The Curse of the Corporation

Part I – The Unknown Origin of Mankind to 2399 BCE

Neither the Bible nor science give us an absolute picture of how the human races arose. The Bible contains no explanation of when or how races came to be. Science tells us that the genetic differences among the races are very small. Such minor genetic differences can be easily explained through selective breeding using microevolutionary processes.

An origin belief is any story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony). Such beliefs can be derived from many different venues including scientific investigation, metaphysical speculation, or religious belief. As with any set of beliefs, opinions regarding the validity of particular origins beliefs differ - points of view on these subjects vary widely.

15000000 BCE - North America - One of the most prodigious lava flows in the history of the world occurred in the Pacific Northwest. The lava spread over an estimated 200,000 square miles in depths up to 5,000 feet. In 1972, a competent geologist stated that the eruptions took place a mere fifteen million years ago. Much of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and portions of neighboring states, was covered. The immense age of the deposit can easily be imagined by the fact that the Snake River has cut canyons through the deposit to depths of up to 3000 feet.

Still, there are several curious things about this lava flow. Many competent observers have commented on the remarkable freshness of the deposit, as though the eruptions took place in very recent times. A startling find was made in 1889 CE near Nampa, Idaho. While workers were boring an artesian well, a small figurine of baked clay was extracted from a depth of 320 feet. Above the figurine, the drill, inside a 6-inch tubing, had cut through fifteen feet of basalt lava and many other strata. The find has never been challenged except to say that it was impossible. The conclusion is unmistakable. Before the basalt flowed, sophisticated humans lived in the area. [Velik] Ancient men lived in California. They worked the hardest stones, fabricated perfect granite mortars and dishes, used a circular, skillet-like vessel made of lava, hard as iron, which had three legs and a spout, made polished stone axes with perfect holes drilled in them for a handle, and fashioned ladles, disks or quoits. They were able to bore into the bowels of mountains for gold and silver.

One ancient shaft was drilled 210 feet down into solid rock. An altar for worship was found there. Other finds include the following: a mortar for grinding gold ore at a depth of 300 feet in a mining tunnel, a mortar and pestle weighing 30 pounds, beads, perforated stones, a 40-pound oval granite dish. One human skull was found at a depth of 130 feet under five beds of lava and tufa separated by layers of gravel. Man came before the lava flowed, and deep canyons have been cut by rivers since the lava spread. An amazing number of stone relics have been found. The finding are almost always in gold-bearing rock or gravels [Vict].

In the museum at Moses Lake, Washington, are some very crude scrapers on exhibit which were found under a glacial morain. This would appear to date man in Washington to a time before the Pleistocene epoch, which scientists are reluctant to do. A similar discovery was made near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Crude choppers and scrapers of quartzite were found deep in the earth and had been tumbled and mixed in glacial till. Again this is evidence that man lived there before the glacial advance. Scientists do not want to put man in America that long ago [Folsom]. Such finds are no problem for creationists who see no conflict for such finds within a biblical time framework.

1800000 - 100000 BCE - Africa - Indonesia - Europe - Asia - Evidence of Homo erectus is found in Africa, Asia, and Indonesia (and Europe?). They employed the first use of fire and crude stone tools.

400000 - 100000 BCE - Africa - Europe - Asia - Archaic Homo sapiens appear as distinct from earlier protohumans. Their location was limited to Africa and western Eurasia. They differed from modern humans in skeletal details and behavior, and also used fire and crude stone tools.

143000 BCE - Africa - Genetic Eve, the most recent common female ancestor of all living humans (from mitochondrial DNA dating). The mtDNA from Eve merely acts as a tracer that links all present-day humans to a single population of ancient humans, estimated at 10,000 people or so, who lived in Africa several hundred thousand years ago.

140000 - 40000 BCE - Europe - Asia - Homo neanderthalensis, a separate species unrelated to Homo sapiens, living in Europe and west Asia. H. neanderthalensis buried their dead and cared for their sick. Their hands could not grip complicated tools, preventing them from engaging in fine motor skills, such as carving and painting.

130000 - 60000 BCE - Africa - Europe - Western Asia - Early modern H. sapiens, appear (sometimes called H. sapiens sapiens). Their skeletons are much closer to modern humans than the archaic H. sapiens. They are found mostly in Africa and west Eurasia, with a few in east Asia. They used the same stone tools as Neanderthals, and were not skilled in art. They had unimpressive hunting skills, killing easy-to-kill, not-at-all-dangerous animals, and were not fishermen.

94000 - 12000 BCE - Africa - Europe - Western Asia - Prehistoric 'Hobbit'. A little over 3 feet tall, a distinct humanoid species, Homo floresiensis people flourished on Flores from 94000 to 12000 years ago, when a volcano killed them off. They apparently hunted dwarf elephants with spears.

Landsat Photo of Toba

Map of Toba, Sumatra, Indonesia

75000 BCE - Indonesia - Effects from the super volcanic eruption of Toba in Sumatra reduces world-wide human population to as few as 7,000 individuals.

The Toba caldera produced the largest eruption in the last 2 million years. The caldera is 18 x 60 miles (30 by 100 km) and has a total relief of 5,100 feet (1700 m). The caldera probably formed in stages. Large eruptions occurred 840,000, about 700,000, and 75,000 years ago. The eruption 75,000 years ago produced the Young Toba Tuff, resulting in ring fractures that surround most or all of the present-day lake.

Based on this event, a new hypothesis about recent human evolution suggests that the horrific "volcanic winter" 71,000 years ago, followed by the coldest 1,000 years of the last Ice Age, brought widespread famine and death to modern human populations around the world. The abrupt "bottleneck," or decrease, in our ancestors' populations, in turn, brought about the rapid "differentiation" - or genetic divergence - of the surviving populations.

50000 BCE - Africa - Europe - Asia - Human population consists of 1.2 million hunter-gatherers of Homo sapiens.

50000 BCE - America - The first human settlement is made in the Americas, according to evidence found at a South Carolina site.

45000 BCE - Europe - Humans begin to enter southwestern Europe. Some 6 percent of Europeans are descended from the continent's first founders, who entered Europe from the Near East (these people are modern Basque and Scandinavians). Their skeletal remains are fully modern. They used tools of bone, fishhooks, engraving tools, and needles. They were also adept with multi-piece tools. Harpoons, spear-throwers, bows and arrows to catch large, difficult animals were also used by these people. Other items included nets, lines, and snares for fishing. They created the first art: cave paintings, statues, and musical instruments.

40000 - 35000 BCE - Europe - Within a few thousand years, Neanderthals disappear, likely due to humans (Cro-Magnon people) with superior weapons and culture. Superior technology and language skills may have been used to infect, kill, or displace the Neanderthals. There is no evidence to suggest any hybridization of humans with Neanderthals. The brain of the Neanderthal was bigger than that of a Cro-Magnon, but it did not save them from extinction.

The existence of an original civilization on the continent of Europe which predates the civilizations in the Middle East, has to a large degree been ignored by traditional history writers, particularly those who wrote during the dominant Christian era in Europe. This was largely because of a biblical Judeo-Christian bias which held that all civilization started in the Near East (the biblical Old Testament deals exclusively with events in the Middle East, and conventional wisdom during the Age of the Church held that the Garden of Eden was in the Middle East).

40000 - 35000 BCE - Australia - New Guinea - The first mass extinction of large mammals is caused by humans in Australia and New Guinea. Giant kangaroos, rhino-like marsupials, and marsupial leopard, which were relatively tame being unused to humans or unafraid of them, were killed off or else indirectly eliminated during first few thousand years of human settlement.

40000 - 30000 BCE - Europe - Asia - Evidence of boats appear. Humans from Eurasia apparently sailed to Australia / New Guinea, a single landmass, due to lower sealevel. These adventurers had to sail to places that could not be seen on the horizon. Watercraft won't appear elsewhere in the world until 11000 BCE, in the Mediterranean.

34000 BCE - Iraq - The Shanidar Cave is occupied from this period until 25500 BCE. The tools used suggest an Aurignacian culture. These Baradostian people are trading with the Syria-Palestine peoples and the peoples on the Anatolian Plateau and Iranian Highlands. The tools are similar to those found at Disitun Cave (Iran) and the Korain Cave (Turkey).

33000 BCE - France - Cussac Cave - Scientists announced July 6, 2001 the discovery of vivid prehistoric engravings covering about a kilometer of wails in a cave in France's southwest Dordogne region. The Cussac engravings are believed to be up to 35,000 years old, much older than the famed images at nearby Lascaux, which were created about 18,000 years ago.

The Cussac cave is so significant that it rivals Lascaux, the nearby grotto famed for its own collection of cave-paintings, scientists told reporters in the nearby town of Perigueux.

An amateur caver came upon the engravings in September 2000 CE, but the exact location of the cave, which is somewhere in the Dordogne Valley, has been kept secret. The designs are traced on almost a kilometer of walls in the 12-meter-high cave.

Lascaux Caves ancient painted star map

A painted map of the prehistoric cosmos is on the wall of a famous Ice Age cave at Lascaux in central France.

Cro-magnon man - distant ancestors of humans living much later than the earlier Neanderthals and Aurignacians - painted the Lascaux caves with drawings of bulls, horses and antelope some 16,500 years ago. Thus, the map may be 16,500 years old.

Lascaux Caves ancient painted lunar map

A dappled brown horse with dark mane painted on the wall of the prehistoric Lascaux caves in France 15,000 years ago might be part of the oldest lunar calendar.

German researcher Michael Rappenglueck has interpreted the painting as symbolic of the phases of the Moon. He sees groups of dots and squares painted by Cro-magnon man alongside images of bulls, horses and antelope as depicting the 29-day cycle of Earth's natural satellite.

Ancient star chart carved in ivory mammoth tusk

30000 BCE - Germany - The oldest star map is found, depicting Orion the Hunter, in Ach Valley, Germany. A European researcher has interpreted carvings in a 32,500-year-old ivory tablet as a pattern of the same stars that we see in the sky today in the constellation Orion.

The tablet is a sliver of ivory from the tusk of a mammoth - a large woolly animal like an elephant. Mammoths are extinct today.

Carved into the ivory is what appears to be a carving of a human figure with outstretched arms and legs. The pose suggests the stars of Orion, according to Michael Rappenglueck, formerly of the University of Munich, known for his interpretation of ancient star charts painted on walls of prehistoric caves.

The ivory tablet has notches carved on its sides and back, which are not understood but might be an ancient pregnancy calendar to estimate when a woman would give birth.

The tiny piece of ivory was in a cave in the Ach Valley in the Alb-Danube region of Germany when it was discovered in 1979 CE. Scientists used a process known as carbon dating to check the age of bone ash found next to the tablet. Carbon dating is used to determine the age of an old material by measuring its content of carbon 14. Results of carbon dating tests on the nearby bone ash suggested that the tablet might be between 32,500 and 38,000 years old. If correct, that would make it one of the oldest drawings of a human ever found.

The earliest known figurines are found in a German cave. Three small ivory carvings found at Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany suggest a high level of artistic skill among craftspeople living between 30,000 and 35,000 years ago.

30000 BCE - Czechoslovakia - The oldest coal mine is discovered in Landek.

30000 BCE - Australia - The oldest necklace is found in Mandu Mandu.

30000 BCE - Northern India - The first racial types identifiable as similar to modern Whites first appeared in parts of Europe, southern Russia and the Near East during the time period 30,000 BC to 15,000 BCE, following the end of the last great Ice Age around the year 40,000 BCE.

Statuette of the Mother Goddess

The earliest art: the Woman from Willendorf, present day Austria, dating from 30,000 BCE. Late Paleolithic period.

30000 BCE - Worldwide - Countless nude, fecund statuettes of the Mother Goddess have been discovered at pre-historic sites all over the world, e.g., the voluptuous, nude Cycladic fertility goddesses found at Neolithic Greek burial sites. Some figures show a long phallic head and neck symbolising that the Great Goddess is both male and female with the power to create all - the cosmic Androgyne found in many religions - Nommo (a fish) in Mali and Sudan, Africa and Gaia (Earth) in Greece who gave birth alone to Chronos (Time) and Uranus (Space). (Gaia, Tartarus (Abyss) and Eros (Love) followed Chaos (Gap) - Erebus (Underworld) and Nyx (Night) were born of Chaos.) In Egypt the creator god Atum was both male and female, with different manifestations.

30000 BCE - Czechoslovakia - Southern Russia - The earliest remains of buildings date from the time of the hunters of the Late Paleolithic period who inhabited the areas now known as the Czech and Slovak republics and southern Russia.

30000 - 20000 BCE - Europe - The ancestors of another 80 percent of modern Europeans arrived in Europe 30000 to 20000 years ago, before the peak of the last glaciation, and 10 percent came in the Neolithic era about 10000 years ago, when the Ice Age ended and agriculture was first introduced to Europe from the Near East.

28000 BCE - France - Artwork depicting "dangerous animals," like mammoths, rhinos, and bears, is found in a cave at Arcy-sur-Cure.

28000 BCE - Czechoslovakia - The first weaving is found in the Czech Republic. It was made by the Gravettian people who roamed between Southern Russia and Spain between 29000 and 22000 years ago scratching out a living on a semi-frozen landscape.

27000 BCE - France - Musical instruments made their appearance at sites in southern France.

23000 BCE - Russia - The skeletal remains of an adult white male is discovered in Sungir, Russia, estimated to be 25,000 years old. This discovery is from the Upper Paleolithic era.

A small ivory head of a female figure.

22000 BCE - France - A small ivory head of a female figure with delicately carved features and stylized long hair, found at Brassempouy in France. This piece is exceptionally valuable as racial characteristics are clearly identifiable in the face.

20000 BCE - Russia - Expansion of people into cold Siberia, eastern Eurasia is found. Artificacts included needles for sewing, which were necessary to make warm clothes.

18000 BCE - Worldwide - Glacial maximum of the last Ice Age is discovered, leaving the sea level 120 meters below present level.

15000 - 13000 BCE - France - The oldest identifiable cultures are those of the Old Stone, or Paleolithic, Age. These cultures left to posterity a rich artistic heritage of paintings on cave walls; the most famous of these cave paintings are at Lascaux in the Dordogne region of southwestern France.

On 12 September 1940, four teenagers in the Dordogne region of south-west France were out looking for their dog, Robot. As they searched through the undergrowth, they stumbled across the Lascaux Cave. No one knows if they found Robot, and no one really cares any more. Instead, they're more interested in a cave adorned with some of the most extraordinary prehistoric paintings ever discovered.

Great Hall of the Bulls

The Dordogne region (otherwise known as Périgord) is one of the cradles of human civilization, and the Lascaux cave contains some of the oldest paintings known to humanity. Created between 15,000 and 17,000 years ago by members of a hunting cult, the paintings depict wild cattle, bison and horses drawn like comic strips from left to right on the blackened walls of seven interconnected caves.

