastward from the Rhine river - the boundary of Roman Gaul - to the Elbe river in eastern Germany. The conquest of the fierce Germanic tribes was far from complete, however, and there were sporadic revolts in the first decade of the new century. In the summer of 9 CE, the Roman general Pugblius Quinctilius Varus was conducting operations in central Germany, east of the Wester River, with an army of three legions - the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth - accompanied by German auxiliaries. The commander of auxiliaries from the Cherusci tribe was a prince called Hermann, known to the Romans as Arminius, who had served the Romans for some years, winning their trust. When Varus heard rumors that Arminius planned to lead a rebellion, he refused to believe them.

In the late summer, the Roman army headed back toward its winter quarters, encumbered by a long train of baggage and camp followers, including many of the soldiers's families. Arminius and his auxiliaries soon abandoned them, proving that the rumors were well founded. Without German scouts to guide them or warn of ambush, the Romans entered the sinister, marshy Teutoberg forest. Arminius's warriors harassed the Roman column mercilessly over a period of days, taking a steady toll with hit-and-run attacks. Finally the weakened army was completely overrun. Most of the Roman soldiers and their families were killed, and Varus committed suicide. According to the Roman historian Tacitus, Roman soldiers coming upon the site of the massacre four years later found "whitening bones … broken weapons and bits of horses, while the skulls of men were nailed to tree trunks."

Statue of Hermann at the Battleground of Teutoberg Vald

News of the disaster shocked the elderly Emperor Augustus, who reportedly wandered around his palace shouting, "Varus, give me back my legions!" [Grant] Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (43 BCE - 14 CE) called off the offensive against the Marcomanni people north of Italy, and the Rhine and Danube Rivers marked the northern boundary of the Roman Empire in Europe.

9 CE - China - Hsin dynasty emperor Wong Mong grants manumission to China's slaves. Wong Mong nationalizes Chinese land, dividing the country's large estates and establishing state granaries.

11 - 38 CE - Persia (Iran) - Artabanus III rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

12 - 15 CE - Palestine - Annius Rufus is appointed Prefect of Judaea.

14 CE - Italy - Gaius Augustus Octavian Caesar (31 BCE - 14 CE) reduced the number of Roman legions from 70 to 27-28 (300,000 men) by the time of his death this year. He died at Nola on August 19 at the age of 76 after a 41-year reign.

Tiberius

14 - 37 CE - Italy - Augustus is succeeded despite legal obstacles to dynastic succession by his stepson Tiberius Claudius Nero, 55, who will rule until 37 CE as the emperor Tiberius. Son of the late emperor's widow Livia by her first marriage, he will carry on the imperial regime inaugurated by Augustus in 27 BCE. He is said to have a rigid morality and his reign is plagued with internal revolts.

14 - 62 CE - Palestine - Herod Antipas I (4 BCE - 39 CE), was the son of Herod the Great and the Samaritan Malthace. Antipas, being the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa, resided in his city of Sepphoris that he restored after the devastation of the rebellion at the death of his father Herod the Great. After the death of Augustus this same year, during the reign of Tiberius the Emperor, Herod began to build a new capital on the Western shore of the Sea of Galilee that he called Tiberias. These cities only twenty miles apart would put serious economic strain on Lower Galilee agriculture.

Salome was the daughter of Herodias and Philip the tetrach. Salome was only a teen when her mother Herodias left her husband Philip to marry Herod Antipas, the ruler of Galilee and Philip's brother. This infuriated the Jews. John the Baptist had condemned the marriage because under Jewish law, a man could not marry his brother's wife while he lived. Such a marriage was also condemned since Salome had been born of Philip. It landed John in prison.

Herod had a birthday supper and invited all his lords, high captains and rulers of Galilee. Salome danced before Herod and the sensuality pleased Herod and those that were with him. The king said unto her, "Ask of me whatsoever you will and I will give it to you … unto half my kingdom." Asking her mother first, the one who danced for Herod Antipas hurried back to the king and asked for the head of John the Baptist on a platter in revenge for the embarrassment that John had caused.

History loses sight of Herodias' daughter Salome in the court of her second husband Aristobulus. There is a tradition by Nicephorus that she died by passing over a frozen lake, the ice broke and she fell up to the neck in water. Salome's head was parted from her body by the violence of the ice fragments shaken by the water and her own fall. So she perished in the same way as she had killed the man who came in the spirit of Elijah.

15 CE - Palestine - Valerius Gratus (15 CE -26 CE) is appointed Prefect of Judaea. Ismael's son Fabus is the High Priest of Jerusalem.

16 CE - Germany - Tiberius' son Drusus, 31, defeats Arminius, breaks up his Germanic kingdom, recovers the eagles of the legions lost at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest seven years previously, and avenges the defeat of Varus.

15 - 59 CE - Italy - Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus and mother of Nero, is born. [#]

16 - 17 CE - Palestine - Eleazar of the House of Annas of the Sadducee Sect is appointed the High Priest of Jerusalem. Nationalistic (Zealot) Hebrews at this time consider the House of Annas (Anas) as being in League with the Romans.

18 CE - Palestine - Herod Antipas I (4 BCE - 39 CE), completed his capital city of Tiberias, Galilee. The peasants considered the new settlers a promiscuous rabble. Herod built them houses and new gifts of land likely at the expense of the local people.

20 CE - Armenia - Rome conquered the Armenian Empire and saw that the Parthian Empire (Iraq & Iran) had no power to sustain an offensive but Rome chose to consolidate power rather than invade.

20 - 30 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Shorkaror ruled Nubia.

22 CE - Palestine - 'The Lost Years of Jesus' (about 6 BCE - 24 CE) are shrouded in mystery leading to five hypotheses.

Renaissance statue of Pliny the Elder

23 - 79 CE - Italy - Gaius Plinius Secundus, the man known as Pliny the Elder, was born in Como, Italy, in 23 CE. By the time he died 56 years later, he had been a cavalry officer, an adviser to emperors and the author of at least seventy five books, not to mention another one hundred and sixty volumes of unpublished notebooks. He is remembered today for just one of those works, his 37-volume Natural History, in which he planned to "set forth in detail all the contents of the entire world."

It is a wonderful melange of the real and the fantastic, the never was and the never could be. He wrote of dog-headed people who communicated by barking, and people with no heads at all, their eyes in their shoulders. He wrote of snakes that launch themselves skyward to catch high-flying birds, and of the "basilisk serpent" of Africa, which kills bushes on contact, bursts rocks with its breath and is so venomous that when one was killed by a man on horseback, "the infection rising through the spear killed not only the rider but also the horse."

23 CE - Italy - Drusus, son of the emperor Tiberius, is poisoned by Lucius Aelius Sejanus, the ambitious equestrian prefect of the guard, who has designs on the imperial throne and begins an 8-year domination of the emperor.

23 CE - China - China's emperor Wong Mong is killed in a revolt after a 14-year reign in which he has attempted to curb usury and advance the welfare of the masses.

25 - 220 CE - China - The Eastern Han Dynasty began incorporating central Asia (Sinking) and much of what is now Russian central Asia as far west as the Caspian Sea.

25 CE - Italy - Sejanus persuades the emperor Tiberius to retire from the hostile political climate of Rome and settle on the island of Caprae (Capri) in the Bay of Naples.

26 - 36 CE - Palestine - Caesar Tiberius Claudius Nero's son Julia appointed Pontius Pilate (26 CE - 36 CE) as Prefect of the Roman Province of Judaea. Flavius Josephus (37 CE - 100 CE) recorded a civil disturbance during Pontius Pilate's rule as Prefect of Judaea, Palestine. The major issue in Jerusalem is the introduction of standards bearing the image or medallion of the Roman Emperor. The Jews considered them as graven images that trampled on their laws. Pilate is the person who supposedly condemned Jesus to death by crucifixion. [#]

27 CE - Palestine - Herod Antipas (4 BCE - 39 CE) tetrarch Galilee and Peresa had married the daughter of King Aretas of Arabia, Petrea, and had lived with her a great while. Antipas fell in love with Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus, his brother and wife of his half-brother Herod Philip (4 BCE - 34 CE). In order to marry Herodias, he must divorce the daughter of Aretas. This led to war between King Aretas and Herod. Herod's army is destroyed.

28 CE - Palestine - John the Baptist preached about repentance in preparation of the coming of the Messiah. [#]

30 CE - Palestine - John the Baptist is executed. [#]

30 - 40 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Pisakar ruled Nubia.

31 CE - Italy - Lucius Aelius Sejanus is executed by order of the emperor Tiberius, who has discovered the intrigues of his former favorite.

St. Peter, 32 - 67 CE
St. Linus, 67 - 76 CE

St. Anencletus, 76 - 88 CE
St. Clement, 88 - 97 CE

32 - 97 CE - Italy - The actual order of the first three so-called bishops of Rome is a greatly disputed matter. The oldest tradition is that given by Irenæus (Adv. Hær. III. 3. 3) and followed here by Eusebius, according to which the order was Linus, Anencletus, Clement - all of whom were Jews. Hippolytus gives a different order, in which he is followed by many Fathers; and in addition to these two chief arrangements all possible combinations of the three names, and all sorts of theories to account for the difficulties and to reconcile the discrepancies in the earlier lists, have been proposed. In the second chapter of the so-called Epistle of Clement to James (a part of the Pseudo-Clementine Literature prefixed to the Homilies) it is said that Clement was ordained by Peter, and Salmon thinks that this caused Hippolytus to change the order, putting Clement first. Gieseler (Eccles. Hist., Eng. Trans., I. p. 107, note 10) explains the disagreements in the various traditions by supposing that the three were presbyters together at Rome, and that later, in the endeavor to make out a complete list of bishops, they were each successively elevated by tradition to the episcopal chair. It is at least certain that Rome at that early date had no monarchical bishop, and therefore the question as to the order of these first three so-called bishops is not a question as to a fact, but simply as to which is the oldest of various unfounded traditions.

The Roman Church gives the following order: Linus, Clement, Cletus, Anacletus, following Hippolytus in making Cletus and Anacletus out of the single Anencletus of the original tradition. The apocryphal martyrdoms of Peter and Paul are falsely ascribed to Linus (see Tischendorf, Acta Apost. Apocr. p. xix. sq.). Eusebius says that Linus was bishop for twelve years. In his Chron. (Armen.) he says fourteen years, while Jerome says eleven. These dates are about as reliable as the episcopal succession itself. There is no trustworthy information as to the personal character and history of Linus.

32 - 38 CE - Byzantium (Turkey) - St. Andrew the Apostle becomes Bishop of Byzantium. Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, "manly"), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter.

The Crucifixion of St. Andrew

According to Christian tradition, Andrew was born at Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee (John 1:44). Since he was a Jew, Andreas was almost certainly not his given name, but no Hebrew or Aramaic name is recorded for him. He had been a disciple of John the Baptist (John 1:37-40) and was one of the first to follow Jesus. He lived at Capernaum (Mark 1:29). In the gospels he is referred to as being present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more closely attached to Jesus (Mark 13:3; John 6:8, 12:22); in Acts there is only a bare mention of him (1:13).

Eusebius quotes Origen as saying Andrew preached in Asia Minor and in Scythia, along the Black Sea as far as the Volga. Hence he became a patron saint of Romania and Russia. Traditionally, he was the first bishop of Byzantium, a position which would later become Patriarch of Constantinople.

The Saltire (or "St. Andrew's Cross") is the national flag of Scotland.

He is said to have suffered crucifixion at Patras (Patrae) in Achaea, on a cross of the form called Crux decussata (X-shaped cross) and commonly known as "St. Andrew's cross." St. Andrew is the patron of Patras. According to tradition his relics were removed from Patras to Constantinople, and thence to St. Andrews. Local legends say that the relics were sold to the Romans by the local priests in exchange of the Romans constructing a water reservoir for the city. In recent years, the relics were kept in the Vatican City, but were sent back to Patras by decision of the Pope Paul VI in 1964 CE. The relics, which consist of the small finger and part of the top of the cranium of St Andrew, are since kept in the Church of St. Andrew at Patras in a special tomb, and are reverenced in a special ceremony every November 30.

32 - 38 CE - Egypt - A. Avillius Flaccus becomes the Roman Governor of Egypt.

33 CE - Palestine - Jesus was not a new "God," but a "new version" of God, built from ancient Aryan modes of worship, found in the Indian Vedas and Egyptian Book of the Dead. Jesus is not believed to be an historical character as the great historians of the first two centuries do not mention him.

"The world has been for a long time engaged in writing lives of Jesus. In the fourth gospel it is said: 'There are also many other things that Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen.' The library of such books has grown since then. But when we come to examine them, one startling fact confronts us: all of these books relate to a personage concerning whom there does not exist a single scrap of contemporary information – not one! By accepted tradition he was born in the reign of Augustus, the great literary age of the nation of which he was a subject. In the Augustan age historians flourished; poets, orators, critics and travelers abounded. Yet not one mentions the name of Jesus Christ, much less any incident in his life."

      Theosophy, Vol. 24, No. 9, July, 1936, Pages 385-395, Number 4 of a 29-part series, quoting Moncure D. Conway in his book Modern Thought.

In contrast to Jesus, Osiris was unique among the gods of Egypt in that the Egyptians believed that he had once been an ancient, human ruler of predynastic Egypt who had died and had become the ruler of the dead in the afterlife. Grand Festivals were held for this reason. the Christian "Easter" was a continuation of the Egyptian fertility god Min. Moreover, it was believed that he would be resurrected and return again at the end of days to rule the world.

"In the first of these [intercalary] days Osiris was born, and at the hour of his birth a voice issued forth saying, "The Lord of All advances to the light." … Zeus bade [Pamyles] proclaim with a loud voice that a mighty and beneficent king, Osiris, had been born, for which Cronus entrusted him the child Osiris, which he [Zeus] brought up."

     Isis and Osiris, Plutarch, 355.

Later in the XVIIIth, or early in the XIXth dynasty, we find Osiris called "the king of eternity, the lord of everlastingness, who traverseth millions of years in the duration of his life, the firstborn son of the womb of Nut, begotten of Seb, the prince of gods and men, the god of gods, the king of kings, the lord of lords, the prince of princes, the governor of the world, from the womb of Nut, whose existence is for everlasting, Unnefer of many forms and of many attributes, Tmu in Annu, the lord of Akert, the only one, the lord of the land on each side of the celestial Nile."

     The Egyptian Book of the Dead, E. A. Wallis Budge, Chapter 4, p. liii, 1895.

Osiris traveled the world doing good deeds –

" … he [Osiris] traveled over the whole Earth civilizing it, without the slightest need of arms, but most of the peoples he won over to his way by the charm of his persuasive discourse."

     Isis and Osiris, Plutarch, 356.

The details of Osiris' myth are complicated, but the core of the myth is familiar: the God is killed and (eventually) resurrected, after which he becomes immortal and goes into the beyond to be the God of the dead.

The Discovery of Osiris [Inventio Osiridis] was the great autumn festival of the religion. It celebrated the death of the God on October 28th, and His resurrection on November 3rd.

On the first day of the festival the faithful, dressed in black, chanted laments, beat their breasts and cried out with grief as they joined Isis (the wife of Osiris) in mourning the death of the God.

A ritual search for the Osiris' body mimicked Isis' search for Him. The body – a disassembled idol – was found and reassembled, as Osiris' dismembered body had been. Then, on November 3d, the faithful joined a joyous procession through the streets to celebrate the Hilaria – the dead God had been reborn.

"A great shout arises from the company for joy that Osiris is found."

     Isis and Osiris, Plutarch, 366.

The Mysteries of Isis and Osiris

Osiris wasn't just worshiped in public temple-rites, he was also the godman of a Mystery Religion. Plutarch describes what the mystery ceremonies celebrated: the death and resurrection of Osiris!

" … the rites celebrated by night agree with the accounts of the dismemberment of Osiris and his revivification and regenesis."

