The Curse of the Corporation

Part IV – 1300 BCE to 659 BCE

Egyptian Star Clock

1300 BCE - Egypt - The Egyptian Star Clock is in existence. These clocks were found in the tombs of Seti I and Ramses IV. [p85S]

The star clock or merkhet was used to measure the time at night. It is the oldest known astrometrical tool, which is a tool to measure the positions, movements and distances of planets and stars. Egyptians lined up a pair of merkhets with a certain star, called the Pole Star, to establish a north-south line. The Egyptians used the merkhets to mark off nighttime hours by determining when other stars crossed the meridian.

The Egyptians timed the apparently regular movements of the stars across the sky using an equal interval timer such as a water clock, and this set the basis for the Egyptian time-keeping system. This type of indicator was also the first scientific instrument to combine the function of a surveying device and a transit instrument. The merkhet shown belonged to an Egyptian priest called Bes, son of Khonsirdis, who was the Observer of Hours at the Temple of Horus in Edfu, Upper Egypt.

Mahabharata War

1300 BCE - India - One of the classic literary texts of Ancient India, the Mahabharata tells of the power struggle between rival cousins the Kauravas and the Pandavas. Most authorities accept that the war was not a real historical event; nonetheless, the account is a rare source of information about how wars were fought in India before the 4th century BCE, the probable date of its composition. According to the work, armies fought mostly on foot, with bows; horses were scarce and were only used to draw the chariots in which the nobility fought. The course of the 18-day battle that settled the war has similarities with the Greek epic the Iliad; there is plenty of divine intervention and even a hero who, like Achilles, is killed because a protective magic spell misses one part of his body. [Grant]

1293 - 1188 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - The Nineteenth Dynasty started with the reign of Ramesses I. It continued through the reigns of Sethos I, Ramesses II, and lastly, Merneptah. At the start of the Nineteenth Dynasty, Ramesses I and Sethos I continued with Horemheb's (Eighteenth Dynasty) work of picking up the pieces of Egypt's damaged pride caused greatly during the Eighteenth Dynasty. The restoration of Egypt's temples and gods and the authority of Egypt in Nubia and western Asia were accomplished during this dynasty. The most notable product of these efforts were the restoration of the national shrine of Amun in Nubia and the construction of a temple to Osiris at Abydos.

19th Egyptian Dynasty

When Horemheb, the last king of XVIII Dynasty, died, apparently childless, Paramessu succeeded him as Ramesses I. Paramessu's family came from Avaris, the former capital of the Hyksos, and the role of its local god Seth, who had retained strong connections with the Canaanite god Ba'al, appears to have been comparable with that of Horus of Hutnesu in Horemheb's career. The Ramessid royal family considered the god Seth to be their royal ancestor, and a fragment of an obelisk, discovered on the seabed of the coast of Alexandria, shows Seti I as a sphinx with the head of the Seth-animal offering to Re-Atum. With Ramesses I began a new dynasty, although there is some evidence to suggest that the Ramessid pharaohs considered Horemheb as the true founder of the dynasty.

The facts about the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty are unclear. It is believed that the country fell into decline and into a further state of anarchy.

Ramesses I

Ramesses I

1293 - 1225 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses I - Ramesses - "Man." Menpehtire - "Eternal Is The Strength Of Re." Ramesisu - "Born Of Re."

Ramesses I was the son of Seti, the commander of royal archers. He held many weighty offices in the army, and was later vizier and confidant to Horemhab. Ramesses I was appointed by him as heir to the throne. As a vizier, he ordered a tomb to be built for himself at Gurob (Fayum Oasis) where Ramesses' wife (or relative) was buried. After he had been designated heir to the throne, he built a tomb (KV16) for himself in the Kings' Valley. The king's mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahari DB320 cache and is now the property of the Atlanta Museum. Fragments of his sarcophagus can be seen in the Cairo Museum. Ramesses I ruled for one year and four months, as co-regent with his son and successor, Seti I.

Though the mummy of Ramesses I had remained unidentified from many years, some scientists now believe that a mummy discovered in the Niagra Falls Museum and Daredevil Hall of Fame in Ontario, Canada, is none other than that of Ramesses I. In 1999 CE, this facility closed its doors and sold off its antiquities, which were purchased by the Cairo Museum. After careful analysis of a number of different factors related to this mummy, such as the care with which the mummification took place, its general appearance in relationship to others of the 19th Dynasty kings, and other factors, these scientists have concluded that this must have been Ramesses I. In light of all this evidence, Egyptian authorities have accepted the return of the mummy in a spirit of cooperation.

Mummy of Ramesses I

Mummy of Ramesses I

The Ontario museum probably received the mummy from a Canadian doctor who had the artifacts smuggled out of Egypt in the early 1860s, about the time tomb raiders discovered a cache of royal mummies near the Valley of the Kings. It was from that cache that the remains of Ramesses I disappeared.

Zahi Hawass, the secretary general of Egypt's Supreme Council on Antiquities, was at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport in Egypt to receive the mummy. He said the mummy will be featured beginning in 2000 CE at Egypt's Luxor Museum.

1291 - 1279 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - Seti I - Sethos - "Man." Menmaatre - "Eternal Is The Justice Of Re." Merienptah - "Beloved Of Ptah." Seti - "He Of Seth."

Seti I

The second king of the 19th Dynasty was the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre. Like his father before him, Seti was a good military leader. After coming to the rule, he was forced to undertake a series of war campaigns to Asia and Libya. On a campaign in Asia, Seti took three divisions of 60,000 men each into battle. He reoccupied Egyptian posts and garrisoned cities in the Syrian territory. He plundered Palestine and brought Damascus back into Egyptian control.

He made wars with the Hittites, and conquered the land of Amurru (Assyria) and city of Kadesh. He reconciled with the Hittites who were becoming the most powerful state in the region. In his 8th regnal year, he made a war expedition to the land of Jam in Sudan. History records of his warlike deeds add splendor to walls of many Egyptian temples. He erected a magnificent temple at Abydos and a number of building structures all over Egypt, among others - the great hypostyle of the temple of Karnak, and mortuary temples in Western Thebes and Memphis. He erected the temple of Amun at Napata in Nubia, as well as in other cities. Many temples which were destroyed during Amarna period, were restored and covered with new reliefs and polychrome. He started building the new capital of Ramessides in the Delta. Seti I and his heir, Ramesses II campaigned against Kadesh. In Karnak he completed his father's plan by converting the court between the second and third pylons into a vast hypostyle hall.

He built his vast mortuary complex at Abydos. In Thebes, he built his finely decorated tomb KV17 in the Kings' Valley. Cut 300 feet into the cliffs, it was the largest tomb in the area. Buried with him were over 700 Shabti. These were carved stone or wooden figures that were to accompany him to the afterlife to comply with the requests from the gods. His tomb in the Valley of the Kings was vandalized and the king's mummy was found in the Deir el-Bahari cache DB320.

Ramesses II

1279 - 1213 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses II - Ramesses Miamun - "Man." Hor Kanakht - Wesermaatre - "The Justice Of Re Is Powerful." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Ramesisu - "Born Of Re." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amun."

Ramesses II was the son of Seti I by queen Tui. He had seven legal, royal wives and two hundred concubines. Historical sources record that he had ninety-six sons and sixty daughters. Ramesses II was regarded one of the mightiests (if not the one mightiest) Egyptian pharaohs. Certainly, he is the best known ruler of ancient Egypt and a symbol of this land. Three facts went into the making thereof: tremendous building activity, traces of which can be found all over Egypt; active internal policy and presence of military force keeping a strong position of the Egyptian Empire, as well as an immensely long rule which comprised sixty-seven years. He was crowned the king after his father's death in June 1279 BCE.

In his 4th regnal year he made first military campaign into Syria which resulted in relieving of the principality of Amurru ruled by Betneshina. This incursion provocated a vigorous response from Muwatillis, who caught Ramesses in some disarray at Qadesh on the Orontes River, near the modern Lebanese-Syrian border. The next year a battle took place at Kadesh by Orontes. The course of this most famous battle in Egyptian history is recorded in wall presentations of temples at Abydos, Thebes and Abu Simbel. It is also recorded in papyri and is called the Poem of Pentewere. Egyptian sources present the battle as a great triumph of the Egyptian army and pharaoh Ramesses II in person. Hittite sources show the contrary. The fact that the land of Amurru had been annexed to Hittites' zone of influence allows a conclusion that the Hittite sources which record failure (if not complete defeat) of Egyptian army are closer to the truth.

Reading between the lines of his boastful accounts, it looks like the king faced a humiliating and possibly crushing defeat, until the the tardy arrival of a lagging division saved the day. Ramesses, however, may be credited with bravely standing his ground and rallying the troops until help arrived – though, to be sure, Egyptian kings are always portrayed as braver in battle than any of their subordinates. While Ramesses always fondly remembered his moment of martial danger and triumph, the cost of the battle seems to have sobered both sides, and the inconclusive war eventually was in fact concluded with a treaty in 1258 BCE, roughly dividing Syria between the two kingdoms, which was a written non-aggression pact and provided mutual relief for political refugees. This is the oldest known historical document made between two foreign countries. Over the next dozen-or-so years, Ramesses was making numerous war campaigns into Syria-Palestine, consolidating his own influence zone.

Between 1245 to 1240 BCE, two Hittite princesses arrived to the royal harem, thus consolidating peace with the land of Hitti. Expeditions are known to the land of Jam in Sudan in year 21 of Ramesses reign, and to Nubia in year 44, under command of Setau, the viceroy of Kush.

Ramesses II

Ramesses II reinforced fortresses in the Western Delta which protected that area from the attacks of the "sea people" and from the Libyan tribes. The building activity of the king exceeds that of any other pharaoh. To count the buildings erected or restored in his time seems to be impossible. There is no city in Egypt where the ruler did not leave traces of his building activities. Temples in Western Thebes (Ramesseum) and Abu Simbel are the masterpieces of the ancient Egyptian architecture accomplished under his rule. He completed erection of a capital that was started by Seti I near Tanis (Pe-Ramesu). During his sixty-seven year rule, Ramesses II celebrated a Sed festival fourteen times.

During his reign, Ramesses II proclaimed himself the "Beloved of Set," which infuriated the Osirians. The Osirians destroyed Set's statues and erased his inscriptions.

The burial place of this ruler was tomb KV7, the one of most finely decorated tombs in the King's Valley, unfortunately it now is vastly damaged by water and mud. The king's mummy was moved to tomb of Seti I and was finally concealed in the Deir el-Bahari DB320 cache, later discovered in 1871 CE. In front of his own tomb, Ramesses ordered to another huge tomb KV5 to be built, which was discovered in 1995 CE by Archaeologist K. R. Weeks. This tomb was meant to serve as a collective tomb of numerous sons of Ramesses II. The burial place of the king's first wife, the queen Nefertari, was tomb QV66 in the Queens' Valley.

The Turin Canon

The Turin Canon, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a unique papyrus, written in hieratic, currently in the Egyptian Museum at Turin, to which it owes its modern name. It is broken into over 160 very small fragments, many of which have been lost. When it was discovered in the Theban necropolis by the Italian traveller Bernardino Drovetti in 1822 CE, it seems to have been largely intact, but by the time it became part of the collection of the Egyptian Museum in Turin, its condition had severely deteriorated.

Written during the long reign of Ramesses II, the papyrus, now 1.7m long and 0.41m, comprises on the recto an unknown number of pages that hold a list of names of persons and institutions, along with what appears to be the tax-assessment of each. It is, however, the verso of the papyrus that has attracted the most attention, as it contains a list of gods, demi-gods, spirits, mythical and human kings who ruled Egypt from the beginning of time presumably until the composition of this valuable document.

The beginning and ending of the list are now lost, which means that we are missing both the introduction of the list – if ever there was such an introduction – and the enumeration of the kings following the 17th Dynasty. It is not known for certain when after the composition of the tax-list on the recto an unknown scribe used the verso to write down this list of kings. This may have occurred during the reign of Ramesses II, but a date as late as the 20th Dynasty cannot be exclude.

The king list of the Turin Canon was originally divided over an unknown number of columns or sheets, of which only 11 remain. Columns I to V comprised 25 or 26 lines of text, column VI at least 27 and columns IX and X at least 30.

The number of years credited to some kings of the 1st and 2nd Dynasty is so high, that, in those particular cases, they are most likely not correct. It has sometimes been postulated that this high number of years does not reflect the length of a reign but the age at which the king died.

For the kings of the first three dynasties, a name is written in a cartouche as well, despite the fact that cartouche-names were not used prior to the rule of the last king of the 3rd Dynasty, Huni.

The Turin Royal Canon

The Turin Royal Canon mentions the names of all Egyptian rulers preceded by the register of gods that, as it was believed, ruled over Egypt before the era of Pharaohs.

A total of 16 groups can be distinguished –

1. I, x - I, 21: Ptah and the Great Ennead
2. I, 22 - II, 3 : Horus and the Lesser Ennead
3. II, 4 - II, 8 : the spirits
4. II, 9 : a mythical group of kings
5. II, 10 : another group of mythical kings
6. II, 11 - III, 26/27 : 1st to 5th Dynasty
7. IV, 1 - IV, 14/15 : 6th to 8th (?) Dynasty
8. IV, 15/17 : 1st to 6th (or 8th ?) Dynasty
9. IV, 18 - V, 10 : 9th and 10th Dynasty
10. V, 11 - V, 18 : 11th Dynasty
11. V, 19 - VI, 3 : 12th Dynasty
12. VI ,4 - X, 12/13 : 13th and 14th Dynasty
13. X, 14 - X, 21 : 15th Dynasty (Hyksos)
14. X, 22, X, 30 (?) : a group of non-identified kings
15. XI, 1 (?) - XI, 15 : a group of probably Theban kings contemporary with the Hyksos (17th Dynasty
16. Unplaced fragment 4: a group of non-identified kings

Despite its incomplete and fragmentary nature, and despite the fact that the placing of the fragments has been contested from time to time, the Turin Canon is one of our most important sources of knowledge about the chronology of Egypt between the 1st and 17th Dynasties.

1275 BCE - Egypt - The Israelite Exodus from Egypt occurs under Moses and Aaron during the reign of Ramesses II.


1213 - 1202 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - Merenptah - Amenephthes - "Man." Amenophath - "Man." Amenophis - "Man." Baenre - "Soul [Ba] Of Re." Merinetjeru - "Beloved Of The Gods." Meryenptah - "Beloved Of Ptah." Hotephermaat - "Joyous Is Truth."

