Title 13 -- Census


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    13 USC CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES                                  01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    .
 
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    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
 
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         SUBCHAPTER I - MANUFACTURES, MINERAL INDUSTRIES, AND OTHER
                                 BUSINESSES
    Sec.
    131. Collection and publication; five-year periods.
    132. Controlling law; effect on other agencies.
           SUBCHAPTER II - POPULATION, HOUSING, AND UNEMPLOYMENT
    141. Population and other census information.
    (142 to 146. Repealed.)
                        SUBCHAPTER III - GOVERNMENTS
    161. Quinquennial censuses; inclusion of certain data.
    (162. Repealed.)
    163. Authority of other agencies. (FOOTNOTE 1)
       (FOOTNOTE 1) Item 163 editorially inserted because section 163
    is still in existence.  Item 163 was eliminated in the general
    amendment of analysis by Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 7, Aug. 28, 1957, 71
    Stat. 482.
                    SUBCHAPTER IV - INTERIM CURRENT DATA
    181. Population.
    182. Surveys.
    183. Use of most recent population data.
    184. Definitions.
       SUBCHAPTER V - GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE, PRELIMINARY AND SUPPLEMENTAL
                      STATISTICS, AND USE OF SAMPLING
    191. Geographic scope of censuses.
    193. Preliminary and supplemental statistics.
    195. Use of sampling.
    196. Special censuses.
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1997 - Pub. L. 105-113, Sec. 3(b)(2), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat.
    2275, substituted ''POPULATION, HOUSING, AND UNEMPLOYMENT'' for
    ''POPULATION, HOUSING, AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION, AND UNEMPLOYMENT''
    in the item for subchapter II, and struck out item 142
    ''Agriculture and irrigation''.
      1986 - Pub. L. 99-544, Sec. 1(c), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3046,
    substituted ''IRRIGATION, AND UNEMPLOYMENT'' for ''IRRIGATION,
    DRAINAGE, AND UNEMPLOYMENT'' in item for subchapter II, and
    ''Agriculture and irrigation'' for ''Agriculture, irrigation, and
    drainage'' in item 142.
      1976 - Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 7(b), 8(b), 11(b), Oct. 17, 1976, 90
    Stat. 2462-2464, substituted ''Population and other census
    information'' for ''Population, unemployment, and housing'' in item
    141, without reference to amendment thereto by Pub. L. 94-171, and
    added items 181 to 184 and 196, respectively.
      1975 - Pub. L. 94-171, Sec. 2(b), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 1024,
    inserted ''; tabulation for legislative apportionment'' in item
    141.
      1957 - Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 7, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 482, in
    amending analysis generally, substituted ''MANUFACTURES'' for
    ''MANUFACTURERS'' in item for subchapter I; substituted in item 141
    ''Population, unemployment, and housing'' for ''Population,
    agriculture, irrigation, drainage, and unemployment; territory
    included'', and in item 142 ''Agriculture, irrigation, and
    drainage.'' for ''Housing, scope of inquiries; territory included;
    supplementary statistics.'', struck out items 143 to 146, 162 and
    163; and added Subchapter V.
 
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                   CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This chapter is referred to in sections 25, 307 of this title.
 
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    13 USC SUBCHAPTER I - MANUFACTURES, MINERAL INDUSTRIES,
                  AND OTHER BUSINESSES                           01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER I - MANUFACTURES, MINERAL INDUSTRIES, AND OTHER
         BUSINESSES
    .
 
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    SUBCHAPTER I - MANUFACTURES, MINERAL INDUSTRIES, AND OTHER
    BUSINESSES
 
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                  SUBCHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This subchapter is referred to in sections 221, 223, 225 of this
    title.
 
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    13 USC Sec. 131                                              01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER I - MANUFACTURES, MINERAL INDUSTRIES, AND OTHER
         BUSINESSES
 
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    Sec. 131. Collection and publication; five-year periods
 
-STATUTE-
      The Secretary shall take, compile, and publish censuses of
    manufactures, of mineral industries, and of other businesses,
    including the distributive trades, service establishments, and
    transportation (exclusive of means of transportation for which
    statistics are required by law to be filed with, and are compiled
    and published by, a designated regulatory body), in the year 1964,
    then in the year 1968, and every fifth year thereafter, and each
    such census shall relate to the year immediately preceding the
    taking thereof.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1019; Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 8,
    Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 482; Pub. L. 88-532, Aug. 31, 1964, 78
    Stat. 737.)
 
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                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
      Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Sec. 121 (June 19, 1948, ch.
    502, Sec. 1, 62 Stat. 478; June 18, 1954, ch. 315, 68 Stat. 258).
      Section was subsection (a) of section 121 of title 13, U.S.C.,
    1952 ed.  The remainder of such section 121, which constituted
    subsection (b) thereof, is incorporated in subchapter IV of this
    chapter.
      At the beginning, ''The Secretary'', meaning the Secretary of
    Commerce, was substituted for a reference to the Director of the
    Bureau of the Census, and, at the end, the provision that the
    territorial scope of the censuses should be determined by the
    Secretary was substituted for the provision of section 121 of title
    13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., that such determination should be made by the
    Director with the approval of the Secretary, to conform with 1950
    Reorganization Plan No. 5, Sec. 1, 2, eff.  May 24, 1950, 15 F.R.
    3174, 64 Stat. 1263, which transferred all functions of all
    officers and employees, agencies and bureaus of the Department of
    Commerce to the Secretary. However, the Secretary, under that plan,
    may delegate any of such transferred functions, as well as any
    other of his functions, to any of such officers, employees,
    agencies and bureaus.  See, also, section 4 of this title.
      The reference in section 121 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., to
    the year ''1949'' as the year for commencement of the quinquennial
    censuses was changed to the year ''1954'', since the former
    designation is obsolete, and the provision of such section that the
    census of manufacturers should not be taken in 1949 was omitted as
    obsolete.
      Changes were made in phraseology.
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1964 - Pub. L. 88-532 substituted ''in the year 1964, then in the
    year 1968, and'' for ''in the year 1954 and'' and struck out
    provisions which related to the taking of certain censuses in the
    year 1955.
      1957 - Pub. L. 85-207 struck out sentence which included the
    United States and its territories and such possessions as the
    Secretary might determine in the censuses to be taken.  See section
    191 of this title.
          CENSUS DATA ON WOMEN OWNED BUSINESSES; STUDY AND REPORT
      Pub. L. 100-533, title V, Sec. 501, Oct. 25, 1988, 102 Stat.
    2697, provided that:
      ''(a) Bureau of Labor Statistics. - The Bureau of Labor
    Statistics of the Department of Labor shall include in any census
    report it may prepare on women owned business data on -
        ''(1) sole proprietorships;
        ''(2) partnerships; and
        ''(3) corporations.
      ''(b) Bureau of the Census. - The Bureau of the Census of the
    Department of Commerce shall include in its Business Census for
    1992 and each such succeeding census data on the number of
    corporations which are 51 per centum or more owned by women.
      ''(c) Combined Study. - Not later than one hundred and eighty
    days after the effective date of this section (Oct. 25, 1988), the
    Office of the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business
    Administration (hereinafter referred to in this subsection as the
    'Office') shall conduct a study and prepare a report recommending
    the most cost effective and accurate means to gather and present
    the data required to be collected pursuant to subsections (a) and
    (b). The Department of Commerce and the Department of Labor shall
    provide the Office such assistance and cooperation as may be
    necessary and appropriate to achieve the purposes of this
    subsection.''
 