     Isis and Osiris, Plutarch, 364.

Judgment before Osiris

Osiris saves

Osiris' followers knew their fate after death depended on the morality of the life they lead before death. The ancient Book of the Dead pictures resurrected believers standing the presence of Osiris as their judge. If they could recite a list of their good deeds in life, Osiris rewarded them with eternal life.

When initiates into the mysteries of Isis and Osiris died, their souls traveled to Heaven and Osiris became their king.

"But He Himself is far removed from the earth, uncontaminated and unpolluted and pure … but for the souls of men [on earth] … there is no association with this god except. a dim vision of his presence … But when these souls are set free and migrate into the realm of the invisible and the unseen, [i.e. when people die] the dispassionate and the pure, then this god becomes their leader and king … "

     Isis and Osiris, Plutarch, 382-383.

And, quoting Theopompus –

" … finally Hades shall pass away; then shall the people be happy, and neither shall they need to have food nor shall they cast any shadow."

     Isis and Osiris, Plutarch, 370.

And it wasn't just Plutarch who wrote about salvation through Isis and Osiris.

"The keys of hell and the guarantee of salvation were in the hands of the goddess, and the initiation ceremony itself a kind of voluntary death and salvation through divine grace."

     Metamorphosis, Apuleius, Book 11, 21.

And, "Be of good cheer, O initiates, for the god is saved, and we shall have salvation for our woes."

     The Error of Pagan Religions, Firmicus Maternus, 22.1

Quoting the Goddess Isis:

"I have come with solace and aid. Away then with tears. Cease to moan. Send sorrow fleeing. Soon through my providence shall the sun of your salvation rise."

     Metamorphosis, Apuleius, Book 11, 5

Baptism and Eucharist

The initiation into the Mysteries of Isis / Osiris began with the priest reading to the initiate from the ancient sacred books. Then the priest led the initiate to a bath near the temple, where he (or she, the Mysteries were open to either sex) bathed. After bathing he was sprinkled with purifying water brought from Nile.

The priest then led the initiate, dressed in new linen robes, to "the remotest part of the sanctuary" where he was shown the sacred Mysteries. What they were is uknown – this part of the ceremony was kept secret on pain of death.

What the initiation meant was written about – death, rebirth and salvation.

"I approached the frontiers of death and, having walked on the threshold of Proserpine [the home of the dead], I returned."

     Metamorphosis, Apuleius, Book 11, 23

"The keys of hell and the guarantee of salvation were in the hands of the goddess, and the initiation ceremony itself to the form of a kind of voluntary death and salvation through divine grace."

     Metamorphosis, Apuleius, Book 11, 21

Having completed the voluntary death [voluntariae mortis] and sacred birth [natalem sacrorum], the initiate became a new man.

The ceremony ended two days later with a sacramental meal.

"Be of good cheer, O initiates, for the god is saved, and we shall have salvation for our woes."

     The Error of Pagan Religions, Firmicus Maternus, 22.1

Further proof that the Egyptians believed in monotheism long before the invention of Christianity by the Jews is found in the Egyptian Book of the Dead

God is one and alone, and none other existeth with Him – God is the One, the One who hath made all things – God is a spirit, a hidden spirit, the spirit of spirits, the great spirit of the Egyptians, the divine spirit – God is from the beginning, and He hath been from the beginning, He hath existed from old and was when nothing else had being. He existed when nothing else existed, and what existeth He created after He had come into being, He is the Father of beginnings – God is the eternal One, He is eternal and infinite and endureth for ever and aye – God is hidden and no man knoweth His form. No man hath been able to seek out His likeness; He is hidden to gods and men, and He is a mystery unto His creatures. No man knoweth how to know Him – His name remaineth hidden; His name is a mystery unto His children. His names are innumerable, they are manifold and none knoweth their number – God is truth and He liveth by truth and He feedeth thereon. He is the king of truth, and He hath established the earth thereupon – God is life and through Him only man liveth. He giveth life to man, He breatheth the breath of life into his nostrils – God is father and mother, the father of fathers, and the mother of mothers. He begetteth, but was never begotten; He produceth, but was never produced; He begat himself and produced himself. He createth, but was never created; He is the maker of his own form, and the fashioner of His own body – God Himself is existence, He endureth without increase or diminution, He multiplieth Himself millions of times, and He is manifold in forms and in members – God hath made the universe, and He hath created all that therein is; He is the Creator of what is in this world, and of what was, of what is, and of what shall be. He is the Creator of the heavens, and of the earth, and of the deep, and of the water, and of the mountains. God hath stretched out the heavens and founded the earth – What His heart conceived straightway came to pass, and when He hath spoken, it cometh to pass and endureth for ever – God is the father of the gods; He fashioned men and formed the gods – God is merciful unto those who reverence Him, and He heareth him that calleth upon Him. God knoweth him that acknowledgeth Him, He rewardeth him that serveth Him, and He protecteth him that followeth Him.

     The Egyptian Book of the Dead, E. A. Wallis Budge, Chapter 7, pp. xcii - xciii, 1895.

According to E. A. Wallis Budge, Amen by Dynasty XIX-XX was thought of as –

"an invisible creative power which was the source of all life in heaven, and on the earth, and in the great deep, and in the Underworld, and which made itself manifest under the form of Ra."

Additionally, Amen appears to have been the protector of any pious devotee in need.

The Egyptian viewpoint of God, written approximately 800 years before the collective works regarding the Jewish Moses, was plagirised by the Jews, who have now for centuries proclaimed themselves to be "the chosen people of God." This was in direct contradiction to their own biblical laws which forbid the taking of "foreign wives." Biologically speaking, the Jews had long been a mongrel race through miscegenation with no way to trace their own lineage.

The reader has now before him the main points of the evidence concerning the Egyptians' notions about God, and the cosmic powers and their phases, and the anthropomorphic creations with which they peopled the other world, all of which have been derived from the native literature of ancient Egypt. The different interpretations which different Egyptologists have placed upon the facts demonstrate the difficulty of the subject. Speaking generally, the interpreters may be divided into two classes: those who credit the Egyptians with a number of abstract ideas about God and the creation of the world and the future life, which are held to be essentially the product of modern Christian nations;

     The Egyptian Book of the Dead, E. A. Wallis Budge, Chapter 7, p. c, 1895.

We have seen above that among other titles the god Amen was called the "only One," but the addition of the words "who hast no second" is remarkable as showing that the Egyptians had already conceived the existence of a god who had no like or equal, which they hesitated not to proclaim side by side with their descriptions of his manifestations. Looking at the Egyptian words in their simple meaning, it is pretty certain that when the Egyptians declared that their god was One and that he had no second, they had the same ideas as the Jews and Muhammadans when they proclaimed their God to be "One" and alone. It has been urged that the Egyptians never advanced to pure monotheism because they never succeeded in freeing themselves from the belief in the existence of other gods, but when they say that a god has "no second," even though they mention other "gods," it is quite evident that like the Jews, they conceived him to be an entirely different being from the existences which, for the want of a better word, or because these possessed superhuman attributes, they named "gods."

     The Egyptian Book of the Dead, E. A. Wallis Budge, Chapter 9, p. cxxvii - cxxviii, 1895.

33 CE - Turkey - Iraq - The Acheiropoieton, "the true, not manmade" image of Jesus, given to Abgar, King of Edessa, by Thaddaeus. [p123&] Agbarus (Abgarus, Abgar, Awgar), who reigned over the nations beyond the Euphrates with great glory, and who was wasting away with a disease, both dreadful and incurable by human means when he heard the name of Jesus frequently mentioned, and his miracles unanimously attested by all, sent a supplicant message to him, by a letter-carrier, entreating a deliverance from his disease. But, though he did not yield to his call at that time, he nevertheless condescended to write him a private letter, and to send one of his disciples to heal his disorder; at the same time, promising salvation to him and all his relatives. And it was not long, indeed, before the promise was fulfilled. After the resurrection, however, and his return to the heavens, Thomas, one of the twelve apostles, by a divine impulse, sent Thaddeus, who was also one of the seventy disciples to Edessa, as a herald and evangelist of the doctrines of Christ and by his agency all the promises of Christ as Savior were fulfilled. Of this, also, we have the evidence, in a written answer, taken from the public records of the city of Edessa, then under the government of the king. For in the public registers there, which embrace the ancient history and the transactions of Agbarus, these circumstances respecting him are found still preserved down to the present day.

36 CE - Palestine - Stephen who is stoned to death in Jerusalem, becomes "Christianity's first martyr," [p96+-] and is the first leader of the church. James 'The Righteous', the brother of Jesus is then elected by the Apostles, which included Peter, James and John, to the Episcopal Throne of the Jerusalem Church. This is according to Eusebius (260 CE - 339 CE). This would make James the first "Pope" of the Christian Churches. The early church did not use the terms "Pope" or "bishop" at this time.

The Syrian Governor Vitellius ordered Pontius Pilatus (Pilate), Prefect of Judea, to return to Rome to give the Emperor his account of matters with which he is charged. He removed the high priest Joseph Caiaphas (18 CE - 36 CE). Jonathan (36 CE - 37 CE), of the House of Annas, became the high priest of Jerusalem. Philo wrote to Emperor Caligula that Pontius Pilatus, Roman procurator (Prefect), used briberies, insults, robberies, outrages, wanton injuries, constantly repeated executions without trial and used ceaseless and supremely grievous cruelty. Flavious Josephus (37 CE - 100 CE) wrote that Pilatus is lacking in concern for Jewish religious sensibilities and as capable of rather brutal methods of crowd control.

37 - 38 CE - Italy - Flavius Josephus, jewish-roman is historian, born. [$]

Caligula

37 - 41 CE - Italy - The emperor Tiberius dies March 16 at age 78 and is succeeded by Gaius Caesar, 25, youngest son of the late Germanicus Caesar and nephew of Tiberius, who is called Caligula because of the caligae, or soldiers' boots, he has worn. The new emperor Caligula introduces cruel oriental excesses in a monarchy that will rule Rome for more than three years.

38 CE - Turkey - St. Andrew founds the See of Byzantium and installed Stachys the Apostle as Bishop.

38 - 54 CE - Turkey - Stachys the Apostle becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

38 CE - Palestine - A centralized Nazarean authority was established in Jerusalem, led by Jesus' brother Jacob, (Saint James or James the Just). [p96-97+-]

The Christian churches of Albion were founded by Joseph of Arimathea in 38 CE. He was the brother of Mary, mother of Jeshua/Chiro (Jesus/Christ), and carried the teachings of his enlightened nephew to Britain during the Roman persecution following the crucifixion. Joseph found the basic concepts of the Druids to be very compatible with his religion, and was well accepted at Glastonbury, where he built his first church. Over the next few centuries its priesthood had expanded across Britain and Ireland.

39 - 45 CE - Persia (Iran) - Vardanes I rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

39 CE - Italy - Emperor Gaius Caesar Germanicus (Caligula) (37 CE - 41 CE) proclaimed himself a living God and commanded that Jerusalem worship him as the King of the Jews. This action is likely taken to defocus the Judah prophecy that said a world ruler (The Messiah) would come out of Palestine from the House of David. The King of the Jews deeming the Jews are disrespectful of his divinity ordered the placement of statues of himself as Zeus incarnate in Jerusalem's Temple. He ordered Petronius the new Syrian Governor to take two legions (12,000 soldiers) into Judea to enforce his edict. Caligula, the King of the Jews, exiled Herod Antipas I (4 BCE - 39 CE) the tetrarch of Galilee and Peresa to the Pyrenees [p15D] in Gaul for requesting the title of King.

39 CE - Palestine - Paul returns to Jerusalem from Damascus. [p101+-]

40 - 50 BCE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Amanitaraqide ruled Nubia.

40 BCE - Greece - The Greek merchant Hippalus voyages in one year from Berenice, on Egypt's Red Sea coast, to India's Madras coast and back, a journey that has previously required two years. Hippalus has discovered that the monsoon winds (the word derives from mawsim, Arabic for seasons) reverse direction twice a year, a fact the Arabs may have known for centuries. The southwest wind, favorable for voyages from Egypt to India, prevails from April to October, and the northwest wind for the return trip prevails from October to April.

41 - 44 CE - Palestine - Herod Agrippa I, becomes king of Judeae. [#] Herod Agrippa I, son of Aristobulus, visited Alexandria in Egypt, and the popular reaction to his visit is a series of anti-Jewish attacks tolerated or instigated by the Roman Governor of Egypt. Jews are arrested, scourged, tortured and then crucified.

41 CE - Palestine - Galilee and Judaea are conferred on King Agrippa. [p15D]

Claudius

41 - 54 CE - Italy - The Roman emperor Caligula is murdered January 24 by a tribune of the guard after a megalomaniacal reign of savage tyranny. He is succeeded by a nephew of the late emperor Tiberius, a crippled man of 50 with a speech defect named Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus, who will rule until 54 as the emperor Claudius I.

1st cent. CE - Italy - Mithraism began to spread throughout the Roman Empire. It was seen by some as the greatest rival of Christianity and reached its peak in the 3rd century CE. [p4MM]

1st cent. CE - Italy - Simon Magus (A) (B) was a contemporary of Jesus and has been called his most dangerous rival. Clement I called him God's left hand and and the counterpart of St. Paul. He found wisdom in a brothel in Tyre and preached a Gnostic philosophy summed up in his work The Root of All. Simon Magus went to Rome in the time of Claudius where his followers saw him as God incarnate. He has later been called the founder of all Gnostic teachings. [#] [$] [DO]

Simon Magus was originally a Christian and disciple of John the Baptist, but broke off and formed the first Christian heresy, called Simonianism. After learning magical medicine in Alexandria he was considered to have many magical skills. To this day, a skilled magician is called a "magus." He also studied Greek philosophers, especially Heraclitus, and became the first Christian to attempt to bridge Greek philosophy and Christianity. If a mixture ever occurred Church leaders feared they would become weaker over time and not survive. According to G. R. S. Mead (A) (B), this was Simon's great heresy – not his magic.

1st cent. CE - Egypt - The Cult of the Black Virgin.

During the first century A.D., Alexandria, Egypt was a veritable hotbed of mystical activity, a crucible in which, according to Holy Blood, Holy Grail, 31:123 [HBHG],

"Judaic, Mithraic, Zoroastrian, Pythagorean, Hermetic, and neo-Platonic doctrines suffused the air and combined with innumerable others."

It was in the early centuries of the Christian era that the ancient worship of the Mother Goddess was introduced to Christianity by Jews who had fled Israel and embraced Alexandrian Neo-Platonism, which is just a rehash of Greek paganism.

"The Neo-Platonists are Greek philosophers who lived long enough after Plato to have lost the name of Platonists as far as modern scholars are concerned (although they were intellectual disciples of Plato and considered themselves Platonists)." [Sir]

In ancient times, mankind worshipped the hosts of heaven, believing them to be gods and goddesses who ruled the world. Ancient man believed that the constellation Virgo was the Great Mother Goddess who ruled over a Golden Age called Lemuria, which preceded Atlantis. This astrological tradition was transmitted to successive pagan cultures through the ages of mankind.

"Some of the mythological representations of Virgo are Nana, Eve, Istar, Demeter, Hecate, Themis, Hera, Astraea, Diana, Cybele, Isis, Fortuna, Erigone, Sibylla and the Virgin Mother. All representations of the Great Mother in some form. She who existed before the masculine gods of ancient and classical mythology." [Vir]

The Greek adaptation of Virgo, was Demeter, whose daughter Kore was abducted by Pluto, the god of the underworld. Kore would remain the dark lord's queen and her name would no longer be Kore, the maiden, but Persephone, "she who is to be feared". The Alexandrian Jews who worshipped the Greek goddess, Kore, managed to convert their pagan goddess worship into a theologically respectable tradition called Gnosticism by giving the goddess the trappings of Christianity. Although they worshipped her as the Holy Virgin, "virginity" has an altogether different connotation to Gnostics than it does to Christians.

