Colgate v. Harvey
United States Supreme Court
296 U.S. 404, 80 L.Ed. 399 (1935)
[296 U.S. 404, 429] But the court added that with respect to the Fourteenth Amendment "there are certain privileges and immunities which belong to a citizen of the United States as such; otherwise it would be nonsense for the Fourteenth Amendment to prohibit a State from abridging them. * * * We agree * * * that there are privileges and immunities belonging to citizens of the United States, in that relation and character, and that it is these and these alone which a State is forbidden to abridge." The governments of the United States and of each of the several states are distinct from one another. The rights of a citizen under one may be quite different from those which he has under the other. To each he owes allegiance; and, in turn, he is entitled to the protection of each in respect of such rights as fall within its jurisdiction. United States v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. (23 Wall.) 542, 549, 23 L.Ed. 588, 590 (1876).