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    13 USC Sec. 132                                              01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER I - MANUFACTURES, MINERAL INDUSTRIES, AND OTHER
         BUSINESSES
 
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    Sec. 132. Controlling law; effect on other agencies
 
-STATUTE-
      To the extent that the provisions of this subchapter or
    subchapter IV of this chapter conflict with any other provision of
    this title or other law, pertaining to the Secretary of the
    Department of Commerce, the provisions of this title shall control;
    but nothing in this title shall be deemed to revoke or impair the
    authority of any other Federal agency with respect to the
    collection or release of information.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1019.)
 
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                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
      Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Sec. 123 (June 19, 1948, ch.
    502, Sec. 3, 62 Stat. 479).
      Section was derived from all of section 123 of title 13, U.S.C.,
    1952 ed., except the first sentence.  That sentence is incorporated
    with other provisions in chapter 1 of this title.  See Distribution
    Table.
      The reference ''Secretary or Department of Commerce'' was
    substituted for reference to the Bureau of the Census to conform
    with 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, Sec. 1, 2, eff.  May 24, 1950,
    15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263. See Revision Note to section 4 of this
    title.
      Changes were made in phraseology.
 
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    13 USC SUBCHAPTER II - POPULATION, HOUSING, AND
                  UNEMPLOYMENT                                   01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER II - POPULATION, HOUSING, AND UNEMPLOYMENT
    .
 
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    SUBCHAPTER II - POPULATION, HOUSING, AND UNEMPLOYMENT
 
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                                 AMENDMENTS
      1997 - Pub. L. 105-113, Sec. 3(b)(1), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat.
    2275, substituted ''POPULATION, HOUSING, AND UNEMPLOYMENT'' for
    ''POPULATION, HOUSING, AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION,, AND
    UNEMPLOYMENT''.
      1986 - Pub. L. 99-544, Sec. 1(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3046,
    struck out ''DRAINAGE'' after ''IRRIGATION,''.
 
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                  SUBCHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This subchapter is referred to in sections 221, 222, 223, 225 of
    this title.
 
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    13 USC Sec. 141                                              01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER II - POPULATION, HOUSING, AND UNEMPLOYMENT
 
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    Sec. 141. Population and other census information
 
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      (a) The Secretary shall, in the year 1980 and every 10 years
    thereafter, take a decennial census of population as of the first
    day of April of such year, which date shall be known as the
    ''decennial census date'', in such form and content as he may
    determine, including the use of sampling procedures and special
    surveys.  In connection with any such census, the Secretary is
    authorized to obtain such other census information as necessary.
      (b) The tabulation of total population by States under subsection
    (a) of this section as required for the apportionment of
    Representatives in Congress among the several States shall be
    completed within 9 months after the census date and reported by the
    Secretary to the President of the United States.
      (c) The officers or public bodies having initial responsibility
    for the legislative apportionment or districting of each State may,
    not later than 3 years before the decennial census date, submit to
    the Secretary a plan identifying the geographic areas for which
    specific tabulations of population are desired.  Each such plan
    shall be developed in accordance with criteria established by the
    Secretary, which he shall furnish to such officers or public bodies
    not later than April 1 of the fourth year preceding the decennial
    census date.  Such criteria shall include requirements which assure
    that such plan shall be developed in a nonpartisan manner.  Should
    the Secretary find that a plan submitted by such officers or public
    bodies does not meet the criteria established by him, he shall
    consult to the extent necessary with such officers or public bodies
    in order to achieve the alterations in such plan that he deems
    necessary to bring it into accord with such criteria.  Any issues
    with respect to such plan remaining unresolved after such
    consultation shall be resolved by the Secretary, and in all cases
    he shall have final authority for determining the geographic format
    of such plan.  Tabulations of population for the areas identified
    in any plan approved by the Secretary shall be completed by him as
    expeditiously as possible after the decennial census date and
    reported to the Governor of the State involved and to the officers
    or public bodies having responsibility for legislative
    apportionment or districting of such State, except that such
    tabulations of population of each State requesting a tabulation
    plan, and basic tabulations of population of each other State,
    shall, in any event, be completed, reported, and transmitted to
    each respective State within one year after the decennial census
    date.
      (d) Without regard to subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this
    section, the Secretary, in the year 1985 and every 10 years
    thereafter, shall conduct a mid-decade census of population in such
    form and content as he may determine, including the use of sampling
    procedures and special surveys, taking into account the extent to
    which information to be obtained from such census will serve in
    lieu of information collected annually or less frequently in
    surveys or other statistical studies.  The census shall be taken as
    of the first day of April of each such year, which date shall be
    known as the ''mid-decade census date''.
      (e)(1) If -
        (A) in the administration of any program established by or
      under Federal law which provides benefits to State or local
      governments or to other recipients, eligibility for or the amount
      of such benefits would (without regard to this paragraph) be
      determined by taking into account data obtained in the most
      recent decennial census, and
        (B) comparable data is obtained in a mid-decade census
      conducted after such decennial census,
    then in the determination of such eligibility or amount of benefits
    the most recent data available from either the mid-decade or
    decennial census shall be used.
      (2) Information obtained in any mid-decade census shall not be
    used for apportionment of Representatives in Congress among the
    several States, nor shall such information be used in prescribing
    congressional districts.
      (f) With respect to each decennial and mid-decade census
    conducted under subsection (a) or (d) of this section, the
    Secretary shall submit to the committees of Congress having
    legislative jurisdiction over the census -
        (1) not later than 3 years before the appropriate census date,
      a report containing the Secretary's determination of the subjects
      proposed to be included, and the types of information to be
      compiled, in such census;
        (2) not later than 2 years before the appropriate census date,
      a report containing the Secretary's determination of the
      questions proposed to be included in such census; and
        (3) after submission of a report under paragraph (1) or (2) of
      this subsection and before the appropriate census date, if the
      Secretary finds new circumstances exist which necessitate that
      the subjects, types of information, or questions contained in
      reports so submitted be modified, a report containing the
      Secretary's determination of the subjects, types of information,
      or questions as proposed to be modified.
      (g) As used in this section, ''census of population'' means a
    census of population, housing, and matters relating to population
    and housing.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1019; Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 9,
    Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 483; Pub. L. 94-171, Sec. 1, 2(a), Dec. 23,
    1975, 89 Stat. 1023, 1024; Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 7(a), Oct. 17,
    1976, 90 Stat. 2461.)
 