The thirteenth son of Ramesses II, his mother was queen Isetnofret I. He ruled as co-regent for 12 years, after holding an office of a general. Manetho mentions his nineteen years and six month rule. This duration is entirely overestimated unless a co-regency with Ramesses II is considered. The most significant event during Merenptah's rule was repulse of Libyans' and Sea Peoples' attacks in the fifth year of his rule. In 1207 BCE, he lead a victorious campaign into Asia, as recorded in the "stele of Israel," [TI] the only preserved document confirming the existence of this small tribe in Western Asia, both proudly and untruthfully described in the Bible. The building activity of Merenptah was focused mainly in Western Thebes and Memphis, where he erected a mortuary temple from blocks gathered that were pulled down from the Theban temple of Amenhothep III, and a palace and sacral complex devoted to Ptah and his royal cult.

Merenptah's burial place is tomb KV8 in the Kings' Valley. His mummy was found in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.

One interesting facet to Merenptah's reign was that he moved the administrative center for Egypt from Piramesse (Pi-Ramesse), his fathers capital, back to Memphis, where he constructed a royal palace next to the temple of Ptah. This palace was excavated in 1915 CE by the University of Pennsylvania Museum led by Clarence Fischer, and yielded fine architectural elements.

Mummy of Merenptah

Merenptah's tomb is number KV 8 located in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank of Luxor (ancient Thebes). The king probably died around 1202 BCE, but his mummy was not found within his tomb. In the 19th century, this apparently added to the speculation about him being the Pharaoh of the Exodus, since that king's body would have probably been washed away in the Red Sea. However, that theory was confounded when, in 1898 CE, his mummy was discovered among 18 others in the mummy cache discovered in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV 35).

He also built a mortuary temple that lies behind the Colossi of Memnon on the West Bank at Luxor. Much of it was built with stone robbed from the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III. The structure is currently being studied by Horst Jartz with the Swiss Institute in Cairo. Reports indicate that some of the fragments discovered include well preserved reliefs, perhaps some of the finest to be found in any temple at Thebes. The Egyptian Ministry of Culture has now decided to turn this complex into an open museum.

1240 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - The Amorites are conquered by Assyria with the sack of Babylon. The Amorite city states and subject states in Canaan become vulnerable to later attacks by the Israelites.

Seti II

1202 - 1195 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - Seti II - Weserkheperure - "Powerful Are The Manifestation Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Seti - "He Of Seth." Meryenptah - "Beloved Of Ptah."

There is no certainty that Seti II he was a son of Merenptah by Queen Isetnofret or, as suggested by Egyptologists E.F. Wente and J.R. Harris, he was not related to the dynasty at all. Assuming that Amenmose was a usurper, it can be concluded that Amenmose ruled over Thebaida for some time under Seti II's rule in Lower Egypt. There is no doubt, however, that Seti II ordered the decorations from Amenmose's temple in the Valley of the Kings to be removed. Seti II constructed a station for a barge on the courtyard in front of pylon II at Karnak, and erected the chapels of the Theban triad at Amun, Mut and Chonsu. He was buried on the eleventh day of the third month of the peret (winter) season in tomb KV15 in the Kings' Valley. The king's mummy was moved to tomb KV14 of Taweseret in the last year of her reign, and after Sethnakht's ascenscion to the throne, it was returned to its previous burial place. It was later removed to the the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.

1200 BCE - Syria - Greece - Labyrinth images of exactly the same pattern as the ones found in Bohuslän, Sweden, were painted on ceramics in Tell Ri fa'at, north Syria and Pylos, Peleponnesos. [p161LAB]

1200 BCE - Iraq - The Hittite empire ends because of the Barbarian invasions from the Middle East. Mycenae ceases to be a powerful city-state.


1200 BCE - India - The Hindu man-god Krishna was believed to have been born c. 1200 BCE. He was said to be an incarnation of the god Vishnu, born of a human mother, Devaki. Krishna's birth was celebrated on the Winter Solstice.

According to legend, Krishna's birth was announced by a star and angelic voices. Shepherds and wise men hailed him as the Redeemer and gave him gifts. King Kansa tried to kill Krishna by ordering the death of all male infants born on the same night as Krishna. A heavenly voice warned his earthly foster father (a carpenter) to flee with his family.

Krishna was said to have taught moral lessons, forgiven sins, performed miracles, and defeated demons. It was believed that the Lord and Savior Krishna atoned for the world's sins by pouring out his blood while lying on a cross-shaped temple rock.

However, some Indian art depicts Krishna hanging from a cross and being pierced by an arrow. It was also believed Krishna rose from death and ascended to heaven.

1200 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - The Epic of Gilgamesh is written.


1200 - 1196 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - Amenmose - Ammenemes - "Man." Amenses - "Man." Menmire - "Eternal Like Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Amenmesisu Heqa-Waset - "Born Of Amon, Lord Of Waset."

The origin and genealogy of this ruler are incredibly intricate. There is belief that viceroy of Kush (named Messui during the time of Merenptah) and Amenmose are the same person. He was usurper who illegally ruled for four years during the time of Seti II. Other theories say that Amenmose was the vizier of Merenptah and son of Takhat, who was the daughter of Ramesses II. Another theory, that does not contradict the previous one, says that he was son of Merenptah and Takhat. He might have been the husband of Tia and father of Siptah. It is possible that Amenmose co-ruled with Seti II. The above description shows that the period of Amenmose's rule was one of the most unclear in Egyptian history. According to Egyptologist Kitchen, Amenmose held rule also in the North. His burial place is in tomb KV10 in the Valley of the Kings. There are traces of devastation that took place during the times (by order?) of Seti II, which would suggest that the rule of Amenmose was illegal.


1195 - 1189 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - Siptah - Akhenre - "Beautiful Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Siptah - "Son Of Ptah." Meryenptah - "Beloved Of Ptah."

Siptah was the son of Seti II by his Syrian concubine. He changed his titulary during his rule. It is assumed that he was merely fourteen years old when he inherited the throne, as he died at the age of twenty, which was revealed by an analysis of his mummy. In his behalf, the rule was held by Taweseret, his step-mother. Another interesting figure of those times was chancellor Bay, who usurped the right of ruling. The tomb of Bay was found in the Valley of the Kings, tomb KV13. Based upon the Harris' papyrus, Bay is usually identified with "the Syrian of Yarsu" and was presumed to have died some time before Siptah. The burial place of Siptah is in tomb KV47 in the Kings' Valley. The king's mummy was found in the Amenhotep II KV35 tomb-cache.


1195 - 1188 BCE - XIX Egyptian Dynasty - Taweseret - Thuoris - "Man." Satre - "Daughter Of Re." Meritamon - "Beloved Of Amon." Taweseret - "Mighty Lady." Setepenmut - "Chosen Of Mut."

Taweseret was the wife of Seti II and step-mother of Siptah. As Seti-Merenptah, the son of Taweseret (or Takhat) and Seti II, who was the legal heir, died prematurely, the throne was passed to Taweseret's minor stepson – Siptah. The queen held rule as regent in his behalf and after the death of the twenty year old king, she formally took over the rule. The length of her reign included the years of co-regency. This is the reason Manetho ascribed seven years of rule for her. The reason for decline of Taweseret's rule was due to conflict with Sethnakht. Her burial place is in tomb KV14 in the Kings' Valley.

The end of the 19th Dynasty

The land of Egypt was overthrown from without, and every man was (thrown out) of his right; they had no chief mouth (rA-Hr) for many years formerly until other times. The land of Egypt was in the hands of the chiefs and of rulers of towns; one slew his neighbor, great and small. Other times have come after it, with empty years, Yarsu, a certain Syrian (xA-rw) was with them as chief. He set the whole land tributary before him together; he united his companions and plundered their possessions. They made gods like men, and no offerings were presented in the temples."

      Harris Papyrus, Pl. 75.
      Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Four, James Henry Breasted, § 398.

That a Syrian might usurp the throne is hardly surprising given the fact, that even slaves and their offspring could rise in the pharaonic administration and achieve positions of responsibility.

One such was Bay, a Syrian, who served as butler to the king and became chancellor of Ramses Siptah.

Wearer of the royal seal, sole companion, casting out lying, presenting truth; whom the king established [in] the seat of his father, great chief treasurer of the whole land, Ramses-Khementer-Bay.

      Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Three, James Henry Breasted, § 647.

Bay's support of his pharaoh was crucial to his being able to hold on to the throne. With his death, Queen Taweseret's influence grew over the twelve year old king, who at about this time changed his name to Merneptah Siptah; and he had to accept Twosret (Taweseret) as co-regent. Merneptah Siptah died at the age of eighteen. It has been speculated whether Bay and Yarsu were one and the same. Another influential foreigner - meaning Egyptian of foreign origin - was Ben Azama, who served as Merneptah's herald, a post of confidence. Of the eleven butlers of Ramses III, five were foreigners, a Libyan, a Lycian, a Syrian and two whose origin is uncertain.

The the gods decided to pacify the land and to return it to legitimate order. They chose as the head of the whole country a son of their own flesh, King Sethnakhte.

      Harris Papyrus.

With the death of Queen Taweseret, the 19th dynasty ended. The next ruler's, Sethnakhte, origins are obscure, and it is doubtful that he was a legitimate heir. He proved capable to rule and restored peace to the country in the first two years of his reign.

20th Egyptian Dynasty

1188 - 1069 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - How the XXth Dynasty gained power remains unclear. The only indications of the political events at this date derive from a stele erected on the island of Elephantine by its first ruler, Setkhnakht, and an account written down in the Great Harris Papyrus from the beginning of the reign of Ramesses IV. On this stele, Sethnakht relates how he expelled rebels, who on their flight left behind the gold, silver, and copper they had stolen from Egypt, and with which day had wanted to hire reinforcements among the Asiatics. The papyrus describes how a state of lawlessness and chaos had broken out in Egypt because of forces from 'outside'; after several years in which there was no one who ruled, a Syrian called Iarsu (a made-up name meaning 'one who made himself' ) seized power, and his confederates plundered the country; they treated the gods like ordinary human beings and no longer sacrificed in the temples. From these texts we may perhaps conclude that, after the death of Taweseret, Bay had tried to seize power and may even have succeeded for a brief time until he was expelled by Sethnakht.


1188 - 1186 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Sethnakht - Userkhaure - "Powerful Are The Manifestations Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Meriamonre - "Beloved Of Amon-Re." Sethnacht - "Seth Is Victorious."

The origin of Sethnakht is uncertain. Possibly his father was one of Ramesses II' sons, unknown by name, and the brother of Merenptah. He accessed the throne after the death of Queen Taweseret. It was a time when anarchy had erupted in the land. Sethnakht became famous for usurping numerous buildings erected by his predecessors. He presumably founded two chapels at Deir el-Medina. He died shortly after he had proclaimed himself king and restored order in Egypt. He was buried in a tomb (also the usurped one) of Queen Taweseret – tomb KV14 in the Valley of the Kings. The king's mummy was discovered in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II. Setnakht was the father of Ramesses III.

1186 - 1154 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses III - Ramesses - "Born Of Re." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon." Ramesses - "Born Of Re." Heqa Iunu - "Ruler Of Iunu." Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re."

Ramesses III

Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III

Ramesses III was the son of Sethnakht by Teje-Mereniset. He made war with the Libyans in the fifth and eleventh years of his rule. After the rebelling Libyan tribes had been brought into line, their cattle supported the donations to the temple of Amun at Karnak, while other tribes were displaced to the Balkan and Egeian territories. He made two successful campaigns in Asia, where in both inland and naval battles near the outlet of the South Delta, he defeated the invaders' attacks, and thus saved Egypt from foreign rule. Captured invaders were impressed into the Egyptian army. Some of these invaders founded the country of the Philistines in Asia.

Many accounts are preserved as to the building activities of Ramesses III. He erected a magnificent mortuary temple with a palace at Medinet Habu, and began works at the area of the sacral complex at Karnak. Works continued at Edfu, Buhen, Kom Ombo, Koptos, el Kab. At many other places, there are numerous monuments built by Ramesses III. In the thirty-second year of his rule, a harem conspiracy was plotted to overthrow the king. He was to be replaced by prince Pentewere, but the plot was discovered thanks to his legal heir – Ramesses IV. The guilty were sentenced to death or mutilation. The primary burial place of the king was supposed to be a KV3 tomb in the Valley of the Kings, however works on it had been cancelled. Ultimately the pharaoh was buried in an annexation of the tomb of Setnakht – tomb KV11 in the Kings' Valley, while tomb KV3 was used for the burial of one of Ramesses' sons. The king's mummy was found in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.

During the reign of Pharoah Ramesses III, Egypt came under pressure from raiders known as the "sea people." Little is known for certain about their origins, although they may have come from Anatolia. They fought on land as well as on sea, occupying parts of Syria and Palestine (some of the sea peoples were Philistine), but it was the impact of their ships that made the greatest impression on the Egyptians. Their sea raids along Egypt's Mediterranean coast required Ramesses III to assemble a fleet of his own and fight back. The result was history's first recorded sea battle. Since the Egyptian vessels were designed for use on the Nile, and not at sea, they confronted the raiders at the Nile delta at the mouth of the river. Both sides' ships had sails, but they almost certainly used oars for greater maneuverability when closing in for battle. The Egyptians aimed to draw close to their enemy and then unleash missile fire – arrows, havelins, and stones – from soldiers on the deck or up in the masts. As the sea peoples' fleet was drawn into the narrow waterways of the delta, Egyptian bowmen also shot at them from the shore. In some cases Egyptians armed with swords and sheilds boarded enemy bessels, and may even have capsized some ships by hauling on grapnels hooked into the rigging. The sea people were badly defeated. In the words of an Egyptian inscription, the enemy was "slain and made [into] heaps from stern to bow of their galleys." [Grant]

Map of Ancient Greece - Athens and Troy

1184 BCE - Greece - April 24 marks the traditional date of the fall of Troy (Ilium/Troia). [^]

1180 BCE - Babylon - The first Babylonian Dynasty falls into anarchy.

1168 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - Shutruk-Nahhunte of Elam invades Babylon and places his son on the throne. This marked the overthrow of the Kassites in Babylon by the Elamites, who controlled Babylon for about thirty years. They acquired the stele contining the Law Code of Hammurabi, and returned it to their capital, Susa.