"Another important feature of the Gnostic tradition of Epiphany is that it is really a feminine holiday. St. Clement of Alexandria (c. 194 CE) mentioned that the followers of the Gnostic master Basilides feasted on the day of the Baptism and kept a long vigil before it. Epiphanius (305 - 402 CE) gave us a detailed description of how the Alexandrian Gnostics celebrated the Epiphany. They did this in the sanctuary of the Maiden Goddess Kore whom they equated with the image of the Holy Virgin. At midnight they descended with torches into the crypt of the temple and brought the wooden statue of Kore forth in procession. The Maiden was represented naked and sitting, with crosses marked on her brow, her hands and her knees. The statue was carried seven times around the central shrine and was then retired to the crypt once more. The Gnostics said that on this day, Kore, the Virgin, gave birth to the divine principle known as the Christ. It is from the feminine intuitive consciousness and feeling nature that the messianic power, of individuated consciousness is born. Thus the human nature of Jesus or Everyman is transformed into divine and spiritual nature by the holy female power, the Holy Spirit, in the initiation rite of baptism." [GLC]

It is important to note that the heretic, Basilides, was an Gnostic Jew of Alexandria, as was his contemporary, the arch-heretic Valentinus.

It was in the Gnostic culture of Alexandria that the Mother Goddess evolved into Mary Magdalene.

" … many of the finest Gnostic writings are of Alexandrian inspiration or origin. Alexandria is also the main source of Gnostic works linking Jesus with Mary Magdalene. According to this tradition it was through the Magdalen, rather than through Peter and the male apostles, that Jesus transmitted his secret doctrine." [p128 CBV]

In their endeavors to relocate the center of Christianity in Alexandria, Egypt, the Gnostics misrepresent Mary Magdalene as a native of the Magdolum in Egypt, which they associate with Migdol –

"There is no necessity to endeavor to crowbar [Mary Magdalene] into a Galilean setting, for there are other intriguing alternatives for her place of origin: although there was no 'Magdala' in Judea in her day, there was a Magdolum in Egypt - just across the border - which was probably the Migdol mentioned in Ezekiel. There was a large and flourishing Jewish community in Egypt at that time, which was particularly centered on the great sea port of Alexandria, a seething cosmopolitan melting pot of many races, nationalities and religions and perhaps where the Holy Family had fled to escape the depredations of Herod's men." [MMF]

There is no mention of Migdol in the book of Ezekiel, however the prophet Jeremiah reproved the apostate Jews who took up residence in Migdol, in Egypt, for disobeying the Lord who had commanded them to go with their countrymen to Babylon. The prophet Jeremiah specifically admonished the Jews in Egypt for their worship of the Mother Goddess:

The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews which dwell in the land of Egypt, which dwell at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros, saying, Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Ye have seen all the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem, and upon all the cities of Judah; and, behold, this day they are a desolation, and no man dwelleth therein, Because of their wickedness which they have committed to provoke me to anger, in that they went to burn incense, and to serve other gods, whom they knew not, neither they, ye, nor your fathers …

Then all the men which knew that their wives had burned incense unto other gods, and all the women that stood by, a great multitude, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, in Pathros, answered Jeremiah, saying, As for the word that thou hast spoken unto us in the name of the LORD, we will not hearken unto thee. But we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth, to burn incense unto the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto her, as we have done, we, and our fathers, our kings, and our princes, in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem: for then had we plenty of victuals, and were well, and saw no evil. But since we left off to burn incense to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto her, we have wanted all things, and have been consumed by the sword and by the famine. And when we burned incense to the queen of heaven, and poured out drink offerings unto her, did we make her cakes to worship her, and pour out drink offerings unto her, without our men? - Jer. 44:1-3,15-19

Here it is apparent that the worship of the Mother Goddess, Virgo, under the appellation of Isis, spread from Egypt into Israel and from Israel to the centers of the Roman Empire:

"The cult of Isis was widespread in the Egypt of the dynastic period. From Egypt it spread northwards to Phoenicia, Syria and Palestine; to Asia Minor; to Cyprus, Rhodes, Crete, Samos and other islands in the Aegean; to many parts of mainland Greece - Corinth, Argos and Thessaly amongst them; to Malta and Sicily; and, finally, to Rome. In the first century BC, Isis was perhaps the most popular goddess in the Eternal City, from which her cult spread to the furthest limits of the Roman Empire, including Britain: her only rival was Mithras. [SL]

The worship of the Virgin Mary in the Roman Catholic Church, along with the entire body of Catholic tradition, can be traced to the worship of Isis in Egypt.[MB]

"Immaculate is our Lady Isis … the very terms applied afterwards to that personage (the Virgin Mary) who succeeded to her form, titles, symbols, rites, and ceremonies … Thus, her devotees carried into the new priesthood the former badges of their profession, the obligation to celibacy, the tonsure, and the surplice, omitting, unfortunately, the frequent ablutions prescribed by the ancient creed. The 'Black Virgins', so highly reverenced in certain French cathedrals … proved, when at last critically examined, basalt figures of Isis!'" [IBV]

Byzantine monastery of St. John Theologos - Crete

1st cent. CE - Greece - Crete - The Book of Revelation is written by John the prophet on the island of Patmos where he had been exiled for failing to worship the image of the Roman Emperor Domitian. [EW] The monastery of Agios Ioannis Theologos dominates the hill above Hora and is visible from every part of the island. It was established in 1088 CE by St. Christodoulos after the donation of Alexios I Komnenos. It has been, ever since, the most significant religious and cultural center on the island. The chapel of Agioi Apostoli, where the relic of St. Chistodoulos is kept, was built in 1603 CE. The exterior of the monastery is surrounded by tall, thick walls with fortifying towers and ramparts, built according to the Byzantine style with rectangular, while stone stairs leading to an impressive gate. The yard has layers of pebbles and is beautifully decorated. In the center, there is a water-tank and a well with holy water. The eastern side is dominated by an arch with four curves and many frescoes representing the miracles performed by Agios Ioannis Theologos. The monastery houses ten chapels, the Chamber where the monks hold their meetings along with the cells of the monks. The most impressive part of the monastery is the church. Inside one can admire the beautiful wood-carved icon stand, the marble floor and the rich decoration. The Library, established by St Christodoulos, is of extreme interest, as it includes 2,000 volumes, 13,000 historic documents and 900 manuscripts. Among these, one can see 30 manuscripts bequeathed to the monastery by Chirstodoulos's successor, Savens, the collection of Nikiforos Laodikias, works of ecclesiastic father codes, biographies of Saints and Aristoteles's Accusations. In the treasury of the monastery, the monks keep invaluable objects, remarkable icons, ecclesiastic utensils and garments.

The Greek island of Patmos, where the apostle John received his vision for the book of Revelation, was and is still a hotbed of pagan worship. On the high point of the island, in the very location where the monastery of St. John the Theologian now stands, there was in ancient times a famous temple in honor of Diana, also called Artemis. The founder of the monastery, Ioannis Christodoulos, was a leading figure in the Eastern church and monasticism at the time.

"In 313 AD, Christianity was officially recognized as the religion of the Roman Empire and from this time the new faith spread rapidly throughout the Greek islands. The eastern Christian empire of Byzantium exercised control over the isle of Patmos and in the 4th century the ancient shrine of the goddess Diana was torn down. Directly upon its foundations was erected a church dedicated to St. John but this church was itself destroyed sometime between the 6th and 9th centuries when the island was subjected to frequent raids by the Arabs. Left deserted after these raids, Patmos next entered history in 1088 when a Byzantine emperor granted the island to the monk Christodolous, whose intention it was to establish a monastery. Built upon the remains of the old church and the older shrine of Diana, the monastery of St. John has been in continuous operation for over 900 years." [MAG]

1st cent. CE - Palestine - The Key of Solomon, a book of incantations for invoking demons, attributed to the authorship of Solomon, was in existence. [EW]

43 CE - Greece - Paul's journey to Antioch. [p265D]

43 CE - England - After the death of Octavian Augustus, he was followed by four descendants of his family, called the Julio-Claudian family. The first two, Tiberius and Claudius, were just and efficient, and it was during Claudius' reign that the occupation of Britain, begun by Julius Caesar some 100 years earlier, was completed in 43 CE.

Claudius returns to Rome a conqueror, is awarded the title Britannicus. The Romans establish a troubled domination of Britain. London (Londinium) is founded by the Romans

43 - 50 CE - Persia (Iran) - Gotarzes II rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

44 CE - Palestine - The disciplies of Christ, Peter and John, were arrested and flogged. [p98+-] James, the disciple, (brother of John), was arrested and beheaded. He is executed on orders from Herod Agrippa before the king's death.[p98+-]

Judea's Herod Agrippa dies at age 54 after a three year reign, and Judea becomes a procuratorial province of Rome once again. Agrippa's son, 17, is studying at the court of the emperor Claudius in Rome and beginning in 48 CE will reign for five years as Herod Agrippa II.

Plutarch

46 - 120 CE - Greece - Plutarch is born. He was a greek biographer and wrote Parallel Lives which later inspired Shakespeare's Roman plays. [<>]

48 CE - Wales - Roman legions invade Wales. They will conquer the country in the next thirty years while Roman engineers construct a great network of British roads.

48 - 49 CE - Palestine - Paul returns from Antioch to Jerusalem. His disputes with the first group around Jesus, ("the early Church"), intensified. (2 Cor. 11:3-4). [p268D] Zealots and Nazareans are crucified by the Roman Governor of Judaea. [p98+-]

49 CE - Italy - The emperor Claudius expels Jewish-Christians from Rome.

50 - 62 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Amanitaraqide ruled Nubia.

50 - 76 CE - Persia (Iran) - Vologezes I rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

50 - 58 CE - Palestine - During this time, Paul wrote most of his letters, which were subsequently called the Pauline Epistles. [p268D]

Temple of the Sun

50 - 200 CE - Mexico - The Toltec-Mayan pyramidal Temple of the Sun at Teotihuacán, Mexico, built. It is 61 meters high and stands on an axis with the sun's passage on summer solstice. [Enc.]

Located thirty miles northeast of Mexico City - the name means "place of the gods" abandoned almost three thousand years before the Aztecs arrived. Main buildings: Pyramid of the Sun (built over a cave), Pyramid of the Moon, Temple of Quetzalcoatl (covered with imagery of Quetzalcoatl and Tlaloc - god of rain) and the street of the dead. The city was completely in line with the planet Venus. Quetzalcoatl (lord of peace) - was the feathered serpent god, his human form was light skin and a light complexion, had a long beard and hair. He gave the people fire and hated human sacrifice. He got into a fight with Tezcatlipoca-Smoking Mirror-and he lost and was banished from Mexico, but he said that he would return on his birthday the first year of the reed. He was last seen leaving Mexico in a boat-sailing to the east from Veracruz. His birthday occurs once every fifty-two years.

50 CE - Germany - Cologne has its beginnings in the town of Colonia Agrippina, built on the left bank of the Rhine at the site of Oppidum Ubiorum, chief town of the Ubii. The Roman emperor Claudius fortifies the town at the request of his niece and bride Agrippina, 35, who was born there.

54 CE - Palestine - The Sadducee High Priest, who was aligned with Rome, was assassinated by the Zealots. [p98+-]

54 - 68 CE - Turkey - Onesimus becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

Nero

54 - 68 CE - Italy - The Roman emperor Claudius I dies October 13 at age 63 after eating poisonous mushrooms given him by the physician Stertinius Xenophon as part of a plot inspired by the empress Agrippina. She will seek to rule Rome through her son Nero Claudius Augustus Germanicus, 16, who will reign as the emperor Nero until 68 CE. He is a thoroughly evil man who killed various relatives including his brother, his pregnant wife and his own mother.

57 CE - Palestine - Paul's letter to the Galatians is written, in which he goes against Jesus words on the subject of the Law. (Gal. 2:16) (Matt. 5:17-19). [p269D]

58 CE - Palestine - Paul returns to Jerusalem, and is arrested by the Romans who mistake him for a Zealot terrorist and send him to Rome. (See Acts 21:28ff). [p270D]

Revolt of the Iceni

60 CE - England - Following the emperor Claudius's invasion in 43 CE, much of Britain had become a Roman province. However in 60 CE the Romans faced a major uprising in eastern Britain led by Boudicca, queen of the Iceni, who had been treated brutally by Roman officials. The Iceni were joined in their rebellion by the neighboring Trinovantes. Excessive Roman depredations drive the Britons to revolt under her, (Queen Boadicea of the Iceni tribe) who captured Camulodunum (Colchester) and slaughtered all Romans and their collaborators, then fought and vanquished the infantry of the 9th Legion. When Boudicca marched on Londinium (London), the Roman commander Suetonius abandoned the city, whereupon Boudicca took the city and killed all its inhabitants. Boudicca then marched upon and destroyed Verulamium (St. Albans). In the three cities, some 70,000 inhabitants lost their lives.

The governor of Roman Britain, Seutonius Paulinus, swiftly marched back from Anglesey at the head of the Fourteenth and Twentieth legions, which he positioned in a defile between wooded hills. Boudicca's warriors, who greatly outnumbered the Romans, advanced to attacked. The legionaries waited, still and silent, until the Britons were almost upon them. Then on command, they threw their pila and charged with swords drawn. As the front ranks of the Britons fell, the warriors behind pushed forward in a confused mass. Thousands were cut down by the Romans as defeat turned into a rout. Boudicca died, probably by taking poison. [Grant]

Boudicca, queen of the Iceni

The Romans said they invaded Britannia because the Celts of England are supporting the Germanic-Celts of Gaul by supplying food. The Iceni tribe used chariots in battle and practiced equality of the sexes.

62 - 85 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - Candace Amanikhatashan ruled Nubia.

62 - 65 CE - Palestine - James the Just is executed. [p98+-] As the first century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus writes, this period of seeming comity changed with the death of the Roman procurator Festus. A portion of the Jewish leadership was clearly uncomfortable with the nascent Christian sect and its leader James. Before the new procurator Albinus could arrive, the high priest Ananus (a Sadduccee) "assembled the Sanhedrin of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned."

The illegal nature of this act was so blatantly apparent that other citizens of the city complained vociferously both to the Jewish king (Agrippa) and the new procurator (Albinus). The offense was deemed serious enough that the high priest Ananus was subsequently removed from office (after only a three-month term).

The death of James also set in motion a series of events eventually leading to the Jewish insurrection and subsequent Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE. The new procurator Albinus began a campaign to destroy the revolutionary sicarii, leading to kidnapping of the scribe of the Temple governor and to internal fighting within the priesthood ("throwing stones at each other").

The result was a more disordered city and the subsequent removal of the next high priest (Jesus son of Gamaliel). The priesthood was then again transferred by King Agrippa to Matthias "under whom the Jews' war with the Romans took its beginning." The war would end with the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE.

62 CE - England - Ten thousand Romans invade England and eighty thousand Pict-Celts (Britons) are massacred.

63 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Parthian Empire signs a treaty with Rome. Arsacid is installed in Armenia.

64 - 66 CE - Italy - Flavius Josephus is in Rome as a pharisaic ambassador. [$10]

64 CE - Italy - Rome has a fire that begins the night of July 18 in some wooden booths at one end of the Circus Maximus, spreads in one direction over the Palatine and Velia hills and up to the low cliffs of the Esquiline, spreads in another direction through the Aventine, the Forus Boarium, and the Velabrum until it reaches the Tiber and the Servian Wall, destroying nearly two-thirds of the city. The emperor Nero has fretted (not "fiddled") while Rome burned and begins rebuilding to a master plan that will give the city straight, broad streets and wide squares whose cleanliness will be supervised by the aediles.

Persecution of Christians begins at Rome at this time.

65 CE - Italy - A widespread conspiracy against Nero is discovered and many senators are executed or forced to commit suicide this year. The revolts, conspiracies and executions would continue until Nero's suicide in 68 CE.