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                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
      Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Sec. 201 (June 18, 1929, ch.
    28, Sec. 1, 46 Stat. 21; May 17, 1932, ch. 190, 47 Stat. 158).
      References to the Secretary, meaning the Secretary of Commerce,
    were substituted for references to the Director of the Census, to
    conform with 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, Sec. 1, 2, eff.  May
    24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263. See Revision Note to section
    4 of this title.
      The provision for taking the censuses in ''1930 and every ten
    years thereafter'' was changed to ''1960 and every ten years
    thereafter'' since the censuses for the years 1930, 1940 and 1950
    have been completed.
      The requirement that decennial censuses of ''distribution'' and
    ''mines'' should also be taken was omitted as superseded by section
    121 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed. (enacted in 1948), the provisions
    of which were carried into subchapter I of this chapter.
      Section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., the Public Health and
    Welfare (which section has been transferred in its entirety to this
    revised title), made all provisions of chapter 4 of title 13,
    U.S.C., 1952 ed., applicable to the housing censuses provided for
    in such section.  However, section 201 of such title 13 (which
    section was a part of such chapter 4), which, as indicated above,
    has been carried into this revised section, could not, except,
    possibly, for the provisions thereof relating to the territorial
    scope of the censuses and to the census duties of the governors of
    Guam, Samoa, the Virgin Islands, and the Canal Zone, have any
    relevancy to such housing censuses, and such section 1442 of title
    42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., contained its own provisions relating to
    territorial scope of the housing censuses.  Therefore the
    provisions of this revised section have not been made so
    applicable.
      Changes were made in phraseology.
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1976 - Pub. L. 94-521 substituted ''Population and other census
    information'' for ''Population, unemployment, and housing'' in
    section catchline, without reference to amendment of catchline by
    Pub. L. 94-171.
      Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94-521 substituted ''1980'' for ''1960'' and
    ''decennial census of population'' for ''census of population,
    unemployment, and housing (including utilities and equipment)'',
    inserted ''of such year'' after ''April'', substituted ''which date
    shall be known as the decennial census date'' for ''which shall be
    known as the census date'', and inserted provisions authorizing the
    Secretary to take the decennial census in whatever form and content
    he determines, using sampling procedures and special surveys, and
    authorizing him to obtain other such census information as is
    necessary, in connection with the decennial census.
      Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-521 inserted ''under subsection (a) of
    this section'' after ''population by States'', inserted ''in
    Congress among the several States'' after ''Representatives'', and
    substituted ''9 months after the census date'' for ''eight months
    of the census date''.
      Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94-521 substituted ''the decennial census
    date'' for ''the census date'' wherever appearing.
      Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 94-521 added subsecs. (d) to (g).
      1975 - Pub. L. 94-171, Sec. 2(a), inserted ''; tabulation for
    legislative apportionment'' in section catchline.
      Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94-171, Sec. 1, added subsec. (c).
      1957 - Pub. L. 85-207 substituted ''Population, unemployment, and
    housing'' for ''Population, agriculture, irrigation, drainage, and
    unemployment; territory excluded'' in section catchline; inserted
    in text housing census provisions, struck out census coverage of
    agriculture, irrigation, and drainage and geographical provisions,
    and designated existing provisions as so amended as subsec. (a);
    and added subsec. (b). Census of agriculture, irrigation, and
    drainage and the geographical provisions are covered by sections
    142 and 191 of this title.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 94-521 effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section
    17 of Pub. L. 94-521, set out as a note under section 1 of this
    title.
       STATISTICAL SAMPLING OR ADJUSTMENT IN DECENNIAL ENUMERATION OF
                                 POPULATION
      Pub. L. 105-119, title II, Sec. 209, Nov. 26, 1997, 111 Stat.
    2480, provided that:
      ''(a) Congress finds that -
        ''(1) it is the constitutional duty of the Congress to ensure
      that the decennial enumeration of the population is conducted in
      a manner consistent with the Constitution and laws of the United
      States;
        ''(2) the sole constitutional purpose of the decennial
      enumeration of the population is the apportionment of
      Representatives in Congress among the several States;
        ''(3) section 2 of the 14th article of amendment to the
      Constitution clearly states that Representatives are to be
      'apportioned among the several States according to their
      respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each
      State';
        ''(4) article I, section 2, clause 3 of the Constitution
      clearly requires an 'actual Enumeration' of the population, and
      section 195 of title 13, United States Code, clearly provides
      'Except for the determination of population for purposes of
      apportionment of Representatives in Congress among the several
      States, the Secretary shall, if he considers it feasible,
      authorize the use of the statistical method known as ''sampling''
      in carrying out the provisions of this title.';
        ''(5) the decennial enumeration of the population is one of the
      most critical constitutional functions our Federal Government
      performs;
        ''(6) it is essential that the decennial enumeration of the
      population be as accurate as possible, consistent with the
      Constitution and laws of the United States;
        ''(7) the use of statistical sampling or statistical adjustment
      in conjunction with an actual enumeration to carry out the census
      with respect to any segment of the population poses the risk of
      an inaccurate, invalid, and unconstitutional census;
        ''(8) the decennial enumeration of the population is a complex
      and vast undertaking, and if such enumeration is conducted in a
      manner that does not comply with the requirements of the
      Constitution or laws of the United States, it would be
      impracticable for the States to obtain, and the courts of the
      United States to provide, meaningful relief after such
      enumeration has been conducted; and
        ''(9) Congress is committed to providing the level of funding
      that is required to perform the entire range of constitutional
      census activities, with a particular emphasis on accurately
      enumerating all individuals who have historically been
      undercounted, and toward this end, Congress expects -
          ''(A) aggressive and innovative promotion and outreach
        campaigns in hard-to-count communities;
          ''(B) the hiring of enumerators from within those
        communities;
          ''(C) continued cooperation with local government on address
        list development; and
          ''(D) maximized census employment opportunities for
        individuals seeking to make the transition from welfare to
        work.
      ''(b) Any person aggrieved by the use of any statistical method
    in violation of the Constitution or any provision of law (other
    than this Act (see Tables for classification)), in connection with
    the 2000 or any later decennial census, to determine the population
    for purposes of the apportionment or redistricting of Members in
    Congress, may in a civil action obtain declaratory, injunctive, and
    any other appropriate relief against the use of such method.
      ''(c) For purposes of this section -
        ''(1) the use of any statistical method as part of a dress
      rehearsal or other simulation of a census in preparation for the
      use of such method, in a decennial census, to determine the
      population for purposes of the apportionment or redistricting of
      Members in Congress shall be considered the use of such method in
      connection with that census; and
        ''(2) the report ordered by title VIII of Public Law 105-18
      (111 Stat. 217) and the Census 2000 Operational Plan shall be
      deemed to constitute final agency action regarding the use of
      statistical methods in the 2000 decennial census, thus making the
      question of their use in such census sufficiently concrete and
      final to now be reviewable in a judicial proceeding.
      ''(d) For purposes of this section, an aggrieved person
    (described in subsection (b)) includes -
        ''(1) any resident of a State whose congressional
      representation or district could be changed as a result of the
      use of a statistical method challenged in the civil action;
        ''(2) any Representative or Senator in Congress; and
        ''(3) either House of Congress.
      ''(e)(1) Any action brought under this section shall be heard and
    determined by a district court of three judges in accordance with
    section 2284 of title 28, United States Code. The chief judge of
    the United States court of appeals for each circuit shall, to the
    extent practicable and consistent with the avoidance of unnecessary
    delay, consolidate, for all purposes, in one district court within
    that circuit, all actions pending in that circuit under this
    section.  Any party to an action under this section shall be
    precluded from seeking any consolidation of that action other than
    is provided in this paragraph.  In selecting the district court in
    which to consolidate such actions, the chief judge shall consider
    the convenience of the parties and witnesses and efficient conduct
    of such actions.  Any final order or injunction of a United States
    district court that is issued pursuant to an action brought under
    this section shall be reviewable by appeal directly to the Supreme
    Court of the United States. Any such appeal shall be taken by a
    notice of appeal filed within 10 days after such order is entered;
    and the jurisdictional statement shall be filed within 30 days
    after such order is entered.  No stay of an order issued pursuant
    to an action brought under this section may be issued by a single
    Justice of the Supreme Court.
      ''(2) It shall be the duty of a United States district court
    hearing an action brought under this section and the Supreme Court
    of the United States to advance on the docket and to expedite to
    the greatest possible extent the disposition of any such matter.