The largest paintings, in what's been named The Great Hall of the Bulls, are the most impressive of all Palaeolithic art. They extend along both sides of the vaulted walls of a sloping floored rotunda. One huge fresco, covering about 20m (65ft), is composed of three groups of animals - horses, bulls and stags. The cave was found in pristine condition and opened to the public in 1948. After 15 years so many people had visited the caves that carbon dioxide from their breath was causing a green fungus and tiny stalactites to grow over the paintings, causing their colours to fade. In 1955 CE the first indications of deterioration of the paintings appeared. A thorough study found that the cause was an excess of carbon dioxide in the air brought about by the visitors' breath. This gas acidified the water vapour being breathed out and, as it condensed on the walls this corroded the rock face as well as the calcite. A system was then put in place to monitor the production of carbon dioxide. Nevertheless, a few years later, green patches developing rapidly on the walls indicated the presence of green algae and mosses. Research showed that this deterioration was caused by the intensive development of this site. The Ministry of Cultural Affairs, headed by André Malraux, had the cave closed on April 20 1963 CE. Once the visits to the cave had been cancelled, the causes of the changes eliminated, and the original climatic conditions recreated, the Lascaux cave art returned to the state it was in on the day of its discovery.

13000 BCE - Mexico - In December 2002 CE, it was announced that a skeleton which had been in Mexico City's National Museum of Anthropology since 1959 CE, had been identified as more than 13,000 years old - the oldest skeleton yet found in the Americas. Dubbed the "Peñon Woman III", the skeleton's skull - typically doliocraniac, or 'long-faced' was what attracted the attention of scientists, as the Amerind population has broad Mongolian shape skulls. Scientists speculated that the skull was possibly of Ainu extraction, just like the Kennewick (Washington) Man remains.

12000 - 11000 BCE - Western Hemisphere - Rapid settlement of first North and then South America.

11000 - 9000 BCE - Palestine - The origin of Ain Mallaha, one of the first settled villages known anywhere –

10500 - 9000 BCE - Iraq - Abu Hureyra is founded in the Middle Euphrates Valley, which is a permanent hunter-gatherer base camp for exploiting gazelle migrations.

The Vela Supernova Remnant

The Vela Supernova Remnant

10000 BCE - Worldwide - Vela supernova (right); at maximum light, would have outshown the full moon. The radiation from this event would have affected humans worldwide. About 1300 light-years away, the Vela is more than three times closer to Earth than the next nearest human-era supernova event, which occured in 1016 CE. More than five times closer than the Crab eruption, the third closest, in 1054 CE.

A supernova event (left) marks the catastrophic end-point in the life of a massive star. The self-destruction of the star releases a huge amount of energy as radiation of all kinds, but a substantial fraction of the force of the explosion blasts the outer part of the supernova into an expanding shell of matter that travels through the almost empty space between the stars. As the rapidly moving blast wave encounters the relatively stationary interstellar medium it creates a very narrow, luminous shock front that appears as a faint nebula. Because the shock front is very convoluted the nebulosity appears to be highly structured and the various colours define different energy levels within the interaction. Though the star responsible for the Vela supernova remnant exploded 12,000 years ago, it is still affecting its environment.

The green line is the track of a piece of 'space junk', a spent rocket casing, dead (or just possibly alive) satellite that crossed the field of view during the exposure of the green-sensitive plate.

10000 BCE - Iraq - Iran - A human settlement in the Near East is confined to the Levant (the easternmost Mediterranean shoreline) and to the Zagros Mountains of Iran and Iraq and their western foothills. Some locations, like the Jordan Valley and the Middle Euphrates Valley, are more densely populated, often by large hunter-gatherer communities located at the margins of several ecological zones.

10000 BCE - North America - A team of researchers from Oregon State University has found evidence of human presence on the Oregon coast dating more than 10,000 years ago - more than 2,000 years older than the earliest known archaeological sites on Oregon's coast.

9000 BCE - France - The Azilian "alphabet" stones, are discovered in the south of France.

9000 BCE - Australia - Forty Archaic (Homo Erectus) skeletons found at Kow Swamp (Lake Mungo), Australia indicates a different migration than the earlier Homo sapiens of 32,000 BCE.

Archaeological excavations by Alan Thorne at Kow Swamp, 10 km south-east of Cohuna in the central Murray Valley, between 1968 and 1972 recovered the partial skeletal remains of more than 22 individuals. The oldest radiocarbon dates obtained from the site were on shell from the grave of KS5 of 13,000 ± 280 (ANU1236) and bone apatite from KS10 of 10,070 ± 250 (ANU-403b), with the youngest dates at approximately 6500 BP for KS16. While both shell and bone apatite dates are problematic, morphological and cultural comparison with well dated skeletons like Nacurrie 1 support a terminal Pleistocene date for some of the burials. The Kow Swamp skeletons have not been published in detail, however, Thorne provides limited information on the crania, mandibles and teeth. Several years ago the Kow Swamp skeletons were reburied at the request of Aboriginal communities in northern Victoria.

After 30 years the age of the Kow Swamp burials, particularly KS 9 which was the only burial excavated in situ, has recently been revisited. Stone and Cupper (2003) report optically stimulated luminesence (OSL) dates for Kow Swamp which they argue are at odds with the published radiocarbon dates. Their OSL dates indicating to them that the cemetary was in use between 22 and 19 ka, rather than 15 - 9 ka. While OSL may be providing a date for some sediments you have to question whether this has any implication for the Kow Swamp burials. The contemporaneity of the OSL dated sediments to the KS 9 burial, or any other KS burial, is unknown and you can not reconstruct the stratigraphy above the burials. It will never be known how deep the graves at Kow Swamp were, and the age of the land surface from which the graves were dug can not be measured with OSL. A similar situation to the debate over the age of another Australian burial, Lake Mungo 3. The best estimate of the age of the Kow Swamp burials is provided by the original radiocarbon dating, and more recent AMS dating of related sites in the region. The AMS dates on bone collagen from sites like Nacurrie and Coobool Creek suggest a range of 13 - 9 ka for Kow Swamp. [Source]

9000 - 4000 BCE - Africa - The Sahara (modern desert) was more humid, held numerous lakes, and teemed with wild animals. During this period, Saharans began to tend cattle and make pottery, then to keep sheep and goats, and they may also have been starting to domesticate sorghum and millet.

8600 BCE - Iraq - At Muretbet, Iraq evidence suggests people continuously occupied this site until 7300 BCE. During this period they evolved from semi-nomadic hunters and fishers to farmers and villagers. The Syrian, Palestinean and Iraqi people were hunting and fishing using Natufian-type stone tools. This cultural tool kit lasted until about 5000 BCE.

8500 BCE - Spain - Spain is occupied by the Iberian Capsin culture and France by the early Tardendsain (Tardenoisian) culture. This culture is closely related to cultures in Africa who migrated north through Spain.

8500 BCE - Asia - The appearance of the first farmers and agriculture occur in southwest Asia, along with domestication of wheat, peas, olives, and sheep.

8000 BCE - Worldwide - The end of Last Ice Age (12000 - 8000 BCE). Previously connected landmasses become separated by a rising sea level, e.g., Greater Australia (Australia / New Guinea / Tasmania), Greater Eurasiamerica (Eurasia / Americas / Indonesia / Borneo / Taiwan).

8000 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Farmers settled at Ali Kosh, north of the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Mesopotamia. 'Mesopotamia' meaning 'the land between the rivers', is the Greek rendering of the Hebrew Aram-naharayim, 'Aram of the (two) rivers', the area of the upper and middle Euphrates and Tigris. The word came to mean the whole Tigris-Euphrates district.

The Menhirs of Lagatjar

8000 - 4000 BCE - France - The Middle Stone or Mesolithic Age (8000 - 4000 BCE), when people were food gatherers, like their ancestors, but left relatively few remains. The peasants of the New Stone (Neolithic) Age (4000 - 2000 BCE), on the other hand, left several thousand remarkable stone monuments in France, including the menhirs in Bretagne, the statue-menhirs of southern France, and the dolmens, or chamber tombs, of the Loire Valley, the Parisian Basin, and Champagne.

Over 140 standing stones are arranged in several lines along the top of a hill, overlooking Camaret-Sur-Mer in Brittany (Bretagne), France. Called the "Menhirs Of Lagatjar," these are prehistoric megaliths, but still remain mysterious …

8000 BCE - Europe - Cereal grain farms were established in central Europe.

8000 BCE - Egypt - It is believed that the peoples of the Valley of the Nile River at this time held the belief of One Almighty God called Ntr or Neter with a picture sign of an axe-head. This deity would evolve into the one almighty, invisible God Re (Ra), the Sun God. He is the Great Spirit, a hidden eternal spirit, who spreads truth throughout the world. He begot Himself, and lives in all things. He is the creator of Heaven, Earth and the Deep (Underworld). The Book of the Dead records –

"I am the God Temu in his rising; I am the only One. I came into being in Nu. I am Ra (Re) who rose in the beginning. Nu is the primeval watery mass, out of which all spirits (gods) came into being."

In some traditions Re is preceded by Apophis, also Apep a giant serpent with mystical powers. The Egyptians view Apophis as a genuine threat to Re. Apep is viewed as an image of evil always prepared to attack the righteous.

8000 BCE - India - Sites in Quetta, Baluchistan and Rajastan in northern India have evidence of domesticated animals by the ancestors of the Mehrgarth peoples.

8000 BCE - Palestine - A town of mud brick houses and town walls had been built by White Mediterraneans at the site now known as Jericho in Palestine. Jericho is believed occupied about this time making it one of the oldest cities known. A mud brick wall to keep the nomads out is built at some later date. It is speculated an organized civilization must have existed in this region by 10000 BCE to have developed Jericho at this time. Jericho a village north of the Dead Sea had an extensive six-foot wall around the village suggesting a defensive structure. This site appears to have been continuously occupied until 6850 BCE.

7500 BCE - China - Food production, domestic animals, and polished (Neolithic) stone tools appear in China, the first in Eastern Asia.

7000 BCE - Asia - Settlers at Abu Hureyra switch abruptly (100 years?) from hunting gazelles to raising domesticated sheep and goats, in addition to the cereals, lentils, peas

7200 BCE - North America - Radiocarbon dating of the finger bone of skeletal remains found in Kennewick, Washington, showed it to have great age - at least 9000 years old, putting the individual on the North American continent around the year 7200 BCE.

7000 BCE - North America - One of the most enigmatic of the lost great white migrations is the existence of white people in North America from at least the year 7000 BCE. This stunning discovery is comparatively recent and has been backed up by the discovery of a number of skeletal remains and one mummy on that continent which show clear white racial traits, as opposed to the Amerind (American Indian) racial traits, which are Mongolian (Asiatic - the original homeland of the Amerind peoples).

6750 BCE - Iraq - The pig, sheep, goat and dog is domesticated in Jarmo, Iraq. Jarmo, a village of approximately 150 people, is also believed to be cultivating wheat and barley. Trade items are from a distance of 200 miles suggesting they are part of a wide trading network.

6500 BCE - Palestine - Jericho in the Jordan Valley, an impressively sized community, covers nine acres. Its small beehive-shaped houses clustered behind massive stone walls. A small town, perhaps in constant fear of marauders after its large grain stocks and stored trade goods, bartered from the coast and interior deserts. It is the oldest known continuously inhabited city on Earth.

6500 BCE - Balkans - Fired pottery produced in the Balkan area during this period.

Catal Huyuk, Turkey

6250 - 5400 BCE - Turkey - The first city in the world, Catal Huyuk, Anatolia, is located in present day Turkey. To this date, Catal Huyuk is the oldest and largest Neolithic Age city found. This central Anatolian settlement point is situated to the east of Carsamba River, which is fed from Lake Beysehir, and near the town of Cumra.

6000 BCE - Europe - India - Mesopotamia - China - Food production begins in western and central Europe and Indus valley with the arrival of Southwest Asian crops and animals. Euphrates River irrigation begins. Agriculture independently(?) develops in north-central China (millet).

6000 BCE - Europe - Some of the oldest megalithic chamber tombs have been radio carbon dated at 6000 BCE - some 3,500 years older than the famous Egyptian pyramids.

There are four types of megaliths: the menhir, or monolith, a single standing stone often of great size; a set of menhirs set in a circle, as at Stonehenge in England; a row of menhirs such as those to be found at Carnac in France; and the burial chamber, or chamber tomb, sometimes called a dolmen. The chamber tombs are the most common type of megalith; more than 50,000 examples have been found on the European continent. Some of these tombs' interiors were decorated with intricate stone carvings and geometrical patterns, making stunning viewing even thousands of years after they were created.

6000 BCE - Iran - Iran's cultural history dates back to around 6000 BCE. Clay figurines from this era have been found in various places on the Iranian plateau, a rich collection of which is at the Louvre in Paris. A lot of what we know about the people inhabiting the land comes from Mesopotamian cuneiform texts. Mesopotamia was certainly the center of civilization up to 600 BCE, being rich agriculturally but lacking in other resources.

According to Mesopotamian texts, the Eastern part of their land - Elam - was occupied by a people called the Elamites. Indigenous to the country, speaking an agglutinative non-Semitic language still not well understood to this day. Khuzestan was the center of their loosely organized federation of states which stretched north into Lurestan, south to Fars, and as far as Bushehr on the Persian Gulf. Important Elamite Cities such as Awan or Simash are still to be located. Other important Elamite sites however have been excavated such as Choga Zanbil, Haft Tape, Susa on the Khuzestan plain; and Tape Malyan (Anshan) on the Marv Dasht plain near Persepolis in Fars.

Susa was always the pride and joy of the Elamites and later the Persians, a city that stood for 5000 years until totally sacked and razed to the ground by the Mongols in the 13th Century CE, maybe a reason why we have to refer to Mesopotamian texts for the history of Elam.

The Elamites' mountainous land gave them wood, marble, alabaster, lapis lazuli, metal ores, precious stones all of which were sought by the Mesopotamians who were rich agriculturally but short on raw materials. Susa soon became a trading center with routes stretching as far as Sistan, Balouchestan, Afghanistan and India.

The love-hate relationship that existed between the Elamites and their Mesopotamian neighbours - the Assyrians - heightened c. 647 BCE when Elam, then a mighty kingdom, fell to Ashurbanipal, who recorded his devastation of Susa as an act of avenge for the humiliations the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries – "I devastated the land of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt," he said.

5600 BCE - Southern Russia - Rising seas of the Mediterranean burst through the narrow Bosporus Valley, and the salt water of the Mediterranean poured into what is now known as the Black Sea with magnificent force. Previously, the Black Sea had fallen over 100 meters below the level of the world's oceans due to freezing in Northern Europe and Asia. This process caused a nearly instantaneous rise in beaches, river levels and destroyed all life in its path. This catastrophic event may have become the topics of ancient storytelling. More than 200 distinct Great Flood stories abound in the lore of ancient peoples, just as creation stories do. More than 85 percent of these mention a large vessel that saved the human race from extinction. The abundance of Great Flood stories points to something more than just an interest in beginnings. It suggests that the memory of some unprecedented flood catastrophe was firmly etched in the minds of ancient peoples.