65 CE - Palestine - Simeon, James' successor, led the Nazareans out of the city of Jerusalem to the town of Pella. [p99+-]

66 CE - Palestine - The Jewish revolt begins against the Romans. [p216$10] Josephus is sent to Galilee to command the defence against the Romans. [$10]

Linus (about 66 CE - 78 CE) a soldier and companion of Paul (10 CE - 67 CE), the self-proclaimed apostle and heretic, is listed as the first Papa of Rome (bishop) being given this position by Paul. This is according to Pothinus who claims Eusebius (260 CE - 340 CE) as his authority. Tertullian (160 CE - 225 CE) and Jerome (331 CE - 420 CE) claim St. Peter (d-64 / 67 CE) appoints the Paulist Clement (64 CE - 95 CE) as the first Papa of Rome. This claim is likely because Linus and Anacletus (79 CE - 91 CE) are Paulists and are not endorsed by Peter or his church. Simon Peter and Paul differed concerning theology so it is unlikely he would endorse a follower of the Paulist Church. Saint Peter most likely died before Linus is made Papa if he ever was. Most early Papa's of Rome are highly suspect and likely retro invented much later. Irenacus of Lyons about 180 CE, and Hegesippus about 160 CE, are alleged by Eusebius to have listed Linus as the first papa of Rome. It is noteworthy that Paul never recognized or followed the Judo-Christian Church headed by James the Just, brother of Christ or St. Peter and it is highly unlikely Peter would endorse any follower of the heretic Paulist Church. The first listing of Roman Papa's lists them as Paul, Linus, Anencletus then Clement as the first Papa's of the Roman church. The Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians is attributed to the Paulist Clement (64 CE - 95 CE). Clemens Alexandrinus call him an apostle. Jerome says he was an apostolic man, and Rufinus that he was almost an apostle. Eusebinus calls this the wonderful Epistle of St. Clement, and says that it was publicly read in the assemblies of the early church. It is included in early Canon Scriptures but later rejected by the Catholic Church. Clement places St. Peter and Paul as Apostles of the Catholic Church but suggests schism between the two churches. It is noteworthy that there is no indication that early Christian communities in Rome were presided over by a bishop. Bishops as an authority hierarchy did not appear until another one hundred years and then first in the Eastern Churches. The Roman Paulist Church didn't have Bishops until Hippolytus (217 CE - 235 CE).

Cestius Gallus led the Roman Twelfth Legion against Jerusalem, but is routed and retreated, causing a great disgrace to the Romans. The Roman General (later emperor) Titus Flavius Vespasianus, born 9 CE, began to march on Galilee. During his campaign against the Jews he is recorded by the Roman historian Tacitus (70? CE - 100 CE) to have cured the lame and a blind man by putting some of his spittle upon the balls of his eyes. He ended his days as a moneylender among the Helvetii, the ancient Swiss.

66 CE - Italy - Nero's favorite courtier Gaius Petronius is accused of treason, arrested at Cumae, and ordered to commit suicide. He leaves behind his Satyricon, depicting the vice and depravity of his time.

66 - 74 CE - Greece - The Gospel of Mark is written. [p344+]

St. Linus

67 - 76 CE - Italy - St. Linus was born in Volterra, and was the first to take up the inheritance of St. Peter. Liber pontificalis notes that it was Linus who prescribed women to enter inside of the church with their heads covered. It is possible that he named the first fifteen bishops. He was martyred by decapitation on September 23 and buried beside St. Peter.

67 CE - Italy - The Christian apostle Paul is executed June 29 on the Via Ostia, three miles from Rome. The first great Christian missionary and theologian, Paul will hold a position in the faith second only to that of Jesus.

67 CE - Palestine - Nov. 10 at Gamla, Golan, 4,000 Zealots died fighting the Romans. 5,000 commited mass suicide by jumping over a cliff. [p288-289D]

The tenth Roman Legion marched on the Judah Zealot stronghold of Masada by the Dead Sea. Eleazar the leader of the Judah Zealots ordered on April 13, 67 (73?) CE, the suicide of all the defenders of Masada Zealots so as not to fall into the hands of the besieging Romans. Two women and five children hid surviving the killings to tell their story. It is recorded that about 960 killed themselves, but archeological digging only turned up 29 bodies suggesting they either escaped or are taken prisoner. Many Judah citizens at this time would emigrate to Italy and Germany to avoid persecution.

Flavious Josephus (37 CE - 100 CE) the Jewish historian is in charge of the Jewish revolt in Galilee, held out at Jotapata for six weeks and eventually surrendered to the attacking Roman General Vespasian this year. He predicted that one day Vespasian Flavious would become the Emperor. He is jailed but released in 69 CE having accurately foretold that his captor would become Emperor. He remained in Rome (69 CE - 96 CE) where he wrote his histories. He believed God had abandoned the Jews and he now sides with the Romans.

68 CE - Palestine - The History of the Jewish People is compiled by the Jewish general Joseph ben Matthias, (aka Flavious Josephus) who has taken the Roman name Flavius Josephus.

69 - 89 CE - Turkey - Polycarpus I becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

Galba

68 CE - Italy - During the latter days of the reign of Nero, revolts became commonplace with C. Iulius Vindex and L. Clodius Macer both proclaiming themselves as Emperor of Rome.

Meanwhile, the emperor Nero is sentenced to death by the Senate under pressure from the praetorian guard, which has recognized the legate Servius Sulpicius Galba, 65, as emperor. Nero commits suicide June 9 at age 30. His death ends the Julio-Claudian line of Caesars that has ruled Rome for 128 years, and he is succeeded by Galba, who will rule for less than six months before being challenged.

Otho

68 - 69 CE - Italy - C. Nymphidius Sabinus declared that he himself was a legitimate successor to Nero – a claim which he supported with the dubious assertion that he was the illegitimate son of the former emperor Caligula. The praetorians recognized that Galba's approach counted for more than Nymphidius' presence, and killed the would-be usurper before their new emperor even arrived at Rome.

Galba becomes Roman Emperor. Eight legions on the Rhine refuse allegiance to the Roman emperor Galba and salute as emperor their legate Aulus Vitellius, 54. Galba is murdered January 15 along with his newly adopted successor, Piso Licinianus. The murderer is Marcus Salvius Otho, 36, a dissolute friend of the late emperor Nero, and the Senate recognizes Otho as emperor.

Vitellius

Aulus Vitellius sends two legions to the Po Valley. They defeat the emperor Otho April 19 in the Battle of Bedriacum near Cremona, and Otho commits suicide, leaving Vitellius to face a challenge from Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, 59, now legate of Judea. The prefect of Egypt proclaims Vespasianus emperor on July 1, the legate of Syria and all the Danubian legions rally to his support, and the emperor Vitellius mobilizes forces to oppose them. Antonius Primus, commander of the Seventh Legion in Pannonia, leads other Danubian legions against Vitellius and defeats him in late October in the second Battle of Bedriacum. The Roman emperor Vitellius dies in a street battle December 20, leaving Vespasian to begin a reign that will continue until 79. Primus sacks Cremona and forces the Senate to recognize Vespasianus as the emperor Vespasian.

Vespasian

69 - 79 CE - Italy - Vespasianus becomes Roman emperor. [p72:6] Emesa, Commagene and Armenia Minor are annexed into the Roman Empire.

The emperor Vespasian lays siege to Jerusalem as the Jewish Zealot leader John of Giscala continues resistance after having eliminated his rival Eleazar.

70 CE - Palestine - The Temple of Jerusalem is sacked by the Romans. [p34+] On May 31, Roman forces captured the first wall of the city of Jerusalem. On September 8, following a six-month siege, Jerusalem surrendered to the Roman forces.

Titus Flavian, son of Emperor Vespasian and heir to the Roman Imperial throne, with eighty thousand men put an end to all Jewish independence and destroy the second temple of Jerusalem, set it afire and tear down the walls. Jerusalem falls on September 7. The Romans sack the city and destroy most of the Third Temple, which was completed only six years previously. The one wall left standing will become famous as the "Wailing Wall." Some suggest it is Titus Flavian who carried off the Ark of the Covenant and the seven-branched candelabra, both sacred emblems of Judaism. Vespasin and Titus are of humble origin and strove to maintain peace within the Empire.

Over a million Jewish citizens are thought to have perished during the Great Revolt and, following Jerusalem's capture, another 97,000 were sold into slavery.

The Jewish teacher, Johanen ben Zakkai, saves Judaism. A disciple of the late Babylonian Jew Hillel, who died some 60 years earlier, Johanen has had himself carried out of Jerusalem during the siege and has asked Vespasian to grant him a boon. He opens a school at Jabneh with Roman permission.

The emperor Vespasian returns to Rome, leaving his son Titus to continue the siege of Jerusalem. He turns his energies to repairing the ravages of civil war. He suppresses an insurrection in Gaul, restores discipline to the demoralized Roman army, renews old taxes and institutes new ones, and rebuilds the Capitol, which was burned in the fighting that raged in the city the previous autumn.

Titus gives some of Judea to Marcus Julius "Herod" Agrippa II but retains most as an imperial domain. Rome quarters a legion in Jerusalem under a senatorial legate whose position is higher than that of the procurator. The Romans abolish the Jewish high priesthood and Sanhedrin (Jewish national council), and they divert the 2-drachma tax (fiscus Judaicus) paid by Jews for support of the Great Temple to a special account in the imperial treasury.

Arch of Titus

71 CE - Italy - The Arch of Titus erected at Rome by the emperor Vespasian celebrates the triumph of the emperor's son in 70 CE at Jerusalem.

Siege of Masada

73 - 74 CE - Israel - Masada was the site of the Jews' dramatic last stand against the Romans. Situated on the top of a steep-sided, rocky hill near the coast of the Dead Sea, Masada's fortifications dated back to the 2nd century BCE, but major development took place the following century under Herod I, the Roman-appointed king of Judaea, the southern province of Palestine. In 66 CE, Judaea rebelled against Roman rule. The suppression of the revolt, by the emperor Vespasian and his son Titus, culminated in the siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. Once Jerusalem had fallen, the uperising was effectively at an end, but a small group of Jewish rebels, led by Eleazar ben Yair, held out in Masada. The Romans could not ignore the rebels' defiance, and in November 73 CE, Flavius Silva, the governor of Judaea, led the Tenth Legion to besiege the fortress. Since the approach to the fortress was along treacherous paths exposed to the defenders fire, the Romans encircled the hill with walls, towers, and camps. They realized, however, that a blockade would be too slow for their purposes. Large storehouses and water cisterns in the fortress meant that those inside would be able to survive a siege that lasted several years. Instead, the Romans devised a remarkable plan to take the fortress by assault. They began building a massive siege ramp up the western side of the hill. The construction work proceeded under constant attacked from catapult artillery from the fortress, to which the Romans replied in kind. When complete, the siege ramp was nearly 2,000 ft (600 m) long and rose to a height of over 660 ft (200 m). The Romans then pushed a siege tower up the ramp, containing a ram on its lower floor and ballistas on the top floor to give covering fire. The ram soon breached the wall, but when the legionaries stormed the fortress they found that Eleazar had incited his followers to commit mass suicide. Only two women and five children were found alive - they had hidden in a water conduit during the assault. [Grant]

75 CE - Palestine - The Wars of the Jews by Flavius Josephus first published. [#]

St. Anacletus

76 - 88 CE - Italy - St. Anacletus was born in Rome. It is possible that he decreed that clergymen have short hair. Anacletus began the construction of St. Peter's basilica. Under his pontificate, the eruption of Vesuvius occurred on the 24th of August 79 CE, and the unveiling of the Colosseum took place. Domitian later built a stadium for athletic and gymnastics competitions, which was unveiled in 85 CE. During the Middle Ages this stadium became Campus Agonis, then Circus Agonalis, and later the word evolution from "agone" to "in agone" to "inagone" led to the new word "Navona", the name given to this place, now the famous Piazza Navona.

77 - 78 CE - Persia (Iran) - Vologezes II rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

78 - 86 CE - Persia (Iran) - Pacorus II rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

79 CE - Italy - On Aug. 24, Mount Vesuvius erupts, burying the city of Pompeii and Herculaneum.. [p66:6]

Pompeii

Mold of a Dog

The eruption of Vesuvius was the first volcanic eruption ever to be described in detail. From 18 miles (30 km) west of the volcano, Pliny the Younger, witnessed the eruption and later recorded his observations in two letters. He described the earthquakes before the eruption, the eruption column, air fall, the effects of the eruption on people, pyroclastic flows, and even tsunami. Volcanologists now use the term "plinian" to refer to sustained explosive eruptions which generate high-altitude eruption columns and blanket large areas with ash. It is estimated that at times during the eruption the column of ash was 20 miles (32 km) tall. About 1 cubic mile (4 cubic kilometers) of ash was erupted in about 19 hours.

About 10 feet (3 m) of tephra fell on Pompeii, burying everything except the roofs of some buildings. The city was abandoned and its location forgotten. In 1595 CE, excavations discovered artifacts at Pompeii and centuries of pillaging followed. Archeological excavations began in the mid-nineteenth century. Now, much of Pompeii has been excavated and it has revealed much about how people lived during that time (and died during the eruption). There are numerous molds of people in their final moments. The mold of a dog is shown in the photo at left. The poor animal was chained to a post and struggled for hours before finally succumbing to the ash.

At Herculaneum is discovered a symbol of a cross leading to speculation that Roman-Christianity is practiced in secret. The cross could be from 64 CE, as it appeared to be covered probably during the period of persecution. The cross at this time is the symbol of slavery, whereas the fish is the symbol of Christianity (freedom). To consider the cross as a Christian symbol at this time doesn't hold much credibility. The saying, "Take up your cross and follow me," would be the same as saying, "Take up your gallows, or gas chambers, or guillotine and follow me." Excavation of Herculaneum and Pompeii did not start until 1748 CE.

Titus

79 - 81 CE - Italy - The Roman emperor Vespasian dies on June 23 at age 69 after a ten year reign. He is succeeded by his son Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus Titus, now 38, who will rule as the emperor Titus until 81 CE.

79 - 80 CE - Persia (Iran) - Artabanus IV rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

80 CE - Italy - The Romans completed their infamous amphitheater called the Colosseum. The Roman Colosseum became the center of all Roman culture centered on violence and cruelty. This insatiable demonic desire for blood, both animal and human, lasted for 500 years, of which 300 are under Christian control. The games usually began with the slaughter of animals. Human executions included crucifixion, burning and exposure to wild beasts. This was followed by gladiators fighting to the death, and included the use of women, children and blind people. The games were concluded by the killing of criminals or slaves by cutting them down by the hundreds with swords, lances or spears.

The Roman Colosseum

80 CE - Greece - The Gospel of Luke is written. [p344+]

"Luke was essentially a novelist, and as such wanted to tell a complete story. Since nothing was (or is) known of Jesus prior to his immersion by John, Luke invented a birth fable borrowed from the now-lost Nativity of John the Immerser, supplemented by passages from Jubilees and Josephus."

     Mythologies Last Gods: Yahweh and Jesus, William Harwood (1)

Domitianus

Titus dies September 13, 81 CE, at age 40 after only twenty-six months as emperor. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Titus Flavius Domitianus, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself. Titus Flavius Domitianus, 29, reigned until 96 CE as the emperor Domitian.

Domitianus ordered hard fighting on the Danube against the Dacians. He is considered a cruel ruler with little respect for the Senate, yet legislated against immorality and strictly controlled the governors.

81 CE - Italy - The silver content of the Roman denarius will rise in the reign of Domitian to 92 percent, up from 81 percent in the reign of Vitellius.

83 CE - England - Roman forces under Ganeus Julius Agricola in Britain defeat the Caledonians (Picts) and reach the northernmost point that they will attain in the British Isles (possibly near what will later be Aberdeen, Scotland).