      ''(f) Any agency or entity within the executive branch having
    authority with respect to the carrying out of a decennial census
    may in a civil action obtain a declaratory judgment respecting
    whether or not the use of a statistical method, in connection with
    such census, to determine the population for the purposes of the
    apportionment or redistricting of Members in Congress is forbidden
    by the Constitution and laws of the United States.
      ''(g) The Speaker of the House of Representatives or the
    Speaker's designee or designees may commence or join in a civil
    action, for and on behalf of the House of Representatives, under
    any applicable law, to prevent the use of any statistical method,
    in connection with the decennial census, to determine the
    population for purposes of the apportionment or redistricting of
    Members in Congress. It shall be the duty of the Office of the
    General Counsel of the House of Representatives to represent the
    House in such civil action, according to the directions of the
    Speaker. The Office of the General Counsel of the House of
    Representatives may employ the services of outside counsel and
    other experts for this purpose.
      ''(h) For purposes of this section and section 210 (set out
    below) -
        ''(1) the term 'statistical method' means an activity related
      to the design, planning, testing, or implementation of the use of
      representative sampling, or any other statistical procedure,
      including statistical adjustment, to add or subtract counts to or
      from the enumeration of the population as a result of statistical
      inference; and
        ''(2) the term 'census' or 'decennial census' means a decennial
      enumeration of the population.
      ''(i) Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize the use
    of any statistical method, in connection with a decennial census,
    for the apportionment or redistricting of Members in Congress.
      ''(j) Sufficient funds appropriated under this Act or under any
    other Act for purposes of the 2000 decennial census shall be used
    by the Bureau of the Census to plan, test, and become prepared to
    implement a 2000 decennial census, without using statistical
    methods, which shall result in the percentage of the total
    population actually enumerated being as close to 100 percent as
    possible.  In both the 2000 decennial census, and any dress
    rehearsal or other simulation made in preparation for the 2000
    decennial census, the number of persons enumerated without using
    statistical methods must be publicly available for all levels of
    census geography which are being released by the Bureau of the
    Census for: (1) all data releases before January 1, 2001; (2) the
    data contained in the 2000 decennial census Public Law 94-171
    (amending this section) data file released for use in
    redistricting; (3) the Summary Tabulation File One (STF-1) for the
    2000 decennial census; and (4) the official populations of the
    States transmitted from the Secretary of Commerce through the
    President to the Clerk of the House used to reapportion the
    districts of the House among the States as a result of the 2000
    decennial census.  Simultaneously with any other release or
    reporting of any of the information described in the preceding
    sentence through other means, such information shall be made
    available to the public on the Internet. These files of the Bureau
    of the Census shall be available concurrently to the release of the
    original files to the same recipients, on identical media, and at a
    comparable price.  They shall contain the number of persons
    enumerated without using statistical methods and any additions or
    subtractions thereto.  These files shall be based on data gathered
    and generated by the Bureau of the Census in its official capacity.
      ''(k) This section shall apply in fiscal year 1998 and succeeding
    fiscal years.''
                          CENSUS MONITORING BOARD
      Pub. L. 105-119, title II, Sec. 210(a)-(j), Nov. 26, 1997, 111
    Stat. 2483-2487, provided that:
      ''(a) There shall be established a board to be known as the
    Census Monitoring Board (hereafter in this section referred to as
    the 'Board').
      ''(b) The function of the Board shall be to observe and monitor
    all aspects of the preparation and implementation of the 2000
    decennial census (including all dress rehearsals and other
    simulations of a census in preparation therefor).
      ''(c)(1) The Board shall be composed of 8 members as follows:
        ''(A) Two individuals appointed by the majority leader of the
      Senate.
        ''(B) Two individuals appointed by the Speaker of the House of
      Representatives.
        ''(C) Four individuals appointed by the President, of whom -
          ''(i) one shall be on the recommendation of the minority
        leader of the Senate; and
          ''(ii) one shall be on the recommendation of the minority
        leader of the House of Representatives.
    All members of the Board shall be appointed within 60 days after
    the date of enactment of this Act (Nov. 26, 1997). A vacancy in the
    Board shall be filled in the manner in which the original
    appointment was made.
      ''(2) Members shall not be entitled to any pay by reason of their
    service on the Board, but shall receive travel expenses, including
    per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with sections 5702
    and 5703 of title 5, United States Code.
      ''(3) The Board shall have -
        ''(A) a co-chairman who shall be appointed jointly by the
      members under subsection (c)(1)(A) and (B), and
        ''(B) a co-chairman who shall be appointed jointly by the
      members under subsection (c)(1)(C).
      ''(4) The Board shall meet at the call of either co-chairman.
      ''(5) A quorum shall consist of five members of the Board.
      ''(6) The Board may promulgate any regulations necessary to carry
    out its duties.
      ''(d)(1) The Board shall have -
        ''(A) an executive director who shall be appointed jointly by
      the members under subsection (c)(1)(A) and (B), and
        ''(B) an executive director who shall be appointed jointly by
      the members under subsection (c)(1)(C),
    each of whom shall be paid at a rate not to exceed level IV of the
    Executive Schedule.
      ''(2) Subject to such rules as the Board may prescribe, each
    executive director -
        ''(A) may appoint and fix the pay of such additional personnel
      as that executive director considers appropriate; and
        ''(B) may procure temporary and intermittent services under
      section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, but at rates for
      individuals not to exceed the daily equivalent of the maximum
      annual rate of pay payable for grade GS-15 of the General
      Schedule.
    Such rules shall include provisions to ensure an equitable division
    or sharing of resources, as appropriate, between the respective
    staff of the Board.
      ''(3) The staff of the Board shall be appointed without regard to
    the provisions of title 5, United States Code, governing
    appointments in the competitive service, and shall be paid without
    regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of
    chapter 53 of such title (relating to classification and General
    Schedule pay rates).
      ''(4) The Administrator of the General Services Administration,
    in coordination with the Secretary of Commerce, shall locate
    suitable office space for the operation of the Board in the W.
    Edwards Deming Building in Suitland, Maryland. The facilities shall
    serve as the headquarters of the Board and shall include all
    necessary equipment and incidentals required for the proper
    functioning of the Board.
      ''(e)(1) For the purpose of carrying out its duties, the Board
    may hold such hearings (at the call of either co-chairman) and
    undertake such other activities as the Board determines to be
    necessary to carry out its duties.
      ''(2) The Board may authorize any member of the Board or of its
    staff to take any action which the Board is authorized to take by
    this subsection.
      ''(3)(A) Each co-chairman of the Board and any members of the
    staff who may be designated by the Board under this paragraph shall
    be granted access to any data, files, information, or other matters
    maintained by the Bureau of the Census (or received by it in the
    course of conducting a decennial census of population) which they
    may request, subject to such regulations as the Board may prescribe
    in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce.
      ''(B) The Board or the co-chairmen acting jointly may secure
    directly from any other Federal agency, including the White House,
    all information that the Board considers necessary to enable the
    Board to carry out its duties.  Upon request of the Board or both
    co-chairmen, the head of that agency (or other person duly
    designated for purposes of this paragraph) shall furnish that
    information to the Board.
      ''(4) The Board shall prescribe regulations under which any
    member of the Board or of its staff, and any person whose services
    are procured under subsection (d)(2)(B), who gains access to any
    information or other matter pursuant to this subsection shall, to
    the extent that any provisions of section 9 or 214 of title 13,
    United States Code, would apply with respect to such matter in the
    case of an employee of the Department of Commerce, be subject to
    such provisions.
      ''(5) Upon the request of the Board, the head of any Federal
    agency is authorized to detail, without reimbursement, any of the
    personnel of such agency to the Board to assist the Board in
    carrying out its duties.  Any such detail shall not interrupt or
    otherwise affect the civil service status or privileges of the
    Federal employee.
      ''(6) Upon the request of the Board, the head of a Federal agency
    shall provide such technical assistance to the Board as the Board
    determines to be necessary to carry out its duties.
      ''(7) The Board may use the United States mails in the same
    manner and under the same conditions as Federal agencies and shall,
    for purposes of the frank, be considered a commission of Congress
    as described in section 3215 of title 39, United States Code.
      ''(8) Upon request of the Board, the Administrator of General
    Services shall provide to the Board on a reimbursable basis such
    administrative support services as the Board may request.
      ''(9) For purposes of costs relating to printing and binding,
    including the cost of personnel detailed from the Government
    Printing Office, the Board shall be deemed to be a committee of the
    Congress.
      ''(f)(1) The Board shall transmit to the Congress -
        ''(A) interim reports, with the first such report due by April
      1, 1998;
        ''(B) additional reports, the first of which shall be due by
      February 1, 1999, the second of which shall be due by April 1,
      1999, and subsequent reports at least semiannually thereafter;
        ''(C) a final report which shall be due by September 1, 2001;