Research indicates that the flooding of the Black Sea Basin from the Mediterranean - established as a factual occurrence around 5600 BCE - was the probable cause of the first great movements of White civilizations from the region north of the Black Sea. This natural occurrence forced the migration of these people which began the formations in Europe of the Balts, Celts, Slavs and Germans to the west, while those who migrated east formed the Tocharians / Ainu, the Aryans and the Indo-Aryans. The contingents which migrated southward formed the Sumerians and the Pre-dynastic Egyptians.

Geologists confirm that the Black Sea rose about 460 feet in less than one year leading to the Noah story to explain this event. Prior to this time the Black Sea was a fresh water lake. This massive flooding caused the world oceans to drop one foot. The first record of this great flood is in the Epic of Gilgamesh (2900 BCE). Ruins have been discovered 312 feet below the Black Sea.

5600 BCE - Egypt - Although situated in North Africa, Egypt had been settled by three White groupings prior to 3500 BCE, namely Old European Mediterranean types, Proto-Nordics and Nordic Indo-Europeans, with the latter group penetrating the territory as part of the great wave of Indo-European invasions which took place from 5600 BCE onwards.

5500 BCE - Africa - Pastoralism of cattle, sheep, goats is unearthed in the Sahara.

5500 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Evidence of potters' wheels are found.

5500 BCE - Germany - A Neanderthal skeletal remains at Hahnofersand, Germany, thought to date to 34000 BCE, is now dated by the Oxford University as 5500 BCE.

The Iceman of Italy

The Iceman of Italy

5500 BCE - Italy - The Iceman of Italy is carbon dated (5298 - 5348 BCE) or (3200 BCE as some suggest) and he has a flanged copper axe in his possession, previously believed not in use for another 2,700 years. Latest research suggests the use of copper in Italy predates 4000 BCE. The Iceman's skin is tattooed and includes a symbol of a cross. Evidence suggests that he was killed by an arrow into his back. It is noteworthy that the Iceman is genetically related to the Inuit and South American Indians.

5000 BCE - Iraq - Turkey - The first white settlement is made in the Tigris / Euphrates River area known as the "Fertile Crescent."

5000 BCE - Iraq - About five miles southwest of Ur, Iraq, is the city of Eridu, that the Sumerians believed kingship first came down from heaven. This God-ordained Kingship belief must have been exported to Egypt or vice-versa. This is still regarded as a religious site well beyond 2000 BCE. Eridu is likely composed of Ubaid (5000 - 3750 BCE) and Halafian (5500 - 4500 BCE) cultures. The Ubaidian would settle southern Iraq while the Halafian settled in northern Iraq. Clay models of boats found at Eridu and Ur suggest transportation by boat is an early development. It is believed the Ubaidian civilization is the beginning of the Sumerian culture. The Ubaid built mound temples, adding to their height over time. The mounds are likely to protect their shrines during the frequent floods. The Ubaid worshiped the spirit-god Ea (Enki) and the Great God Anu. The Ubaid are known for the saying 'do not offer the food and drink of death but the bread of life and the water of life.' The food and drink of death offers immorality. This is the basis for Garden of Eden myth. This is likely a localized belief not shared in other cultures.

If man is intrinsically evil, then he needs an autocratic rule. If man is intrinsically good, then he needs a democratic rule. It is likely that the belief of Kingship is tied to the belief of original sin or mans fall from the grace of God. It is noteworthy that an evil God, original sin, and Kingship is unknown among Canadian aboriginal peoples.

Ancient Sumeria

Sumerian tradition suggests the concept of Kingship originated in Eridu having been lowered from heaven. If this proves true then Sumeria, and not Egypt, introduced Kingship religious beliefs to Europe. Egypt likely learned this belief from the Sumerians. The Sumerian Kingship list records their kingship periods from the beginning of man from 246000 BCE to 4800 BCE. This need to establish a genealogy around which to weave accumulated knowledge of man and the spirits would turn into a passion of the Sumerian-Semites that will dominate Genesis and the Torah.

Eridu, Mesopotamia (Iraq) began to evolve into a town of some five thousand people. The central building is the town temple. Temples are storehouses and redistribution centers for surplus food as well as places of worship. The Egyptians would adopt this philosophy. Religious belief dominated Sumerian culture.

5000 BCE - Africa - Food production arises in Sahel region, comprised of sorghum, African rice & guinea fowl.

Temple of the Goddess Hathor, Dendera, Egypt

Interior of the Temple of Hathor, Dendera

5000 BCE - Egypt - Similar to other temple sites in Egypt, the presently standing complex at Dendera marks the location of a very old holy place. An indication of the antiquity of the temple site is given by the astronomical alignment of the main temple to Gamma Draconis before 5000BC. Early texts refer to a Pre-dynastic temple that was rebuilt during the Old Kingdom, and further developed by New Kingdom pharaohs including Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, and Ramses II and III. The present structure dates to the Greek and Roman periods, with the sanctuary and its surrounding chapels built by the later Ptolemies in the 1st century BC, and the great Hypostyle Hall by the Romans in the 1st century AD. Dendera was the chief place for the worship of Hathor, who is variously seen as the patroness of earthly love, the goddess of healing, and the great feminine source of all nourishment (like the Hindu goddess Kali, Hathor also has her terrible aspects; in one ancient myth she is a raging lioness sent to punish mankind for its rebellion).

Recent studies indicate that the temple of Dendera had several interrelated functions. It was a venerated place of pilgrimage where miraculous cures were effected by the goddess; it was a sort of hospital where various physiological, psychological and magical therapies were practiced; and it was the scene of great processions and festivals throughout the astrological cycle. A feature of Dendera not found elsewhere in Egyptian temples are the dozen mysterious crypts, some underground, some enclosed within the massive double walls of the upper temple. It has been suggested that these crypts were the dwelling place of the goddess, where her statue and ritual objects were kept, and where began the great New Year's processions celebrating the dawn of creation. In the dark of night, the temple priests brought the statue of the goddess from the crypt, through the corridors of the enormous temple and, ascending to the roof, awaited the coming of the dawn. As the first rays of the morning sun broke upon the horizon, the statue was unveiled. Ancient texts speak of this ceremony whereby: "the goddess Hathor might be united with the beams of her father, Re" and that "the sky rejoices, the earth dances, the sacred musicians shout in praise."

Enclosed within the precincts of the Dendera complex are a sacred lake, a temple of the goddess Isis, and a brick sanatorium where divine healing was practiced. There is also an early Christian church that typifies the situation in so many Egyptian temples, whose sacred precincts were usurped by the Christians. Within the main temple it is interesting to study the beautiful and highly detailed astrological calendars carved and painted upon the ceilings. Visitors may wonder about the blackened condition of other ceilings in the temple. When Napolean's scholars first visited Dendera they found a centuries-old Arab village firmly established inside the great temple; the villagers' cooking fires had blackened the ceilings over the years.

Nile settlers harness the cycle of floods. The Egyptian calendar is created, which is regulated by the sun and moon. It is comprised of 360 days, 12 months of 30 days each.

5000 BCE - Netherlands - Switzerland - Copper working had been established in the Balkans, and evidence of rectangular timber homes found in Switzerland.

Nebra Disk - Germany

4800 BCE - Germany - The German Stonehenge was built about this time period near Goseck, Germany. It was clearly uses for solar observations based on pottery and an etched disk discovered. This represents the oldest of some 200 similar circles scattered across Europe. These Neolithic and Bronze Age People domesticated goats, sheep, pigs and cows as early as 5300 BCE. Some speculate the Stonehenge was necessary to calculate the crop cycles.

4650 BCE - France - Thousands of monoliths are moved and assembled in Carnith, France before the Celtic people occupied this area. It is believed they were assembled over a 1000-year period. Many stones weighed 100 tons each with one being 340 tons. Many stones were move from miles away. It takes about 200 men to move a 30-ton stone over level ground using log rollers.

4500 BCE - Bulgaria - The first gold jewelry is discovered in Varna, Bulgaria.

4500 BCE - Europe - The Finns occupied Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway. The Asturian occupy Spain and the Tardenbsian people occupy France. The Indo-European tribes have migrated from the Black Sea to the Germanic regions.

4500 BCE - Saudi Arabia - The Semites that includes Arabic, Akkadian, Syrian, Canaanite-Hebrew and Ethiopic tribes occupied Saudi Arabia. To the west of Egypt lived the Hamites and still further west the Capsian tribes.

4500 BCE - Rumania - The Tartaria tablet is found in Tartaria, Rumania - this competes with the Azilian script for the claim to the oldest writing on earth.

4500 BCE - Iraq - The peaceful Halafian culture (4500 - 4300 BCE), likely a Caucasian people, exist in Iraq, but are not related to the Sumerian culture which is in Northern Mesopotamia. Their pottery is similar to the Half people. They are being slowly replaced by the Ubaidian culture from the South. The Kongemose culture of the Baltic Sea is being replaced by the Ertebolle culture that included 32-foot canoes and inland houses in Denmark and other locations in Scandinavia. This culture practiced elaborate burial practices including use of red ocher, antler harpoon, ground stone axes and one is deposited in a wooden coffin. Red ocher burial practice is also common in eastern Canada at this time.

4500 - 4000 BCE - Iran - The Near East - The geographical term "Susiana," referring to the area ruled in the historical period by the city of Susa, is also applied to the prehistoric cultures of lowland southwestern Iran. Representational designs such as the stylized wild goats with long sweeping horns painted beneath the rim of this krater are characteristic for an advanced stage of the Susiana sequence.

Krater with Ibexes

4000 - 3000 BCE - Iraq - Syria - Lebanon - Palestine - Egypt - In addition to the White peoples, another grouping was to play a significant role in the history of the Near East - the Semitic speaking peoples (this encompasses a wide range of peoples, including groups known to history as the ancient Jews and Arabic peoples). These Semitic speaking peoples eventually came to predominate the entire Middle East, entering the original White territories as laborers, traders, immigrants and military conquerors.

Semitic [smitik]
A noun
1 Semitic
a major branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family., Semitic.

Definition: [n] a major branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family
[adj] of or relating to or characteristic of Semites; "Semite peoples"
[adj] of or relating to the group of Semitic languages; "Semitic tongues have a complicated morphology"

     Word Net Dictionary, Semitic.

The term "Semite" was invented by European philologists in the 18th century to distinguish languages from one another by grouping them into "families" descended from one "mother" tongue to which they are all related. In this context, languages came to be organised into "Indo-European" and "Semitic", etc. The philologists claimed that Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic and Amharic, etc., were "Semitic" languages, even though philologists could never find a parent Semitic language from which they all derived.

4241 BCE - Egypt - Egypt adopted a solar calendar of 365 days called a Nile or civil year. It is believed they abandoned the lunar calendar after many annual measurements of the Nile flood being compared to the star Sirius.

4004 BCE - Babylon - Babylonian tradition suggests that Adam's first wife Lilith (meaning "monster of the night") a striking beauty is cast out of Eden before Eve is created and before Adam violated the forbidden tree and therefore never had her immortality taken away and she still wanders the earth. As a result, she never learned the difference between good and evil and subsisted on the blood of children and wild beasts as the Queen of Terror. This is likely the basis for the belief that women are intrinsically evil. The Semites changed the oriental legend of King of Terror into the Queen of Terror.

The King of Terror is also a recorded figure from oriental and Anatolia (Greek) mythology.

The Semitic tradition of the Sumarian Genesis begins and will have a profound negative impact on European civilization through Roman-Christianity. The Semitic-Hebrews Biblical tradition of the beginning of the world is based upon the Sumerian tradition. The Semitic-Hebrews had a pathological desire to place human experience into a historical perspective. This tradition appears to have a Sumarian basis rather than Egyptian origin. This passion for the past included acceptance of conflicting stories, myths and application of God as chief actor and cause of history. An example –

The Book of Genesis contains two fundamentally different traditions of the beginning of mankind. The first version claims God created mankind in the image of God and he created them male and female. The implications of this tradition are that man and woman is created as equal partners and provides no basis for a fall from the Garden of Eden into sin. The majority of the people of the world followed this tradition. As a result they did not look upon natural disasters as being a punishment of mankind by God for the sins of their ancestors. These people therefore considered all the earth their Garden of Eden and enjoyed the gift from God or the spirit-gods. The Sumerian and their Semitic-Hebrew descendants are aware of this tradition but created a modified tradition called the Second Account of Creation. The second account has only the male being created in the image of God and woman being created from man as his helpmate. This Sumerian thinking led to a belief that women caused the loss of the Garden of Eden (between the Tigris and Euphrates) and the fall of man into sin. The concept of good and evil, male dominance over female, that might is right and a vengeful jealous God is fortified and systematized based upon a misunderstanding of tradition and the intent of God. Man would go on to create the eye for an eye mentality in Mesopotamia and it would spread to pollute Egyptian and European thinking. People who grow up in the Middle East would learn that they don't like other tribes, rarely intermarry and kill each other whenever they can.

4000 - 3500 BCE - Iran - Many of the pottery vessels from the site of Tall-i-Bakun in the plain of Persepolis show a highly sophisticated use of negative designs in conjunction with more usual painted patterns. On this bowl, two patterns alternate in rhythmic sequence. One is a painted design of anthropomorphic inspiration with a "head" flanked by upraised "arms" facing both the rim and base of the bowl. The other pattern, which is given in negative by the buff surface of the vessel, consists of a cross and two lozenges.

Painted Bowl

4000 - 3500 BCE - Iran - At the end of the fourth millennium BCE, enormous mud-brick platforms had been built at a number of sites in Mesopotamia. It is presumed that they originally supported important buildings, especially temples. By the mid-third millennium BCE, some temples were being built on huge stepped platforms. These are called ziggurats in cuneiformtexts. While the actual significance of these structures is unknown, Mesopotamian gods were often linked with the eastern mountains, and ziggurats may have represented their lofty homes. Around 2100 BCE, southern Mesopotamian cities came under the control of Ur-Nammu, ruler of the city of Ur. In the tradition of earlier kings, Ur-Nammu built many temples, including ziggurats at Ur, Eridu, Uruk, and Nippur. Ziggurats continued to be built throughout Mesopotamia until Persian times (c. 500 BCE), when new religious ideas emerged. Gradually the ziggurats decayed and the bricks were robbed for other buildings. However, their tradition survived through such stories as the Tower of Babel.

Remains of a Ziggurat, Mesopotamia (Iraq)

4000 BCE - Europe - A form of writing called Old European linear script developed in Europe.

In addition to the Old European civilizations on the European continent, the Mediterranean and Proto-Nordic sub-racial groupings had by 4000 BCE also occupied much of what is today known as the Middle East - from Egypt through to the "Fertile Crescent," the region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, now lying in modern day Iraq.

4000 BCE - Ukraine - Evidence of the domestication of the horse is found in the Ukraine.

4000 BCE - Egypt - The first iron objects are found.

4000 BCE - China - At Loulan, Xinjiang, China a Indo-European mummy dates to 4000 BCE, causing cultural consternation in some quarters. It is noteworthy that mummification began in Peru about 7000 BCE or earlier.