84 CE - Scotland - On an untraceable site, called Mons Graupius by Tacitus, thirty thousand Caledonii amassed, led by Galgacus, to battle with the Roman Empire. With their unique formations, weaponry and tactics the Romans won the day.

We, the most distant dwellers upon the earth, the last of the free, have been shielded until now by our remoteness and by the obscurity which has shrouded our name. Now, the farthest bounds of Britain lie open to our enemies. There are no more nations beyond us - only waves, and rocks, and the Romans. Pillagers of the world, they have exhausted the land by their indiscriminate plunder. East and west alike have failed to satisfy them. To robbery, butchery and rapine, they give the lying name "government." They create a desert and call it peace. Which will you choose - to follow me into battle, or to submit to taxation, labour in the mines and all the other tribulations of slavery? Whether you are to endure these forever or take a quick revenge, this battle must decide."

      Speech by Galgacus, Chief of the Caledonians to his army (as attributed by the Roman historian Tacitus)

After taking hostages however, the Romans retreated, whilst their fleet sailed to Fair Isle and Orkney to investigate the topography of the British Isles.

Agricola returned to Rome in 87 CE with distinction. Archaeologists believe Mons Graupius to be in the north-east around Raedykes.

85 - 90 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Teritnide ruled Nubia.

85 - 90 CE - Palestine - Scholars suggest the Gospel attributed to Matthew is written about this time in Antioch, capital of the Roman Province of Syria and the third largest city in the Empire. The author of Matthew is unknown but it is generally accepted it is a copy of the Gospel attributed to Mark. This unknown author(s) omits, changes and adds to the Mark source. Scholars also suggest the Gospel attributed to Luke is also written in a Greek city of the Roman Empire. Originally the Gospel of Luke is immediately followed by the Acts of the Apostles as a single linked, two-volume work.

85 CE - Egypt - According to Eusebius (260 - 339 CE), in the fourth year of Roman Emperior Domitian, the First Papa (Bishop) of Alexandria (Egypt) Annianus died, having served 22 years (63 - 85 CE), and is succeeded by Avilus, who reigned for thirteen years (85 - 98 CE).

St. Clement I

88 - 97 CE - Italy - St. Clement was born in Rome, but of Jewish origin, and was a relative of the emperor Domitian. He was disciple of St. Paul and was nominated a bishop by St. Peter. He wrote the first document where that affirmed the supremacy of he Roman bishops over all other Churches in the world. After St. Peter, he had the strongest personality among the first popes. Emperor Nerva had him exiled to Pontus. In Trajan's times he was asked to make sacrifices to the gods. Upon refusal, he was condemned to death and thrown into the sea with an anchor around his neck. Years later his body was purportedly brought to Rome by St. Cyril and St. Methodius and buried on the site where the basilica bearing his name now stands.

89 - 90 CE - Persia (Iran) - Oroses rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

89 - 105 CE - Turkey - Plutarch becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

89 CE - Italy - In January, the governor of Upper Germany, L. Antonius Saturninus, mutinied at Mainz. The revolt was promptly suppressed and the rebel leaders brutally punished. Saturninus was executed.

90 - 114 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Teqerideamani I ruled Nubia.

90 CE - Palestine - Throughout Jewish history up to the Council of Jamnia (held in 90 CE near the present-day city of Joppa on the Mediterranean Coast), the list of books thought to "defile the hands" (i.e., were inspired) differed as a function of geography and political affiliation. By the time the Christian Church was formed, Greek-speaking Jews had accumulated quite a few more hand-defiling books than had their stay-at-home, Aramaic- or Hebrew-speaking cousins. When the Christians adopted the Greek "Old Testament" for their own (including the new-fangled books that went with it), Palestinian Jews had to circle their wagons. At the Council of Jamnia, the Jews threw out such books as Baruch, Ecclesiasticus, and both Books of Maccabees. By a slender vote, they narrowly avoided throwing out Ezekiel, Proverbs, Esther, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon. In the case of the Book of Daniel, the Jews threw out the last two chapters, settling for an even dozen. The Catholic Book of Daniel still contains fourteen chapters.

Map of Joppa

Figure 1. A page from E Kaine Diatheke, a Greek New Testament published by The British and Foreign Bible Society (© 1958 CE), showing the "preferred text" and "critical apparatus" for Matthew 1:11, 16, 18.

A. The traditional text of verse 16 reads: "And Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, the [one] called Christ."

B. The beginning of the variant readings for verse 16, with symbols for the various manuscripts followed by their different readings.

C. The symbol for the Syriac (sy) Sinaiticus (s) manuscript, a third to fourth century document reflecting the state of the biblical text in the second century, before believers in the virgin birth myth had succeeded in altering all the gospel texts.

D. The greatly abbreviated Greek reads: "And Joseph begat Jesus, the one called Christ."

Figure 2. No virgin birth here! Part of the genealogy of Jesus in the Syriacus Sinaiticus manuscripts referred to in Fig. 1-C. (Printed text © 1894 CE by Agnes Smith Lewis, The Four Gospels in Syriac, Transcribed from the Sinaitic Palimpsest, Cambridge University Press).

Syriac reads from right to left. Asterisks mark the Syriac word 'wld, "begat." Underlines show names repeating in the formula: A begat B, B begat C, C begat D, etc. Verses fifteen to sixteen read: "Eliud begat Eleazar, Eleazar begat Matthan, Matthan begat Jacob, Jacob begat Joseph; Joseph, to whom was betrothed a young woman, Mary, begat Jesus [(l)yshw', the last name underlined] who is called Messiah."

90 CE - Italy - Use of spices is one of the excesses that will bring about the fall of Rome, says the Christian prophet John of Ephesus in his Revelations (18:11-13). John writes metaphorically of Babylon, but he means Rome.

91 CE - Italy - Eusebius claims Anencletus (Anacletus) after twelve years as Bishop of Rome is succeeded by Clement, a follower of Paul. During Clement's reign, the Church at Corinth had open dissension with the Church at Rome. Clement wrote his own Epistle according to Eusebius.

Parthian Empire

92 - 95 CE - Persia (Iran) - Pacorus II rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

93 CE - Palestine - The Antiquities of the Jews by Flavius Josephus is first published, which contained the interval of 3,833 years. Josephus believed that Genesis was written by Moses, but from a philosophical perspective. Josephus writes that Scripture says "A woman is inferior to her husband in all things. Let her, therefore, be obedient to him." It is noteworthy that this text didn't survive to current copies of the Old Testament. Josephus believed that the Seth of Genesis is Seth or Sesostris, King of Egypt.

Nerva

96 - 98 CE - Italy - The Roman emperor Domitian is stabbed to death by a freedman September 18 at age 44 after a fifteen year reign. The empress Domitia and officers of the court have conspired against Domitian, who is succeeded by the former Roman consul Marcus Cocceius Nerva, 60. The new emperor Nerva recalls citizens exiled by Domitian, restoring to them what remains of their confiscated property.

96 CE - Egypt - Ormus, according to Masonic tradition, started an order in Alexandria having the rose-cross as a symbol.

"Their founder was a seraphic priest of Alexandria, a magus of Egypt named Ormesius, or Ormus, who with six of his companions was converted in the year 96 by St. Mark. He purifed the doctrine of the Egyptians according to the precepts of Christianity, and founded the society of Ormus, that is to say, the Sages of Light, to the members of which he gave a red cross as a decoration. About the same time the Essenes and other Jews founded a school of Solomonic wisdom, to which the disciples of Ormus united themselves. Then the society was divided into various Orders known as the Conservators of Mosaic Secrets, of Hermetic Secrets, etc."

"Several members of the association having yielded to the temptations of pride, seven Masters united, effected a reform, adopted a modern constitution, and collected together on their tracing-board the allegories of the hermetic work."

In this almost altogether faculous narrative we find an inextricable confusion of the Rose Croix Masons and the Rosicrucian philosphers.

      A New and Revised Edition - An Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences, Albert Mackey, M.D. 33o, Vol. 2, p. 636 [p. 205], 1921.

The Society of Ormus would eventually relocate to Italy and, in 1070 CE, move to territory in France owned by Godfroi de Bouillon, the first Grand Master of the Prieuré de Sion. There Ormus changed its name to the "Ordre de Sion" and the monks were given a tract of land owned by one Bernard of Clairvaux.  St. Bernard, who was the founder of the Cistercian Order of monks, also wrote of the Rule of the Templars. The Society of Ormus, which became the Ordre de Sion, then became the Prieuré de Sion. [HBHG]

St. Evaristus

97 CE - Italy - Evaristus, likely a Jewish-Greek Paulist, but some suggest he is a Jew from Bethlehem (Ephrath), is listed as the 2nd or 4th Papa of Paulist Rome, depending on which tradition one follows. He was educated at Antioch in Greece. His tenure is claimed as from eight or nine to thirteen or fourteen years. One tradition suggests he divided the Roman parishes among his followers. Some suggest he follows Anacletus as Papa of Paulist Rome and Clement I precedes Anacletus. Neapolitan tradition says that Evaristus's tomb is in Naples in the church of St. Maria Maggiore.

Façade of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter on a relief of Marcus Aurelius
(Palazzo dei Conservatori)

97 CE - Italy - The Roman emperor Nerva recalls the general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, 44, from the Rhine and formally adopts him in October at ceremonies in the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline.

Even before there was a Rome, the Capitoline hill was an important location in the boggy area of seven hills. At some point in the hill's history, a human skull (caput in Latin) was found buried on the hill. Thus the hill was entitled the Capitoline, or Capitol Hill in English (Campidoglio in Italian). The name of the home of America's Senate and House of Representatives is thus stolen from the Capitoline Hill in Rome. This is why there are two spellings for this word; the "capital" of a city comes from the name of the top of a column, while this Capitol originates from the Capitoline Hill.

The temple was destroyed several times by invading armies, and at least once (in 69 CE) by Romans themselves in a civil war. Centuries later, when the barbarians invaded Rome (not once, but repeatedly), they took special interest in trashing the Forum and the nearby temples. The Temple of Jove did not escape their torches. Over the course of the ages, the temple disappeared almost completely. Today, only pieces of the foundation remain, now buried under the modern structures on the Capitoline.

Modern-day Capitoline Hill with Marcus Aurelius on horseback

98 CE - Italy - The Roman emperor Nerva dies suddenly January 25 at age 63. He is succeeded by his adopted son, who will reign until A.D. 117 as the emperor Trajan.

Trajan

98 - 117 CE - Italy - Trajan becomes Roman Emperor. Trajan sends ten legions (50,000 men) to subdue the Dacian people making this Rome's only Trans-Danudian Province. Emperor Trajan conducted the greatest Roman games that continued for 123 straight days, which offered the spectacle of 5,000 human and 11,000 animals to be murdered. The crowds screamed for more blood.

The silver content of the Roman denarius will rise to 93 percent under the emperor Trajan, up from 92 percent under Domitian.

100 - 200 CE - Egypt - The Corpus Hermeticum is written in Alexandria. [$]

100 CE - Greece - Heron, (also known as Hero) was a Greek mathematician. Hero's major contributions to mathematics were his formula of square root, and his primary contribution to geometry were his writings and findings. Hero was born in Egypt. Some authorities place his birthday as early as 150 BCE in Ptolemaic, Egypt, while others have dated his birth to be 250 CE during the late Roman Empire.

Dacian Campaigns

101 - 106 CE - Dacia (Romania) - The Dacians were a warlike people who dominated a region east of the Danube River in the Balkan Peninsula. In the last decades of the 1st century CE, led by Decebalus, they carried out raids across the Danube into Roman territory. These only ended with a peace treaty favorable to the Dacians. The emperor Trajan's invasion of Davia in 101 was a a punitive expedition, intended to reassert Roman superiority. An army of nine legions, accompanied by large numbers of Germanic auxiliaries, crossed the Danube over a bridge of boats. Little is known about the campaign, but there was clearly much fighting, with Trajan's auxiliaries usually in the front line. In 102 CE, Decebalus sued for peace, but once the Romans had gone, he rebuilt his army and resumed attacked on Roman outposts. In 106 CE, Trajan returned, this time determined on conquest. His soldiers built a permanent bridge across the broad expanse of the Danube - typical of the legions' feats of engineering - and his army thrust into the Carpathian mountain region to besiege the Dacian capital, Sarmizagethusa. Despairing of any relief, the besieged Dacians committed mass suicide. Decebalus escaped but slit his own throat when tracked down by Roman scouts. Dacis was absorbed into the empire. Subsequent campaigns by Trajan into Arabia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia ensured that Roman reached its greatest extent under his rule. [Grant]

St. Alexander I

105 - 115 CE - Italy - Alexander I, likely a Paulist, the son of a Roman also named Alexander, is appointed (5th or 6th) Papa of Paulist Rome with estimates of 7 to 10 years reign. Others suggest this claim is obscure. It is claimed he introduced the Last Supper tradition into the mass. The Messianic Essenes are the first to practice this tradition. It is noteworthy that Jesus is an Essene being baptized by John the Baptist who is also an Essene.

105 CE - China - Papermaking is refined by the Chinese eunuch Tsai Lun, 55, who receives official praise from the emperor for his methods of making paper from tree bark, hemp, remnant rags, and fishing nets. Crude paper has been made in China for at least 2 centuries, but bamboo and wooden slips will remain the usual materials for books and scrolls for another 2 centuries, and paper will not be made in Korea until about 600 CE, in Japan until at least 610 CE.

105 - 114 CE - Turkey - Sedecion becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

107 CE - Italy - Ignatius is martyred in Rome by being fed to the lions in the arena.

108 - 127 CE - Persia (Iran) - Oroses rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

110 CE - Italy - A Roman edict to force solidarity in religion required all people to worship the state deities and then they are free to worship other Gods. Those who do not conform are to be executed under Roman Law. Many Jews and Christians refused to render unto Caesar and are persecuted under the law. At this time it is written that Nero, in order to stifle the rumor (that he had set Rome on fire) ascribed it to those people who were hated for their wicked practices, and called by the vulgar, Christians; these he punished exquisitely.

111 - 146 CE - Persia (Iran) - Vologezes III rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

Trajan's Column

111 CE - Italy - The first pagan mention of Christians was Pliny, then Tacitus in 115 CE and then Suetonius in 122 CE. They all agreed that Christianity at this time is a new, mischievous, depraved and excessive superstition. These Christians are in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it is light, when they sang in alterbate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a God, and bound themselves to a solemn oath, not to any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of food - but food of an ordinary and innocent kind. Pliny tortured and martyred two Christian female slave deaconesses to extract the real truth about the religion but could discover nothing more than depraved and excessive superstition.

113 CE - Italy - Trajan's Column is a monument in Rome raised by order of emperor Trajan. It is located in Trajan's Forum, built near the Quirinal Hill, north of the Roman Forum. Finished in 113 CE, the spiral bas-relief commemorates Trajan's victory in his military campaigns to conquer Dacia.

Originally, the column was topped with a statue of an eagle, and later by a statue of Trajan himself. In 1588 CE, it was replaced by a statue of St. Peter (which still remains) by Pope Sixtus V.

113 - 114 CE - Persia (Iran) - Pacorus II rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

114 - 129 CE - Turkey - Diogenes becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

114 - 134 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Tamelerdeamani ruled Nubia.

114 - 116 CE - Armenia - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Trajan annexed Armenia as a Province in 114 CE, and Assyria in 116 CE to the Tigris.

St. Sixtus I

115 CE - Italy - Born in Rome, Sixtus I continued the work of organizing the church. He introduced rules of cult, among them is the triple chant of Sanctus during the Mass. He was the head of the Church during the time of emperor Hadrian, who was quite tolerant with Christians. There is a probability that Sixtus didn't die a martyr and was not buried close to St. Peter, but was buried in Alatri, the place where he now is considered a patron.