1155 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - Assyria and Elam attack Babylonia, thereby ending Kassite rule.

Ramsesses IV

1154 - 1147 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses IV - Heqamaatre - "Ruler Of Justice Of Re." Ramesses - "Born Of Re."

The story of the Ramessid kings following Ramesses III is one of decline and the beginning of the end of the great empire ruled under the Egyptians. Afterwards, Egypt would be predominantly ruled by foreigners.

However, Ramesses III's son, probably by either Queen Isis or Queen Titi, did seem to have enjoyed a fairly prosperous, but albeit, short reign. It is known from many other kings during this period that his birth name, Ramesses, means "Re has Fashioned Him". His throne name, Heqamaatre means "Ruler of Justice like Re." Ramesses III had a chief wife named Tentopet, who was buried in QV74 in the Valley of the Queens. Little else of his family is known.

Ramesses IV became crown prince in the twenty-second year of his father's reign. Although he was the fifth son of Ramesses III, his four older brothers predeceased their father. Whether or not he ruled as a co-regent with his father during the closing years of Ramesses III's life, Ramesses IV took on increasing responsibilities. For example, as early as the twenty-seventh year of Ramesses III's reign, Ramesses IV is depicted as being responsible for the appointment of one Amenemopet as the High Priest of Mut at Karnak.

Shawabty of Ramesses IV

Some scholars maintain that it was Ramesses IV who resided over the court that tried those arrested in the "Harem Conspiracy" involving his father, but this is by no means certain. It is clear that the assassination attempt was aimed at eliminating both Ramesses III and his son, Ramesses IV as the crown prince, which obviously did not take place.

Though little in the way of military action can be documented during Ramesses IV's reign, there is some slight evidence of a sea action, in Ramesses IV's third year, perhaps with the Sea People that were such a bother to his father. And though we know of a viceroy of Nubia, Hori II, whose father had served under Siptah at the end of the 19th Dynasty, there is little other evidence for Ramesses IV's activities outside Egypt.

It is known, from several inscribed stele in the Wadi Hammamat, that he sent large expeditions out to obtain good stone for statues. One of these included 8,368 men, that included some 2,000 soldiers. Prior to this, little activity had taken place at Wadi Hammamat prior to the reign of Seti I. Apparently the soldiers were not sent so much to defend the workmen, but rather to control them.

We also find recorded expeditions to the turquoise mines at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai, as well as southern campaigns into Nubia as far south as the fort of Buhen, that lies just north of the Second Cataract (rapids) on the Nile River.

He was also responsible, together with his father, for major work on enlargement of the temple of Khonsu at Karnak. He apparently began a mortuary temple, intended to be even larger than that of his father's, near the temple of Hatshepsut. There is another, smaller temple associated with him north of Medinet Habu, of which even less is known. It has been suggested that the larger temple was abandoned for the less demanding size of the smaller one. In addition, he is attested to by a stela at Koptos and from other smaller monuments in the Sinai, as well as a statue from Memphis and an Obelisk from Heliopols.

Due to his building actives, he apparently increased, and perhaps even doubled, the work force at Deir el-Medina. However, as at the end of his father's reign, further delays in the delivery of basic commodities needed by these workmen occurred, and that, in hindsight at the end of the 20th Dynasty, can be seen to have had a significant impact on the demise of the Egyptian Empire. These problems coincided with the growing influence of the High Priest of Amun. Ramesesnakht, the holder of that high office, was soon accompanying the state officials when they went to pay the men their monthly rations, which indicates that probably the temple of Amun, and not the Egyptian state itself, was now at least partially responsible for their wages.

In fact, Ramesesnakht controlled a powerful family consisting of many priests in the temple of Amun. His son, Usermaatranakht was "steward of the estate of Amun" and as such, he not only controlled a vast Temple estate, but also a majority of the state owned land in Middle Egypt. The High Priest of Amun was now a hereditary position, and its heirs would become more and more independent of the king so that by the time of Ramesses XI at the end of the 20th Dynasty, Egypt would finally be divided between the High Priests at Thebes and the Lower Egyptian King, which ultimatedly resulted in the Third Intermediate Period.

Entry into the Valley of the Kings

Despite all of the good work for the gods and his prayer to Osiris for a long reign [as my predecessor], recorded on a stele discovered by Mariette at Abydos that dates to year four of Ramesses IV's reign, the king died after only about six years on the throne. He was succeeded on the throne by a brother who continued the line of Ramessid names (Ramesses V). Ramesses IV was buried on the West Bank of ancient Thebes (modern Luxor) just outside the earlier main grouping of tombs in the Eastern Valley of the Kings in KV2, but his body was later discovered in the royal cache unearthed in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV35) and is now in the Egyptian Antiquities Museum in Cairo.

1150 - 586 BCE - Palestine - The worship of Ashtoreth (Asherah) was widespread during the Canaanite period of the Hebrews and her temples existed side by side with the temples of Yahweh. [p255GD]

Jehovah/Yahweh is a form of YHWH which originally represented the Heavenly Family - Y/El, father; H/Asherah, mother; W/He, son and H/Anath, daughter. Anath (Anahita in Persia) was Queen of the Heavens and her brother He, was King of the Heavens. He and his father El, merged to become Jehovah. Asherah/Ashtoreth (double serpents - wisdom) and Anath were then joined to become Jehovah's consort, the Shekinah/Matronit. Sarah (Princess), wife/sister of Abraham, revered as a goddess of health and fertility, is said to be embodied in Shekinah (Indwelling). Celts worshipped Shekinah at dolmens/cromlechs.


The Holy of Holies in Solomon's Temple represented the womb of Ashtoreth/Asherah, who was also the Phoenician goddess of love and fruitfulness, Astarte in Greece and Rome, Atar Gatis (a mermaid) in Syria. Ashtoreth was identified with Greek goddesses Hecate (witchcraft) and Selene (moon = Roman Luna) - often associated with each other; Artemis (wild nature, harvest, hunting as Agrotora, wild animals especially bears as Kalliste, fishermen as Britomartis (Sweet Maiden, moon goddess, snake-mermaid)/Diktynna, (who may be one person or lovers) childbirth, chastity, youth and young women = Roman Diana, and Aphrodite (love/beauty = Roman Venus). Selene (who loved Endymion) had a sister Eos (Roman Aurora) goddess of dawn - both were daughters of Theia. The Phoenician goddess of the moon was Tanit. Creator goddesses have always been associated with the moon, for obvious reasons even to its control of tides and water - and horses too especially to the Celts, because of their moon shaped hoof prints.

Ashtoreth was counterpart to Ishtar, (Isis in Egypt, Ashtart in Israel; Athtar in Arabia and Astar in Abyssinia - here changed to male), Great Mother, goddess of fertility and Queen of Heaven, who was chief goddess of the Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians (of ancient Mesopotamia - modern-day Iraq). To the Assyrians, Ishtar represented the goddess of hunting and war. To the Babylonians, she was represented by the evening or morning star Venus, Mother Goddess, naked with prominent breasts and often suckling a child. She was also known as Queen Semiramis, whose mother was Derceto, a mermaid.


The fertility, love, and war-goddess whose full name is Lady Asherah of the Sea. She is one of the Ugaritic (Semitic language, related to Hebrew, of the ancient city-state of Ugarit in Syria) mother goddesses. Asherah is the sister and consort of Baal. She is known, in the Bible, as Ashtaroth/Ashtoreth and linked with other fertility goddesses.

Assyria – Venus
Babylonia – Ashratum
Greek – Aphrodite and Astarte
Mesopotamia – Ishtar
Phoenicia – Ashirat/Ashtoreth
Roman – Venus
Sumeria – Inanna

Asherah's worship involved sexual excesses intended to stimulate rain and quicken the ability of animals and people to reproduce. She is invoked in childbirth and planting time.

Her figures were made of wood and she is associated with sacred trees/groves of trees. She is symbolized by a pole/tree found beside the altar in a Canaanite high place of idolatry. Depicted as an unshaped piece of wood or a naked, curly-haired goddess riding a lion and holding lillies and serpents.

Asherah's cult penetrated into Judah through Maachah (King Asa's grandmother) and Israel through Jezebel. Manasseh placed a carved Asherah pole in the Jerusalem Temple.


Mother Goddess
Baalat (as Baal's consort)
Elath ("the Goddess")
"Wet Nurse of the Gods"
"She who gives birth"


The fertility goddess of the Canaanites and Phoenicians. She was the chief goddess of the Phoenicians. Her worship was closely related to Asherah's and she appears among the Philistines as the idol in whose temple they hung Saul's armour. Temples were dedicated to her in the Canaanite cities of Ascalon, Beth-Shean, and Jerusalem between the reigns of Solomon and Josiah.

Beth-Shean was the important city of Manasseh (within Issachar's territory) that was originally founded in 3000 BCE. It became the site of an Egyptian garrison (15th - 12th centuries BCE) and later occupied by the Philistines. It was abandoned and refound in Hellenistic times becoming known as Scythopolis. It is now Tell el-Husn and located at the junction of the Jordan and Jezreel Valleys.

Mummy of Ramesses V

1147 - 1142 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses V - Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Sekheperenre - Ramesses - "Born Of Re." Amonherkhopshef - "Amon Is His Strength."

Ramesses V was the son of Ramesses IV by queen Tentipet. Only scanty artifacts survive from his era at Heliopolis, Karnak, Deir el-Bahari and Sinai. The most significant written document dated to that period is the Wilbour papyrus. This is one of most important sources of evidence concerning the Egyptian economy of the era. The king died of smallpox sometime in his thirties. His burial place is tomb KV9 in the Valley of the Kings, shared with Ramesses VI. The king's mummy was discovered in the tomb-cache of Amenhotep II at tomb KV35.

Ramesses V is thought to have reigned no more than four years. He was the son of Ramesses IV and Queen Ta-Opet. The mummy was found in the tomb of Amenophis II and is now located in the Cairo Museum. The mummy shows that he died of smallpox at about the age of 35.

Ramesses VI

1142 - 1134 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses VI - Nebmaatre - "Lord Of Justice Is Re." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon." Ramesses - "Born Of Re." It Amun Netjer Heqa Iunu - "Father Of Amon, God Ruler Of Iunu."

Ramesses VI was the son of Ramesses III by queen Iset, and brother of Ramesses IV. Apart from numerous monuments usurped by Ramesses VI, other artifacts are located at Memphis (a pylon and part of a colossal statue), Heliopolis, Karnak (stelae) and Sinai. Statues of Ramesses VI are found at Tanis, Bubastis and Koptos. His burial place, a tomb very finely decorated, is shared with Ramesses V at tomb KV9 in the Kings' Valley. The mummy of the king was discovered in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.

The tomb of Ramesses V is one of the most interesting tombs in the Valley of the Kings. Its decorations represent a treatise on theology, in which the fundamental elements are the sun and its daily journey in the world of darkness. In general, the decorations provide the story of the origins of the heavens, earth, the creation of the sun, light and life itself. The decorative plan for this tomb is one of the most sophisticated and complete in the Valley of the Kings.

Ramesses VI was apparently not much of a tomb builder, for this tomb was originally built by his predecessor, Ramesses V, and only enlarged by Ramesses VI. It is unknown as to why Ramesses VI did not build his own tomb, as was certainly the tradition. The inscriptions for Ramesses V found in the first parts of the tomb were not usurped, and it is clear that the brothers probably shared a common theology.

Tomb of Ramesses V and VI

Panoramic View of the Tomb of Ramesses V and VI

Ramesses VII

1134 - 1126 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses VII - Usermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon." It Amon Netjer Heqa Iunu - "Father Of Amon, God Ruler Of Iunu." Ramesses - "Born Of Re."

Ramesses VII was the son of Ramesses VI and queen Nubchesbed. There are only a few documents preserved from his time. They are mainly administrative and economical records, e.g. settling of accounts of expeditions for gold and galenite, anthems in favor of the king, and documents of Deir el-Medina indicating symptoms of an economical crisis such as a price increase on cereals, the dissolution of royal rule, and tomb robberies at the necropolis. The burial place of the pharaoh was in tomb KV1 in the Kings' Valley.


Ramesses VIII

1126 - 1124 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses VIII - Usermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Akhenamon - "Helpful Of Amon." Setherhopeshef - "Seth Is His Strength." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon." Ramesses - "Born Of Re."

Very little is known about this ruler. He was son of Ramesses III by a queen of unknown name. Only a few small plaques with his name and an inscription in the list of princes from Medinet Habu have survived. Neither the mummy of the king nor any item of his funerary equipment had been preserved. All that remains of his reign is an inscription at Medinet Habu and some plaques. His tomb was found but was very modest.

1125 - 1104 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - Nebuchadnezzar I is the king of Babylonia.

Wooden statue from the tomb of Ramesses IX

Ramesses IX

1124 - 1105 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses IX - Neferkare - "Beautiful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Ramesses - "Born Of Re." Khaemwaset - "Appearing In Waset." Mereramon - "Beloved Of Amon."

The descent of this ruler is not well established. It is presumed that he was the son of Montuherchopshaf, who in turn, was the son of Ramesses III by Takhat. However, Egyptologist E.F. Wente states that Ramesses IX was the son of Ramesses VIII, while according to Egyptologist K. Kitchen's hypotheses, his father was Ramesses VII. Additionally, other scholars believe that he was son of Ramesses III and a queen of unknown name. He could also have been a brother of Ramesses VIII. The reign of Ramesses IX was famous for the interrogations of tomb robbers in the Kings' Valley, and against the corruption of local officials. His burial place is tomb KV6 in the Valley of the Kings. The mummy of the king was discovered in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.

1120 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon invades and conquers Elam.

Tomb of Ramesses X

1105 - 1101 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses X - Khepermaatre - "The Justice Of Re Abides." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Ramesses Amon - "Born Of Re, Amon." Ramesses - "Born Of Re."

Nine years of reign have been assigned to this ruler, but by some scholars this does not seem very possible. The last known document evidencing the rule of Ramesses X refers to his third year, as mentioned in records of the necropolis at Deir el-Medina. His burial place is tomb KV18 in the Valley of the Kings. Neither his mummy nor any items from his funerary equipment have been found.