3800 BCE - Egypt - The earliest known use of weights and measures are uncovered at Naqada, Egypt. Some suggest the IV Dynasty of Egypt under King Men-kau-Ra (Mycerinus) also known as Osiris as king of the South and North. He is declared born of heaven, offspring of Nut, wife of Geb. He is regarded as the spirit-god of resurrection and of eternal life. The Egyptians believed in the resurrection and eternal life from very ancient times. His son is Horus by Isis. Isis is the most enduring and beloved symbol of ancient Egypt, whose following is especially popular in the Greek and Roman periods. Isis represents the women who civilized Egypt by teaching agriculture, medicine and instituting marriage. She is totally dedicated to the service of mankind. Isis is the epitome of the selfless woman, the charmer, the endurer, and the loyal spouse. The following of Isis is not eradicated until the reign of the Roman Emperor Justinian.

3700 BCE - Egypt - The Egyptians considered God (Re) as the Great God of Heaven, the King of all Kings and a divine being. The belief of the judgment of the dead is of very great antiquity in Egypt. Heaven is a paradise called the Field of Aaru in a region called Amenti located West of Egypt. Aaru is situated near water and is blessed with breezes.

3600 BCE - 0 Egyptian Dynasty - The Early Dynastic Period is a period of some 500 years or more at the beginning of what is conventionally considered as the history of Ancient Egypt. It was the culmination of the formative stage of the Ancient Egyptian culture that began centuries before during the Prehistory.

The first Egyptian hieroglyphs [$] appear, and the oldest known Canaanite seals are identified from this era. They were found at Byblos (Lebanon) and show the main deity, Ba'alat (the "Lady") crowned by a disc set between two horns like the Egyptian Hathor. [p541)]


The worship of Hathor stretches back to pre-dynastic times, and she is identified with many local goddesses: a sky-goddess, a sun-goddess, a moon-goddess, a goddess of the east, a goddess of the west, a goddess of moisture, a goddess of fertility, an agricultural goddess, a goddess of the underworld, and goddess of joy, motherhood and love.

As the goddess of music and dancing, her symbol was the sistrum. As a fertility goddess and a goddess of moisture, Hathor was associated with the inundation of the Nile. In this aspect she was associated with the Dog-star Sothis whose rising above the horizon heralded the annual flooding of the Nile. In the legend of Ra and Hathor, she is called the "Eye of Ra."

Hathor was originally worshipped in the form of a cow, sometimes as a cow with stars on her. Later she is represented as a woman with the head of a cow, and finally with a human head, the face broad and placid, sometimes she is depicted with the ears or horns of a cow. She is also shown with a head-dress resembling a pair of horns with the moon-disk between them. Sometimes she is met with in the form of a cow standing in a boat, surrounded by tall papyrus reeds. As the "Mistress of the Necropolis" she is shown as the head of a cow protruding from a mountainside. In this case she wears a menat necklace, which is a symbol of rebirth.

It was during this period that the divine kingship became well established as Egypt's form of government, and with it, an entire culture that would remain virtually unchanged for the next 3000 or more years. Writing evolved from a few simple signs mainly used to denote quantities of substances and their provenance, to a complex system of several hundreds of signs with both phonetic and ideographic values.

Map of Upper and Lower Egypt

What is known today as the original Dynasty of Egypt is referred to as Dynasty 0. Little is known of the rulers of this era, except the list of their names –

Serekh of Scorpion I

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Scorpion I - The king known by fragments of two (?) mace-heads of Hierankopolis and table of Abydos that survived until now. According to Egyptologist G. Drayer, this ruler followed pharaoh Aha of Dynasty I. Some scholars (Krauss & Franke) believe that there were two persons identified by this same name. Thus, Scorpion I lived around year 3150 BCE and was the predecessor of the Egyptian pharaohs. To him also belonged multi-chambered tomb U-j at Abydos, discovered in 1988 CE by a German expedition. The king known from the mace of Hierakonpolis, in turn, was Scorpion II, and to him belonged either the one-chambered tomb at Hierakonpolis or the B50 complex at the necropolis at Abydos. In Egyptologist W. Helck's opinion, king Scorpion preceded Iry-Hor from the Hierakonpolis dynasty.


Serekh of Two Falcons

Serekh of Ny-Hor

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Double Falcon - A seal of this ruler shows serekh surmounted by two falcons - no name is specified. The burial place of this ruler is at Umm el-Qaab nearby Abydos.

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Ny-Hor An interpretation of this name remains controversial and serekhs with this name were found in Tura and Tarkhan. Some scholars suggest it is a cursive inscription of the name Narmer. His Horus name means The Hunter (according to Egyptologist Kaiser).


Serekh of Hat-Hor

Serekh of Pe-Hor

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Hat-Hor - Hatj-Hor - His name still remains questionable. A serekh found on vessel from Tura probably belongs to him.

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Pe-Hor - Serekhs with name of this ruler were found on vessels in Qustul, and stone inscriptions were found bearing his name near Armant on the Western Desert.

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Hedj-Hor Serekhs with this ruler's name were found at the eastern Delta and on a piece of pottery from Tura. Egyptologist Helck identifies him with one of two defeated chiefs presented on Narmer's Palette, and reads his name as Wa-Shi.

Serekh of Hedj-Hor

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Crocodile - Egyptologist Dreyer interprets a king's name found in Tarkhan (1992 CE) as King "Horus Crocodile," which would date the king before the First Dynasty. Several scholars have disputed this interpretation.

Crocodile is considered to be a usurper who ruled over the Delta, or part of it, possibly during the times of Narmer. His serekh was found in tomb 315 at Tarkhan. Some scholars read the name of Ka or Scorpion from it.


Seal Impression of King Crocodile

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Iry Hor - This king is buried in tomb B1-B2 in the Umm el-Qaab necropolis. Some scholars (T. Wilkinson) do not deny the existence of this ruler. The reading of his name is also controversial - "Belonging to Horus." This view is not shared by Egyptologists J. von Beckerath and W. Helck. The name Iry-Hor is confirmed by a seal print of Zawiyet el-Aryan.

Layout of Tomb of King Iry-Hor (B1, B2) at Adybos

0 Egyptian Dynasty - Ka - The reading of his name is uncertain. It may be Sekhen. He was a King shortly before the First Dynasty, with a burial place at Abydos.

Cylinder jar from Tarkhan Tomb 261 with the name of King Ka.

3500 BCE - Peru - The first pyramids, made of earth, are constructed in Peru.

3500 - 3000 BCE - England - The most famous of the megalith sites - Stonehenge - is constructed in Wiltshire, England, being built in stages.

Map of Stonehenge

Before Stonehenge was built thousands of years ago, the whole of Salisbury Plain was a forest of towering pines and hazel woodland. Over centuries the landscape changed to open chalk downland. What is seen today is about half of the original monument, some of the stones have fallen down, others have been carried away to be used for building or to repair farm tracks, and over the centuries visitors have added their damage too. It was quite normal to hire a hammer from the blacksmith in Amesbury and come to Stonehenge to chip bits off. This practice is no longer permitted!


Stonehenge was built in three phases. The first stage was a circle of timbers surrounded by a ditch and bank. The ditch would have been dug by hand using animal bones, deer antlers which were used as pick-axes to loosen the underlying chalk and then the shoulder blades of oxen or cattle were used as shovels to clear away the stones. Excavations of the ditch have recovered antlers that were left behind deliberately and it was by testing their age through radio carbon dating we now know that the first henge was built over 50 centuries ago, that is about 3100 BCE. This is where the mystery begins. No old bones have been found, but around the edge of the bank were found 56 holes, now known as Aubrey Holes, named after the 17th century antiquarian, John Aubrey, who found them in about 1666 CE. It is knkown that these holes were dug to hold wooden posts, just as holes were dug later to hold the stone pillars that are seen today. This was the first stage of Stonehenge, built about 5,050 years ago, a circle of wooden posts surrounded by a deep ditch and bank.

About 4,500 years ago - 2500 BCE - and about 2,400 years before the Romans set foot in Britain, Stonehenge was rebuilt. This time it was built in stone, bluestones were used which are the smaller stones that are seen in the pictures. These came from the Prescelli Mountains in Pembroke, South Wales, approximately 245 miles (380kms), dragged down to the sea, floated on huge rafts, brought up the River Avon and finally overland to where they are located today. It was an amazing feat when one considers that each stone weighs about five tons. It required unbelievable dedication from ancient man to bring these stones all the way from South Wales.

Before the second phase of Stonehenge was complete, work stopped and there was a period of abandonment. Then began a new, bigger and even better Stonehenge - the one that is known today - this was approximately 4,300 years ago, about 2300 BCE, the third and final stage of what is now exists.


The bluestones were dug up and rearranged, only this time even bigger stones were brought in from the Marlborough Downs, approximately 20 miles (32 kms) distance. These giant sandstones, or Sarsen stones as they are now called, were hammered to size using balls of stone known as 'mauls'. Even today the drag marks can still be seen. Each pair of stones was heaved upright and linked on the top by the lintels. To get the lintels to stay in place, the first wood working techniques were used. Joints were made in the stone, linking the lintels in a circular manner using a tongue and groove joint, and subsequently the upright and lintel with a ball and socket joint, or mortice and tenon. This was all cleverly designed on the alignment of the rising of the mid summer sun.

How did these stones positioned to stand upright? The technique is unknown. It required sheer muscle power and hundreds of men to move one of these megaliths, the heaviest of them weighing probably about 45 tons.

There are some wonderful myths and legends and which can be heard on the audio tour at Stonehenge, in nine different languages – English, French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, Russian and Japanese.

Stonehenge - Reconstruction 1000 BCE

Stonehenge was formerly owned by a local man, Sir Cecil Chubb, who gave it to the nation in 1918 CE, and it is now managed by English Heritage on behalf of the Government. In 1986 CE, it was inscribed as a World Heritage Site, more can be learned about this on the World Heritage Site section. It is without doubt one of the finest prehistoric monuments in existence and an even more remarkable mystery.

The area is not special just because of the stones or the archaeologically rich landscape it sits in, but because of the plants that grow there. There is rare sedge grass and even the yellow and grey patches on the stones are tiny, slow growing plants called lichens.

It's thought that the name Stonehenge originates from the Anglo-Saxon period - the old English word 'henge' meaning hanging or gibbet. This literally means 'the hanging stones', derived probably from the lintels of the trilithons which appear to be suspended above their massive uprights. Today the word 'henge' has a specific archaeological meaning – a circular enclosure surrounding settings of stones and timber uprights, or pits.


Three kilometres to the north-east of Stonehenge, Woodhenge is another henge monument. Dated to around 2300 BCE, it originally comprised six concentric rings of wooden posts. It was probably covered with a roof, or perhaps the wooden posts were joined in the Stonehenge fashion. Now, although there is no evidence for animal or human sacrifice at Stonehenge, some believe that the presence of the grave of a young child, found at Woodhenge, would seem to indicate a ritual sacrifice, possibly a dedicatory burial.

Another feature which is worth mentioning, which was built before the stone settings, is the Cursus - which lies to the north. It consists of two straight banks and ditches, 90 - 130 metres apart, running 2.8 kilometres in length, from east to west. When it was first called the Cursus in the eighteenth century, it was thought to be some sort of racetrack. Some people also think that it has a processional ritual use. However, its true function still remains a mystery.

English Heritage is charged with caring for Stonehenge and is committed to its conservation and good management and preservation for future generations. In the landscape around it, the National Trust - who own nearly 1500 acres - are equally concerned for the well-being of this area. And if one has the time, an exploration of the surrounding countryside, with its henges, and cursus and barrows and all the other monuments, is well worthwhile. This is a vast prehistoric scene, with Stonehenge as the ultimate expression of the power which held society together at that time.

3500 - 2400 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Sumerian Period in Mesopotamia is comprised of the city states of Kish, Uruk, Ur and Lagash. The creation of cuneiform and the ziggurat begin. The Sumerian city-state of Uruk reaches a population of approximately 10,000 people, as evidenced by cylinder seals.

The Sumerian culture of Iraq built the city of Uruk by incorporating Kullaba, a town devoted to the sky spirit-god An (Anu) and E-Anna (House of Heaven) the lower spirit-god Inanna (called Ishtar by the Semites). This multi-god concept is some times confused with many god views in one (the trinity belief) and/or confusion between god and spirits. Most multi-god cultures usually had one superior God.

Leonard Woolley, head of the joint British American team excavating Ur, dates the flood layer found at the base of the ruins of Ur at 3500 BCE.

3500 BCE - North America - A recent sea level curve from the South Carolina area indicates a sudden sea level rise (transgression) beginning about 3500 BCE, followed by an equally rapid 2 meter drop a century or two later.

3300 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The first invention of writing is created by the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, who develop cuneiform writing. It was quickly adopted by the Egyptians. The Sumerian city-states emerge. Sumerians also develop the wheel and the 60 second minute.

3250 BCE - Iraq - Turkey - The original White people in the "Fertile Crescent" area were conquered by a new White tribe, the Sumerians. These people gave their name to the region – Sumer. In the centuries that followed the immigration of the Sumerians, the country grew rich and powerful. Art and architecture, crafts, and religious and ethical thought, flourished.

3250 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The first use of a wheel is recorded in Sumerian tablets. It is believed that the Sumerians are sailing the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, trading with the Egyptians. Some believe the Sumerian introduced writing to the Egyptians and other technology advances about this time. Jemdat Nasr cylinder-seals are found in Egypt. They also likely introduced their Kingship concepts and the evils of women to the Egyptians.

The Ring of Brodgar

3250 BCE - Orkney Islands - The Orkney Islands lie off the northern tip of Scotland where the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean meet. Stone villages (megalithic monuments) are being constructed on the Orkney Islands. The Orkney Pict practiced excarnation, bodies are exposed allowing the flesh to rot and the bones are buried in chamber tombs. Some tombs contained three hundred people. Some eighty burial chambers are identified. The village includes the use of covered streets. Pottery and jewelry are in use. The Orkney people appear to be of a peaceful cooperative tribal tradition practicing excarnation like many North American traditions. About this time the Celts of Wessex (England) has agriculture and also practices excarnation.

The Orkney Islands

The stone circle is found in the Mainland parish of Stenness, standing on an westward sloping plateau on the Ness o' Brodgar - a thin strip of land between the Harray and Stenness lochs.

The exact age of the Ring o' Brodgar is uncertain, as the interior of the circle has never been fully excavated and scientifically dated, but it is thought to have been erected between 2500 BCE and 2000 BCE - the last of the great Neolithic monuments built on the Ness.

The stone ring was built in a true circle 104 metres wide and originally contained 60 megaliths. Today, only 27 of these stones remain.

3200 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - It was during this ancient era that the Chaldeans (Babylonians) developed the system of astrology. [EW]

3150 - 2890 BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - This time frame begins the Early Dynastic Period and commences the First Dynasty of Egypt. [>]

3150 - ???? BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - Narmer - Menses - Menes.