116 CE - Parthia (Iran) - Romans capture the Parthian capitol of Ctesiphon.

117 - 138 CE - Italy - The emperor Trajan dies August 8 at Selinus in Cilicia at age 63, while en route from Mesopotamia to Italy. His kinsman Publius Aelius Hadrianus, 41, is advised August 9 at Antioch that he has been adopted by Trajan, learns of Trajan's death August 11, and will reign until 138 CE as the emperor Hadrian.

117 CE - Italy - Greece - Jews throughout the East rise to massacre Greeks and Romans at news of Trajan's death

122 CE - England - Hadrian's Wall goes up in Britain following the arrival in the spring of the emperor Hadrian on a tour of military inspection. The 73-mile wall from the Tyne to the Solvay is built mostly of stone with at least sixteen forts and will provide a defensive barrier against the Picts and other tribesmen to the north.

The Roman emperor, Hadrian, built the famous wall of stone across the north of England to keep the remnants of the Scottish Celts out of Roman England. The wall stretches over 73 miles from coast to coast in Northumberland, England, and is designed to separate barbarians to the north from Roman-controlled Britain.

In 122 CE, Emperor Hadrian ordered the construction of a wall across northern England to hold back the advancing Barbarians. Despite the depredations of the centuries, it remains the largest ancient monument in northern Europe, and the best way to appreciate it, and the ruggedly beautiful countryside around it, is to walk it, following in the footsteps of the Legionnaires.

Map of Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian

Hadrian's Wall at Cawfields
Hadrian's Wall and Crag Lough
Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall Path begins at Segedunum Fort, the most easterly outpost on Hadrian's Wall, which stands on the banks of the River Tyne at Wallsend. After exploring the fort's buildings, including the commanding officer's house and headquarters, hospital and legionnaire's barracks, the trail runs along the banks of the Tyne to Heddon-on-the-Wall, where a fine section of Wall remains. The trail continues past Corstopitum Fort, which pre-dates the Wall and stands a couple of miles behind it, to the impressive remains of Brunton Turret. Situated on the outskirts of Corbridge, a delightful village steeped in history, Corstopitum stands on what was, in Roman times, the main road from York to Scotland. The extensive remains include huge granaries, barracks and an enigmatic building that may have been the town Forum. On reaching Chollerford the trail passes the extensive remains of a series of Roman bridges over the Tyne before arriving at the cavalry fort of Cilurnum. Here outstanding remains include an ornate headquarters building, commanding officer's house, barracks and the military bath-house nestling against the bank of the river.

Soon after passing Brocolita, with its temple dedicated to the sun God Mithras, the trail arrives at the most dramatic stretch of the Wall where it snakes over an undulating ridge above sheer cliffs and lonely lakes. As well as the wall itself, the trail passes milecastles, turrets, Saxon burial cists, medieval shielings, a Roman bridge and the ruin of a medieval castle as well as the impressive forts of Housesteads, with its remarkable latrines and hospital; Vindolanda with its superb bathhouse and large mamsio or inn for travellers and Birdoswald with its fine gateways and granaries. Beyond Birdoswold the trail continues past Pike Hill Signal Tower, with distant views of the mountains of the Lake District, to Haytongate, where a track leads down to the picturesque ruin of Lanercost Priory, which was built from stone plundered from the Wall. From here the trail meanders through quiet farmland to Carlisle, a city dominated by its magnificent Norman castle, before following the River Eden through sleepy hamlets to the village of Bowness-on-Solway on the shores of the Solway Firth.

117 CE - Iraq - Hadrian pulled the Roman legions back to the Euphrates River.

120 - 130 CE - Egypt - Basilides, a "heresiarch" (Gnostic) of Alexandria wrote most of his work. He is supposed to have written twenty-four commentaries on the Gospels. He claimed that Jesus did not die on the cross and that a substitute, Simon of Cyrene, took his place. The Koran held the same argument in the seventh century. [p.401+]

The noun heresiarch (also hæresiarch, according to the Oxford English Dictionary) comes from the Greek: αιρεσιαρχπç, hairesiárkhes via the late Latin haeresiarcha. It used to refer both to the originator of heretical doctrine, and to the founder of a sect that sustains such a doctrine. For example, according to Catholic doctrine, the founders of Protestantism, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin were classed as heresiarchs as well as schismatics.

      Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heresiarch.

Lucius Apuleius

123 - 170 CE - Africa - Lucius Apuleius, a poet, philosopher, and rhetorician was born of prosperous parents (1) at Madaurus (present M'Daourouch) in Africa Proconsularis. Apuleius claimed to have travelled extensively as a young man, (2) and was educated in Carthage, Greece, and Rome. Brought as a child to Athens to learn Greek, he earned the right to call himself a philosophus Platonicus. He disliked studying in Rome, because the city was large and confusing and because he had no regular schoolmasters. (3)

Probably in the winter of 156 CE, he arrived at Oea (Tripoli) while on his way to Alexandria. There, as related in his Apologia, Apuleius met Pontianus, an ex-pupil from Athens, who influenced him to stay at his home for a year. Pontianus later persuaded Apuleius to marry his mother Pudentilla in order to keep her fortune in his family. Pudentilla's relatives did not want Apuleius to inherit her money, however, so they accused Apuleius of using magic to seduce his wife. They also might have implied that he murdered Pontianus, who had died mysteriously soon after the marriage. In 158, Apuleius stood trial before the Roman provincial court at Sabratha, where he delivered his own defense speech. Since this Apologia was later published, it can be assumed that Apuleius was acquitted.

After the trial, Apuleius was an active public speaker and philosopher in Carthage, and he seems to have been made a priest of the imperial cult. (4) He was very popular among the people of Carthage, who still talked about him 250 years after his death. (5) It was from this time that the excerpts in his Florida were drawn.

125 CE - Palestine - The oldest known New Testament Manuscript. [$10]

St. Telesphorus

125 - 136 CE - Italy - St. Telesphorus, a Greek hermit, is listed as a Papa of Paulist Rome, who is the only 2nd century Papa of Paulist Rome whose martyrdom is reliably attested.

129 - 136 CE - Turkey - Eleutherius becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

130 - 147 CE - Persia (Iran) - Mithridates IV rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

Temple of Olympian Zeus

130 CE - Greece - The Temple of Olympian Zeus, begun at Athens in 530 BCE, is completed by the Roman emperor Hadrian. It is 354 feet long, 135 feet wide, and 90 feet in height, the largest temple in Greece.

132 - 135 CE - Palestine - Jerusalem's Jews rise in anger against construction of a shrine to Jupiter on the site of the Temple. Led by Simon Bar-Kokhba and the rabbi Eleazar, they gain possession of Judea, beginning a two year insurrection.

Simeon Bar Kochba, calling himself "Son of the Star," started Palestine's second revolt against the Romans. [p214D] The Jews of Judea were led by the priest Eleazar and the fanatic Simon Bar-Cocheba. This second Jewish War ended with the entire Jewish culture being expelled from anywhere in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem.

Anger at Rome didn't disappear after the destruction of the Temple by the Romans. It simmered just waiting for opportunities to bubble up. In 115 CE, Rome had gone to war against the Parthians in Mesopotamia. Jews in Cyrene and Alexandria took this opportunity to revolt, and the fighting quickly spread (though not to Judea itself). Trajan brutally put down the riots. He destroyed the Jewish communities of Cyrene, Crete, Cyprus, and most of Egypt; added garrisons to the legions already in Judea; and increased taxes. The Jews of Judea, a new generation which had only heard about but hadn't experienced the horrors of the Revolt of 66 CE, resented these added infringements on their rights. Fortunately for them, Trajan died in 117 CE, and, with Hadrian the new emperor, things settled down.

Hadrian

Hadrian began well in Judea. He executed Trajan's general who had ordered most of the cruelties after the revolt in 115 CE. He rebuilt part of the walls of Jerusalem. He repaired the aqueduct which Herod had originally built. He made a triple-arched guard post where the Antonia fortress had stood. But people remained resentful.

There is no indication that Hadrian made any edicts against the Jews prior to 135 CE. He vacationed in the country in 130 CE and nothing untoward happened. However, soon afterward, rumors spread that he intended to rebuild Jerusalem into a Roman city (it's possible that he did), and that he intended to save Jewish babies from mutilation by forbidding circumcision. (This was not true; Hadrian had written an edict forbidding castration.)

In 132 CE, war broke out. The Jews were led by a single man, Simeon Bar Kosiva. Several leading rabbis including Rabbi Akiva believed he was the Messiah; they gave him the Messianic name Bar Kochba, Son of a Star. Thus his war was called the Bar Kochba Revolt.

It was different in many ways from the Great Revolt of 66 CE, which resulted in the destruction of the Temple. First, all Jews were united under one leader, Bar Kochba; there was no civil war. Second, Bar Kochba was apparently a ruthless general. Stories describe his method of selecting troops: they had to cut off one of their fingers to prove their dedication. Even if just a legend, it certainly describes a dedicated fighting force. Finally, the revolt had the support of Rabbi Akiva and other Jewish authorities, which lent Messianic authority to the war.

The Jews were successful for several years, took Jerusalem, and proclaimed a free Judea. They minted coins (many of which are extant today). Hadrian was forced to call in his greatest general, Severus, who had been busy subduing the Britons. Rather than engaging the Jewish armies directly, Severus surrounded the Jewish strongholds and systematically starved out the Jews. In 134 CE the final Jewish stronghold, Beitar, fell. Bar Kochba and all his fighters were slaughtered. More than 580,000 Jews were killed in the revolt.

The results of the Bar Kochba Revolt were terrible and painful for the Jewish population. Hadrian was outraged at the Jewish population and determined to break their will once and for all. He banned circumcision. He declared Jerusalem to be a holy Roman city and set up a Temple to Jupiter there. He made practicing or teaching Judaism a capital offense. According to Jewish tradition, he tortured and executed ten leading scholars including Rabbi Akiva.

Statue of Roman Eagle in Edessa, Turkey

132 - 216 CE - Turkey - Edessa (now Urfa in southeastern Turkey), former capital of ancient Osrhoene, ruled by the Abgar dynasty. It is situated on a limestone ridge, an extension of the ancient Mount Masius in the Taurus mountains of southern Anatolia, where the east-west highway from Zeugma (in the vicinity of modern Birecik) on the Euphrates to the Tigris met the north-south route from Samosata to the Euphrates via Carrhae. Edessa was held successively by the Seleucids, Parthians, and Romans. The history of pre-Hellenistic Urhai is unknown, but the name may have been derived from Persian K¨osrow. It may have been the abundant sources of water at Urhai that inspired Seleucus Nicator, who founded the Greek settlement there in about 303 BCE, to name it after the old Macedonian royal city, which was also well supplied with water. The name was later changed, probably by Antiochus (q.v.) IV Epiphanes (175 - 164 BCE), to Antiochia on the Callirhoe (a local fishpond), but after his reign it reverted to Edessa and Urhai.

132 CE - Spain - Spain is conquered by the Romans.

134 - 140 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Adeqetali ruled Nubia.

The Damascus Gate, Jerusalem with snow

135 CE - Palestine - Emperor Hadrian decreed that all Jews be expelled by law from Judaea. Roman Emperor Hadrian destroyed Jerusalem, and rebuilt it as a new city, called "Aelia Capitolina," prohibiting Jews from living there.

Roman legions under Julius Severus retake Jerusalem and sack the city, kill Simon Bar-Kokhba at the village of Bethar near Caesarea, and end the Jewish War of Freedom. The emperor Hadrian, who has returned to Rome, orders the site of Jerusalem plowed under and a new city, Aelia Capitolina, built on the site. Judea is renamed Syria Palestine.

A Jewish diaspora begins as Hadrian bars Jews from Jerusalem and has survivors of the massacre dispersed across the empire. Many pour into Mediterranean ports, only to be sold into slavery. Christians may enter the new city, but only if they have not sided with the Jews in the rebellion.

St. Hyginus

136 - 140 CE - Italy - St. Hyginus was born in Athens. He was considered a philosopher and fought for the assertion of the validity of the Old Testament. He established that the churches should be dedicated. He also divided the ecclesiastic hierarchy in different orders. Hyginus is noted for prescribing godfathers and godmothers for the baptism. During his tenure, the Mausoleum of Hadrian was built. Hyginus died in 140 CE, not as a martyr, and was buried next to St. Peter.

136 - 165 CE - Italy - Valentinus, "heresiarch" from Alexandria is in Rome. One of his most known followers was Ptolemy. Valentius and his followers were among Irenaeus' most common targets. [p400+]

136 - 141 CE - Turkey - Felix becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

137 CE - Egypt - The Egyptian book of Hermes, the God who presides over learning, has for long been rightly regarded as common to all priests. Hermes is the true knowledge about the Gods (spirits). Hermes is considered a composite of all ancient writings of antiquity. Seleucus says the books number 20,000, Manetho says they number 36,525 books. The books are written in Egyptian with some being translated into Greek.

Antoninus Pius

138 - 161 CE - Italy - The Roman emperor Hadrian dies at Baiae July 10 at age 62 after a 21-year reign. He has adopted Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionus Arrius Antoninus, 52, in February on condition that Antoninus adopt Marus Annius Verus, 17, nephew of his bride Faustina, and Lucius Celonius Commodus, 8, adopted two years earlier by Hadrian himself. The new emperor Antoninus, who will reign until 161 CE, goes to the Senate and asks in person that the senators confer divine honors on the late Hadrian, an act for which he will be called Antoninus Pius.

St. Pius I

140 - 155 CE - Italy - St. Pius I, son of Rufinus from Aquilesia, a Roman slave, was born at Aquilea in Friuli. Some scholars place his reign after Anicetus. He had a good personality and prohibited use of the possessions of the divine cult in other modes. He wrote other rules for priests with the grave punishments for overstepping them. To him is attributed the choice of the date for the celebration of Easter, i.e. on the first Sunday after the March full moon. Pius I governed in the times of emperor Antoninus Pius, who was very tolerant with the Christians. The Christian Gnostics Church (those who know) leaders – Valentinus of Egypt, Cerdo of Syria and Marcion of Pontus – rejected the Old Testament view of God as being unfavorable with the God of Jesus. This synod expelled the Christian Gnostic Marcion of Pontus from the Roman Paulist Church in July 144 CE. No documents have been found proving the martyrdom of this pope, while some historians think that he was assassinated.

140 CE - Italy - Marcion, a wealthy shipping magnate and bishop (who later became one of Ireaneus's targets), arrived in Rome. [401+] Marcion founded an influential Christian system which argued for the existence of two gods (one good, one evil) and for the rejection of the Old Testament.

140 - 155 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Takideamani rules Nubia.

Ptolemy

140 - 165 CE - Egypt - Tetrabiblios (Four Books on the Influence of the Stars) by Ptolemy is written. It is considered the most important book in the history of Western astrology. Ptolemy also devised the Earth-centered Ptolemaic system of the universe. [p35EE]

Ptolemy (aka Claudius Ptolemaeus, Ptolomaeus, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Ptolemeus) lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Very little is known about his personal life. He was an astronomer, mathematician and geographer. He codified the Greek geocentric view of the universe, and rationalized the apparent motions of the planets as they were known in his time.

Ptolemy synthesized and extended Hipparchus's system of epicycles and eccentric circles to explain his geocentric theory of the solar system. Ptolemy's system involved at least 80 epicycles to explain the motions of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets known in his time. He believed the planets and sun to orbit the Earth in the order Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn . This system became known as the Ptolemaic system. It predicts the positions of the planets accurately enough for naked-eye observations This is described in the book Mathematical Syntaxis (widely called the Almagest), a thirteen book mathematical treatment of the phenomena of astronomy. It contains a myriad of information ranging from earth conceptions to sun, moon, and star movement as well as eclipses and a breakdown on the length of months. The Almagest also included a star catalog containing 48 constellations, using the names we still use today.