1102 - 933 BCE - Palestine - The Israelite Kingdom – kings Saul, David and Solomon supposedly reign over twelve united Hebrew tribes as a kingdom.

1101 - 1070 BCE - XX Egyptian Dynasty - Ramesses XI - Menmaatre - "The Justice Of Re Remains." Setepenptah - "Chosen Of Ptah." Ramesses - "Born Of Re." Khaemwaset - "Appearing In Waset." Setepenptah - "Chosen Of Ptah." Mereramon - "Beloved Of Amon." Netjer Heqa Iunu - "God, Ruler Of Iunu."

Ramesses XI was the tenth and the last king of the Twentieth Dynasty as well as the New Kingdom. He was the son of Ramesses X and queen Titi. The reign of Ramesses XI was marked by the collapse of national authority, economic crisis, robberies of the royal tombs, famine, and finally, a civil war. During the time of Ramesses XI, a controversial episode of the expedition of general Panehesi to the south fails. The aim of this expedition was to put order into that part of the land. The ambitions of the general Panehesi resulted in conflicts with Amenhotep - the high priest of Amun at Thebes, which began the civil war. At Amenhotep's request, Ramesses XI sent additional units of his army commanded by Piankhi, who drove general Panechesi out of the land while Piankhi followed with his son-in-law Herhor. By the end of Ramesses XI' rule, Smendes reigned in the North (presumably he was vizier of that territory), and Herhor ruled at Thebaida, which gave rise to a powerful and independent central rule of the Tanis dynasty of High Priests at Theban Amun. Ramesses XI was buried in tomb KV4 in the Kings' Valley.

Southern Greece

1100 BCE - Greece - Mycenae was sacked and destroyed by an invasion of yet another Nordic tribe, the Dorics, which began the rise of the city states, such as Athens and Sparta.

1100 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - The Babylonians defeat the Elamites.

1100 BCE - Israel - According to the Bible, Saul, the king of the Israelites, went to war against the Philistines, who were attacking his kingdom. Facing a more numerous and sophisticated enemy, Saul used guerrilla tactics, but was eventually forced to confront a Philistine army. Sure to be defeated on level ground, where the Philistines could use their chariots, the Israelites withdrew to the steep, rocky ridge of Mount Gilboa. Yet the Philistines were not deterred by the terrain: they stormed the ridge, taking a heavy toll from the Israelites. As his army fell around him, including his three sons, Saul took his own life rather than fall into enemy hands. [Grant]

1100 - 221 BCE - China - Conquest and absorption of most of China's non-Chinese-speaking population by Chinese-speaking states is accomplished during the Zhou Dynasty.

1070 - 715 BCE - XXI Egyptian Dynasty - This era begins the XXIst Dynasty and which commences the Third Intermediate Period.

The move of power and control from Upper Egypt to Lower Egypt, reflected in the founding of cities in the eastern Delta by kings in the later 19th and 20th Dynasties, made the division of Egypt complete. After Ramesses XI died, Smendes proclaimed himself king, ruling from the Delta.

The following kings composed the Dynasty reigning in the Lower Egypt at Tanis. It seems this dynasty was more legitimate than the dynasty of high-priests of Amon founded by Herhor ruling in the South.

1070 - 1043 BCE - XXI Egyptian Dynasty - Smendes I - Hedjkheperre - "Bright Is The Manifestation Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Neswbanebdjedet - "He Of The RamThe Lord Of Mendes." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

It is difficult to say firmly if Smendes I was king of the Delta during the reign of Ramesses XI or just holding a post of vizier at the time. He proclaimed himself king after the death of Ramesses XI. He was presumably the son of Herhor and Nedjemet and became Ramesses XI son-in-law by marriage with Tentamen. The story of Travels of Wenamen mentions Smendes in context, suggesting that he was actual ruler of Egypt. His twenty-six year long rule, as assigned by Manetho, is also corroborated by archaeological data, especially the "Stele of expelled" ascribed to Smendes. It is assumed that Smendes ruled for some time over all of Egypt, until the reign at Thebes was overtaken by high priests of Amun.

1043 - 1039 BCE - XXI Egyptian Dynasty - Amenemose - Neferkare - "Beautiful Is Soul [Ka] Of Re." Heqa Waset - "The Lord Of Waset." Amenemose - "Amon Is The King."

Amenemose was presumed to be the son of Smendes and Tentamon, and elder brother of Psusennes I. In the genealogy of the priesthood of Memphis, he is mentioned before Psusennes while Manetho, ascribes to him four years of rule, and placed him after Psusennes. It is most likely at the end of his short reign he made Psusennes his co-regent.

Psusennes I

1039 - 991 BCE - XXI Egyptian Dynasty - Psusennes I - Pasebakhaienniut I. Aakheperre - "Great Are The Manifestations Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon." Pasebakhaienniut - "The Star The Appears In The City." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

He was the son of Pinedjem I and Henuttaui. It is possible that for some time he ruled alongside with Amenemose as his co-regent. The facts concerning external politics of this ruler are very scanty. It is possible that he kept trade contacts with Assyria, as proven by cuneiform inscriptions in jewellery found in his tomb. His burial place is a tomb 3, discovered at Tanis in 1940 CE by archaeologist P. Montet. This tomb, built for Psusennes I, his wife Mutnedjemet and the son of Ramesses - Ankhefenmut, although intact from tomb robbers, later was used for the burial of Amenemipet, Sheshonq II, and the chief priest of all gods, Wendjebaendjed. The outer sarcophagus of Psusennes made of pink granite, belonged primarily to Merenptah. There was a second sarcophagus of black granite enclosed inside it, holding in turn a coffin of solid silver. P. Montet found many treasures in this grave, including a gold funerary mask, gold and silver pottery and jewellery. Unfortunately the mummy disintegrated.

1027 - 256 BCE - Chou Dynasty of China - Over the long history of the Chou Dynasty (commonly pronounced "Joe" in English), China went from a period even more obscure than the Shang to a flourishing, fully documented historical civilization.

The changes were so drastic that the dynasty is typically divided into three parts, though there are different versions of exactly how to do this. The Early Chou presents us with the least satisfactory material, since things seem to have rather declined after the fall of the Shang.

1010 BCE - Palestine - David conquers Jerusalem. [p50TI]

1010 - 970 BCE - Palestine - David rules over the United Kingdom of Israel.

1000 BCE - Persia (Iran) - Kingdoms of Media and Parsa founded by migrating Aryans.

1000 BCE - Italy - The Etruscans became one of the original Mediterranean and Proto-Nordic White peoples living in the Italian peninsula before the Indo-European invaders reached that part of the world.

1000 BCE - North America - By about 1000 BCE, the Woodland Indian culture had developed throughout most of Eastern North America, appearing in the American Bottom around 600 BCE. Over a period of 1400 years, these people became increasingly tied to the land, more populous, highly organized, and technologically advanced. The considerable time and effort they devoted to honoring and burying their dead indicates that their belief system was relatively well-defined.

As early as 500 BCE, a Woodland subgroup called the Adena built earthen burial mounds in the upper Ohio River Valley. Following the disappearance of the Adenas, from about 1 CE to 300 CE, the Hopewell subgroup created hundreds of burial mounds and other geometric earthworks in a number of areas in the Eastern Woodlands. After 500 CE, Late Woodland people living at the convergence of Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin produced earthworks called effigy mounds in the sapes of animals. Mound building would become an obsession of people throughout Eastern North America for centuries to come.

1000 BCE - Egypt - The Papyrus of Tamenill, (Nuit & Geb). [p21XX]


993 - 984 BCE - XXI Egyptian Dynasty - Amenemopet - Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon." Amenemopet - "Amon In The Opet Festival."

Amenemopet was the son of Psusennes I and Mutnedjemet, the high priest of Amun at Tanis. Presumably Amenemopet was the father of Osokhor and Siamon. He helped a prince Hadad of Edom, who took refuge to Egypt. He is responsible for building the Chapel of Isis at Giza, and the Temple of Ptah at Memphis. His burial place is tomb IV, a rather small chamber at the royal necropolis in Tanis. Subsequently, in the times of Siamon his mummy was moved to a chamber in the tomb of Psusennes I, which was primarily intended for his mother Mutnedjemet. On April 16, 1940 CE, archaeologist P. Montet discovered his tomb and found various pieces gold and silver equipment.

984 - 978 BCE - XXI Egyptian Dynasty - Osokhor - " Osorkon the Elder ." Osochor - "Man." Aakheperre - "Wonderful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen of Re." Osorkon

Osokhor was the son of Sheshonq, the "Great chieftain of Libyans Meshwesh" by Mekhtenusekhet. Manetho ascribes to him six years of rule and a name of Osokhor, which is a Libyan form of Egyptian wsrkn - Osorkon. If these assumptions are correct, Osokhor should be placed in the Libyan dynasty XXII as Osorkon I, and thus numeration of pharoahs who succeeded him of the same name should also be changed. Osokhor has also been considered to be the son and successor of Amenemopet, which would ascribe him to the XXI Dynasty.

978 - 959 BCE - XXI Egyptian Dynasty - Siamon - Netjerikheperre - "Like A God Is The Manifestation Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon." Siamon - "Son Of Amon."

The origin of Siamen is unclear. It is believed that he might have been a brother or son of his predecessor Osokhor. The building activities of Siamen are worth mentioning, as he extended the temple of Amun at Tanis, and, at Memphis he erected another temple in honor of this god. There are many in situ relics preserved with the name of this king. He made a war campaign against the Philistines while residing in Palestine, and captured the city of Gezer which became a dowry of Siamen's daughter when she married Solomon, which consolidated the alliance between Egypt and Israel.

970 - 931 BCE - Palestine - The reign of King Solomon begins over the twelve tribes of Israel. [p7@]

The name of Solomon (Sol-Om-On) means Sun, as well as peace. Born to King David and Bathsheba, Solomon grew up in a polygamous home, for David had eighteen wives.

The King Solomon so celebrated by posterity, as Josephus the historian says, for his magical skill, got his secret learning from India through Hiram, the king of Ophir, and perhaps Sheba. His ring, commonly known as "Solomon's seal," so celebrated for the potency of its sway over the various kinds of genii and demons, in all the popular legends, is equally of Hindu origin.

      Isis Unveiled, Vol. 1, Chap. 5, Topic of "King Solomon," Helena Blavatsky, 1877.

Bathsheba was the former wife of Uriah, a Hittite soldier in David's army. After an adulterous affair, Bathsheba was pregnant by David, who schemed to have Uriah killed in battle. After Uriah's death, David married Bathsheba but God took away their baby. After David repented, Solomon was born to them.

Early in his 39-year reign as king, he married the daughter of the Egyptian pharoah Siamen, whose dowry included 1,000 musical instruments, and 80,000 Egyptian builders. The marriage may have been a political affair, for Solomon sought the architectural skills of the Egyptians; legends say that personally, she disappointed him. Later, Solomon took hundreds of wives and concubines. Many historians believe that he did not become polygamous until after his meeting with Makeda, Queen of Sheba, early in his reign.

Israel during the time of Solomon was a unified kingdom, 30,000 square miles in area - a small but respected power existing peacefully between Assyria and Egypt. Because Solomon was talented in international diplomacy, he negotiated trading agreements with neighboring kings, most notably the Phoenician king, Hiram of Tyre. As a result, his large fleet was built and manned by Phoenicians, and capable of sailing from Esyon-Geber or Eilat on the Red Sea to Ophir, Sheba, and India.

Temple of Solomon

966 - 958 BCE - Palestine - David's son Solomon constructs the First Temple on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem.

959 - 957 BCE - Palestine - The Biblical Prince Abijam (Abia), son of Jeroboam I, and Naamah, an Ammonite (975 - 955 BCE) ruled Judah. Judah and Israel are at war with each other.

959 - 945 BCE - XXI Egyptian Dynasty - Psusennes II - Pasebakhaenniut II. Titkheperure - "Image Of The Transormations Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Pasebakhaienniut - "The Star The Appears In The City." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

Historians face great problems trying to identify this ruler. The opinion is that Psusennes II and Psusennes III, the high priest of Amun at Thebes, were one and the same person. It is possible that Psusennes II was the local ruler in the Abydos area, and held his rule briefly in times of Sheshonq I. However, in this case the theory of his reign lasting fourteen years until the end of XXI dynasty is out of question. One of Psusennes II daughters, Tenetsepeh, was wife of Shedsunefertum, the high priest of Ptah at Memphis. The second one, Maatkare, was married to Osorkon I.

955 BCE - Palestine - David brings the Ark of the Covenant to the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. [p50)]

950 BCE - Palestine - The Temple of Solomon completed, "in the 11th year of his reign." [J]

22nd - 25th Egyptian Dynasties

945 - 715 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - The 22nd Dynasty is often referred to as the Libyan Bubastite Dynasty. Manetho lists the kings of this Dynasty as being from Bubastis, which is located in the eastern delta. The Libyan element is evident in the founder, Sheshonq I, who inaugurated the sequence of Libyan Chiefs which ruled Egypt for the next 200 years. Sheshonq himself allied by marriage as the son-in-law of his predecessor Pseusennes II, had the strength of the military behind him as the commander-in-chief of all the armies of Egypt. Sheshonq was a strong ruler who brought the divided factions of Thebes and Tanis together into a once more united Egypt.

Following the death of Solomon in 930 BCE, the kingdom of Judah and Israel began to be ruled by Rehoboam, Solomon's son, and afterward by Jeroboam I. This governmental reign was prime for Egyptian military intervention. In 925 BCE, in a highly successful campaign, the like of which had not been seen since the days of Ramesses III in the 20th Dynasty, the Israelites were defeated. Sheshonq moved first against Judah, arriving before the walls of Jerusalem, held by Rehoboam. The city was surrounded but Sheshonq was bought off from entering it by being given the treasures of the House of the Lord and the treasures of the king's house. All of Solomon's treasures, except the most sacred and emotive Ark of the Covenant, fell to Sheshonq. The Pharaoh then turned his attentions to Israel, pursuing his earlier protégé Jeroboam, who fled over the Jordan River. Finally, Sheshonq halted at Megiddo, the scene of Tuthmosis III's victory 500 years before, and erected a victory Stele in the manner of his predecessors.