King Narmer (A) - Menses - Menes is thought to have reigned c. 3150 BCE as first king of the 1st dynasty (and/or last king of the 0 dynasty) of a unified ancient Egypt. The rebus of his name as shown on his palette (below) and on other inscriptions is composed of a chisel, thought to be read mr, above a catfish, thought to be read as n'r. King Narmer, or Catfish as he could also be called, appears thus on seal impressions from the 1st Dynasty tombs of King Den and King Ka at Abydos, and also at Tell Ibrahmin Awad. Narmer's name and that of his possible predecessor Scorpion have also been found on pottery vessels from the site of Minshat Abu Omar in the eastern Delta. The name of Narmer also occurs in Hierakonpolis on objects in addition to the Palette and Macehead, such as potsherds, etc.

Some Egyptologists hold that Menes and Narmer are in fact the same person; some hold that Menes inherited an already-unified Egypt from Narmer; others hold that Narmer began the process of unification but either did not succeed or succeeded only partially, leaving it to Menes to complete.

Narmer Palette



Abydos, one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, stood about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26 10' N. The Egyptian name was Abdu, "the hill of the symbol or reliquary," in which the sacred head of Osiris was preserved. Thence the Greeks named it Abydos, like the city on the Hellespont; the modern Arabic name is Arabet el Madfuneh.

According to Professor Wallis Budge, "… a centre of the Osiris cult existed at Abydos under the first Dynasty." [p62S] Osiris (A) (B) was the Egyptian supreme god and judge of the dead, the symbol of resurrection and eternal life, and provider of fertility and prosperity to the living. He was represented by a bearded man wearing mummy wrappings.


Excavation of tomb of Nekhty, overseer of priests at Abydos

3122 - 3060 BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - Menes - Aha.

Menes or Aha, (A) according to the "best" historical sources - Manetho and Herodotus - Aha was the unifier and first King of a unified Egypt. Manetho lived in Sebennytos in the Delta during the Ptolemaic period. He was a priest, perhaps chief priest, of Ra, and served as a consultant to the early Ptolemaic rulers on the cult of Serapis.

View of lintel

Burial chamber

The name of Hor-Aha, or Aha, the Fighter or Fighting Hawk, is shown by his name sign appearing in a serekh on a potsherd, and by an ivory label from the tomb at Naqada of Nithotep. The Horus name identifies the king with a form of the god Horus.

Menes of Thinis, whom Herodotus calls Men, and his seven descendants. Thinis, or This, was a city or town near Abydos and the point of origin for the first Dynasties. Men ruled sixty-two years, led the army across the frontier and won great glory. Records claim that he was killed by a hippopotamus.

Herodotus wrote that Menes was the first king of Egypt, and dammed up the Nile in order to reclaim land on which he then founded the city of Memphis.

Certainly, about the time of Aha, Memphis did become the administrative center of government. Although it is believed that Aha built his grave at Abydos, his name has been found inscribed on material from cemeteries in the Memphite region, at Tura, Tarkhan and Helwan. Under his reign, tombs were built at Saqqara, which have been attributed to high-ranking government officials and nobles.

The tomb of Aha was a complex of three large brick-lined chambers, number B10/15/19, roofed over with wood. To the east were a set of graves whose young male occupants were apparently sacrificed at the time of burial. The monumental part of this tomb lay to the northeast where a large rectangular enclosure of brick, with corner bastions and towers was erected.

Menes or Aha

King Aha's grave was built of several separate chambers, in three stages. It shows traces of large wooden shrines in three chambers, and 33 subsidiary burials containing the remains of young males aged 20-25 years old. Seven young lions also were buried nearby one of those graves.

3060 - 3003 BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - Djer - Itit.

Horus Djer (A) or Itit (his nomen) was either the second or third ruler of the 1st dynasty. His reign came after that of Narmer and Aha, though which of these two kings actually founded the first dynasty is uncertain. Modern scholars seem to believe that Aha was the first king of that dynasty, and therefore was the ruler who united Upper and Lower Egypt. That would make Horus Djer, his heir-apparent, the second ruler. He and the following kings are largely responsible for the consolidation of the unified state of Egypt.

Serekh of Djer

Scholars believe that Djer was probably the king known as Athothis as mentioned by Manetho, and that he ruled for fifty-seven years. Most of the information on this ruler comes from ivory and wood labels found at Abydos and Saqqara. An inscription on ivory found at Abydos with Djer's name in a serekh, says that he visited Buto, an early capital of Egypt, and Sais, both in the Delta of lower or northern Egypt. At Saqqara, there is a wooden label also bearing his name that refers to a ceremony connected with human sacrifice, a practice that was quickly abandoned in Egyptian culture. However, about his large tomb at Abydos are 300 burials of retainers who seem to have perished at the same time as the principle internment of Djer.

Tomb of Djer

The tomb of Djer, (Tomb O), is at Umm el-Gaab (Abydos) and just west of the tomb of Horus Aha. The tomb is subterranean, made of brick and was much more elaborate then his predecessor's tombs. In fact, it is one of the largest tombs of the First Dynasty and the complex covers an area of 70 x 40 meters, including the subsidiary burials that are in rows. From the Middle Kingdom onward, Egyptians thought that his tomb held the body of Osiris, god of the dead. King Khendjer even provided a statue of the deity, lying on a bed, and the tomb became a center of pilgrimage for later Egyptians. From the tomb of Djer, the earliest surviving royal jewelry consisting of four gold and turquoise bracelets, is found. His apparent wife, Herneith, is buried at Saqqara, in tomb number 3507, near the burials of many of the king's senior officials.

3003 - 2980 BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - Djet - Wadjit - Uadji.

Stela from Djet's Tomb at Abydos

It is believed that Djet (A) (also called Wadjit, or Uadji) succeeded Djer. Traditionally Djet is placed as the third king of Egypt's 1st Dynasty. Djet likely was the son of Djer, although no direct evidence exists as proof of this relationship. A possibility exists that a queen may have ruled between Djer and Djet. Her large tomb at Abydos (Petrie's Tomb Y) was thought at one time to belong to a king. More likely Merneith (Meryetneith) was a daughter of Djer and a consort of Djet. A clay seal found at Abydos that bears her name indicates that she was probably the mother of Den, Djet's successor. She may have acted as her young son's regent upon the death of Djet. On this seal, her title was clearly given as "King's Mother."

Horus Djet, the king's name

Djet's length of rule is unknown, but sources indicate that it may have been for approximately twenty-three years.

Djet's tomb at Abydos, in an area known as Umm el-Ga'ab, is Petrie's Tomb Z, located just west of the tomb of Djer. For many years, Djet was thought to have a tomb at Saqqara, but investigation ascribed that structure to a nobleman named Sekhem-kha who probably served under Djet, even though the nobleman's tomb is larger then that of the king. It is noteworthy that there were some 174 subsidiary burials around Djet's tomb at Abydos. Most, if not all, of these were not family members as found around the tombs of latter kings, but rather retainers who had probably been put to death upon the death of Djet, in order to serve him in the afterlife. These sacrificial burials were unique to this time period in Egypt. Later kings would take ushabtis, symbolic workers, to their graves.

During antiquity, there is evidence that Djet's tomb, along with other early tombs at Abydos, has been intentionally burned. Later these tombs were rebuilt and associated with the cult of Osiris.

A stele containing the early hieroglyphs of his name was found in Djet'stomb. This was a snake surmounted by a falcon (Horus) with a symbolic palace facade below the snake. Originally, there would have been a pair of these stele at the tomb entrance. Interpretation of Djet's name can very simply "Horus Serpent" or "Horus the Snake," derived from this stele and other inscriptions. The limestone stele may be found today in the Louvre Museum in Paris. Djet is further attested to by a seal impression from mastaba V in Giza.

3000 - 2800 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Commencement of the Early Dynastic (PreSargonic) era of Mesopotamia. The first early dynasty dates from this era.

Near modern Baghdad stood the city of Kish, which became one of the major cities of Sumer during the reign of King Etana. There were, at this time, twelve city-states in Sumer:

The Sumerian King List (one of the earliest historical documents) claims that eight kings of Sumer reigned before the famous flood. After that, it claims, the city-states vied for the temporary seat of power until roughly 2800 BCE, when King Etana of Kish united them under his power. After Etana, the city-states warred for power; thus weakened the Sumerian Empire, ripening it for conquest, by the Elamites, and then by the Akkadians.

Ancient Mesopotamia

3000 BCE - Greece - First mentioned in Homer's The Iliad, and The Odyssey, the city of Troy was re-discovered in 1870 CE. It was found to consist of nine different cities, one on top of the next, which had alternatively been destroyed by earthquakes, fire or war.

3000 BCE - Africa - Food production arises in tropical West Africa region, the ancestral home of the Bantu language group, comprised of African yams, and oil palm. Bantu Expansion begins (3000 BCE - 1 CE). Settlers from West Africa (Cameroon and Nigeria) leave their homeland to fill much of sub-Saharan Africa, displacing the Pygmy and Khoisan people groups.

3000 BCE - Philippines - Austronesian Expansion reaches the Philippines. The culture of Taiwan is introduced with pottery, stone tools, and domesticates.

3000 BCE - Ireland - The first art(?) with undisputable "spiritual" content is found in tombs in Ireland. The first map of the moon is discovered in Knowth, Ireland.

3000 - 1100 BCE - Greece - The Bronze Age commences in Greece with the Minoans and Mycenaeans.

3000 - 1500 BCE - India - In the Indus valley of Northern India, there were two great civilizations: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, both with architecture of court-yard houses, and both with modern drainage technology.

3000 BCE - Egypt - Egyptians began worshipping the god Osiris, who was associated with the sun. He was portrayed as a trinity – a heavenly god, an earthly god, and a falcon. Later, Christians would depict their trinity as God, Jesus, and a Holy Spirit dove. The king of Egypt claimed to be the earthly god. He acted as a link between humanity and the heavenly god. It was believed the earthly god king became the heavenly god after death. Later, the heavenly god, Osiris, was said to have fathered (through Isis, a virgin) an earthly god son, Horus, who was actually a rebirth of Osiris. According to legend, this birth of Osiris/Horus was announced by Three Wise Men, symbolized by three stars in Orion's Belt pointing to Osiris' star in the east. Angelic voices hailed his arrival. His birth was often depicted in a manger, with Isis as the Madonna standing over him, and was said to have occurred on the Winter Solstice. Belief in Osiris, Horus, and Isis became popular in the Roman Empire, until believers began to be persecuted under Christianity.

3000 BCE - Crete - This island nation had contact with the budding Egyptian civilization, and many Cretan religious customs and social habits were taken directly from Egypt.

Horus Den

2980 - 2960 BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - Den.

While an early King, Den, (A) who's name means "Horus Who Strikes" (Udimu), is perhaps better attested than some. He is believed to have served as the 4th King of Egypt's 1st Dynasty. Den may have come to the throne at an early age, with his mother, Merneith, acting as regent.

Den left a number of labels and inscriptions on stone vases which cite the king, including events during his reign. Seals impressions and inscriptions have been found in several tombs 3035, 3036, 3038, 3504, 3506, 3507, X and a lower status tomb at Saqqara, from a tomb at Abu Rowash and from Den's own Tomb at Saqqara.


Den's throne name has been identified as Semti which helps identify him as a king in the Abydos King-list named Hesepti. He is believed to have been the first king to adopt a nsw-bity (King of Upper and Lower Egypt) name, which was Khasty. According to Manetho, he had a reign of twenty years. However, he may have celebrated a Sed-festival, which usually occurred in the 30th year of rule, and some Egyptologists believe he may have reigned for as long as fifty years.

Though the reigns of Den's predecessor and successor seemed to have been troubled, the reign of Den was apparently a glorious and prosperous one. Yet beyond this prosperity, like Horus Djer before him, Den left behind an intellectual reputation. The spells found in a later funerary manual called the Book of the Dead were attributed to his time, as well as medical formulae that were preserved in New Kingdom papyri.

Den apparently limited the power of high officials which had previously been allowed to grow dangerously strong during the reign of his predecessor. Such centralization seems to have been key to a successful royal reign. However, it is believed Den also pursued a policy of conciliation with northern Egypt, probably creating a post of "chancellor" of the King of Lower Egypt, filled by a man named Hemaka.

Hemaka was a well known figure of this time who built an important tomb at Saqqara. The contents of his tomb provide a comprehensive collection of 1st Dynasty funerary equipment. It is from this tomb that possible evidence for Den's Sed-festival is found (along with a label found at Abydos, depicting the earliest known king wearing the double crown of Egypt).

It appears that Den later turned his focus to military affairs. An ivory label found at Abydos was inscribed for Den records, "The time of the smitting of the East." It shows Den in the classic pharaonic posture, with his mace raised above his head about to club a foreign chieftain. This correlates with the "Smiting of the Troglodytes" recorded on the Palermo stone.

These campaigns are believed to include an incursion into the "Asiatic" (Palestine) territories, during his first year, where he brought back a harem of female prisoners. He also seems to have made a military expedition into the Sinai to deal with a "Bedouin" problem.

Den's tomb, notably excavated by Egyptologist Petrie in 1900 CE after having earlier been excavated by Emile Amelineau, has been identified as Tomb T at Abydos. Significantly, this tomb was the first to utilize significant amounts of granite in its construction. These consists of slabs of red and black granite from Aswan that were used to pave the burial chamber. In many ways, the tomb was one of the most impressive so far built in Egypt, and certainly at Abydos, with a proper stairway and a massive burial chamber that was once roofed with wood, perhaps retrieved during his Eastern military campaign(s).

The stairway, the first found in an Egyptian tomb, was sealed with a wooden door, and just before the burial chamber was a portcullis barrier to block grave robbers. A small room to the south-west, with its own small stairway, may have been an early serdab, which was a chamber built to hold statues of the deceased. A German team who excavated the ruins (after a number of earlier excavations) revealed grave goods or fragments which included pots with seal impressions, stone vessels, inscribed labels and other carved objects in ivory and ebony, as well as inlays from boxes and furniture. A long side chamber probably held jars of wine. Near the tomb were found 136 subsidiary burials.

However, one of his queens was probably buried at Giza, and her tomb is larger than that of her husband's. It also included graves of sacrificed servants around it, but unfortunately, her name is not known.

2960 - 2934 BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - Anedjib - Andjyeb - Enezib.

Anedjib (A) - Andjyeb, Enezib - was from the area around Abydos known as This, and is recorded as a Thinite king on the Saqqara King-list from the tomb of Thunery, was the 5th ruler of Egypt's 1st Dynasty. Anedjib was this king's Horus name, which means "Safe is His Heart." If he is to be identified with Manetho's Miebidos - Miebis - Merpubia, then he may have ruled Egypt for about twenty-six years. However, most Egyptologists give him a somewhat shorter reign, though he may have served as a co-regent with his father, who was probably Den. In his A History of Ancient Egypt, Nicolas Grimal tells us that Anedjib did in fact celebrate a Sed-festival, though it took place shortly after the death of Den This suggests that Anedjib came to the throne as sole ruler of Egypt late in life. Vases discovered at Abydos in the area of Umm el-Qa'ab record this jubilee, along with the addition to his name, "protection surrounds Horus."

Map of Upper and Lower Egypt

Anedjib was probably the first king to have a nebty (Two Ladies) title and the nesw-bit (He of the sedge and bee) name in his royal titulary, although the nesw-bit title (without a name) had already been introduced in the reign of Den. This title reunited the two divine antagonists of the north and south in the person of the king.

