Key to Abbreviations and Analysis of Cases.
History of Case a (affirmed) Same case affirmed on appeal to a higher level court. cc (connected case) The case is related to your case in some way in that it involves either the same parties or arises out of the same subject matter. However, it is not the same action on the merits. D (dismissed) An action which has been appealed from a lower court to a higher court has been discontinued without further hearing. m (modified) The lower court's decision is changed in some way, either during a rehearing or by action of a higher court. For example, if a court of appeals affirms a trial court decision in part and reverses it in part, that trial court decision is shown as modified by the court of appeals. r (reversed) The lower court is reversed on appeal to a higher court. s (same case) The case is the identical action to your case, although at a different stage of the proceedings. "Same case" refers to many different situations, including motions and opinions that preceded your case. It is important to read these cases if you need to know exactly what occurred. S (superseded) A subsequent opinion has been substituted for your case. v (vacated) The opinion has been rendered void and is no longer of precedential value. US cert den Certiorari denied by U. S. Supreme Court. US cert dis Certiorari dismissed by U. S. Supreme Court. US reh den Rehearing denied by U. S. Supreme Court. US reh dis Rehearing dismissed by U. S. Supreme Court. Cert Den Application for certiorari or rehearing denied. Treatment of Case c (criticized) The court is disagreeing with the soundness of your decision, although the court may not have the jurisdiction or the authority to materially affect its precedential value. d (distinguished) The case is different from your case in significant aspects. It involves either a dissimilar fact situation or a different application of the law. e (explained) The court is interpreting your case in a significant way. f (followed) Your case is being relied upon as controlling or persuasive authority. h (harmonized) The cases differ in some way; however, the court finds a way to reconcile the differences. j (dissenting opinion) Your case is cited in the dissent of this opinion. L (limited) The court restricts the application of your opinion. The court usually finds that the reasoning of your opinion applies only in very specific instances. o (overruled) The court has determined that the reasoning in your case is no longer valid, either in part or in its entirety. p (parallel) This letter is usually found in older cases where your case was described as "on all fours" or "parallel" to the citing case. q (questioned) Soundness of decision or reasoning in cited case questioned.
ABBREVIATIONS-COURTS Cir. DC U.S. Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit Cir (number) U.S. Court of Appeals Circuit (number) Cir Fed. U.S. Court of Appeals, Federal Circuit CCPA Court of Customs and Patent Appeals CIT United States Court of International Trade CICt Claims Court (U.S.) CtCI Court of Claims (U.S.) CuCt Customs Court ECA Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals ML Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation RRR Special Court Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973