Osokon I, who succeeded his father, continued to provide strong patronage for the various leading priesthoods, thereby consolidating his position as well as maintaining a continuous building program, especially at his native city of Bubastis. The chief priesthood of Amun at Karnak was taken from his brother Input and given to one of his sons, Sheshonq (II) whom he took as a co-regent in 890 BCE. Sheshonq, however, died a few months earlier than his father, and both were buried at Tanis.

The successor was Takelot I, another son of Osokon by a minor wife. This reign, although fifteen years in length, has left no major monuments, but saw the beginning of the fragmentation of Egypt once more into two power bases.

Osokon II succeeded Takelot I as pharaoh in 874 BCE, about the same time that his cousin Harsiese succeeded his father (Sheshonq III) as High Priest of Amun at Karnak. Problems arose in the fourth years of the rule of Osokon II when Harsiese declared himself king in the South. Although he was only king in name, when Harsiese died Osokon II consolidated his own position by appointing one of his sons, Nimlot, as High Priest at Karnak and another son, Sheshonq, as High Priest of Ptah at Memphis. Osokon II thereby had the two major priesthoods of Egypt in his families grasp as a political more rather than from any religious motivation.

Takelot II succeeded his father Osorkon II in 850 BCE and maintained stability in the South where his half brother Nimlot had consolidated his position by extending North to Herakleopolis and placing his son Ptahwedjankhef in charge there. Nimlot then married his daughter Karomama II to Takelot II, thereby cementing a bond between North and South and becoming the father-in-law of his half brother.

The Crown Prince, Osorkon, never succeeded to the throne because his younger brother Sheshonq moved to seize power, proclaiming himself pharaoh as Sheshonq III, ultimately having a reign of fifty-three years.

Harsiese reappeared as Chief High Priest of Amun, apparently without too much commotion at Thebes because Sheshonq had let the Thebans have their own way and choice. In 806 BCE, the usurped Prince Osorkon was appointed to the High Priests' post at Thebes. This was unusual as he had not been disposed of by his usurping younger brother. Then in 800 BCE, Harsiese once again assumed the office of High Priest, only to disappear, maybe dead. Prince Osorkon had not died when Harsiese returned to power and was still evident in Upper Egypt with a controlling hand for another ten years.

Sheshonq I

945 - 924 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Sheshonq I - Hedjkheperre - "Bright Is The Manifestation Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Sheshonq. [Meri] Amon - "[Beloved] Of Amon."

The 22nd dynasty was founded by Sheshonq I, probably descended from long-settled Libyan mercenaries, the Meshwesh. He supported Jeroboam against King Solomon's son, Rehoboam and campaigned later in Palestine (c. 930 BCE) laying tribute upon the king of Judah. He instituted a decentralized system, with kings based in the north and their sons ruling key centers elsewhere. Rivalries and sporadic civil wars followed, and by the 8th century BCE Egypt had been divided into eleven autonomous states, whose inhabitants depended on congested, walled towns for security. Their increased anxiety found expression in their worship of local rather than national gods.

Sheshonq I was the governor of Bubastis, and descended from Libyan immigrants. The son of Nimlot and Tanetsepeh, he took over rule after the death of Psusennes II. He was an energetic ruler who held control with the support of his army. He settled Nimlot, one of his sons, at Herakleopolis to hold rule over Central Egypt in his behalf. Later he made his second son, Iuput, the high priest of Amun at Thebes, what actually meant re-unifying of the land. His daughter, Tashepenbastet was married to the third prophet of Amun at Thebes. Other people who were loyal to Sheshong were nominated to influential offices all over Egypt, which efficiently removed any threat for royal power. He made war expeditions to Syria and Palestine, and conquered Jerusalem and other cities in 925 BCE. An Asiatic expedition of Sheshonq is the object of speculation among modern historians and "parahistorians" that hold the Bible as the main source of information, and thus completely warp the history and chronology of ancient Egypt. Building activities during the rule of Sheshonq I focused mainly at Thebes, Memphis, and, in the Delta at Bubastis, Tanis, and Tell Ballala.

c. 940 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan - Nimlot I.

He was the son of Sheshonq I by Pentreshnes, and a local ruler at Herakleopolis. Nimlot reintroduced the custom of daily making offerings of a bull in honor of the god Harsafes.

933 BCE - Palestine - The United Kingdom of Israel is divided into Israel and Judah.

Osorkon I

924 - 889 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Osorkon I - Osortchon - "Man." Sekhemkheperre - "Powerful Are The Manifestations Of Re." Osorkon.

He was the son of Sheshonq I and Karoma I. The relatively long reign of Osorkon I is a period, if not of prosperity, then of economical stabilization. The many donations on behalf of the temples of Amun, Re-Horachte, Hathor, Mut, Thot and Bastet bear testimony to this economic stability. Building activities were undertaken at Bubastis, Memphis, Atfih, el-Hibe and Abydos. Osorkon I was the father of king Takelot I and high priests of Amun - Sheshonq II, Iuwlot and Smendes (III), also Shapenupet I, the first of the dynastic divine adorers of Amun, women-priests holding unlimited rule at Thebes.

911 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The next large empire in the Middle East was originally established by the Indo-Aryan Assyrians (the word Assyrian is a corruption of the word Aryan) who, from their base in modern day Syria, captured Babylon in 911 BCE.

890 - 889 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Sheshonq II - Sheshonq Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon." Heqakheperre - "The Manifestation Of Re Rules." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re."

Shesonq II

Sheshonq II was the son of Osorkon I by Maatkare, daughter of Psusennes II. He was the step-brother of Takelot I and high priests: Iuwlot and Smendes. He was made the high priest of Amon at Thebes by his father, and shortly before his father's death was nominated the coregent. Since that time, his name was inscribed in the royal cartouche with all titles due to the king of Lower and Upper Egypt. However, Sheshonq died unexpectedly and was succeeded by his step-brother, Takelot I. Sheshonq was the father of high priest Harsiese. He was buried in the antechamber of the tomb of Psusennes I. His rich funerary equipment consists of a gold funerary mask, a silver sarcophagus, pectorals, amulets and other precious objects.

889 - 874 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Takelot I -Takelothis - "Man." Takelot.

Takelot is probably one of the least known pharaohs of this dynasty and of the entire Third Intermediate Period. No known relics can be ascribed to him. The only proof of his existence is in the genealogy by priest Pasenhor in the stela of Serapeum, dated to the 37th year of the rule of Sheshonq V, testifying his reign and descent as the son of Osorkon I by queen Tashedchonsu.

883 - 612 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The Neo-Assyrian Empire conquers Mesopotamia and Syro-Palestine in savage campaigns.

Ashurnaspiral II

Osorkon II

883 - 859 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The Assyrian reign of Ashurnasirpal II.

874 - 850 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Osorkon II - Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon." Osorkon. Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

He was the son of Takelot by queen Kapes, father of high priest Nimlot (II) and of king Takelot II. Osorkon constructed buildings mainly at Tanis, where he extended the temple of Amun. Osorkon II appointed himself to the post of high priest of Amon at Thebes. At Bubastis, he decorated the temple of Bastet, and also built in other cities of Delta such as Leontopolis and Pithom, and Memphis. His political activities in Asia were focused on decreasing the Assirrian influences in Palestine. In the battle at Karkar in 853 BCE, an army of Asiatic princes was supported by an Egyptian contingent of 1000 soldiers. Osorkon was buried at Tanis in the complex of the temple of Amun (tomb V), discovered in 1939 CE by archaeologist P. Montet.

874 - 853 BCE - Palestine - The reign of King Ahab. He married Jezebel who persuaded him to deny Yahweh in favor of Baal. She forced Elijah to flee for his life. [p380)]

870 - 860 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Thebes - Horsiese I - Hedjkheperre - "Bright Is The Manifestation Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon." Horsiese - "Horus, Son Of Isis." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

Horsiese I was the son of Sheshonq II. He was regarded as usurper of the throne because he announced himself the pharaoh of Egypt under the reign of the XXII Libyan dynasty, and was supported by highly the ranked Theban clans. Being de facto ruler of Egypt, Horsiese placed his son on the Theban throne as high priest of Amon. Horsiese's tomb is located in the temple complex at Medinet Habu. At his burial place, only canopies, ushebti and his skull - with a partly cicatrized hole at the head, which may be due to either trepanation or injury caused by weapon - have been preserved.

858 - 824 BCE - Assyria (Iraq) - The Assyrian reign of Shalmaneser III.


854 BCE - Assyria (Iraq) - The Battle of Qarqar. The reign of Ashur-nazir-pal II (885 - 860 BC) was spent in unceasing warfare, evidenced by many bas-reliefs. Shalmaneser III warred against the Syrian states. At the battle of Qarqar 854 BCE, the Assyrian advance received a setback, and there followed a period of decline. The final period of Assyrian ascendancy began with the accession of Tiglath-pileser III (746 - 728 BCE) and continued during the reigns of Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal, culminating in the conquest of Egypt by Esarhaddon in 671 BCE. From this time the empire seems to have fallen into decay. Nabopolassar of Babylonia and Cyaxares of Media united against it; Nineveh was destroyed in 612 BCE; and Assyria became a Median province and subsequently a principality of the Persian Empire.

850 - 825 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Takelot II - Hedjkheperre - "Bright Of The Manifestation Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Takelot.Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

Ascribing this pharaoh to any dynasty is a reason for instant argument among scholars. In the opinion of scholar K. Kitchen, he was the sixth ruler of the XXII dynasty, while scholar D. Aston regards him as the first ruler of the XXIII dynasty, and inserts him before Padibastet I. Moreover, he might have been the father of Osorkon III. Other scholars (including K. Kitchen) do not agree with this view and regard Osorkon, the high priest of Amon at Thebes, as the son of Takelot II, however he would not have anything to do with king Osorkon III. Yet, D. Aston believes they were the same person, so that he identifies the high priest Osorkon with the king Osorkon III. A few objects belonging to Takelot have survived, but there is no evidence of any buildings erected by him. In the opinion of K. Kitchen, Takelot II was buried in the antechamber of his father's tomb, Osorkon III, however D. Aston's point of view is different.

843 BCE - Palestine - Jezebel's body is eaten by dogs as prophesied by Elijah. [p381)]

825 - 773 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Sheshonq III -Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Setepenre - "Chosen Of Re." Sheshonq [Meri] Amon - "[Beloved] Of Amon."

Sheshonq III was the son of Takelot II by Karoma III. For unknown reasons, he accepted Padibastet I as equal to him as king of Egypt. Additionally there were rulers of both dynasties, XXII and XXIII, reigning in Central Egypt. The split of the Delta territory into principalities is rather remarkable. From the 49th year of this pharaoh's rule come records of a famine. After the long reign of Sheshonq, numerous buildings of his remained in the Delta. In 1939 CE, archaeologist P. Montet discovered the tomb (No. 5) of Sheshonq at Tanis.

22nd - 25th Egyptian Dynasties

818 - 715 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - The XXIII Dynasty at Tanis, Hermopolis, Herakleopolis, and Leonthopolis. The twenty-third dynasty was part of a confusing period of overlapping dynasties including the twenty-first on through to the twenty-fifth dynasties respectively. It was a dynasty marked by Libyan control. It was started by Shoshenk I, an energetic soldier of Libyan descent. Shoshenk's forbearers were the captives/ mercenaries under Ramesses III used to stem the tide of barbarian incursions plaguing Egypt at the time. Not only were the Sea Peoples encroaching on Egypt's borders, but also Shoshenk's fellow Libyans. Shoshenk's rise to power was aided by the fact that Middle Egypt was a no-man's land. It was this that opened the door for Libyan ascension. They seized this area and made their capital in Bubastis. At this time Shoshenk took care to legitimize his claim to the throne for his successor by marrying his son to the daughter of Psousennes II. Shoshenk knew that to keep power he had to gain wealth. He did this by exploiting the break up of the Palestinian government after the death of Solomon. Shoshenk attacked Judah, the weaker of the two and sacked Jerusalem. It was with this brief yet rich conquest that further secured Libyan dominance. This dominance, which spanned from 950 - 730 BCE was brought down when the Nubian king, Piankhi, invaded Egypt fearing further consolidation of power would challenge his growing countries strength. This invasion brought about the twenty-fifth dynasty and a close to Libyan dominance in Egypt.

818 - 793 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Leontopolis - Padibastet I - " Petubastis I." Petubastis - "Man." Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon." Padibastet - "Wise One Of Bastet." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

Traditionally regarded as the founder of the XXIII dynasty, although some scholars (D. Aston) place Padibastet between Takelot II and Iuput I . Possibly he was son of Takelot II and brother of Sheshonq III, which is disclosed by inscriptions in the nilometer at Thebes and the priestly annals of Karnak. In the fifteenth year of his rule, he made Iuput his co-regent. His other sons included Pediamon, who was appointed a priest at Thebes in the seventh year of Padibastet's rule, and Pentiefankh, who was appointed a vizier in the eighth year of his rule.

814 BCE - Tunisia - North Africa - Carthage, a Fenician colony in what is known today as Tunis, is founded by the princess Elissa. [$10] The Semitic Cananeo-Phoenician at Carthage worshipped Baal Hammon, which means "master or king of the city." Their supreme God the Creator is usually El, the King, and father of years. The God Baal demanded the sacrifice of children. At Carthage (Tunisia), child sacrifices ran into the tens of thousands.

804 - 803 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Leontopolis - Iuput I - Iuput - Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

In the fifteenth year of the rule of Padibastet I, Iuput was assigned by his father a co-regent. The nilometer at Karnak corroborates the second year of his rule as co-regent. Scholars F. Gomaà and K. Kitchen believe that under Padibastet I was a Theban ruler of minor importance.

800 - 400 BCE - Greece - Homer is credited with writing the Iliad and the Odyssey.

The Greeks borrow the Paleo-Hebrew script, keeping the same order and names of letters.

The four hundred years stretching from 800 BCE to 400 BCE are known as the Hellenic Age, and mark the height of classical Greek civilization. Around this time the Greeks also founded the city of Byzantium, later to become famous as Constantinople, which is today known as Istanbul (Turkey).

It was only the later Romans who called the inhabitants of this region Greeks - they referred to themselves as Hellenes, hence the Hellenic Age.

793 - 787 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Leontopolis - Sheshonq IV - Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon." Sheshonq - Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

Some Egyptologists claim that he was husband of Karoma III Merimut, the mother of Osorkon III whose father might have been Sheshonq IV . The only proof of his existence is a short note in nilometer at Karnak.