      and
        ''(D) any other reports which the Board considers appropriate.
    The final report shall contain a detailed statement of the findings
    and conclusions of the Board with respect to the matters described
    in subsection (b).
      ''(2) In addition to any matter otherwise required under this
    subsection, each such report shall address, with respect to the
    period covered by such report -
        ''(A) the degree to which efforts of the Bureau of the Census
      to prepare to conduct the 2000 census -
          ''(i) shall achieve maximum possible accuracy at every level
        of geography;
          ''(ii) shall be taken by means of an enumeration process
        designed to count every individual possible; and
          ''(iii) shall be free from political bias and arbitrary
        decisions; and
        ''(B) efforts by the Bureau of the Census intended to
      contribute to enumeration improvement, specifically, in
      connection with -
          ''(i) computer modernization and the appropriate use of
        automation;
          ''(ii) address list development;
          ''(iii) outreach and promotion efforts at all levels designed
        to maximize response rates, especially among groups that have
        historically been undercounted (including measures undertaken
        in conjunction with local government and community and other
        groups);
          ''(iv) establishment and operation of field offices; and
          ''(v) efforts relating to the recruitment, hiring, and
        training of enumerators.
      ''(3) Any data or other information obtained by the Board under
    this section shall be made available to any committee or
    subcommittee of Congress of appropriate jurisdiction upon request
    of the chairman or ranking minority member of such committee or
    subcommittee.  No such committee or subcommittee, or member
    thereof, shall disclose any information obtained under this
    paragraph which is submitted to it on a confidential basis unless
    the full committee determines that the withholding of that
    information is contrary to the national interest.
      ''(4) The Board shall study and submit to Congress, as part of
    its first report under paragraph (1)(A), its findings and
    recommendations as to the feasibility and desirability of using
    postal personnel or private contractors to help carry out the
    decennial census.
      ''(g) There is authorized to be appropriated $4,000,000 for each
    of fiscal years 1998 through 2001 to carry out this section.
      ''(h) To the extent practicable, members of the Board shall work
    to promote the most accurate and complete census possible by using
    their positions to publicize the need for full and timely responses
    to census questionnaires.
      ''(i)(1) No individual described in paragraph (2) shall be
    eligible -
        ''(A) to be appointed or to continue serving as a member of the
      Board or as a member of the staff thereof; or
        ''(B) to enter into any contract with the Board.
      ''(2) This subsection applies with respect to any individual who
    is serving or who has ever served -
        ''(A) as the Director of the Census; or
        ''(B) with any committee or subcommittee of either House of
      Congress, having jurisdiction over any aspect of the decennial
      census, as -
          ''(i) a Member of Congress; or
          ''(ii) a congressional employee.
      ''(j) The Board shall cease to exist on September 30, 2001.''
        CENSUS DATA ON GRANDPARENTS AS PRIMARY CAREGIVERS FOR THEIR
                               GRANDCHILDREN
      Pub. L. 104-193, title I, Sec. 105, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat.
    2163, provided that:
      ''(a) In General. - Not later than 90 days after the date of the
    enactment of this Act (Aug. 22, 1996), the Secretary of Commerce,
    in carrying out section 141 of title 13, United States Code, shall
    expand the data collection efforts of the Bureau of the Census (in
    this section referred to as the 'Bureau') to enable the Bureau to
    collect statistically significant data, in connection with its
    decennial census and its mid-decade census, concerning the growing
    trend of grandparents who are the primary caregivers for their
    grandchildren.
      ''(b) Expanded Census Question. - In carrying out subsection (a),
    the Secretary of Commerce shall expand the Bureau's census question
    that details households which include both grandparents and their
    grandchildren.  The expanded question shall be formulated to
    distinguish between the following households:
        ''(1) A household in which a grandparent temporarily provides a
      home for a grandchild for a period of weeks or months during
      periods of parental distress.
        ''(2) A household in which a grandparent provides a home for a
      grandchild and serves as the primary caregiver for the
      grandchild.''
                  DECENNIAL CENSUS IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1991
      Pub. L. 102-135, Oct. 24, 1991, 105 Stat. 635, provided that:
    ''SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.
      ''This Act may be cited as the 'Decennial Census Improvement Act
    of 1991'.
    ''SEC. 2. STUDY.
      ''(a) In General. - The Secretary of Commerce shall, within 30
    days after the date of enactment of this Act (Oct. 24, 1991), and
    subject to the availability of appropriations, contract with the
    National Academy of Sciences (hereinafter in this Act referred to
    as the 'Academy') to study -
        ''(1) means by which the Government could achieve the most
      accurate population count possible; and
        ''(2) consistent with the goal under paragraph (1), ways for
      the Government to collect other demographic and housing data.
      ''(b) Specific Considerations. - In conducting its study, the
    Academy shall consider such matters as -
        ''(1) with respect to subsection (a)(1) -
          ''(A) ways to improve the Government's enumeration methods,
        especially with regard to those involving the direct collection
        of data from respondents;
          ''(B) alternative methods for collecting the data needed for
        a basic population count, such as any involving administrative
        records, information from subnational or other surveys, and
        cumulative or rolling data-collection techniques; and
          ''(C) the appropriateness of using sampling methods, in
        combination with basic data-collection techniques or otherwise,
        in the acquisition or refinement of population data, including
        a review of the accuracy of the data for different levels of
        geography (such as States, places, census tracts and census
        blocks); and
        ''(2) with respect to subsection (a)(2) -
          ''(A) the degree to which a continuing need is anticipated
        with respect to the types of data (besides data relating to the
        basic population count) which were collected through the last
        decennial census; and
          ''(B) with respect to data for which such a need is
        anticipated, whether there are more effective ways to collect
        information using traditional methods and whether alternative
        sources or methodologies exist or could be implemented for
        obtaining reliable information in a timely manner.
      ''(c) Reports. - (1) The Academy shall submit to the Secretary
    and to the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service of the House
    of Representatives and the committee on Governmental Affairs of the
    Senate -
        ''(A) within 18 months after the date on which a contract is
      entered into under subsection (a), an interim report on its
      activities under this Act; and
        ''(B) within 36 months after the date on which a contract is
      entered into under subsection (a), a final report which shall
      include a detailed statement of the Academy's findings and
      conclusions, as well as recommendations for any legislation or
      administrative action which the Academy considers appropriate.
      ''(2) With respect to each alternative proposed or discussed in
    its final report, the Academy shall include -
        ''(A) an evaluation of such alternative's relative advantages
      and disadvantages, as well as an analysis of its cost
      effectiveness; and
        ''(B) for any alternative that does not involve the direct
      collection of data from individuals (about themselves or members
      of their household), an analysis of such alternative's potential
      effects on -
          ''(i) privacy;
          ''(ii) public confidence in the census; and
          ''(iii) the integrity of the census.''
             STUDY OF COUNTING OF HOMELESS FOR NATIONAL CENSUS
      Pub. L. 101-645, title IV, Sec. 402, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat.
    4723, provided that: ''Not later than 1 year after the date of the
    enactment of this Act (Nov. 29, 1990), the General Accounting
    Office shall conduct a study of the methodology and procedures used
    by the Bureau of the Census in counting the number of homeless
    persons for the most recent decennial census conducted pursuant to
    title 13, United States Code, to determine the accuracy of such
    count, and report to the Congress the results of that study.''
               MONITORING ECONOMIC PROGRESS OF RURAL AMERICA
      Pub. L. 101-624, title XXIII, Sec. 2382, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat.
    4050, provided that Director of Bureau of the Census was to expand
    data collection efforts of Bureau to enable it to collect
    statistically significant data concerning changing economic
    condition of rural counties and communities in United States,
    including data on rural employment, poverty, income, and other
    information concerning rural labor force, and authorized to be
    appropriated $1,000,000 for each fiscal year for such efforts,
    prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104-127, title VII, Sec. 707, Apr. 4,
    1996, 110 Stat. 1112.
      AMERICANS OF SPANISH ORIGIN OR DESCENT; STUDY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF
                  CREDITABLE ESTIMATES IN FUTURE CENSUSES
      Pub. L. 94-311, Sec. 4, June 16, 1976, 90 Stat. 688, provided
    that: ''The Department of Commerce, in cooperation with appropriate
    Federal, State and local agencies and various population study
    groups and experts, shall immediately undertake a study to
    determine what steps would be necessary for developing creditable
    estimates of undercounts of Americans of Spanish origin or descent
    in future censuses.''
      NEEDS AND CONCERNS OF SPANISH-ORIGIN POPULATION; USE OF SPANISH
             LANGUAGE QUESTIONNAIRES AND BILINGUAL ENUMERATORS
      Pub. L. 94-311, Sec. 5, June 16, 1976, 90 Stat. 689, provided
    that: ''The Secretary of Commerce shall ensure that, in the Bureau
    of the Census data-collection activities, the needs and concerns of
    the Spanish-origin population are given full recognition through
    the use of Spanish language questionnaires, bilingual enumerators,
    and other such methods as deemed appropriate by the Secretary.''
 