There were problems during Anedjib's rule, as well as that of the next king, Semerkhet. It is possible that the long reign of Den was responsible for the succession difficulties related to these two kings. Anedjib experienced considerable problems with Northern, or Lower Egypt and had to put down several revolts in that region. His successor, Semerkhet, was responsible for erasing Anedjib's name from a number of inscriptions on stone vases and other objects. However, Semerkhet's name was omitted from the Saqqara King-list, so it is thought that Semerkhet may have usurped the throne of Egypt after Anedjib.

Anedjib built a tomb (Tomb X) at Abydos, but it is one of the worst built and smallest of the Abydos royal tombs, measuring a mere 16.4 x 9 meters (53' 3/4" x 29' 1/2"). Interestingly, the burial chamber was constructed entirely of wood, and there were 64 graves of retainers within the area, also of low grade construction.

Another tomb which was apparently built during the reign of Anedjib, is that of an official named Nebitka (tomb 3038 at Saqqara). This tomb is interesting in that it contained a mudbrick stepped structure inside the Mastaba-like structure, that some Egyptologists see as a forerunner of Djoser's Step Pyramid.

Other than his tomb at Abydos, Anedjib is also attested to by seal impressions in tomb 3038 (the tomb of Nebetka) at Saqqara, in a tomb at Helwan, and also in a tomb at Abu Rawash.

Name of Semerkhet

2934 - 2916 BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - Semerkhet.

According to the limited information on Semerkhet, (A), the traditional 6th king of Egypt's 1st Dynasty, he ruled Egypt for about nine years. This is from the Palermo Stone, but Manetho records his reign as eighteen years, and notes that there were numerous disasters during his reign. This is due to the problems with his succession and predecessor, as it has been suggested that Semerkhet usurped the throne. He destroyed the name of his predecessor, Anedjib, on a number of stone vessels, and it would seem in return, was himself omitted from the Saqqara King-list.

Semerkhet was the king's Horus name, and means "Thoughtful Friend" (though Nicolas Grimal in A History of Ancient Egypt disagrees, stating that the Horus name means "companion of the gods." Grimal also states that his nebty name meant "he whom the two mistresses guard," a reference to Nekhbet, the vulture goddess of Nekheb (el-Kab), and Wadjet, the serpent-goddess of Pe and Dep (Buto). Grimal suggests that Semerkhet may have had a priestly role prior to his ascending the throne of Egypt).

The names of Semerkhet and Qa'a

Semerkhet's tomb is located at Abydos (Tomb U). It measures 29 x 31 meters (95' x 101' 3/4"), which makes it considerably larger then that of his predecessor. It is also of superior quality to Anedjib's tomb. Semerkhet's tomb has a brick lined burial chamber and is surrounded by well built servants' graves. Petrie investigated Semerkhet's tomb at Abydos, and found the entrance ramp saturated up to "three feet" deep with aromatic oil, which, after some 5,000 years, still permeated the entire tomb with scent.

The only object of substance to have survived from Semerkhet's reign is a black granite funeral stela found by his tomb in 1898 CE. It had originally belonged to a pair erected outside his monument, a tradition from the very beginning of the dynasty.

Semerkhet probably conducted trade with people who lived in the Palestinian territories, judging from seal impressions found at a building bearing his, along with other 1st Dynasty kings.

Name of Qa'a

2916 - 2890 BCE - I Egyptian Dynasty - Qa'a - Kaa.

Most scholars believe that Qa'a (A) was the last king of the 1st dynasty. His name is also shown as Kaa, and there are several other variations. Though Egyptologists often disagree on the timeframe of Qa'a's reign, current estimates placed it about 3100 to 2890 BCE. It is known that the first dynasty kings are trading with Syria. The Libyans at this time are called Hatiua Princes who live in the land of Tjehenu.

Information on Qa'a is highly limited, and little else is known of this early Egyptian Pharaoh. He was probably buried in Tomb Q at Abydos, where two typical royal funerary stelae bearing his name were found on the east side of the tomb. Recent excavations of his tomb revealed many small artifacts and architectural details that had been overlooked by earlier excavations. These include thirty inscribed labels that describe the delivery of oil, probably made from berries or tree resins, and probably from the Syria-Palestine area.

Seal impressions and artifacts have also been discovered in Tomb Q with the name of Hotepsekhemwy, the first pharaoh of the second dynasty. This suggests that Hotepsekhemwy completed Tomb Q, and that there was no real break between the first and second dynasties of Egypt. The change in dynasties from the first to the second was originally reported by Manetho without explanation.

Tomb of Qa'a

Four tombs in Saqqara are known to date to Qa'a's reign. The lower part of two wooden statues were found in one of these tombs in a set of rooms on the north side. This is believed to be an offering chapel, and that the mortuary temple in pyramid complexes may have evolved from this structure.

Egyptologists have also discovered the stelae of two of Qa'a's officials, Merka and Sabef. These stelae have more complex inscriptions then earlier hieroglyphics, and may have signaled increasing sophistication in the use of this writing.

2900 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The Royal Cemetery at Ur, Iraq suggests the death of a Spirit-god-King demands the death of musicians, soldiers, court ladies and servants up to seventy-four attendants to accompany a divine person into the after life.

Early Kings of Uruk, Iraq (3000 to 2700 BCE) prior to Gilgamesh are Meskiangasher, Enmerkar, Lugalbanda & Dumuzi all Spirit-god-Kings. The Epic of Gilgamesh (2900 BCE) of Uruk, Iraq likely predates this period but is attributed to the King-Spirit-god of Uruk. Gilgamesh, son of Spirit-goddess Ninsun and High Priest Kullab of Uruk, is the fifth king of the first Dynasty of Uruk, Iraq, and speaks of the land of the dead (Hell) and his search for immortality. The Egyptians also pursued immortality. The Mesopotamian culture believed man once had immortality and lost it.

Sumerian writing progresses from simple pictographs to symbols that can represent syllables, greatly extending the scope of written language; a key element in the transition is the representation of proper names with symbols that stand for parts of the name.

2900 BCE - Egypt - Clashes between the Egyptians and the Black Nubians had long been a feature of Egyptian history, with the first campaigns against the Nubians being launched by Old Kingdom pharaohs around 2900 BCE.

2900 BCE - China - First recorded Huang Ho River flood.

2890 - 2686 BCE - II Egyptian Dynasty - The beginning of the Second Dynasty of Egypt.

The Second Dynasty maintained the war records of raids into Nubia. None of the raid efforts were large scale or resulted in permanent conquest, but they are indicative of a desire for the wealth of Nubia. Another large exploit of the Egyptians during the Second Dynasty is the shift of a power center from Abydos to Memphis. This shift, due largely in part to resources, could also possibly have been due to the cult of the Sun god Ra beginning during this period, and also due to a want for greater political control by the king. By the end of the 2nd Dynasty an end to political opposition of north and south established a basic economic, religious and political system, which lasted well into dynasties to come, and paved the way for the more affluent Third Dynasty.

2890 - 2855 BCE - II Egyptian Dynasty - Hotepsekhemwy.

Hotepsekhemwy (A) - Pleasing in Powers - was the first king of the 2nd Dynasty. His name is a reference to the gods Horus and Seth - "The Two Mighty Ones at Rest." His rule spanned thirty-five years and may have been ended by a military coup organized by his brother.

The name of Raneb or Nebra

2855 - 2816 BCE - II Egyptian Dynasty - Raneb.

Raneb (A) - Re is the Lord - was the second king in the 2nd Dynasty. Raneb controlled Egypt after a coup to overthrow his brother. Raneb was presumed to be Hotepsekhemwy's son, or perhaps his brother, but there is little evidence to prove such. Raneb, which was probably this king's birth name, means "Re is the Lord", but because there seems to have been no specific mention of the god Re prior to this time, that it should be read as Nebra, meaning "Lord of the Sun." There is evidence from later King-lists that his birth name was probably Kakaw (or Kakau).

Manetho, the great historian of ancient Egypt, believed that Raneb reigned for some thirty-nine years as king of Egypt. Modern scholars believe that his reign was much shorter, lasting between ten and nineteen years years. It is also believed that Raneb's reign and that of his predecessor, Hotepsekhemwy, should together be thirty-eight or thirty-nine years, with both therefore having shorter reigns then provided by Manetho.

Raneb's reign is attested to by various sources, including findings from the enormous middle Saqqara tomb A (cylinder seal impressions) south of Djoser's temenos south wall, and the inscription on a statuette of Redjit. References to Nebra exist on a Memphite stela now located in the Metropolitan Museum, a statuette, and a rock graffiti near Armant in the western desert (and possibly another at site 40 in the Eastern Desert), close to an ancient trade route linking the Nile with the western Oasis.

Manetho also tells us that Raneb introduced the worship not only of the sacred goat of Mendes, but also of the sacred bull of M'nevis at the old sun-worship center of Heliopolis, and the Apis bull at Memphis. However, scholars now appear to believe that the cult of the Apis bull was established by a former king, which is attested on a stele dating from the rule of Den (Udimu). Irregardless, it would seem that his name, whether stated as Raneb or Nebra, indicates a significant shift of worship to the sun god, which would have a very important impact on much of Egypt's remaining history.

At the end of the 1st Dynasty, there was considerable rebellion, presumably over problems from the empires initial unification. Facts shows that Hotepsekhemwy reunited the two lands of Northern (Lower) and Southern (Upper) Egypt, so it follows that Raneb ruled during a period of a relative peace. His burial place is uncertain. 1st Dynasty kings were usually been buried at Abydos, but Raneb's seal impressions at Saqqara suggest that he could have been buried there.

The Palermo Stone

2816 - 2769 BCE - II Egyptian Dynasty - Ninetjer.

Ninetjer (A) - Godlike - was the third king of the 2nd Dynasty. Memphis was his capitol. He ruled ancient Egypt for almost forty years. He was famous for his festivals and elaborate temples. He had many festivals dedicated to deities of Egypt - among them the Running of the Apis Bull. The wrecking of the city of Shem-Re is connected to him. The Palermo Stone records a number of events that occurred between the 6th and 26th year of his reign.

The stone is an ancient Egyptian stone of black diorite engraved toward the end of the 5th dynasty (2565 - 2420 BCE) and containing the earliest extant annals. It is only a small fragment of what was once a large slab. It is a hieroglyphic list of the kings of ancient Egypt before and after Menes (Aha), with regnal years and notations of events, and also includes such information as the height of the flooding of the Nile in various years. The stone was so named because it is housed in a museum in Palermo, Italy; small pieces of the stone are also in Cairo and in London.

2800 - 2700 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Commencement of the Early Dynastic (PreSargonic) era of Mesopotamia. The second early dynasty dates from this era. The Epic of Gilgamesh, an ancient Sumerian account of the Great Flood is from this same time period. Andre Parrot in his 1954 CE book "The Flood and Noah"s Ark," indicates significant flood deposits at Kish, Shuurupak, Uruk, and Lagash centering on about 2800 BCE.

In Erech, a dynasty was founded by Meskiaggasher, which came to rival city of Kish, in Sumer.

2800 BCE - Crete - The Minoan culture fluroishes on the island of Crete in Aegean Sea.

2773 BCE - Egypt - Astronomical evidence shows that by 2773 BCE the Egyptians have instituted a 365-day calendar, although the evidence can also indicate that the calendar began as early as 4228 BCE.

2700 - 2600 BCE - China - Culture of silkworms is started in China; according to legend, the wife of Emperor Huang-ti is the first to unroll a cocoon and make silk.

2769 - 2752 BCE - II Egyptian Dynasty - Peribsen - Sekhemib - Powerful in Heart.

Peribsen (A) was the fourth king of the 2nd Dynasty. He was actually not the legitimate heir of Nintejer. In fact, many historians believe that the king was an outsider who instigated coup against King Nintejer. King Peribsen used the designation of seth in his titles. Unfortunately, nothing from Peribsen's era is well documented except for his mortuary complex near Abydos.

He made sweeping political changes. The serekhs bearing the royal names are not surmounted by Horus anymore but by his religious rival, Set, who became the primary royal patron deity. A stela bearing Peribsen's name found at Abydos illustrates this change in loyalties. He may have been a usurper or a member of a collateral branch of the ruling family. Peribsen was buried at Abydos.

2752 - 2686 BCE - II Egyptian Dynasty - Khasekhemwy - The Two Powerful Ones Appear.

Khasekhemwy (A) was the fifth king of the 2nd Dynasty was probably responsible for the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Not much is known about him, save the fact that he undertook massive military campaigns. A statue of him which resides in the Cairo Museum, demonstrates the first use of hard stone work during this period. He is responsible for the construction of a large granite door jamb within the temple of Hierakonpolis, and for the building of many of the mortuary complexes at both Saqqara and Abydos.


Khasekhemwy ascended the throne he had to put down a Northern rebellion. The rebels reached as far south as Nekheb and Nekhen, the ancient southern capital. His victory is described on two statues. Both portraits show the king with northerners cringing at his feet wearing the White Crown symbolizing the South. It is recorded that there were more than 47,000 casualties. A statue of him, which resides in the Cairo Museum, is the first example of use of hard stone . He married Nemathap, a woman of royal Northern lineage. The marriage consolidated the kings rule in both regions. Nemathap is documented as being a "King Bearing Mother." She is also credited with being the ancestor of the 3rd Dynasty.

2750 BCE - Babylon (Iraq) - After the great Sumarian flood, the Sun God Utu (Shamash) again lowered Kingship from heaven to the town of Kish about 16 kilometers east of Babylon (Babel). Thus began the great Kish dynasty that included 23 kings – 12 Semitic, 6 Sumerian, 4 unknown and 1 unreadable, named from 2750 to 2340 BCE. One, King Etana, lived 1560 years and ascended into heaven. King Etana is alleged to have flown to the cities of Anu, Enlil, Ea, Sin, Shamash (Sun God Utu), Adad and Ishtar before flying to heaven. Before being taken to heaven he had a son named Balikh. Kish is considered to be the focus for religious and political power. To be King of Kish is synonymous with King of Sumer and Akkad or King of the Whole Country. Even though Nippur is the seat of Summer's supreme God Enlil, it didn't have the political significance of Kish. The Semitic Elamites (Persians) live east of the Sumerians and the Akkadians to the north and west.

2750 BCE - Palestine - The Phoenicians claimed to have built a temple to Spirit-god Hercules at Tyre about this time according to Herodotus (480 - 430 BCE) the Greek.

2700 - 2334 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Commencement of the Early Dynastic (PreSargonic) era of Mesopotamia. The third early dynasty dates from this era. Evidence in graves in Ur show fine arts, distant trade for gold, gems and spices.

2700 BCE - Palestine - A number of other smaller White civilizations sprang up at this time in this region, each of them contributing in their own way to the advancement of civilization. Amongst them were the Phoenicians, who through trade established themselves as a powerful nation in the Mediterranean. Their home base was in present day Lebanon, an area which they had occupied by the year 2700 BCE.