As Prof. Draper truly remarks: "Long-continued and close observations were necessary before some of these astronomical results that have reached our times could have been ascertained. Thus, the Babylonians had fixed the length of a tropical year within twenty-five seconds of the truth; their estimate of the sidereal year was barely two minutes in excess. They had detected the precession of the equinoxes. They knew the causes of eclipses, and, by the aid of their cycle, called saros, could predict them. Their estimate of the value of that cycle, which is more than 6,585 days, was within nineteen and a half minutes of the truth."

      Isis Unveiled, Vol. 1, Chap. 1, Topic of "Astronomy," Helena Blavatsky, 1877.

In addition to his well known works in astronomy, Ptolemy was very important in the history of geography and cartography. Ptolemy of course knew that the Earth is a sphere. Ptolemy's is the first known projection of the sphere onto a plane. His Geography remained the principal work on the subject until the time of Columbus. But he had Asia extending much too far east, which may have been a factor in Columbus's decision to sail west for the Indies.

The Ptolemaic explanation of the motions of the planets remained the accepted wisdom until the Polish scholar Copernicus proposed a heliocentric view in 1543 CE. It should be noted, too, that Ptolemy's system is actually more accurate than Copernicus's. The heliocentric formulation does not improve on Ptolemy's until Kepler's Laws are also added.

141 - 144 CE - Turkey - Polycarpus II becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

Antonine Wall Ditch Mound

142 CE - England - Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered the Roman armies to advance North into Scotland. Previously the northernmost limit of the Roman Empire in Britain had been Hadrian's Wall, build across what is now the North of England from Wallsend near Newcastle to the Solway Firth. However, the Picts (the inhabitants of Scotland prior to the arrival of the Scots from Ireland) north of Hadrian's Wall were a constant annoyance to the Romans, launching raiding parties and stealing from them.

Therefore, the Romans decided in 142 CE to build a wall further north than Hadrian's Wall, to protect southern Scotland and keep the Picts out. Unlike Hadrian's Wall, which was built of stone, the Antonine Wall, as it is now known, was made largely of turf with a stone foundation. There was also probably a wooden palisade on top. A ditch up to 12.5 metres (40 feet) wide ran along the North side, with the earth excavated being piled into a mound beyond, while a road, called the Military Way ran along the South, the Roman, side.

The wall ran 37 miles (60 km), from the mouth of the River Clyde at Old Kirkpatrick to the Firth of Forth at Bo'ness. (This area is incidentally the narrowest part of Great Britain from coast to coast.) At least 16 forts lined the Wall, although allowing for ones not yet excavated the true figure is estimated at 19 or 20. It was built between 142 and 144 CE by the II, VI and XX Legions.

The Roman occupation of central Scotland did not however last long, and the Antonine Wall was abandoned around 163 CE. Since it was made of turf, the wall no longer survives except for the ditch and mound, which can be seen in various locations, including Falkirk, Croy Hill near Croy and near Bearsden, Glasgow.

144 - 148 CE - Turkey - Athendodorus becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

148 - 154 CE - Turkey - Euzois becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

148 - 190 CE - Persia (Iran) - Vologezes IV rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

150 CE - Egypt - The School of Alexandria was founded in Egypt, quickly becoming a major center for both Christian theology and Greek philosophy. Among its prominent teachers were the theologians Clement (150 - 213 CE) and Origen (c. 185 - 254 CE).

Clement of Alexandria was the first known major Christian writer to assert that the gods of other religions were really demons: "The verdict of the prophets was that the gods of all the nations were images of demons." This teaching contradicted the general belief in the Roman Empire that the gods of all religions and nations were universal and differed only in their names and certain minor characteristics.

150 CE - Italy - The Apostle's creed is developed to draw the line between Roman Paulists and other Christian groups. Those who don't profess the Creed are considered as non-Christians subject to excommunication. This principle of forced absolutism is a Roman tradition periodically applied by the Romans against the Christians and Jews. This is believed the first time that any of the New Testament is written and only fragments exist from these second generation Apostles of Christ.

154 - 166 CE - Turkey - Laurence becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

155 - 170 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Tarekeniwal rules Nubia.

St. Anicetus I

155 - 166 CE - Italy - Anicetus, a Syrian from Emesa and Eusebias, is listed a Papa of Rome. Polycaro, the octogenarian Papa of Smyrna, having reached agreement on many issues, tried to persuade the Roman Paulist Church to adopt the Asia Minor tradition of observing Easter on the 14th of the Jewish month Nisan, the day of the Passover (Quartodeciman). Rome at this time did not celebrate Easter. Papa Anicetus rejected the Eastern custom of celebrating the Lord's resurrection. This likely suggests the Roman Paulist Church is split on the issue of resurrection, or they are concerned with the Eastern Church gaining more authority over the Western Churches.

160 CE - Italy - The first list of the Paulist Bishops of Rome is compiled about 160 - 185 CE, and names Peter and Paul as conjointly the founders of the Christian Churches. The Church at this time is split between the Paulist Sect and the Peter Sect, and not until 220 CE during the reign of Callistus I as Papa of Rome, is Peter recognized as the first Papa of the Roman church.

Lucius Verus

Marcus Aurelius

161 - 180 CE - Italy - The Emperor Antoninus Pius dies of fever at Lorium in Etruria on March 7 at age 73 after a twenty-three year reign marked by prosperity in the provinces, liberal relief to cities in distress, construction of aqueducts and baths, progress in art and science, increased importance of the Roman Senate, and construction of the wall of Antoninus from the Forth to the Clyde in Britain. Antoninus is succeeded by his adopted son Marcus Annius Verus, now 40, who will reign until 180 CE as Marcus Aurelius.

He shared the Imperial powers in full equality with Lucius Aurelius Verus (161 - 169 CE). In law, the doctrine of the universal brotherhood of man, transcending limits of city or station, emphasized the humanizing trend.

166 - 169 CE - Turkey - Alypius becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

St. Soter

166 - 175 CE - Italy - Soter an Italian from Campania is listed a Papa of Rome. As a compromise Easter is firmly established during his reign as previously recommended by the Asia Minor Churches, not during Passover but the Sunday following this Jewish tradition.

167 CE - Italy - The Christian Church is composed of some twenty splinter sects with a fundamental division between the Nostics who believed God's intent is acquired through knowledge (a Greek tradition) versus the Orthodox who believed its a matter of faith based upon the Churches interpretation of scripture. The Nostic Christians live by the oldest surviving Gospel called the Gospel of Thomas that includes some 114 sayings of Jesus. The Nostic Christians had some 13 books in their Bible. The Roman Paulist Christians considered the Nostic Christians as heretics. The longstanding pagan tradition of religious monopoly is adopted in the Roman Paulist Sect Church as a result of this debate.

169 - 187 CE - Turkey - Pertinax becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

169 CE - Italy - The Roman co-emperor Lucius Aurelius Verus dies early in the year at age 39, leaving Marcus Aurelius to reign alone.

170 CE - Italy - Dionysius of Corinth stated that the custom of the Romans, from the beginning, assisted the brotherhood (Federation of Christian Churches) in various ways and sent contributions to churches in every city, thus relieving the want of the needy. This Roman tradition is an attempt to secure allegiance to Rome, doing more to secure the Roman Church power base than any doctrinal claims.

170 - 175 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Amanikhalika rules Nubia.

175 CE - Italy - Roman legions in Asia revolt under the leadership of Avidius Cassius, following rumors that the emperor Marcus Aurelius has died. Cassius, who defeated the Parthians 10 years earlier, proclaims himself emperor with the encouragement of his officers, but they assassinate him and send his head to Marcus Aurelius, who persuades the Senate to pardon Cassius' family.

St. Eleutherius

175 - 189 CE - Italy - Eleutherius, or Eleutherus, a Greek from Nicopolis, in Epirus and a deacon of Anicetus, became the Papa of Rome. Eleutherius was born in Epirus, and was a disciple of St. Anicetus I. During his pontificate, the persecution unleashed by Marcus Aurelius continued, which was especially tremedous for the Christian community in 177 CE, when St. Cecilia was martyred. On the death of Marcus, his son Commodus (180 - 192 CE) became emperor. The Church entered a period of peace under him and Eleutherius could finally dedicate himself to the internal problems of the organization. He died in 189 CE and was buried in the Vatican.

175 - 190 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Aritenyesbokhe rules Nubia.

177 CE - Italy - Marcus Aurelius begins a systematic persecution of the Christians at Rome, who oppose emperor-worship and thus pose a danger to the established order. The persecution forces adherents to the new religion to practice in secret. Many take refuge in the catacombs-the underground cemetery outside the city hewn out of solid rock since Etruscan times, and the fish becomes a symbol of Christianity (the initial letters of Iesous Christos Theou Uios Soter spell ichthus, the Greek word for fish).

178 CE - Italy - The Roman author Celsus attacks Christianity and argues that it is only followed by the poor and ignorant of society.

Icon of Holy Hierarch Irenaeus of Lyons

180 CE - France - Irenaeus, (125 - c. 202 CE), a Catholic theologian and Bishop of Lyons, more than any other Church-father gave Christian theology a coherent form. He wrote Against Heresies in an attempt to fight the spread of Gnosticism. He claimed that "every church must agree" with the church of Rome because of its apostolic authority. He compiled a list of authoritative writings resulting in the New Testament. [p384+]

St. Irenaeus was a disciple of St. Polycarp, who himself was a disciple of the Holy Apostle the Theologian John. He is one of the most ancient and honoured of all the Church Fathers.

Commodus

180 - 192 CE - Italy - The emperor Marcus Aurelius dies March 17 at age 58 after a week's illness either at his camp on the Save in Lower Pannonia or at Vindobona (Vienna). He is succeeded by his son Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, 18, who will rule tyrannically and recklessly until his murder in 192 CE.

180 CE - Egypt - According to Bishop Clement of Alexandria, Hermes Trismegistus wrote forty-two books, thirty-six on Egyptian philosophy and six on medicine. [p323)]

184 CE - China - During an epidemic in China, Chang Chueh led a revolt against the Han Dynasty. Chueh is killed in 184 CE, but his revolt continued until 204 CE, leading to the abdication of the emperor in 221 CE, ending the reign of the Han Dynasty.

185 CE - Egypt - Origines Adamantius, 185 - 254 CE, commonly known as Origen, generally considered the greatest theologian and biblical scholar of the early Eastern church, was born.

187 - 198 CE - Turkey - Olympianus becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

St. Victor I

189 - 199 CE - Italy - Until this time, the Roman Church had been dominated by Graeco-Oriental philosophy. Victor I, a Latin African, is listed as Papa of Rome and is responsible for shifting the Paulist Church of Rome away from Eastern influence to a Roman philosophy. Victor I, commissioned a series of synods throughout the world to force uniformity upon all the Churches. The majority opinion sided with Victor I, except for the Asia Minor Church. He attempted to force the Asia Minor Churches to abandon the age-old tradition of observing Easter on the Passover in favor of the Roman decree of the Sunday following Passover. The Asia Minor Church is excommunicated from the Roman Church over this issue. The real issue is that the Eastern Churches contend that the Roman Paulist Church is not the true church because its founder is Paul and not Peter. The Easter issues are likely a diversion tactic. Victor's action provoked a storm of protest and Irenaeus, papa of Lyons, sharply remind him that Easter is originally an Eastern Church tradition that the Roman Church had not previously celebrated. He also excommunicated the Church of Theodotus of Byzantium which taught that Jesus was ordinary until the Spirit descended upon him at his baptism. Victor I also excommunicated the Gnostic Christian writer Florinus from the priesthood. Victor I is the first Paulist papa of Rome to have an intimate relationship with the Roman Imperial household. Roman Emperor Commodus had a Christian mistress Marcia, and the Papa of Rome obtained the release of many Christians condemned to the mines of Sardinia. Included is a future papa of Rome, Callistus I, whose name Victor I had deliberately withheld.

190 - 200 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Amanikhareqerem rules Nubia.

190 - 206 CE - Persia (Iran) - Vologezes V rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

192 CE - Italy - The Roman emperor Commodus is murdered on December 31, ending the Antonine line that has held power since 138 CE. The emperor's mistress Marcia, his chamberlain Eclectus, and the prefect of praetorians Laetus had found their names on the imperial execution list and had hired the wrestler Narcissus to strangle Commodus.

Pertinax

192 - 193 CE - Italy - Pertinax becomes the next Roman Emperor. Pertinax reigned for 86 days before he was assassinated. The army auctioned off the post of Emperor to the highest bidder. Didius Julianus then becomes Roman Emperor, and is beheaded after two months.

193 - 194 CE - Syria - Pescennius Niger is Roman Emperor. Gaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 CE when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year.

Albinus

193 - 197 CE - France - Decimus Clodius Albinus becomes Roman Emperor. As Governor of Britain at the death of the emperor Pertinax, Albinus attempted to seize the throne but ended up as Caesar in alliance with another imperial contender, Septimius Severus. After Severus defeated two other rivals, Pertinax and Didius Julianus, the now expendable Albinus was forced into another attempt at usurpation, an attempt that came to an end at the bloody battle of Lyon.

Septimius Severus

193 CE - Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) - Septimius Severus reigns as Roman Emperor until 211 CE. Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

196 CE - Turkey - Byzantium is sacked by the emperor Septimius Severus and reduced to the status of a village.

198 CE - Parthia (Iran) - King Vologases V tried to reconquer Mesopotamia during a Roman civil war in 193, but when general Septimius Severus was master of the empire, he attacked Parthia. Again, Ctesiphon was captured, and large spoils were brought to Rome. According to a modern estimate, the gold and silver were sufficient to postpone a European economic crisis for three or four decades, and imagine the financial consequences for Parthia.

The capture of Ctesiphon on the arch of Septimius Severus.

198 - 211 CE - Turkey - Marcus I becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

St. Zephyrinus

199 - 217 CE - Italy - Zephyrinus, son of Habundius the Roman, is listed as Papa of Rome. He is considered to be inept due to his failure to condemn modalism, which was being taught by Noetus, Praxeas and Sabellius. Modalism obliterated the distinctions between the persons of the Trinity. Adoptionism, or the belief that Jesus was an ordinary man until his baptism, still flourished with Theodotus and Asclepiodotus as the leaders of that particular belief.

3rd cent. CE - China - The Three Kingdoms Period in China.

3rd cent. CE - Greece - The Old Testament Bible was translated into Greek and became known as the Septuagint or LXX.

200 CE - Britain - A well-established Christian community is established in Britain according to Church historian Tertullian. [p150+-]

200 - 500 CE - Spain - The Sepher Yetzirah is written by the Jews of Spain. The Sefer Yetzirah is without question the oldest and most mysterious of all Kabbalistic texts. The first commentaries on this book were written in the 10th century, and the text itself is quoted as early as the sixth century. So ancient is this book that its origins are no longer accessible to historians. Careful study indicates that it is a meditative text with magical overtones. Talmudic traditions indicate that it could be used to create living creatures, including the Golem - a being made by hand from clay! The Sefer Yetzirah is a small and concise book, only 1300 words long in the short version and 2500 words in the long version. The first chapter discusses the 10 Sefirot; the second chapter is a discussion of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and the 231 gates; and chapters three to five discuss the divisions of the letters in relation to astrology.

The text was deliberately written in a fashion so that it would be meaningless to those who read it without an extensive background in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and Midrash.

The chronology of astrological and astronomical developments juxtaposes the major political and societal developments in the areas of the world. The importance of these developments (in the European) is the degree with which the psychological control factors of both government and religious hierarchies begin to usurp individual rights and freedoms of the individual to empower themselves through the knowledge of astrology, and/or to seek an understanding philosophically of their own place within the universe. In the pre-hispanic periods of the Americas identified, most of the native cultures were for the most part balanced between the feminine and masculine, and Teotihuacan (where the gods have a road) in Mexico was a society that worshipped a Goddess. The Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan was built to allow the entrance of the cave underneath it to align with the setting of the Pleiades. Mesoamerica will be defined as the area from Mexico to Honduras.