-CROSS-
                              CROSS REFERENCES
      Congress, reapportionment of Representatives on basis of
    population census, see section 2a of Title 2, The Congress.
      Population and agricultural returns, authority to furnish to
    State governors and courts, see section 8 of this title.
 
-SECREF-
                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in section 181 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 142                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER II - POPULATION, HOUSING, AND UNEMPLOYMENT
 
-HEAD-
    (Sec. 142. Repealed. Pub. L. 105-113, Sec. 3(a), Nov. 21, 1997, 111
        Stat. 2275)
 
-MISC1-
      Section, acts Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1020; Aug. 28,
    1957, Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 10, 71 Stat. 483; Mar. 15, 1976, Pub. L.
    94-229, Sec. 1, 90 Stat. 210; Oct. 27, 1986, Pub. L. 99-544, Sec.
    1(a), 100 Stat. 3046, provided that Secretary of Commerce take
    periodic censuses of agriculture and irrigation.
                          EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL
      Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1998, see section 3(d) of Pub. L.
    105-113, set out as an Effective Date of 1997 Amendment note note
    under section 1991 of Title 7, Agriculture.
                         1997 CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE
      Pub. L. 105-86, title I, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2083, provided
    in part: ''That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the
    Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct the 1997 Census of
    Agriculture, to the extent practicable, pursuant to the provisions
    of title 13, United States Code.''
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 143 to 146                                       01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER II - POPULATION, HOUSING, AND UNEMPLOYMENT
 
-HEAD-
    (Sec. 143 to 146. Repealed. Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 11, Aug. 28, 1957,
        71 Stat. 483)
 
-MISC1-
      Sections, act Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1020, related to
    the following subject matter:
      Section 143, decennial census period; completion of reports upon
    inquiries.  See section 141 of this title.
      Section 144, restriction on inquiries.  See sections 141(a) and
    142 of this title.
      Section 145, commencement of inquiries as to population,
    agriculture, and housing; time for completion.  See sections 141(a)
    and 142(a) of this title.
      Section 146, mid-decade censuses of agriculture; exclusion of
    certain areas; preliminary statistics.  See sections 142(a), 191,
    and 193 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC SUBCHAPTER III - GOVERNMENTS                          01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER III - GOVERNMENTS
    .
 