2686 - 2557 BCE - III Egyptian Dynasty - The Pharaohs of the Third Dynasty were the first to have actual pyramids constructed as shrines to their deaths. Although crude, these step pyramids were the predecessors to the later Pyramids of Giza and others. The first of these pyramids was designed by Imhotep for Dzoser. Prior to, and during the construction of the step pyramids, rulers were buried in a structure called Mastaba.

Imhotep was thought to be a commoner at birth, living in the reigns of Djoser and his successors. Imhotep was promoted through the ranks of temple and governmental officials, becaming one of Djoser's (Dzoser) most trusted advisors. Imhotep, at last, High Priest of Ptah, vizier, "overseer of works", architect, and was considered responsible for the construction of Djoser's (Dzoser) Step Pyramid and its surrounding funerary complex.

The Mastaba were non-pyramidal shaped structures which did not contain walls or stone art and closely resembled burial mounds, with long shafts leading down into the tomb area.

Sanakhte and Dzoser, the first two Pharaohs of this Dynasty, began exploitation of the Sinai Peninsula, which was rich in turquoise and copper. Little else was done by the kings during this dynasty

2670 BCE - Iraq - King Agga, son of Mebaragesi, the last of the first Kish Dynastic period, sent Gilgamesh of the first Uruk Dynastic period an ultimatum that Uruk should submit to Kish. Agga lost the siege of Uruk, and Kish had to submit to Uruk. Other evidence suggests this incident took place during the fifth King of Uruk, Gilgamesh that would be closer to about 2580 BCE. Uruk also had strained relationship with Aratta, a far-away country from Sumer by seven mountains, likely located in Iran. The Lord of Aratta would not trade gold, silver, lapis-lazuli and precious stones for grain or by threats.

2686 - 2667 BCE - III Egyptian Dynasty - Sanakht (A) - Nebka - Strong Protection.

He was the founder of the 3rd Dynasty of Egypt, and was the older brother of King Djoser. His name is listed in the 'Abydos Book of Kings', the 'Turin Canon' and the 'Westcar Papyrus'. His tomb at Saqqara was incorporated into the Step Pyramid.

Egypt is governed not by the God concepts, but by principles. The overall principle is 'Maat', the idea of order, justice and truth. It is believed if you follow these principles one cannot err or be evil. It is noteworthy that the Egyptian language lacks a word for religion, therefore to apply religious concepts to the understanding of Egypt is unthinkable. The first kings of the III Dynasty opened up the turquoise quarries.


2667 - 2649 BCE - III Egyptian Dynasty - Netjerykhet - Djoser - Zoser - Divine of the Body.

The second king of the 3rd Dynasty was Netjerykhet, (A) the son of Khasekhemwy. He ruled for almost two decades, and is accredited with building the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.

The king's vizier, Imhotep, was the architect of that great tomb, and of the magnificent Funerary Complex of Djoser at Saqqara. Egypt experienced a seven year famine during Djoser's reign, so he sought the counsel of Imhotep and one of his governors, Medir, and agreed to travel to Elephantine at Aswan.

Once there, Netjerykhet erected a temple to the god Khnum, who was said to controlled the flow of the Nile.

The famine ended, miraculously enough, and people believed it was due to this act of faith. Netjerykhet led several campaigns against Asiatic peoples in Canaan and extended his influence over the copper mines in Sinai where some graffiti and his serek were found at Waddi Maghara.


Imhotep was born a commoner during the Third Dynasty. He was very skilled and was dedicated to the ideals of his nation, rising quickly through the ranks of the temple and court to become a vizier and the High Priest of Ptah. He was also a poet, an architect and physician-priest, writing many medical and didactic texts. He is best known, however, as the chief architect of the step pyramid at Saqqara, built by King Zoser. [p75S] It remains today as one of the most brilliant architecture wonders of the ancient world. During the New Kingdom, Imhotep was deified and became the "Son of Ptah." [p75-77S] The Romans Claudius and Tiberius inscribed their praises of Imhotep in the temples in Egypt.

2660 BCE - England - One of the oldest pyramids in the world is to be found near the present day town of Marlborough, in Wiltshire, Britain. Called Silbury Hill, it is the largest prehistoric mound anywhere in Europe, standing nearly 40 meters high.

This model of a funeral boat shows its crew trimming sails and steering with the oars. This boat was found in Upper Egypt and dated to the Old Kingdom, circa 2600 BCE. It was loaned to the British Museum by a previous owner in mid-twentieth century.

Funeral boat, Old Kingdom, c. 2600 BCE

2648 - 2640 BCE - III Egyptian Dynasty - Sekhemkhet - Djoser Teti.

Sekhemkhet (A) was the third king of the third Dynasty. His name is carved on a cliff near Wadi Maghara. The king has an unfinished pyramid at Saqqara with an alabaster coffin inside.

2603 - 2599 BCE - III Egyptian Dynasty - Khaba - The Soul Appears.

Khaba (A) was the fourth king during the 3rd Dynasty. Egyptologists discovered his named carved into the walls of Sahure's tomb. His name was also found at the stone bowl in Naqada. The Layer Pyramid at Zawiet el-Aryan, in the desert of Giza, is believed to be his resting place.

The Zawiyat el-Aryan Pyramids

These pyramids are about halfway between Giza and North Saqqara. There are two pyramids located here and can only be reached by riding through the desert. The most southern of the two is probably a 3rd Dynasty (2686 - 2613 BCE) step pyramid. The granite of the other is probably from the 4th Dynasty (2613 - 2494 BCE). This pyramid appears to have been abandoned after its foundations had been laid.

2600 BCE - III Egyptian Dynasty - Approximate date of the first paved rode in Egypt.


2599 - 2575 BCE - III Egyptian Dynasty - Huni - The Smiter.

Huni (A) was the fifth and last Egyptian King of the 3rd dynasty. Not much is clear about his reign as much of his work was completed by his son and heir King Snefru.

The writing of the name Huni is found in the Turin Papyrus and Saqqara king list, but not in the Abydos king list. Huni was responsible for the construction of a fort at Elephantine Island Aswan. His wife, Queen Meresankh I, was the mother of Snefru.

Huni constructed a Pyramid at Meidum on the edge of the Faiyum. However, it is still in dispute whether the Pyramid of Meidum was started by Huni and later finished by the Pharaoh Snefru, or whether Snefru started the Pyramid of Meidum. Unique to the pyramid, however, is the first square ground plan, an architectural invention which lasted well into the future of Egyptian pyramids.

2613 - 2498 BCE - The Fourth through Seventh Egyptian Dynasties are known as the Old Kingdom.


2613 - 2589 BCE - IV Egyptian Dynasty - Sneferu -Snofru.

He was the first king of the 4th Dynasty, and was an active military leader. His campaigns against the Nubians and the Libyans are recorded on the Palermo Stone. He began trade with the Mediterranean nations and initiated a series of construction projects throughout Egypt, In order to supply Egypt with timber, he sent a fleet of forty ships to Lebanon. While there, he erected monuments to commemorate the event. He built his mortuary complex at Dashur, including the Meidum Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid, and the Red Pyramid. The Bent Pyramid is thought to be an architectural link between the Step Pyramid and the true pyramids. Sneferu was deified by the kings of the 12th Dynasty. Many of the rulers of that time built their own mortuary complexes beside his.

2600 - 1900 BCE - Pakistan - India - Harappan culture develops along the Indus River valley (present-day Pakistan and northwest India): large, well-planned cities, writing, specialized stone-working techniques, copper and bronze metallurgy.

Major Sites of the Indus Valley Tradition

2600 - 2500 BCE - China - The Chinese use a vertical pole to project the shadow of the Sun for estimating time.


2589 - 2566 BCE - IV Egyptian Dynasty - Khufu - Cheops - Suphis.

He was the second king of the 4th Dynasty and was believed to be the builder of the Great Pyramid of Giza and founder of the Giza Plateau near modern Cairo and Memphis. Khufu was succeeded by Radjedef, his son by a lessor wife, whose reign was abruptly ended. He was succeeded by Khephren, his son by Queen Henutsen. A miniature statue of Khufu is on display at the Cairo Museum. This is the only likeness of him known to be in existence. Little else is known of his reign, but the Great Pyramid not only attests to his power but also indicates the administrative skills the bureaucracy had gained. The Great Pyramid reigned as the tallest structure on Earth until completion of the Eiffel Tower in 1886 CE.

Unlike his grandfather Huni, and his father Sneferu, both of whom were remembered as benevolent and compassionate rulers, Khufu was reported by Herodotus to have been a cruel despot.

Along with the pyramid itself, the remains of a magnificent 141-foot long ship of cedar wood had also been found in a rock-cut pit close to the south side of the Great Pyramid. A second ship may also rest in a second sealed pit, though not in as good condition as this first. The ship was restored over many years, and now lies in a special museum built near the pyramid itself. The ship may have symbolized the solar journey of the deceased king with the gods, particularly the sun-god Ra.

The Great Pyramids at Giza

It is ironic indeed that for all the magnificence of his pyramid, his funeral boat, and the wonders of the funerary furnishings that were discovered belonging to his mother, Queen Hetepheres, wife to Sneferu, the only portrait we have of Khufu is a tiny 3-inch high statue sculpted in ivory.

Boat from Pyramid at Giza

Khufu's Horus name was Medjedu, and his full birth-name was Khnum-Khufu, meaning, "the god Khnum protects me." Khnum was considered the local god of Elephantine, near the first Nile cataract, who created mankind on his "potter's wheel" and was also responsible for the proper flooding of the Nile.

2566 - 2558 BCE - IV Egyptian Dynasty - Radjedef - Djedefra - Enduring Like Re.

He was the third king of the 4th Dynasty. He was the son of Khufu from one of his lesser wives, and killed his own brother, Prince Kewab, who was the rightful heir to the throne. He married Hetepheres, who was the widow of his murdered brother. His chief wife was Kentetenka. His pyramid was discovered at Abu Rowash in Giza.

2558 - 2532 BCE - IV Egyptian Dynasty - Khafre - Chephren - Khephren - Rakhaef - Suphis II - Appearing Like Re

The fourth king of the 4th Dynasty was Khafre (Chephren), the son of Khufu, and is responsible for the construction of the Pyramid of Khafre at Giza, the second largest of the pyramids. He built the Pyramid of Chephren and the Great Sphinx next to his father's pyramid at giza. The shpinx appears to be guarding his pyramid which is called 'Khafre is Great'. Some historians argue that he also constructed the Great Sphinx on the Giza Plateau.


Egypt was prosperous during his reign, but Khafre is best remembered for his pyramid and the sphinx.

Khafre's mummy has been lost, but his mortuary temple at Giza yielded one of the finest extant Old Kingdom statues – an almost undamaged life-size seated diorite figure of the king enjoying the protection of the god Horus. A statue of Khafre under the protective shadow of a falcon is in the Cairo Museum.

2550 BCE - Europe - Czechoslovakia is mixing tin and copper to make bronze. Bronze workings soon appeared in southern Germany and Switzerland where deposits of copper and tin can be found.

2532 - 2504 BCE - IV Egyptian Dynasty - Menkaure - Mycerinus - Menhaure - Eternal Like the Souls of Re

The fifth king of the 4th dynasty was the son of Khephren (Khafre) and Khameremebty I.

Menkaure with his wife Khamerernebty II appearing as Hathor (left)
and the goddess of the seventeenth nome of Egypt (right)

Menkaure is the son of Khafre and the grandson of Khufu of Dynasty IV. He bore the titles Kakhet and Hornub. There are doubts that Menkaure could be the son of Khafre, because the Turin Papyrus mentioned a name of a king between Menkaure and Khafre, but the name was smashed. A Middle Kingdom text written on a rock at Wadi Hamamat includes the names of the kings: Khufu, Djedefre, Khafre, Hordedef and Bauefre. This text indicates to some that Hordedef and Bauefre ruled after Khafre. But it seems that their names were not written as kings because Menkaure's names were not mentioned. It has been suggested that Hordedef's name was mentioned because was a wise educated man in this period and perhaps Bauefre was a vizier.

Pyramid of Menkaure

He built the smallest pyramid at the Giza plateau, and it is called Menkaure is Divine. Menkaure's pyramid is two-tone in color: the top half covered with bright white limestone casing, while red Aswan granite was used for the casing on the bottom. El-Makrizi, the Arab historian named Menkaure's pyramid as the colored pyramid because of the red granite casing. The pyramid stands 66.5 meters high, which is much smaller than the other two pyramids at Giza. The pyramid is remarkable because it is the only pyramid in Dynasty IV that was cased in sixteen layers of granite, Menkaure planned to cover the surface with granite but he could not because of his sudden death.

The pyramid complex of Menkaure was completed by his son and successor Shepseskaf but the temple has architectural additions which were made during Dynasties V and VI. This suggests that the cult of Menkaure was very important and perhaps differed from the cults of Khufu and Khafre. Shepseskaf completed the pyramid complex with mudbrick and left an inscription inside the Valley Temple indicating that he built the temple for the memory of his father.

At the pyramid's entrance, there is an inscription records that Menkaure died on the twenty-third day of the fourth month of the summer and that he built the pyramid. It is thought that this inscription dates to the reign of Khaemwas, son of Ramsses II. The name of Menkaure found written in red ochre on the ceiling of the burial chamber in one of the subsidiary pyramids.

When pyramid was explored in the 1830's CE, a lidless basalt sarcophagus was found in the burial chamber. Inside it was a wooden mummiform coffin inscribed with Menkaure's name. This is curious because mummiform coffins weren't made until much later. The coffin may have been provided in an attempted restoration during the 26th dynasty (that's 2000 years later!) when there was a renewed interest in the culture of the Old Kingdom.

The wooden coffin and basalt sarcophagus were sent on separate ships to England to end up on display in the British Museum, but a storm at sea sank the boat that was transporting the sarcophagus. It sank to the bottom of the sea and was never recovered. The sarcophagus was supposedly lost in the Mediterranean between ports of Cartagena and Malta when the ship "Beatrice" sank after setting sail on October 13, 1838. There still exists the wooden anthropoid coffin found inside the pyramid which bears the name and titles of Menkaure.

Menkaure and Khamerenebty

Menkaure's main queen was Khamerernebty II, who is portrayed with him in a group statue found in the Valley Temple. It is believed that she is buried in Giza.

Menkaure ruled for eighteen years. There are two inscriptions found in his pyramid complex. The first was a decree bearing the Horus name of Merenre of Dynasty VI. The decree stated that the Valley Temple was in use until the end of the Old Kingdom. The objects found in some of the storage rooms of the temples show that the king's cult was maintained and that the temple had a dual function as a temple and a palace.

The second decree of Pepi II was found on the lower temple vestibule, awarding privileges to the priests of the pyramid city. In the adjacent open court and in the area just east of the temple lie the remains of the Old Kingdom houses. Pepi II's decree indicates that these houses belonged to the pyramid city of Menkaure. Here lived the personnel responsible for maintaining the cult of the deceased king.

The statuary program found inside the complex displays the superb quality of arts and crafts. The triads in Menkaure's valley temple suggest that his pyramid complex was dedicated to Re, Hathor, and Horus. In addition, they show the king's relationship with the gods and are essential to his kingship, indicating both a temple and palace function.