Bronze, lost wax fusion, height 158 cm. Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme, Rome.

790 BCE - Greece - The cult of Dionysus developed in northern Greece. [(] Right, a statue of Dionysus, recovered from the bed of the Tiber River in Italy during works on a pillar of the Garibaldi Bridge in 1885 CE. The statue represents a naked Dionysus of a juvenile type, resting on the right leg, the left one being markedly flexed and resting on the forefoot, and the left arm holding a tyrsos, the traditional attribute of the god. The long hairstyle is parted in the middle and disposed in two undulating locks first maintained by a decorated head-ribbon, then falling laterally on the back. The disposition of the body still hints to a polycletian influence, but the accentuated movement of the head and the sinuous line of the flanks denotes a good knowledge of the praxtitelian opus.

The general scheme of the figure refers to a famous statuarian model which is the Dionysus of the Woburn Abbey type created during the middle of the 4th century BCE, from which there are more then twenty known instances or variants, a style that shows for the first time a naked Dionysus of a youthful appearance and which will enjoy a tremendous popularity in the later Hellenistic and Roman ages.

787 - 759 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Leontopolis - Osorkon III - Osorcho - "Man." Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon." Osorkon - Meriamon Siiset - "Beloved Of Amon ; Son Of Isis."

Osorkon III was the son of Karoma III Merimut and an unknown pharaoh. It is speculated that his father was either Sheshonq IV or Takelot II. Additionally scholar D. Aston identifies king Osorkon III with the high priest Osorkon, the son of Takelot II. Some experts say that they both were not even brothers. Osorkon, who reigned at Leontopolis, appointed loyal people to the offices of chief priest at Herakleopolis and governor of South. At Thebes, he designated Takelot III, his son and co-regent, as high priest of Amun, and daughter Shapenewpet as Divine Adoratrice of Amun.

786 BCE - Palestine - Civil war began that eventually divided the Northern Kingdom of Israel from the Southern Kingdom of Judah. The book of Chronicles, written about 400 BCE, suggests that the North defeated the South taking the Judah King captive. This civil war made the Judo-Israel state vulnerable to the Babylonians.

785 - 760 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubia (Sudan) - Alara - "Alula."

King Alara, a Nubian, unites Upper Nubia. He was the founder of Nubian power in the Napatan dynasty. Alara was the ruler of Napata, brother of Kashta, and founder of Kushite Dynasty, who is mentioned on the stela of Taharka from Kawa as "the Prince, Son of Ra." A daughter, Tabira, came from marriage of Alara with Kasaki, who later became the wife of Piyi (Piye - Pianchi - Piankhi).

776 BCE - Greece - The first Olympic Sports games were held at Olympia with the Stadion, a 192 meter (600 ft) footrace. These games were held every four years in honor of the god Zeus, the Lord of the Sky, the God of Gods, lasting in that form until the year 394 CE. During these celebrations, virtually all the Grecian city states sent athletes to Olympia, and any wars that might have been proceeding at the time were temporarily halted for the games. It is noteworthy that the Celtic people have been conducting games for 1,000 years before Greece.

Bronze statuette presents Pimai kneeling while making offerings, British Museum

773 - 767 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Pimai - "Pami." Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon."

Pimai was the son of Sheshonq III and Tentamenopet, brother of Bakennefi, the prince and regent of Athribis and Heliopolis. A few relics of his are preserved only in the Delta. A group statue from Sais presents him in times before he came to the rule, and names him the "Governor of Libyans - Meshwesh." It is possible that he was buried in tomb II in the royal necropolis at Tanis.

773 BCE - Palestine (Israel) - King Zachariah ruled Israel for six months and King Shallum ruled for one month.

767 - 730 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Sheshonq V - Aakheperre - "Great Is The Manifestation Of Re."

Sheshonq was the son and successor of Pami, as disclosed by the stela of Serapeum, dated to the 11th years of his rule. There is no consensus as to definitely ascribing this ruler to the XXII or XXIII dynasty. In the opinion of scholar D. Aston, he would be the fourth or fifth ruler of the XXIII dynasty and predecessor of Padibastet II. While Sheshonq reigned in the south, rule at Thebes was held by the XXIII dynasty kings - high priests Osorkon III and Takelot III, as well as Iuput II at Leontopolis. It is possible that before Sheshonq seized rule after his father's death, he might have been high priest of Amun at Tanis.

764 - 757 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Leontopolis - Takelot III - Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Setepenamon - "Chosen Of Amon." Meriamon Siiset - "Beloved Of Amon, Son Of Isis."

Takelot III was the son of Osorkon III by Tentsai. He was high priest of Amun at Thebes until c. 775 BCE, then became co-regent with Osorkon III. He was also an independent ruler at Leontopolis. He ordered the building of the temple of Osiris - Lord of Eternity at Karnak. The sons, Djedptahiefankh and Osorkon, of Takelot III were high priests, however his heir to the throne was Amonrud, his younger brother.

760 - 747 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubia (Sudan) - King Maatra Kashta was the brother of King Alara, the ruler of Napatan Kush and Egypt. He began to conquer Egypt from the Libyan pharaohs, starting the 25th dynasty Kushite domination.


Iuput II

757 - 754 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Leontopolis - Amonrud - "Rudamon." Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Rudamon - Meriamon - "Beloved Of Amon."

Historians' opinions vary widely as to length of rule of Amonrud due to interpretation of the famous graffito of Wadi Gasus which describes his rule as nineteen years. One of Amonrud's daughters, Irbastnubnefu, was married to prince Paieftchaumebast of Herakleopolis.

754 - 720 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Leontopolis - Iuput II - Wesermaatre - "Powerful Is The Justice Of Re." Meriamon Sibastet - "Beloved Of Amon ; Son Of Bastet."

Iuput II was the ruler of Leontopolis in the Delta. He was an ally of Osorkon IV and Tefnakht against Kushite Piankhi. If the controversial graffito of Wadi Gasus mentioning the nineteenth year of rule refers to Iuput (and not Amonrud), the duration of the reign of Iuput II as suggested by scholars J. von Beckerath and F. Gomaà, as well as by K. Kitchen, might be more accurate.

754 - 720 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Payeftjawembastet - Neferkare - "Beautiful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re."

Payeftjawembastet ruled at Herakleopolis in opposition to other rulers of this dynasty as well as the XXIV Saite dynasty. He was husband of Amonrud's daughter, Irbastnubnefu. He protected Herakleopolis from the attacks of Tefnakht of Sais, but finally he accepted supremacy of the Kushite Piankhi.

754 - 725 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Nimlot III.

Nimlot III was presumably the son of Osorkon III, appointed by him to the throne of Hermopolis. He was Tefnakht's ally against the Herakleopolitan principality and Kushite ruler Piankhi. After Hermopolis had been captured by Piankhi, Nimlot III surrendered and became vassal of the Kushite. In the stele of Piankhi his name is inscribed with title of "king" and presented in the crown kheperesh and uraeus - insignia of royalty.

753 BCE - England - Another wave of Celts arrived in Albion (Briton) from Gaul. This group is taller than the last wave and had fair or red hair as well as blue eyes. They would dominate the Westward Islands Albion and Ierne (England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland). The early Ierne (Irish) worshipped the Sun God as a symbol of life, whereas the early Albion Celts (Britons) worshipped the axe a symbol of war.

753 BCE - Italy - According to Roman legend, the city of Rome was founded by the orphaned twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who were saved from death in their infancy by a she-wolf who had sheltered and suckled them.

Whatever the origins of the city, it is so that by the year 700 BCE the city had been firmly established on the seven hills around the Tiber River valley, and by the 6th Century BCE, the city and surrounding areas were ruled by the Etruscans. Romulus becomes the first king of the city of Rome. The War with the Sabines occurred during the reign of Romulus.

750 BCE - Italy - The founding of Ischia, off the coast of Italy in the Meditteranean Sea..

744 - 727 BCE - Assyria (Mesopotamia - Iraq) - The Assyrian reign of Tiglath-pileser III.

22nd - 24th Egyptian Dynasties

22nd - 25th Egyptian Dynasties

730 - 715 BCE - XXII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Bubastis or Tanis - Osorkon IV - Aakheperure - "Great Is The Manifestation Of Re." Meriamon - "Beloved Of Re."

Osorkon was the son of Sheshonq V by queen Tadibastet II. Osorkon's reign falls on a period when Egypt was ruled simultaneously by four dynasties. Thus, dynasty XXIII is represented by Iuput II and Sheshonq VI, the XXIV dynasty at Sais is represented by Tefnakht and Bakenrenef, and the Kushite dynasty XXV by Piankhi and Shabaka. Shortly after Osorkon had ascended the throne, Egypt was conquered by the Kushite king, Piankhi. The end of Osorkon's rule coincides with the invasion of Assyrians in Asia. In 716 BCE, Sargon II reached as far as el-Arish by the Palestine-Egyptian borders.

730 - 656 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubian rule (Negro or black) over both the Upper and Lower Nile came in the sixth century BCE. The nature of the Nubian relationship to their northern neighbors, Egypt, has been debated by scholars. Recent studies reveal that regions in Nubia such as Napata were vice-regal seats and administrative centers for Egypt. Because of its position in the Upper Nile valley, Nubia was also a considered a frontier fortress for Egypt and a major depot for trade with countries in the lower Sudan and West African regions. This trade may have been controlled by the elites, or chiefs, of the Nubians.

It has been concluded by some scholars that Nubia before the 25th dynasty was a fairly loosely structured community. In their opinion it reasons that the chiefs in Nubia would want to increase their power by aligning themselves with the institutions of the invading powers, the Egyptians. This explains why Nubian rulers would adopt Egyptian customs - increasing both their status in the eyes of the community and coming into favor with the current power structure. It is also believed that interaction between the rulers of Egypt and the viceroyalty of Nubia was far more dyamic than earlier interpretations have suggested. There is evidence of intermarriage, trade, and mutual gift exchange between the two civilizations, not the situation of Egypt exploiting Nubia as previously believed. The close contact of the Nubians with the Egyptians may have been a factor leading up to their rule over both countries beginning about 720 BCE.

Ancient Nubia

The first great Kushite king was Piye (c. 747 - 716 BCE) who invaded Egypt around 730 BCE. His descendants continued to rule Egypt for nearly sixty years. They respected the ancient Egyptian arts and customs and are credited for restoring many of the temples in Egypt. The Kushite kings also brought ancient Egyptian traditions to their homeland, such as building pyramids for their burial sites and employing Egyptian funerary arts including shawabtis.

King Taharaka

The Nubian kings of the 25th Dynasty followed the ancient Egyptian traditions, as is shown by this statue of Taharqa. King Taharaka, with the number and quality of shawabtis found at his burial site, was indeed one of the most important rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty.

730 - 716 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubian - Piankhi - "Piye." Menkheperre - "The Manifestation Of Re."

Piye was King of Napata, son and successor of Kashta. He came into possession of Upper Egypt and founded the XXV Egyptian Dynasty, also known as the Kushite or Napata Dynasty. After Tefnakht's expedition, he defeated Nimlot, Tefnakht's ally, crushed the fleet of the Egyptian king and conquered Hermopolis. In coalition with the northern kings, he organized against the Kushite king, apart from Tefnakht and Nimlot from Hermopolis which also included prince Osorkon IV, Iupet II and Sheshonq V. Piankhi accepted tribute from all princes after defeating their garrisons in the main cities, including Memphis. After religious celebrations in temple of Ptah at Memphis and Atum at Heliopolis, he returned to Napata from where he ruled over Egypt. His burial place is the pyramid at el-Kurru.

Most references point to Piye as being the first ruler of the 25th Dynasty.

Piankhi was his birth name. But in various references, we see his birth name referred to as Piankhy, Piye, Piy and Piyi. However, some references point out that his true name was Piye, and that this was wrongly read as Piankhi.

His Throne Name was Men-kheper-re, meaning "The Manifestation of Re Abides." This name too will vary, being also spelled Menkheperra. Of course, this king, as most others, had several other names which are not generally provided. Piye ascended the Nubian (Kushite) throne (or at least its northern half) as the successor of Kashta, which explains some references to Kashta as the founder of the 25th Dynasty. Kashta apparently made some earlier advances into Egypt. But it was Piye who, for the first time, consolidated the rulership of Nubia and Egypt.

From the earliest dynastic periods, Nubia was always a matter of conquest for the Egyptian pharaohs, and as such, much of Nubia was often under the control of Egypt. At times, it was very much a part of Egypt, and the customs of Nubia were a reflection of those in at least Upper Egypt. This perhaps explains Piye's seemingly strong emotional ties with Egypt, what he considered to be part of his motherland, even though he was not from Egypt proper.

So at least towards the end of the Third Intermediate Period, when Egypt seems to have surrendered to chaos with four kings claiming rule within Egypt, as well as a number of local chieftains exercising control, particularly in the Delta, Piye decided to step in and fix Egypt's problems. Kashta had a stele erected at the Elephantine Temple of Khnum (current day Aswan), but in the early years of Piye's reign, he extended his rule to Thebes.

There, he had his sister, Amenirdis I, named as the successor of Shepenwepet I, who had the title, God's Wife of Amun. Shepenwepet I was the sister of Rudamun of the Theban 23rd Dynasty, and apparently both Rudamun and Piye were recognized at Thebes at the same time. After the death of Rudamun, the Theban royal line seems to have abandoned Thebes in favor of Hierakleopolis, where Peftjauawy-bast, the last king of his dynasty remained an ally of Piye.

Soon, Piye was given a reason to intervene further north. Tefnakhte (a Lybian), the Prince of Western Egypt based in the Delta city of Sais extended his control south by taking the city of Memphis, as well as the old Middle Kingdom of Itj-tawy (Lisht).

At first, Piye merely checked Tefnakhte's movement south with a pair of naval battles in Middle Egypt, though he left the Saite rulers in control of the North. However, after spending New Years in Nubia, Piye returned to Thebes in time for the great Opet Festival, and subsequently set about taking the remainder of Egypt under his control. His troops moved north, capturing three towns, and killing one of Tefnakhte's sons in the process.

Soon, Piye attacked the city of Ashmunein which was ruled by Nimlot, once an ally of Piye. Using wooden siege towers, the city fell after five months.