-HEAD-
    SUBCHAPTER III - GOVERNMENTS
 
-SECREF-
                  SUBCHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This subchapter is referred to in sections 9, 225 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 161                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER III - GOVERNMENTS
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 161. Quinquennial censuses; inclusion of certain data
 
-STATUTE-
      The Secretary shall take, compile, and publish for the year 1957
    and for every fifth year thereafter a census of governments.  Each
    such census shall include, but shall not be limited to, data on
    taxes and tax valuations, governmental receipts, expenditures,
    indebtedness, and employees of States, counties, cities, and other
    governmental units.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1021; Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 12,
    Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 483.)
 
-MISC1-
                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
      Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Sec. 251 (Sept. 7, 1950, ch.
    910, Sec. 1, 64 Stat. 784).
      Section was derived from subsection (a) of section 251 of title
    13, U.S.C., 1952 ed.  For remainder of such section 251, see
    Distribution Table.
      Reference to the year 1957 was substituted for reference to the
    year 1952, since the latter reference is now obsolete.
      Changes were made in phraseology.
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1957 - Pub. L. 85-207 struck out ''in the United States and in
    such of its Territories and possessions as may be determined by the
    Secretary'' in last sentence.  Geographical provisions now covered
    by section 191 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 162                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER III - GOVERNMENTS
 
-HEAD-
    (Sec. 162. Repealed. Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 13, Aug. 28, 1957, 71
        Stat. 483)
 
-MISC1-
      Section, act Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1021, related to
    acquisition of reports and material from governmental units,
    private persons, and agencies.  See section 6(b) of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 163                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER III - GOVERNMENTS
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 163. Authority of other agencies
 
-STATUTE-
      This subchapter does not revoke or impair the authority of any
    other Federal agency with respect to the collection or release of
    information.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1021.)
 
-MISC1-
                       HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
      Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Sec. 251 (Sept. 7, 1950, ch.
    910, Sec. 1, 64 Stat. 784).
      Section was derived from part of subsection (b) of section 251 of
    title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed.  Subsection (a) of such section 251 is
    also incorporated in this subchapter, and the remainder of such
    subsection (b) thereof is incorporated in subchapter I of chapter 1
    of this title.  See Distribution Table.
      Changes were made in phraseology.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC SUBCHAPTER IV - INTERIM CURRENT DATA                  01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER IV - INTERIM CURRENT DATA
    .
 
-HEAD-
    SUBCHAPTER IV - INTERIM CURRENT DATA
 
-SECREF-
                  SUBCHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This subchapter is referred to in sections 9, 132, 221, 222, 223,
    225 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 181                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER IV - INTERIM CURRENT DATA
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 181. Population
 
-STATUTE-
      (a) During the intervals between each census of population
    required under section 141 of this title, the Secretary, to the
    extent feasible, shall annually produce and publish for each State,
    county, and local unit of general purpose government which has a
    population of fifty thousand or more, current data on total
    population and population characteristics and, to the extent
    feasible, shall biennially produce and publish for other local
    units of general purpose government current data on total
    population.  Such data shall be produced and published for each
    State, county, and other local unit of general purpose government
    for which data is compiled in the most recent census of population
    taken under section 141 of this title.  Such data may be produced
    by means of sampling or other methods, which the Secretary
    determines will produce current, comprehensive, and reliable data.
      (b) If the Secretary is unable to produce and publish current
    data during any fiscal year on total population for any county and
    local unit of general purpose government as required by this
    section, a report shall be submitted by the Secretary to the
    President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the House of
    Representatives not later than 90 days before the commencement of
    the following fiscal year, enumerating each government excluded and
    giving the reasons for such exclusion.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 8(a), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2462.)
 
-COD-
                                CODIFICATION
      A prior section 181, act Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1021,
    authorizing the Secretary to conduct surveys necessary to furnish
    current data on subjects covered by the censuses under this title,
    was repealed by section 8(a) of Pub. L. 94-521. See section 182 of
    this title.
 
-MISC3-
                               EFFECTIVE DATE
      Section effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L.
    94-521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
 
-SECREF-
                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in title 42 section 10403.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 182                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER IV - INTERIM CURRENT DATA
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 182. Surveys
 
-STATUTE-
      The Secretary may make surveys deemed necessary to furnish annual
    and other interim current data on the subjects covered by the
    censuses provided for in this title.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 8(a), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2463.)
 
-MISC1-
                               EFFECTIVE DATE
      Section effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L.
    94-521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 183                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER IV - INTERIM CURRENT DATA
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 183. Use of most recent population data
 
-STATUTE-
      (a) Except as provided in subsection (b), for the purpose of
    administering any law of the United States in which population or
    other population characteristics are used to determine the amount
    of benefit received by State, county, or local units of general
    purpose government, the Secretary shall transmit to the President
    for use by the appropriate departments and agencies of the
    executive branch the data most recently produced and published
    under this title.
      (b) This section shall not apply with respect to any law of the
    United States which, for purposes of determining the amount of
    benefit received by State, county, or local units of general
    purpose government, provides that only population or population
    characteristics data obtained in the most recent decennial census
    may be used in such determination.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 8(a), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2463.)
 
-MISC1-
                               EFFECTIVE DATE
      Section effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L.
    94-521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 184                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER IV - INTERIM CURRENT DATA
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 184. Definitions
 
-STATUTE-
      For purposes of this subchapter -
        (1) the term ''local unit of general purpose government'' means
      the government of a county, municipality, township, Indian tribe,
      Alaskan native village, or other unit of government (other than a
      State) which is a unit of general government, and
        (2) the term ''State'' includes the District of Columbia.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 8(a), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2463.)
 
-MISC1-
                               EFFECTIVE DATE
      Section effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L.
    94-521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
 
-SECREF-
                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in section 16 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC SUBCHAPTER V - GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE, PRELIMINARY AND
                  SUPPLEMENTAL STATISTICS, AND USE OF
                  SAMPLING                                       01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER V - GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE, PRELIMINARY AND SUPPLEMENTAL
         STATISTICS, AND USE OF SAMPLING
    .
 