The name of Menkaure was found written on scarabs dated to the 26th Dynasty, which may imply that he was worshipped in this period.

Herodotus mentioned that Menkaure died suddenly, and added that there was an oracle from the Buto statue that foretold that he would live for six years. Menkaure started to drink, and enjoy every moment of his remaining years. However, Menkaure lived for twelve years, thus disproving the prophecy. Herodotus also said that his daughter committed suicide. The Greek historian also wrote that the Egyptians loved Menkaure more than his father and grandfather. He ruled with justice, gave freedom to his officials to carve statues and make offerings, and stopped the firm rules.

2504 - 2500 BCE - IV Egyptian Dynasty - Shepseskaf - 'His Soul is Noble'

Shepseskaf was the sixth king of the 4th Dynasty. Pharaoh Menkaure's son and heir by queen Khamerernebty II, the young Prince Khuenre, tragically died before he could take to the throne. Menkaure was therefore succeeded by Shepseskaf, a son of Menkaure by an unknown minor wife. Although a half-brother to Prince Khuenre, he was not an ideal choice for the role of Pharaoh, as he is not of complete royal blood.


His major wife was Bunefer. He had no known sons and one daughter, Khamaat.

He was in power for just a short, difficult period of time, during which there were many confrontations with various priests. Many desired independence and rebelled against Shepseskaf's authority.

Shepseskaf completed his father Menkaure's Pyramid. He chose not to be buried in a Pyramid and as he returned to Saqqara after most of his 4th Dynasty predecessors had either preferred Dashur in the South (Snofru) or Abu Rawash (Djedefre) and Giza (Kheops, Khefren and Mykerinos) in the North to build their funerary monuments.

After Shepseskaf died, Khentkawes, another child of Menkaure by a minor wife and Shepseskaf's half-sister, married a nobleman named Userkaf, who was the great grandson of Pharaoh Khufu. Upon his marriage to Pharaoh Shepseskaf's half-sister Khentkawes, Userkaf was in a strong enough position to be crowned Pharaoh over all Egypt, and begin the 5th Dynasty of Kings.

2500 BCE - Egypt - Egyptians discover use of papyrus. Egyptian ships import gold from Africa.

2500 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - Potter's wheels and kilns are used in Mesopotamia. Maps of Babylonia are produced.

2500 BCE - China - The horse is domesticated in China (independent from Ukraine, 4000 BCE?). Equinoxes and solstices are determined in China, with a lunar year of 360 days which changes with the variable sun-moon cycles.

2500 BCE - Islands in the Pacific Ocean - Austronesian Expansion reaches Indonesian islands of Celebres and North Borneo and Timor.

2500 BCE - Pakistan - The first Old European settlement of the region was made around 2500 BCE, when the White Mediterraneans probably arrived after trekking from the Tigris and Euphrates river valley. In the region, they found darker natives, whom they easily subjected.

2500 BCE - India - Artifacts of an ancient White civilization are found in northern India in the Indus Valley.

2500 - 1200 BCE - Western Europe - Celts, considered barbarians, actually had a sophisticated culture that grew to dominate a good section of western Europe, with warriors on horseback, wielding weapons of iron, and were ruled by a priestly class of Druids.

Western Europe had a reasonably unified megalithic culture about which we know little, except for study of enormous ceremonial constructions of stone, such as chamber tombs (dolmens), and huge stone slabs (menhirs). These slabs are sometimes arranged in circles, as at Stonehenge (England) and Carnac (Brittany).


The small town of Carnac in southern Brittany is world-famous for the long rows of standing stones stretching over a mile or so in a north-easterly direction to the north of the town. Much plundered in centuries past for stone and generally getting in the way of earlier generations, these fabulous relics gained greater respect over the 20th century, and are now under State protection.

2500 - 2323 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - The 5th Dynasty of Egypt spanned approximately 170 years during the period known as the Old Kingdom. The Pyramid Texts found inside the 5th and 6th Dynasty pyramids are considered the oldest religious writing yet discovered in the world. [p59OM]

2498 - 2491 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - Userkaf - Userkhaf - "His Soul is Powerful."

Userkaf was a brother to Sahure and possibly to Neferirkare Kakai. He elevated to great importance the cult of Re, god of the sun. His marriage to Khentkaues, a descendant of the main branch of the royal family in the 4th dynasty, ended dynastic struggles that rival branches had caused during the 4th dynasty. His queen held a prominent position and had her own tomb, known as the unfinished pyramid, built at Giza.

Userkaf - Userkhaf

Although he started a new dynasty, Userkaf, was a grandson of Djedefre. To secure his hold on Egypt, he married Khentkawes, Menkaure's daughter and half-sister of Shepseskaf. Like his predecessor, he built his funerary complex at Saqqara, which was innovative, in that the mortuary temple was to the south of the pyramid, not to the east, as was traditional. This is now seen as being due to the increasing importance of the sun god, in the south, the temple would be bathed in the sun's rays throughout the day.

When completed, the pyramid was 161 ft (49 m) high and encased in limestone, though the core was sloppily built and therefore crumbled when this casing was removed by robbers. Although the complex is now ruined and largely inaccessible, limited excavations there have produced a huge pink granite head of Userkaf. Userkaf also built the first of the Solar Temples of Abu-Gurob.

Userkaf was the first pharaoh to build a sun temple. Named Nekhen-Re ("Stronghold of Re," Re was the sun god), it was probably built in up to four phases, almost certainly completed under different pharaohs.

2491 - 2477 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - Sahure - "He Who is Close to Re."

He was the second king of the 5th Dynasty. Sahure was the brother of Userkaf and possibly Neferirkare Kakai. Early records indicate that he traded outside the Nile Valley with Punt.


Sahure was a son of Khentkaus I, who, in her tomb at Giza, is said to have been the "mother of two kings." His father probably was Userkaf. There are no wives or children known to him, and no children of his seem to have outlived him, as he was succeeded by his brother.

Like Userkaf, Sahure built a solar-temple, named Sekhet-Re, which has not yet been located. It is sometimes assumed that in stead of building his own solar-temple, he in fact modified his father's and gave it another name. The textual evidence however, shows that Sekhet-Re was a different temple that was in use at the same time as Userkaf's.

Sahure was the first king to build his pyramid complex at Abusir. It was called Kha-bai-Sahurea and is a few kilometers north of Saqqara. The reliefs in his mortuary and valley temple depict a counting of foreigners by or in front of the goddess Seshat and the return of a fleet from Asia, perhaps Byblos.

Sahure established the Egyptian navy and sent a fleet to Punt and traded with Palestine. His pyramid at Abusir has colonnaded courts and reliefs of his naval fleet, but his military career consisted mostly of campaigns against the Libyans in the western desert. Reliefs on the walls show evidence for trading expeditions outside Egypt. Ships are shown with both Egyptians and Asiatics on board. These ships are part of an expedition to the Lebanon, searching for cedar logs. This is corroborated by inscriptions found in the Lebanon testifying to an expedition there under Sahure. As part of the contacts with the Near-East, the reliefs from his funerary monuments also hold the oldest known representation of a Syrian bear.

The Pyramid of Sahure

According to the Turin King-list, Sahure ruled for twelve years. The Palermo stone notes seven countings, which either indicates a reign of fourteen years or that the countings did not occur with a frequency of once every two years.

2477 - 2467 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - Neferirkare Kakai - "Divine of the Body".

Neferirkare may have also been brother to Sahure and Userkaf. There was evidence found linked to his reign that show well-developed accounting methods and record keeping regarding the redistribution of goods and materials between the royal residence, temples, and officials who held priesthoods.

Cartouche of Neferirkare

Neferirkare was the second son of Khentkaus I to have ruled Egypt. As with his brother Sahure, it is not known whether Userkaf was his father. Neferirkare was married to a name-sake of his mother's, Khentkaus II. It is not unlikely that Khentkaus II also was related to Khentkaus I. At least two children are believed to have been born of this marriage: Neferefre> and Niuserre. Other wives and children are not known.

The length of his reign is unfortunately lost on the Turin King-list and the Palermo-stone breaks of after having recorded a 5th counting, which, if the counting occurred every two years, would mean that Neferirkare at least ruled for ten years. According to Manetho, his rule lasted for twenty years, a number which appears to be generally accepted.

Neferirkare was the first king to have his birth-name made part of the official titulary, thus adding a second cartouche. He was the first king to have employed both a prenomen and nomen (two names and two cartouches), a custom that later kings would follow.

The hieratic papyrus found at his pyramid complex are probably his most notable contributions to Egyptology. They were originally discovered in 1893 CE by local farmers and consist of 300 papyrus fragments. They remained unpublished for some seventy-five years, even as the first archaeologists were excavating Abusir. Only later did a Czech mission, which explored the site in 1976 CE, take full advantage of these documents.

2467 - 2460 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - Shepseskare Isi - "Noble is the Soul of Re."

Little to nothing is known about Shepseskare nor his relationship to the other kings of the 5th Dynasty. According to the Turin King-list, he ruled for seven years. Some seal impressions dated to his reign have been found at Abusir, and these are about the only witnesses of Shepseskare's reign. It is not known whether he built a pyramid or a solar-temple, although the unfinished pyramid located at Abusir between the pyramid of Sahure and the solar-temple of Userkaf, has, by some, been credited to him.

2460 - 2453 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - Neferefre - "Beautiful is Re."

Neferefre was the Fifth King of the Fifth Dynasty. Neferefre was the first son of Neferirkare and Khentkaus II to come to the throne. The Turin King-list is too fragmentary to provide the length of Neferefre's reign. He built a solar-temple named Hetep-Re, which has not yet been discovered, and, at Abusir, started with the building of his own pyramid complex. The complex was left unfinished.

2453 - 2422 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - Nyuserre Ini.

Nyuserre Ini was the Sixth King of the Fifth Dynasty. Niuserre was the second son of Neferirkare and Khentkaus II to have ascended to the throne. He was married to a woman named Reputneb, of whom a statue was discovered in the valley-temple connected to his and Neferirkare's pyramid complex. It is not known whether he had any children that out-lived him.

The Turin King-list is somewhat damaged at the point where Niuserre's name is mentioned, and only allows us to state that he ruled for more than ten years. The forty-four years credited to him by Manetho is considered unreliable. The representation of a Sed-festival found in his solar-temple may indicate that he ruled at least for thirty years.

An inscription found in the Sinai shows Niuserre triumphant over his enemies. It is debatable whether this inscription refers to an actual victory of Niuserre, or whether it was merely symbolic. It does, however, show that Niuserre was active in the Sinai.

He built a solar-temple, named Shesepu-ib-re, in Abu Gurab, a kilometre or more to the North of Abusir. Not only is this the biggest and most complete solar-temple, it is also the only one that was constructed completely of stone. The many finely carved reliefs that remain show the king during a Sed-festival and the world as created by the solar god, with representations of the seasons and the provinces of Egypt. With the reign of Niuserre, the solar-cult appears to have come to its summit.

The sanctuary consisted of an entrance hall that was leading to a court of 100 x 75 m (330 x 250 ft.) in size which was surrounded by a stone wall. In the middle of the courtyard stood a huge obelisk, a stone that looked like the modern-day Washington Monument. The obelisk was the cultic symbol for Re, the sun-god.

Remains of the sun temple of King Niuserre in Abu Gurob

The Pyramid of Niuserre

The pyramid-complex of Niuserre is located at Abusir, between the pyramids of Sahure and Neferirkare. Instead of building his own valley temple, he had his pyramid complex connected to the valley temple of Neferirkare. His two wives, Reputneb and Khentikus, were buried near him at Abusir.

2450 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The civil war between the the city-states of Sumer entered a period in which the city-state of Lugash was predominant, under King Eannatum.

Units for length, weight, and capacity are legally fixed in Mesopotamia. Standard weights, used in trade, are developed by the Sumerians; they are based on the shekel of 8.36 grams [129 grains or 0.29 ounces] and the mina, 60 times as heavy.

A form of soldering to join sheets of gold is used by the Chaldeans in Ur.

2450 BCE - Egypt - Egyptian carvings from this time show surgical operations in progress.

2430 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The earliest record of slaves being sold in Mesopotamia.

2422 - 2414 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - Menkauhor Kaiu - "Eternal Like the Souls of Horus."

Menkauhor was the seventh king of the 5th Dynasty. He ruled Egypt for eight years, but never achieved the level of fame that the rest of the kings in his dynasty did. The relationship of Menkauhor with his predecessors or successors is not known. His reign is attested by an inscription in the Sinai and a seal from Abusir. He is reputed as having sent his troops to Sinai in order to acquire materials for the construction of his tomb. His solar-temple, called Akhet-Re and his pyramid are mentioned in texts from private tombs, but have not yet been identified. There is a small alabaster statue of Menkauhor located in the Egyptian museum in Cairo.

2414 - 2375 BCE - V Egyptian Dynasty - Djedkare Isesi - "The Soul of Ra Endures."

The relationship of Djedkare with his predecessors or successors is not known. According to the Turin King-list, he ruled for twenty-eight years, although some Egyptologists would prefer to read the number given as thirty-eight. Manetho records forty-four years for this king.

Djedkare was a very smart and energetic king, and he was able to take full advantage of all the available mineral resources in Egypt at Wadi Hammamat and Sinai. His name has been found in the Sinai, demonstrating a continued Egyptian interest in the rich regions Abydos and Nubia.

His reign is marked by some important changes: the solar cult, although not abandoned, loses some of its importance and predominance, and the power of the central government is weakened to the advantage of the provincial administration.

Another important change that occurred during Djedkare's reign was the return to Saqqara as a burial place. This does not mean, however, that the funerary temples of Abusir were abandoned. The larger part of the papyri found in the funerary temple of Neferirkare are dated to Djedkare.

Pyramid of Djedkare

The King's mortuary temple lies on the eastern face of the pyramid, built on sloping ground which had to be levelled before construction could begin. Two massive towers in the form of a pylon originally fronted the temple, but their purpose is still unclear and it appears that they did not contain any rooms. Fragments of reliefs found in the temple area suggest that it was once richly decorated, but it has been severely damaged and the area has never been completely excavated. The symmetrical plan seems to be similar to that of other pyramid temples of Dynasty V with an entrance hall and a central colonnaded court with magazines on either side. The 16 pink granite columns in the court bore the names and titles of Djedkare-Isesi. The inner and outer parts of the temple were separated by a transverse corridor, and beyond this was a chamber with five statue-niches, an antechamber and an offering hall and on the western side a false door was incorporated into the face of the pyramid.

His pyramid is now an 80 ft x 24m high rubble heap. An inscription found inside in 1946 CE showed that it belonged to Djedkare, hitherto the owner of the pyramid had been unknown, as it had been smashed in antiquity and used as a burial ground in the eighteenth dynasty.

His heir was his son, Prince Remkuy, who died before he assumed the throne.

2412 - 2004 BCE - Mesopotamia (Iraq) - The 3rd Dynasty of Ur.

Foreword       Home       Part II