Further North, Hierakleopolis, ruled by Piye's loyal ally, King Peftjauawybast, had been threatened by Tefnakhte, but the capture of Nimlot relieved the pressure on Hierakleopolis, and soon Piye had control of every major center south of Memphis, as well as capturing another of Tefnakhte's sons.

The only real obstacle left for Piye was Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt. While the city was heavily fortified and defended, as well as the water of the Nile protecting its walls, Piye was able to use the masts of boats and ships in the Memphite harbor to assault the city and scale the walls. In very short order, Memphis too was bought under his control. It is said that his first act was to protect the temple of Ptah, and then to go there himself to be anointed and to worship.

With the capture of Memphis, most of the Delta rulers soon yielded to the Kushite king. One notable exception was Tefnakhte, who even went so far as to mount another, but unsuccessful campaign against Piye. Finally, he to submitted to Piye's rule of Egypt, taking an oath of loyalty.

After conquering Egypt, Piye simply went home to Nubia, and apparently never again returned to Egypt. He is portrayed as a ruler who did not glory in the smiting of his adversaries, as did other kings, but rather preferred treaties and alliances. He left the rule of the country largely in the hands of his vassals, but recorded his victories on a stela (called the Victory Stela, now in the Egyptian Museum) at Napata. He left few monuments in Egypt, other than an expansion of theTemple of Amun at Thebes (current day Luxor). Later, Tefnakhte would again claim the kingdom as founder of the 24th Dynasty and rule, at least, the western Delta. However, later successors to Piye would consolidate their control over Egypt, at least for a time.

Upon Piye's death, he was buried at El-Kurru, where he had erected a small pyramid resembling the tall, narrow structures that had been built above many private tombs of Egypt's New Kingdom.

729 BCE - Macedonia - King Perdica I (729 - 678 BCE) establishes the Macedonian Kingdom in Ajga and started war with the Illyrians.

728 BCE - Non Dynastic Kings of Egypt - Hermopolis - Nimlot

728 BCE - Non Dynastic Kings of Egypt - Herakleopolis - Peftjauabastet

728 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Djehutiemhat - Neferkheperre - "Beautiful Is Manifestation Of Re." Haihaw - Djehutiemhat - "Beloved Of Thoth."

It is presumed that he succeeded Nemlit to the throne at Hermopolis. He was in opposition to other rulers of this dynasty and also to the XXIV Saite dynasty.

727 BCE - Palestine - Hezekiah becomes King of Judah.

22nd - 24th Egyptian Dynasties

727 - 720 BCE - XXIV Egyptian Dynasty- Libyan of Sais - Tefnakht - Shepsesre - "Noble Like Re."

Towards the end of the XXII Dynasty, Egypt began to break up. The XXIII and XXIV Dynasties, with other rulers of uncounted Dynasties, were rival Libyan lines, in addition to areas controlled by those who the Egyptians called "chieftans of Ma." The XXIV Dynasty at Sais, however, may actually represent the ancestors of the later XXVI Dynasty. In the end, all the Libyan dynasties combined were defeated by Piankhi of Napata, and his successors, who imposed Kushite rule on Egypt.

Tefnakht, the king of Sais in the Delta, attempted to put a stop to an invasion by organizing a coalition of northern kings that included Osorkon IV of Tanis, Peftjauabastet of Hernopolis, Nimlot, Input of Leontopolis and Tefnakht who became the first of the only two kings of the 24th Dynasty. The other was Bakenrenef, better known in Greek Myth as the Bocchoris who tangled with Herakles (Hercules). Tefnakht reigned for approximately eight years and Bakenrenef for six years.

The confederation of northern rulers enjoyed a certain success in that the Nubian King, Piankhi, allowed them to come south. The two forces met at Herakleopolis and Tefnakht and were compelled to retreat to Hernopolis where he and the other kings of the coalition surrendered to Piankhi. All four kings were then allowed to continue as governors of their respective cities, a policy which centuries later Alexander the Great was to find effective in his world conquest

Another king, Padinemti, reigned at Asyut in opposition to other rulers of this dynasty. He is disclosed by inscription in mortuary papyrus of dynasty XXV.

726 - 722 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The Assyrian reign of Shalmaneser V.

722 BCE - Palestine - The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel are exiled by the Assyrians and dissappear without a trace. The remaining kingdom of Judea was kept by the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin. [p34LR]

721 - 705 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The Assyrian reign of Sargon II.

721 BCE - Palestine - The fall of Samaria and the Kingdom of Israel under the forces of the Assyrian king Sargon II occurs, and the population is deported. The fall of Israel results in the dispersion (diaspora) of the "Ten Tribes of Israel" into Assyria and Persia-Media, where their history is said to have ended. Only the Kingdom of Judah remains.

The Assyrian King Sargon II controlled most of Palestine as well as Syria. To maintain order, cities are razed and burned, populations slaughtered or moved forcibly to be resettled far from their homelands at the will of the new masters. The Israelite tribe of Menashe is forced out of Palestine and is believed to have eventually settled in India. Their descendants in India, Eritrea and Burma now number some 300 million. Those Israelites driven into Europe are called Ashkenazin Jews. Those who remained in the Middle East are called Sephardim Jews. Some believe the ten tribes of Israel are assimilated into the Assyrian culture. Others suggest many are assimilated into the Judahian Sect. The Assyrian King Sargon II, having conquered the ten tribes of Israel – some 30,000 people – dispersed the people, who are then assimilated into the surrounding Assyrian tribes. This deportation action is a long-standing policy to deal with troublesome people and has been highly successful as the deportees are not treated as slaves but equal citizens of the Empire. Some suggest that many of the ten tribes are settled into the eastern edge of the Mediterranean. Others suggest they are absorbed into the two Judah tribes and other neighboring tribes.

721 - 703 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - The Chaldaeans enter Babylonia and compete for the Babylonian throne.

720 - 715 BCE - XXIII Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Leontopolis - Sheshonq VI

Existence of this ruler, probably from Leontopolis, is historically doubtful. The only proof of his existence is a bronze pendant with the name SS (Shesh). However, it may be incorrectly inscribed with the name of Sheshonq III.

720 - 715 BCE - XXIV Egyptian Dynasty- Libyan of Sais - Bakenrenef - "Bokchoris." Wahkare - "Constant Is The Soul Of Re."

Bakenrenef was the son of Tefnakht. The Greeks (Diodorus) named him as a gifted lawgiver, although not much is known concerning his economic and administrative activities. He negotiated with the Assyrians against the Kushites. In Manetho's opinion, he was taken captive by Shabaka and burnt at the stake.

717 BCE - Italy - Romulus dies and Rome is ruled by the senate for a period of one year


716 - 702 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubian - Shabaka - Sabakon - "Man." Neferkare Meriamun - "Beautiful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re ; Beloved Of Amun."

Shabaka was the son of Kashta and Pabatma. Shebaka is considered by some to be the first king of the XXVII Dynasty. During his reign, he undertook some building projects. The Fourth Pylon at Karnak has an inscription that tells of Shebaka's restoration of the gate. He also started work on the second pylon in front of the temple of Thutmose III at Medinet Habu. Shebaka's sister, Amunirdis I held a position that was very important politically as well as religiously. She was called "god's wife of Amun" at Thebes. Her funerary temple was at Medinet Habu and was in front of the temple of Ramesses III.

After suppressing a revolt risen by northern princes and burning Bokchoris at a stake (according to Manetho), Shabaka ruled over Egypt. In the face of the still growing power of the Assyrians, he followed the policy of his predecessors, which was mainly based upon intrigues and making political alliances. His burial place is the pyramid at el-Kurru, where some pieces of equipment have been preserved.

715 - 695 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubian - Ammeris - Ammeris - "Man."

Manetho ascribes to this ruler twelve years and mentions that his successor was Stephinates. There is assumed that Ammeris, Manetho's Ammeris the Nubian, was the Kushite regent constituted by Shabaka after Bokchoris' demise.

715 - 673 BCE - Italy - There was living, in those days, at Cures, a Sabine city, a man of renowned justice and piety - Numa Pompilius. He was as conversant as any one in that age could be with all divine and human law. His master is given as Pythagoras of Samos, as tradition speaks of no other. But this is erroneous, for it is generally agreed that it was more than a century later, in the reign of Servius Tullius. –– Livy

Like his predecessor, Romulus, and his successors, Tullius Ostilius, Ancus Marcius, L. Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, and L. Tarquinius Superbus, the reign of King Numa Pompilius is shrouded in legend.

To provide themselves with wives, the Romans (during Romulus' reign) had forcibly taken Sabine women. In the interests of harmony, the wives persuaded their husbands and fathers not to slaughter each other, but maintaining peace hadn't been easy. When Romulus died, the Sabines refused to permit another Roman power over them, so the Romans agreed to a Sabine king, but one of their choosing – the honorable and universally acceptable Numa Pompilius. Little did they imagine he might reject the crown.

Numa, however, thought he'd have to be crazy to leave his happy life to take on the unpredictable politics of a warring nation. At length Numa was persuaded it was his religious duty, and so, at age 40, Numa Pompilius began a new career marked by its piety.

Numa Pompilius's pacifism, too, continued into his reign. It was Numa who erected the temple of Janus [the two-faced god of gates whose name we see in the first calendar month].

"He built the temple of Janus at the foot of the Aventine as an index of peace and war, to signify when it was open that the State was under arms, and when it was shut that all the surrounding nations were at peace." (A)

Numa Pompilius then made treaties with his neighbors, closed the temple, and proceeded to other business.

According to Plutarch, Numa Pompilius' first official act was to dismiss the guard. Then, acting on the belief that religion, sacrifice, and fear of the gods would keep his people content and out of war, he began to make religious innovations. First he appointed a third priest (flamen) to honor Romulus (Quirinus) in addition to those for Jupiter and Mars. He also created the priests known as pontifices with himself the leader, the Pontifex Maximus. His job was to prescribe religious ceremonies and to guard the vestal virgins whom he may have instituted. The vestals guarded the sacred fire and were charged with chastity (the forerunners of the modern-day Roman Catholic nuns). Numa Pompilius also instituted two other priestly orders, the Salii and the Fecials.

To facilitate religious observance, Numa altered the calendar. Certain days he set aside for religion; others for business. According to Plutarch, he divided the year into twelve lunar months with interpolated intercalary ones when necessary to ensure that once every twenty years the sun would be in the same position.

After the monarchy period, the office of king of rites was established to continue religious ceremonies. The rex sacrorum, the three flamines, and the college of high priests, and the Pontifex Maximus, controlled and led the State religion. During the Empire period, the emperor was appointed the Pontifex Maximus.

Numa's peaceful reign lasted 43 years. (A)

708 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Babylon fell to King Sargon II of Syria. The repercussions of his victory are enormous as the known world pledged homage. Midas the Phrygian offered friendship, King Uperi of Dilmun (Bahrain) sent gifts, and seven Kings of Iatnana (Cyprus) sent presents and swore allegiance. It is noteworthy that the Iatnana are a seven-day sea journey toward the setting sun. The House of Sargon (Sargonids) would ruled the Assyrian Empire until 609 BCE.

704 - 681 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The Assyrian reign of Sennacherib (Senake-riba).


702 - 690 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubian - Shabataka - Shebitku - Sebichos - "Man." Djedkawre - "Enduring Is The Soul Of Re." Shabataka Meriamon.

The son of Shabaka and father of Tenutamen, Shebitku was the second king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. He was the nephew and successor of Shebaka. During Shebaka's reign, there was a policy of conciliation and cooperation with the Assyrians. This kept the Assyrians from coming further into Egypt. Shebitku had a different policy; resistance. A stela from Kawa tells of Shebitku asking his brothers, including Taharqa, to come to him at Thebes from Nubia. The army went with Taharqa. On another stela that is the story told that when Jerusalem was under attack by the Assyrians, that the king of Ethiopia (Kush) came against Sennacherib (of Assyria). Shebitku joined in the resistance against Sennacherib and an Egyptian army was sent to Palestine, led by Shebitku's brother, Taharqa.

He headed the army which set out in support of Jerusalem. In 701 BCE an Assirian coalition was defeated by Sanheryb at Eltekeh in Palestine. Hezekiah of Judah surrended to Assiria and paid heavy tribute to avoid ravage of Jerusalem. The Old Testament suggests that a plague in the Assyrian army saved the Egyptians and Hebrevians from complete defeat. Herodotus, in turn, tells that the retreat of Assyrians was due to swarms of mice who ate up their weapons. The building activities of Shabataka are most pronounced at Thebes (chapel by Holy Lake at Karnak and reliefs at Luxor) and also at Memphis and Kawa. His burial place is pyramid 18 at el-Kurru. Some pieces of funerary equipment, skull and bones of Shabataka were found there.

701 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Southern Israel - Assyria's King Sennacherib led an army into Palestine to punish subject peoples who - probably with the encouragement of Egypt - had revolted against the Assyrian rule. One of these rebels was the Judean people. Sennacherib's forces laid siege to the Judaean capital, Jerusalem, and to the walled city of Lachish. The siege of Lachish is especially well known because it was depicted on reliefs with which Sennacherib subsequently decorated his palace in Nineveh. Arriving in front of the city, the Assyrians called upon the inhabitants to surrender, offering them leniency if they opened their gates. The Judaeans, however, chose to resist and the siege began. The Assyrians encircled Lachish with troops, butr, instead of waiting for a blockade to take effect, they prepared to assault the city. First they sent archers forward on foot, each accompanied by a shield-bearer. Protected from enemy arrows by large shields with curved-over cops, the archers shot at defenders on the ramparts, using their power composite bows. Their arrows provided cover for engineers to advance toward the walls.

Ramming Engine
This detail from the reliefs in Sennacherib's palace shows the Assyrians' siege engine mounting the ramp to hit the wall with its ram, while archers exchange fire.