-HEAD-
    SUBCHAPTER V - GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE, PRELIMINARY AND SUPPLEMENTAL
    STATISTICS, AND USE OF SAMPLING
 
-SECREF-
                  SUBCHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This subchapter is referred to in sections 221, 222, 223 of this
    title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 191                                              01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER V - GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE, PRELIMINARY AND SUPPLEMENTAL
         STATISTICS, AND USE OF SAMPLING
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 191. Geographic scope of censuses
 
-STATUTE-
      (a) Each of the censuses authorized by this chapter shall include
    each State, the District of Columbia, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the
    Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Commonwealth
    of Puerto Rico, and as may be determined by the Secretary, such
    other possessions and areas over which the United States exercises
    jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty.  Inclusion of other areas
    over which the United States exercises jurisdiction or control
    shall be subject to the concurrence of the Secretary of State.
      (b) For censuses taken in the Virgin Islands, Guam, the
    Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or any possession or
    area not specifically designated in subsection (a) of this section,
    the Secretary may use census information collected by the Governor
    or highest ranking Federal official, if such information was
    obtained in accordance with plans prescribed or approved by the
    Secretary.
      (c) If, pursuant to a determination by the Secretary under
    subsection (a) of this section, any census is not taken in a
    possession or area over which the United States exercises
    jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty, the Secretary may include
    data obtained from other Federal agencies or government sources in
    the census report.  Any data obtained from foreign governments
    shall be obtained through the Secretary of State.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 14, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 483;
    amended Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 9, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2463.)
 
-MISC1-
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1976 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94-521 struck out ''(other than
    censuses of population)'' after ''this chapter'' and ''Alaska,
    Hawaii'' after ''the District of Columbia'', inserted ''the
    Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands'' after ''Guam'', and
    struck out provision that censuses of population shall include all
    geographic areas referred to in first sentence of subsec. (a).
      Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-521 inserted ''the Commonwealth of the
    Northern Mariana Islands'' after ''Guam'', and substituted ''use
    census information'' for ''utilize or adopt census data'' and ''if
    such information was obtained'' for ''when such data are
    obtained''.
      Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94-521 substituted ''If, pursuant to a
    determination by the Secretary under subsection (a) of this
    section'' for ''When, under determination by the Secretary as
    provided in paragraph (a) above''.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 94-521 effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section
    17 of Pub. L. 94-521, set out as a note under section 1 of this
    title.
                ADMISSION OF ALASKA AND HAWAII TO STATEHOOD
      Alaska was admitted into the Union on Jan. 3, 1959, on issuance
    of Proc. No. 3269, Jan. 3, 1959, 24 F.R. 81, 73 Stat. c16, and
    Hawaii was admitted into the Union on Aug. 21, 1959, on issuance of
    Proc. No. 3309, Aug. 21, 1959, 24 F.R. 6868, 73 Stat. c74.  For
    Alaska Statehood Law, see Pub. L. 85-508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat.
    339, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 48,
    Territories and Insular Possessions. For Hawaii Statehood Law, see
    Pub. L. 86-3, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 4, set out as a note
    preceding section 491 of Title 48.
 
-SECREF-
                   SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
      This section is referred to in sections 8, 196 of this title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 193                                              01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER V - GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE, PRELIMINARY AND SUPPLEMENTAL
         STATISTICS, AND USE OF SAMPLING
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 193. Preliminary and supplemental statistics
 
-STATUTE-
      In advance of, in conjunction with, or after the taking of each
    census provided for by this chapter, the Secretary may make surveys
    and collect such preliminary and supplementary statistics related
    to the main topic of the census as are necessary to the initiation,
    taking, or completion thereof.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 14, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 484.)
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 195                                              01/23/00
 
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    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER V - GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE, PRELIMINARY AND SUPPLEMENTAL
         STATISTICS, AND USE OF SAMPLING
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 195. Use of sampling
 
-STATUTE-
      Except for the determination of population for purposes of
    apportionment of Representatives in Congress among the several
    States, the Secretary shall, if he considers it feasible, authorize
    the use of the statistical method known as ''sampling'' in carrying
    out the provisions of this title.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 85-207, Sec. 14, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 484;
    amended Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 10, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2464.)
 
-MISC1-
                                 AMENDMENTS
      1976 - Pub. L. 94-521 substituted ''for purposes of apportionment
    of Representatives in Congress among the several States, the
    Secretary shall, if he considers it feasible'' for ''for
    apportionment purposes, the Secretary may, where he deems it
    appropriate''.
                      EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 94-521 effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section
    17 of Pub. L. 94-521, set out as a note under section 1 of this
    title.
 
-CITE-
    13 USC Sec. 196                                              01/23/00
 
-EXPCITE-
    TITLE 13 - CENSUS
    CHAPTER 5 - CENSUSES
    SUBCHAPTER V - GEOGRAPHIC SCOPE, PRELIMINARY AND SUPPLEMENTAL
         STATISTICS, AND USE OF SAMPLING
 
-HEAD-
    Sec. 196. Special censuses
 
-STATUTE-
      The Secretary may conduct special censuses for the government of
    any State, or of any county, city, or other political subdivision
    within a State, for the government of the District of Columbia, and
    for the government of any possession or area (including political
    subdivisions thereof) referred to in section 191(a) of this title,
    on subjects covered by the censuses provided for in this title,
    upon payment to the Secretary of the actual or estimated cost of
    each such special census.  The results of each such special census
    shall be designated ''Official Census Statistics''. These
    statistics may be used in the manner provided by applicable law.
 
-SOURCE-
    (Added Pub. L. 94-521, Sec. 11(a), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2464.)
 
-MISC1-
                               EFFECTIVE DATE
      Section effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L.
    94-521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
      SPECIAL CENSUS WHEN MAJOR POPULATION CHANGES OCCUR DUE TO LARGE
     NUMBERS OF LEGAL IMMIGRANTS WITHIN SIX MONTHS OF REGULAR DECENNIAL
                                CENSUS DATE
      Pub. L. 96-369, Sec. 118, Oct. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 1357, provided
    that: ''Notwithstanding any other provision of law, when the
    President determines that a State, county, or local unit of general
    purpose government is significantly affected by a major population
    change due to a large number of legal immigrants within six months
    of a regular decennial census date, he may order a special census,
    pursuant to section 196 of title XIII of the United States Code
    (this section), or other method of obtaining a revised estimate of
    the population, of such jurisdiction or subsections of that
    jurisdiction in which the immigrants are concentrated.  If the
    President decides to conduct a special census, it may be conducted
    solely at Federal expense.''
 
-EXEC-
                         EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 12256
      Ex. Ord. No. 12256, Dec. 15, 1980, 45 F.R. 83189, which required
    the Bureau of the Census to supply estimates of the number of legal
    immigrants within certain jurisdictions, was revoked by Ex. Ord.
    No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.


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