In Europe, the feminine aspect of support through trust begins to wane by the first half of the first millennium BCE. This reflects the gradual development of the indoctrination of philosophic notion of the individual as "inherently negative" belief system. This negative belief system lead to the Christian cult and the concept of being born already at disadvantage (sinner). This indoctrinating system of denigration is meant to keep the individual in a state of perpetual guilt and "amends making" schemata of personal perspective of never-ending self justification, and empty self-efficacy orientation that requires "guidance" from those in "authority." Hence, the competition and alignment of the church and Rome over the centuries. Power is the issue in this area of the world. This is created by the collective because of their unwillingness to take responsibility for their own reality. Hence, the "science of following" (religions) and its development are essentially what is indicated as the societal structures move from trusting the environs to needing to control them.

200 CE - Russia - The Slav-Russian (Sarmatia-Mongolian) people are displaced and peopled by Mongolian-Germanic peoples called Scandia Goths, Visigoth (Western Goth) and Ostrogothic (Eastern Goth) mixed with (Mongol, Turks and Hun). These Goths descended from the north along the Dnieper and Don rivers, adopting the Sarmatian tradition of mounted warriors. They forced the Slavic tribes to serve them, and would become known as the East Slavic tribes. Near the end of the 4th century the Goth rule would be broken by the Hun.

200 CE - Japan - The Japanese empress Jingu sends a vast fleet to invade Korea. The Koreans capitulate at sight of the huge multi-oared ships and offer tribute.

200 CE - Palestine - Jewish Talmudic law has its beginnings in the 39 tractates of the Mishnah compiled by the Palestinian scholar-patriarch Judah ha-Kadosh, 65, of Sepphoria.

200 - 215 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Teritedakhatey rules Nubia.

202 CE - England - The Romans at this time are astonished to discover the freedom of Celtic women who could inherit and dispose personal property freely during or after marriage. She could be the family head and even discard her husband in favor of another. She had sexual freedom without shame, could be a warrior and even hold a military command.

Arch of Septimius Severus

204 CE - Italy - The white marble Arch of Septimius Severus at the northeast end of the Roman Forum is a triumphal arch erected in 204 CE to commemorate the Parthian victories of the Emperor and his two sons Caracalla and Geta in the two campaigns against the Partians, of 195 CE and 203 CE.

Plotinus

205 - 270 CE - Egypt - Plotinus was a Neoplatonist philosopher. A native of Egypt, perhaps of Roman descent, he went to Alexandria c. 232 CE to devote himself to philosophy. For 10 years he was a dedicated disciple of Ammonius Saccas. To study the philosophies of India and Persia, Plotinus, in 242 CE, traveled in the Eastern expedition of Gordian III, the Roman emperor. From 244 CE, he lived in Rome, where his school attracted wide attention. Many followed his advice and example; they gave their wealth to those in need and turned to contemplative thought. However, Plotinus never taught or practiced extreme asceticism. His pupil Porphyry wrote a biography of him and was responsible for the arrangement of his works, which were written after 253 CE, into six Enneads, or groups of nine treatises.

The theories of Plotinus were fundamentally those of Plato but included elements of other Greek philosophies as well, all drawn together into an original system that rapidly won followers and in time had considerable influence on the thinkers of the Christian Church, although Plotinus himself opposed Christianity. His development of the idea of emanation was fuller than that found in the teachings of the Stoics and of Philo. This cosmological conception is the chief point of Neoplatonism, which received its form from Plotinus. All else, even his ethics, depends upon this view of the world.

Among the virtues set forth by Plotinus are political or social virtues, concerning a human being's relations to others; the higher purifying virtues, needed to help the soul become like God by removing from it as much as possible that which is of the senses; and the still higher deifying or enlightening virtures, through the exercise of which a human being may attain to the fulfillment of his or her true nature. But unification with the highest, with God, is not possible through thought. It is attained only when the soul, in an ecstatic state, loses the restraint of the body and has for a time an immediate knowledge of God.

208 - 222 CE - Persia (Iran) - Papak rules as king of the Sassanid Empire.

207 - 221 CE - Persia (Iran) - Vologezes VI rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

211 - 217 CE - Turkey - Philadelphus becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

Geta

211 CE - England - Rome's Septimius Severus dies in Britain at Eboracum (York) February 4 at the age of 64. His eldest son Augustus, who is called Caracalla (or Caracallus) after the long-hooded tunic he introduced from Gaul, becomes co-emperor with his younger brother Publius Septimius Geta. Because of the constant fighting with his elder brother, Caracalla, Geta was eventually murdered because of elder brother's desire to be rid of him.

Caracalla

211 - 217 CE - Italy - Caracalla was the Roman emperor who finally opened the racial floodgates on the Roman Empire and sealed its fate.

In 212 CE, in an apparent attempt to broaden the Roman tax base, Caracalla passed an edict giving all free males within the Empire citizenship of Rome.

The path followed by Rome mirrored that followed by Sumeria, the Near East, Egypt and Greece. All these civilizations remained intact as long as the society which created them remained homogeneous.

As soon as these societies lost their homogeneity and became multiracial, the very nature of the societies changed and the original civilizations disappeared. Rome would prove to be no exception to this rule.

213 - 227 CE - Persia (Iran) - Artabanus V rules as king of the Parthian Empire.

213 CE - Italy - The Baths of Caracalla, completed by the Roman emperor, have public baths (Thermae), reading rooms, auditoriums, running tracks, and public gardens that cover 20 acres. The main building alone covers six acres and can accommodate as many as 1,600 at one time. The poor of Rome are obliged to bathe in the Tiber, and while Rome has sewers and public health inspectors (who enforce hygiene in brothels and markets), the streets are filthy, and in small towns and villages outside the capital the streets stream with excrement.

215 - 276 CE - Persia (Iran) - Mani (Manes, Manys, Manytos, Manentos, Manou, Manichios, Manetis, and in Augustine always Manichaeus - born 215 / 216 CE of Jewish/Christian parents) is the Iranian founder of the Manichaean religion. Mani is not a name but a title and a term of respect. The exact meaning is uncertain, but the Babylonian-Aramaic Mânâ is proposed as its probable origin, which was a term for the light-spirit, mânâ -rabba is the light king, or light lord. The founder has assumed this title and it has replaced his personal name completely. His father, Fâtâk Bâbâk (Patekios) was a native of Ecbatana (Hamadan - the ancient Median capital and a member of the famous Chascanian Gens (gens is a clan or a family). The boy was born in the village of Mardinu (presently the city of Mardin in southeastern Turkey). His mother was of noble descent, belonging to the Arsacids, who were a dynasty of Parthian kings who ruled Iran between 247 BCE - 224 CE. As usual with these stories his mother's name is not certain; it could be Mes, Utâ chím, Marmarjam, and Krossa. Fâtâk Bâbâk was a stongly religious person, he left Ecbatana and moved south to join the south Babylonian Puritans (Menakkede) or the Mandaeans and also had his son educated in their teaching, which was baptism and abstinence. Here at the age of twelve Mani is supposed to have received his first revelation. The angel Eltaum, ('Twin'; God of the Covenant; Tamiel of the Jewish Rabbis) appeared to him, bade him to leave the Mandaeans and live a chaste life. He did that and waited for another 12 years as ordereed by this angel, before he proclaimed himself to the people supposedly on 20 March 242 CE, in the royal residence, with the words: "As once Buddha came to India, Zoroaster to Persia, and Jesus to the lands of the west, so came in the present time, this prophecy through me, the Mani, to the land of Babylonia." He was the 'Apostle of the true God'.

Mani spoke a form of eastern Aramaic. Information on his life is based on his own writings and the traditions of his church. He traveled to India (probably Sind and Turan) and made converts.

Mani eventually returned to Persia, where his following had greatly increased. This time, he was favorably received by the Persian king, Shapur I and by his successor, Hormisdas I. He was allowed to preach freely, and was even given a city in Khuzistan for his residence. He finally fell victim to the established Zoroastrian priesthood during the reign of Bahram I, the successor of Hormisdas. He was arrested at Gundev Shapur in 276 CE and thrown into prison in chains, where he died after 26 days. His corpse was flayed, and his skin was stuffed with straw and nailed to the gate of the city. His Persian followers were then subjected to severe persecution, but Manichaeism outside Persia flourished. Records show the Manichaean religion to have spread to Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, North Africa, Asia Minor, Armenia, Dalmatia, Rome, Spain, Southern Gaul, Trans-Oxiana, Turkestan, India, China and even Tibet.

215 - 225 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - King Aryesbokhe rules Nubia.

217 - 230 CE - Turkey - Ciriacus I becomes Bishop of Byzantium.

Macrinus

217 - 218 CE - Italy - The emperor Caracalla was murdered April 8 by a group of his officers as he prepared to invade Parthia. He was succeeded by the Mauretanian M. Opellius (Severus) Macrinus, 53. Marcus Opellius Macrinus was the first emperor who was neither a senator nor of a senatorial family at the time of his accession. His 14-month reign was spent entirely in the East, where he proved unable to maintain the influence gained in the region by the campaigns of his predecessor, Caracalla, nor was Macrinus able to shake the suspicion that he was responsible for Caracalla's murder.

St. Callistus

217 - 222 CE - Italy - Callistus I (Calixtus), a slave of the Christian freeman Carpophorus, becomes Papa of Rome. Carpophorus had previously established Calixtus as a banker, but he panicked and fled when the business failed. There were serious losses to the Paulist Christian depositors. As punishment, he was brought back to work on a treadmill and then released. Calixtus, the failed banker, is charged with brawling in a synagogue on the Sabbath and is sentenced to hard labor in the mines of Sardinia. Victor I did not like Calixtus, but Zephyrinus did, and obtained his release from prison, making him his principle deacon. Papa Calixtus excommunicated Sabellius the leader of modalism, but never formally censured Papa Hippolytus of Rome. He preached that the Church is a home for sinners as well as saints and freely offered reconciliation, which infuriated the Saints of the Church. It is believed he was killed or murdered during a popular riot.

This is the first period in the Roman Church that the position of Bishop of Rome first emerged. Prior to this time such a position did not exist. The first list of bishops of Rome is alleged to date from 160 to 185 CE, but this is likely to be a later forgery. This list makes Peter and Paul conjointly the founders of the Roman Church. No one at that time asserts that St. Peter was a Bishop. Callistus I is the first to claim Peter as the first bishop of Rome, most likely to support his own position.

St. Hippolytus (217 - 235 CE) a Greek Presbyter and chief intellectual of the Roman Church became what the Roman Church called the first anti-Papa of Rome. St. Jerome considered him the Papa of Rome and a prolific author. Hippolytus accused Callistus of modalism and laxity in discipline. He said Calistus permitted papa's guilty of grave offences to remain in office, ordained men who had been married two or even three times, refused to condemn clergy who married, recognized unions (then-condemned by Roman law) between upper-class women and men of inferior status and readmitted to the church without penance converts from heretical or schismatic sects. Hippolytus envisaged the Roman Church as a community of saints.

Diadumenianus

218 CE - Italy - Diadumenianus, son of Macrinus, is named Heir and Caesar of the Roman Emperor shortly after the death of Caracalla in 217 CE. The following year, despite the inexperience of the leaders of a rebel army formed by the grandson of Caracalla's aunt, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Elagabalus

218 - 222 CE - - Italy - The emperor Macrinus tried to reduce the pay of Roman troops and was defeated and slain near Antioch on June 8. His successor was the Syrian Varius Avitus Bassianus, 14, a grandnephew by marriage of the late Septimius Severus, who claimed to be a son of Caracalla and calls himself Heliogabalus, or Elagabalus, taking the name of the Syrian sun king.

Seleucus and Uranius were potential usurpers during the reign of Elagabalus and not much is known about them. Gellius Maximus declared himself emperor in 219 CE during the reign of Elagabalus, who, however, quelled the revolt and ordered Gellius Maximus to be executed. Verus has rebelled and proclaimed himself emperor in 219 CE also, with the same results from Elagabalus.

220 CE - Italy - During the reign of Callistus I as Papa of Rome, Peter is recognized as the first Papa of the Roman church. Prior to this time, Paul was recognized as the first Papa of Rome, and it would be another twenty to thirty years before the tradition of Peter being the first Papa of Rome took shape.

220 - 266 CE - The Three Kingdoms of China - The period of the "Three Kingdoms" is a brief interlude before things settle down for a while in the dynamic of the following period. It may be remembered now with special attention because of a literary source - The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, from the 14th century. The Minor Han (Shu Han) is supposed to derive from the previous dynasty. The Shu Han is shown (2) occupying an area of Yunnan that had only been partially occupied by the Han, is missing from many maps of the T'ang, and was only properly settled by Chinese with veterans at the beginning of the Ming. The area is more reasonably identified as Szechwan (3) [Sichuan, north of the Yangtze], but a map of the period is not provided (the maps which are provided jump directly from Confucius to the T'ang). A nice map of the Three Kingdoms (4), shows mysteriously, none of the Sui or T'ang, showing somewhat less, though still substantial, territory south of the Yangtze. Perhaps the Shu Han was not entirely Chinese in origin. Be that as it may, the kingdom is eventually absorbed by the Wu. The Wei and Wu are replaced by the founder of the Western Tsin [or Chin, Pinyin Jìn], Sima Yan, a general of Wei, who overthrows Wei in 266 and conquers Wu in 280, reunifying the country. This doesn't last, as civil war breaks out in 290. Barbarians, the Hsiung-nu [Xiongnu], sacked the capital of Luoyang in 311. Debate continues whether the Hsiung-nu are none other than the Huns who later (within two centuries) invaded Europe and India. Whether they are or not, they inaugurate an era when barbarians dominate the North.

St. Urban I

222 - 230 CE - Italy - Urban I came to the see of Rome in the year that Roman Emperor Elagabalus was assassinated and served during the reign of Emperor Alexander Severus. He had been preceded by Callixtus I and was followed by Pontian. He is mentioned by Eusebius in his history and is named in an inscription in the Coemeterium Callisti, but not much about his life is known. The Catholic Church's Breviary (25 May) speaks of his numerous converts, among whom were Valerianus, husband of Saint Cecilia, and his brother Tiburtius, and states that he suffered martyrdom and was buried in the Coemetarium Praetextati.

Severus Alexander

222 - 235 CE - Italy - The emperor Heliogabalus was murdered March 11 by the praetorians and was succeeded by his cousin and adopted son (Gessius) Bassianus, 14, who took the name Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander and begins a twelve year reign that will be dominated by his mother Mamaea. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life.

The emperor Severus Alexander buys peace from the Alamanni, who have invaded Gaul, and is subsequently lynched on March 18 by his troops on the Rhine. They proclaim the Thracian Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus, 62, as emperor, and he begins a three year reign.

222 - 224 CE - Persia (Iran) - Shapur rules as king of the Sassanid Empire. The Sassanians considered themselves as heirs of the Achaemenids, revived old values and practices, in particular supremacy in world affairs. Ardeshir I initiated and Shahpour I consolidated a vast empire stretching from the Indian Punjab to the east of Capadocia in Anatolia.

Sasanid (Sâsâniân) Dynasty, 224 - 640 CE

224 - 240 CE - Persia (Iran) - Artashir I rules as the first great king of the Sassanid Empire.

The Sassanids begin to replace the Hellenophile Parthian dynasty, with the program of deliberately reviving the Zoroastrian Achaemenid Persian Empire, aspiring to recover all the former provinces of the Achaemenids (Egypt, Syria, Anatolia).

225 - 246 CE - Nubia (Sudan) - The name of the Nubian King during this time period is unknown.

225 CE - Italy - L. Seius Sallustius, 225 - 227 CE, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 CE on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

226 - 227 CE - Persia (Iran) - Artavasdes rules as last king of the Parthian Empire.

226 - 240 CE - Persia (Iran) - Ardashir I rules as the great king of the Sassanid Empire.


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