From the Nineveh reliefs it appears that engineers hacked at the base of the walls and tried mining under the foundations. But their main work was the construction of a ramp, made from dirt piled up in a steep slops to apoint partway up the walls. When complete, the engineers paved with with stone slabs to smooth the surface. The Assyrian's idea was to propel a siege engine up this slope and attack the top of the wall. The siege engine was a wooden tower mounted on four wheels. Archers manned the top of the tower, while one or two battering rams protruded below. The whole structure was covered with dampened leather hides to protect it from flaming arrows - an incendiary weapon apparently used by both sides. Soldiers pushed the siege engine up the slope so that the ram could batter the wall while the archers shot their arrows into the fortified town. At the same time, Assyrian infantry assaulted another section of the walls with scaling ladders, while being covered by shots from still more archers and stone-slingers. It is not known how long the assault on Lachish lasted or what the casualties were on either side, but the fighting was probably very fierce. Once the Assyrians had broken into the town, slaughter followed. The Nineveh reliefs show some judaeans impaled on stakes and others pleading for their lives. Archeological evidences confirms that hundreds of men, women, and children were indeed massacred. In contrast to Lachish, the siege of Jerusalem was not a success for the Assyrians. They failed to take the city and, after a lengthy blockade, raised the siege, probably because illness had broken out in their camps. By the end of Sennacherib's reign, however, the Assyrians returned and incorporated Judaea into their empire. [Grant]

700 - 675 BCE - Persia (Iran) - Achaemenes, first king of Persia.

700 BCE - Egypt - It is noteworthy that in Egypt prior to this time, slavery was marginal. Evidence suggests the majority of slaves were well treated and some rose to become high ranking officials. This principle appears to be an old world wide belief. In contrast, the Greek, and later the Roman culture, adopted the Mesopotamian belief of slave holding and institutionalized slavery. The Greeks considered slavery as the core of their political organization, their ideal of democracy, where freemen lived on the backs of slaves who could be disposed of at will. In essence they were non-persons. Their principle was that a city taken in war, the people and property became the property of the captor. The principle of might is right is born. Aristotle (384-322 BCE) the Greek philosopher would argue that those without spirit (meek) are only suited for slavery. Those with spirit and intelligence make natural leaders. This insidious paternal philosophy would infect Europe causing suffering and death of tens of millions of innocent people. It is not by accident that scriptures would suggest that the meek shall inherit the earth.

700 - 680 BCE - XXIV Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Sais - Gemnefkhonsubak.

He was a local ruler disclosed by some local relics and a stela of Turin.

695 - 688 BCE - XXIV Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Sais - Stephinates - Stephinates - "Man."

According to Manetho, he succeeded Ammeris the Nubian. The prototype of the Greek name of Stephinates might be the Egyptian name Tefnakht. Presumably he was a local vassal under the XXV dynasty, and according to scholar W. Helck, and might have been the son of Bokchoris.

695 - 688 BCE - XXIV Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan of Sais - Nekaub - Nechepsos - "Man."

According to Manetho, he was the ruler who reigned for six years, whereas Egyptologist Kitchens states that he ruled for sixteen years. He was recognized as local regent of Sais in the time preceding the reign of the proper XXVI dynasty.



690 - 664 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubian - Taharqa - Tarakos - "Man."

Taharqa was the son of Piankchi and Abale, who is regarded as the ruler who re-united the land. At that time, the prince and actual ruler of Thebes was Montuemhat - the fourth prophet of Amun. Taharqa rebelled at Sydon in 677 BCE which caused Ashaddon's campaign, as a result of which Lower Egypt fell into Assyrian possession while Taharqa escaped to Thebes. In 669 BCE, Taharqa regained rule over the Delta from the local princes. The building activities of Taharqa refer to the most splendid periods of Egyptian history, and their traces can be found all over Egypt. The best known are the temples at Sanam, Kawa, Atribis, Pnubs, Semna, and Kasr Ibrim, with numerous structures at Karnak and in the Theban district.

Taharqa was the brother of Shebitku and was the third king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. After the death of Shebitku, Taharqa was crowned as king. Taharqa is responsible for building done both in Nubia as well as in Egypt. He built the colonnade in the first court of the temple of Amun at Karnak. There is one column that stands twenty-one meters high and is still standing. During his reign, the Assyrians threatened Egypt again. The Assyrians were successful in one invasion, in which they captured Memphis, wounded Taharqa and stole his family and property. Taharqa survived the attack.

Sphynx of King Taharqa
from Temple T at Kawa (London: British Museum).

His burial place is probably in the pyramid at Nuri, although it can not be excluded that he may be buried in another place, possibly at Sedeinga in a pyramid-tomb where blocks with the name of Taharqa and a mummy of a 50 year-old man were discovered.

690 BCE - Palestine - The second invasion of Judah by Sennacherib is thwarted by a plague in the 185,000 man Assyrian army.

689 BCE - Iraq - The city of Babylon is destroyed by the Assyrians under Sennacherib.

681 BCE - Assyria - Sennacherib (Senake-riba) , King of Assyria, is assassinated by two of his sons.

680 - 669 BCE - Assyria - Egypt - The Assyrian reign of Esarhaddon.

680 - 665 BCE - XXIV Egyptian Dynasty - Libyan at Tanis - Padibastet II - "Petubastis." Petubastis - "Man." Padibastet - "Wise One Of Bastet."

Padibastet II was successor of Gemnefkhosubak on the throne at Tanis. His rule coincides with Assyrian expansion. A statue of Padibastet at Memphis has survived, along with stone blocks from the temples at Tanis or Heliopolis. It is assumed that Padibastet did not participate in a plot against Assurbanipal, and he utilized Taharka's escape to the South and Nakau's carry out to Assyria to occupy Memphis for a brief time. From the times of the rule of Padibastet come demotic stories - the so called Cycle of Patubastis, which in its style recalls the Iliad of Homer.

675 - 640 BCE - Persia (Iran) - Tiespes beecomes the second king of Persia.

673 - 642 BCE - Italy - Numa dies and Tullius Hostilius becomes the third king of Rome. His reign was full of warfare.

672 - 525 BCE - XXVI Egyptian Dynasty - The Late Period includes the last periods during which ancient Egypt functioned as an independent political entity. During these years, Egyptian culture was under pressure from major civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East. The socioeconomic system, however, had a vigor, efficiency, and flexibility that ensured the success of the nation during these years of triumph and disaster.

Throughout the Late Period, Egypt made a largely successful effort to maintain an effectively centralized state, which, except for the two periods of Persian occupation (Twenty-seventh and Thirty-first dynasties), was based on earlier indigenous models. Late Period Egypt, however, displayed certain destabilizing features, such as the emergence of regionally based power centers. These contributed to the revolts against the Persian occupation but also to the recurrent internal crises of the Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, and Thirtieth dynasties.

Psammethichus I made Egypt a powerful and united kingdom. This dynasty, which ruled from 672 to 525 BCE, represented the last great age of pharaonic civilization.The dynasty ended when a Persian invasion force under Cambyses (an Aryan), the son of Cyrus the Great, dethroned the last (Nubian) pharaoh.

Cambyses established himself as pharaoh and appears to have made some attempts to identify his regime with the Egyptian religious hierarchy. Egypt became a Persian province serving chiefly as a source of revenue for the far-flung Persian (Achaemenid) Empire. From Cambyses to Darius II in the years 525 to 404 BCE, the Persian emperors are counted as the Twenty-seventh Dynasty.

Periodic Egyptian revolts, usually aided by Greek military forces, were unsuccessful until 404 BCE, when Egypt regained an uneasy independence under the short-lived, native Twenty-eighth, Twenty-ninth, and Thirtieth dynasties. Independence was lost again in 343 BCE, and Persian rule was oppressively reinstated and continued until 335 BCE, in what is sometimes called the Thirty-first Dynasty or second Persian occupation of Egypt.

672 - 664 BCE - XXVI Egyptian Dynasty - Nekau I - Nechao - "Man." Nechepsos - "Man." Menkheperre - "Established Is The Form Of Re."

Nekau I was the son of a prince of Sais, Bokchoris. He was one of the princes of the Delta loyal to Assyria. He gave even an Assyrian name to his own son, Psametik.

670 BCE - Italy - In Rome, the first major bridge - "Pons Sublicius" - (wood piles) is built across the Tiber River. The Temple to Jupiter is erected at this time.

(British museum, London)

669 - 664 BCE - Assyria (Mesopotamia - Iraq) - The Assyrian reign of Ashurbanipal.

665 - 657 BCE - XXVI Egyptian Dynasty - Neferkare - Neferkare - "Beautiful Soul of Re."

He was presumably a regent holding rule at Tanis, who is mentioned in two monuments in companion of Psametik I.

664 - 656 BCE - XXV Egyptian Dynasty - Nubian - Tenwetamun - Tanwetamani - Bakare - "Glorious Is The Soul Of Re."

Tanwetamani (Assyrian Tandamane or Tantamani, Greek Tementhes, also known as Tanutamun) was Egypt's last ruler of the 25th Dynasty as well as the last Nubian (Kushite) Ruler, ruling from about 664 to 656 BCE. He succeeded Taharqa, though he was probably the son of that king's sister, Queen Qalhata. His succession to the throne is recorded in what is known as the Dream Stela, not to be confused with that of Tuthmosis IV. It was discovered along with the Victory Stela of Piye at Gebel Barkal in 1862 CE, and is now located in the Nubian Museum in Aswan.

Tanwetamani may have served as a co-regent with Taharqa, but his parentage and family relationships are difficult. From his stela we find depicted two women, one of whom is referred to as "the royal sister, the Mistress of Egypt, Qalhata", while the other is "the royal sister, the Mistress of Ta-Seti, Pi-(ankh)-Arty". An analysis of the text associated with the stela would seem to indicate that Qalhata was Tanwetamani's mother, while the second woman was his wife. The fact that Qalhata was his mother is also supported by her tomb at Nuri in the modern Sudan, where she is given the title of "King's Mother". Foundation deposits also show that the tomb was built during the reign of Tanwetamani.

Most recent histories which discuss the 25th dynasty identify Tanwetamani (Urdamani) as a son of Shabataka, Taharqa's brother, not of his uncle Shabaka as the Rassam cylinder analysis appears to suggest. The errant orthography can be explained by the fact that the name Shabaka is more properly vocalized as Shebitku.

In the narrative of his stela, the king is referred to as "lord of valor like Montu, great of strength like a fierce-eyed lion." It goes on to explain that in the first year of his reign, Tanwetamani had a dream of two serpents, one on his right hand and one on his left. After waking, the king's advisors interpreted the dream, saying that, "the southland is already thin, seize the northland." Hence, he should bring Egypt back under control of the Kushite empire. After this passage, another states that Tanwetamani then "rose on the throne of Horus", a term which may be interpreted as his having ascended the throne. This is the primary evidence we have for his co-regency with Taharqa, but we are also told that Assyrian text provides that he did not do so until after Taharqa's death.

It is assumed that at the time of his accession, Tanwetamani was most likely inside Egypt proper, for the text on the stela states that "he went from where he was to Napata (Nubia), and there was none who stood up to oppose him." Hence, he went to the Temple of Amun and was acknowledged as god and king.

Other text within the stela confirms that he was at this time in control of southern, or Upper Egypt, but at the very least was not in control of parts of the north. After ascending the throne, he went north from Nubia, first stopping at Elephantine where he participated in a festival procession of the God Khnum. From there he sailed further north to Waset (Thebes) where he once again participated in the festival.

Nekau of Sais may have been killed in this battle, but his son, Psamtek, who was loyal to the Assyrians fled to Asia. After this victory, Tanwetamani honored the God, Ptah-Sokar and his wife Sakhmet in the great temple of Memphis, and afterwards ordered the building of a chapel dedicated to Amun at Napata in Nubia. The temple, we know, was to be built of stone overlaid with gold, sections of cedar wood and the leaves of the door plated with electrum. This temple may be associated with parts of the great temple of Amun at Gebel Barkal. The "door posts of the temple" may refer to the great gate of electrum erected by Tuthmosis IV and renewed by Shabaka. This attack on Thebes was one of the great tragedies of the ancient world, and was remembered by a Jewish prophet fifty years later.

Tanwetamani apparently spared the lives of the Delta princes, sending them home, but this victory was short lived. Interestingly, Tanwetamani seems to have continued to be acknowledged as pharaoh in Thebes until his eighth year. There are inscriptions at Luxor that date the installation of priests by his name and the Kushites still maintained a large official presence in the city. Piye's daughter, Shepenwepet II is known as God's Wife of Amun, with Taharqa's daughter, Amenirdis II as her designated successor. Even in the first year of Tanwetamani's reign, his cousin remained the High Priest of Amun, and we have other evidence of the Kushite's continued power within the region.

It is possible that Tanwetamani once again tried to assert control over Egypt, though the evidence is slight. In a brief passage in the work of Polyaenus from a 2nd Century CE text, there was a battle near the temple of Isis at Memphis that may have involved Tanwetamani. He states that Psamtik, aided by Carian mercenary troops, defeated "Tementhes." A few Egyptologists believe, based on a hellenistic Jewish source, that Tanwetamani may have even retaken Memphis, but much of this is conjecture.

In any case, Tanwetamani probably continued to rule in Nubia for at least a few more years, and was buried in the necropolis at Nuri.

With the demise of Tanwetamani, the XXV Dynasty ended. The Nubian people withdrew to Nubia (Sudan), and moved their administrative center further south, from Napata to Meroë.

Psametik I

664 - 610 BCE - XXVI Egyptian Dynasty - Psametik I - Psammetichos - "Man." Wahibre - "Constant Is The Heart Of Re." Psametik - "colloquially: The Vine Merchant Of Metjek ; Husband Of [the god] Metjek."

Psametik I was the son of Nekau I the prince of Sais. He ruled in Athribis under Assyrian name of Nebushezibanni. After the retreat of the Assyrians, he took over rule and, with support from Ionian and Karyan mercenaries, gained principality over the princes of the Delta. He reached as far as Palestine and laid siege to Ashdod. He managed to annex Central Egypt which was administered by the regents of Heracleopolis - Padiiset and Sematauiefankh. In 656 BCE, he took rule at Thebes, and thanks to diplomatic efforts, gained for his daughter Nitocris the title of Divine Adoratrice of Amun which gave him de facto rule over Upper Egypt. Recently it has been assumed that Nitocris became the Divine Adorer of Amun greatly due to Sematauiefankh, the prince of Heracleopolis, who had given military support to Psametik. Military activity of Psametik in later years focused mainly in Libya and Asia. In response to increasing power of Media and Babylon Psametik supported Assyria, which was close to its downfall in battles in 616 BCE and 610 BCE. Building activity of this ruler is known from extending Serapeum in the fifty-second year of his rule and other numerous monuments, mainly in the Delta. He died after a long reign and was buried at Sais.

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