The page numbers listed below do not correspond with the page numbers in the original book by J. W. Jones, as there are numerous updated editions of Blackstone's Commentaries.
IF the excellence of a book be best proved by the universality of its reception, there are few of greater merit than the Commentaries of Blackstone - a work, although expressly treating of the Laws of England, not confined to the library of the lawyer, but occupying a distinguished place in every collection of books bearing in any degree the character of judicious selection.
The mass of information contained in it, not legal only, but historical, and of times where the researches of historians are con tessedly involved in darkness, and its consequent doubt, often tends to corroborate facts the truth of which the isolated details of early history leave unascertained, from some chasm in the chain of consequences ill supplied, or inconsistency in the character of the persons or the circumstances connected with their production.
The enactment and repeal of statutes derive their cause and occasion from the vicissitude inherent in the nature of all human affairs whether resulting from the schemes of avarice, or the progress of ambition - from the emulations of genius, or the transforming powers of persevering industry from the darkness of superstition, or the light of science and in the history of them transiently convey such sketches of the form and. character of times, persons, and things long past and forgotten , as by no other means can now be known and the customs and manners of the darker ages are sometimes rendered more clearly obvious by the detached clauses of an old decree than by the most labored deductions from regular history. Of this species of illustration frequent instances occur in the Commentaries of Blackstone but they are often illustration only to the more learned reader. Many no doubt there are, who in the perusal of his valuable pages find their progress continually impeded by the old law Latin and Norman French left uninterpreted by the author and his editors, and to such, consequently, a large and important portion of the work is mere dead letter. To render it available to this description of its readers, the following version is respectffiuly offered as a Companion to Blackstone, by the translator,
J. W. JONES.
The numbers correspond to the marginal paging of the Commentaries. Where Blackstone has given the sense of any passage it has not been translated here.
VOLUME THE FIRST.
XI. QUAM peritus ille et privati juris et publici! Quantum rerum, quantum exemplortum, quantum antiquitatis tenet! Nihil est quod discere velis, quod ille docere non potest! Mihi certe, quoties aliquid abditum quæro, ille thesaurus est. How skillful he is both in public and in private law! What a knowledge he possesses of things, of examples, and of antiquity! There is nothing you would learn which he cannot teach. In every difficulty he is my constant resource.
6. Facultas ejus, quod cuique facere libet, nisi quid vi, autjure, prohibetur. Its essence is the power of doing whatsoever we please, unless where authority or law forbids.
10. Est senatori, &c. [translated in the text.]
12. Turpe esse, &c. [translated in the text.]
15. Quia juris civilis studiosos decet haud imperitos esse juris municipalis, et differentias exteri patriique jure notas habere. For students of civil law should not be ignorant of the municipal law nor of the remarkable differences between their own laws and those of foreign nations.
15. Dedicatio corporis juris civilis. Dedication to the body of civil law.
2 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 16-21
16. Doctor legum mox a doctoratu dabit operam legibus Angliæ, ut non sit imperitus earum legum quas habet sua patria, et differentias exteri patriique juris noscat. A doctor of laws, having taken his degree, should study the laws of England, that he be not unskilled in those of his own country, nor be ignorant of the essential differences between them and foreign laws.
17. Nullus clericus nisi causidicus. No clergyman who is not a lawyer also.
17. Les juges sont sages personnes et autentiques sicome les archevesques, evesques, les chanoines des eglises cathedraulx, et les autres personnes qui ont dignitez in saincte eglise; les abbez, les prieurs conventaulx, et les gouverneurs des eglises, &c. The judges are persons of wisdom and authority such as archbishops, bishops, canons of cathedral churches, and other dignitaries of holy church, the abbies, priors of convents and church governors, &c.
19. Et omnes comites, &c. [translated in the text.]
20. In foro seculari. In the secular court.
21. Summa de laudibus Christiferæ Virginis (divinum magis quam humanum opus). "Item quod jura civilia, et leges, et decreta scivit in summo, probatur hoc modo; sapientia advocati manifestatur in tribus; unum quod obtineat omnia contra judicem justum et sapientem; secundo, quod contra adversarium astutum et sagacem; tertio, quod in causa desperata: sed beatissima virgo, contra judicem sapientissimum, Dominum; contra adversarium callidissimum, diabolum; in causa nostra desperata; sententiam optatam obtinuit." Perfections of the Christ-bearing Virgin (a work more divine than human). "Likewise that she had a perfect knowledge of civil rights, laws, and decrees is thus proved : the wisdom of an advocate is manifested in three things first, that he have a prevailing influence before a wise and just judge; secondly, against a subtle and sagacious adversary; and thirdly, in a desperate cause: The most blessed Virgin obtained the desired judgment from the most wise judge, the Lord against our most cunning enemy, the devil in our desperate cause."
21. Nec videtur incongruum mtilieres habere peritiam juris. Legitur enim de uxore Joannis Andræ glossatoris, quod tantam peritiam in utroque jure habuit, ut publice in scholis legere ausa sit. Nor does a knowledge of the law seem inconsistent with the female character. For we read that the wife of John Andrew the Lexicographer, was so skilled both in the common and municipal law, that she ventured to deliver lectures on both publicly in the schools.
VOL. I., 22-31 A TRANSLATION &c. 3
22. Contra inhibitionem novi operis. Contrary to the prohibition of a new work.
22. De novi operis nuntiatione. Concerning the denunciation of a new work.
22. In ceux parolx, "contra inhibitionem novi opens" ny ad pas entendment. In these words, "contrary to the prohibition of a new work," there is no meaning.
22. Ceo n'est que un restitution en leur ley, pur que a ceo n'avemus regard, &c. This is but a restitution in their law, therefore we shall pay no regard to it.
23. Aula regis. In the King's court.
24. Servientis ad legem. Of a serjeant at law.
24. Quos banci narratores vulgariter appellamus. Whom we commonly call bench reporters.
24. Voluit ligamenta coifæ suæ solvere ut palam monstraret se tonsuram habere clericalem; sed non est permissus. Satelles vero eum arripiens, non per coifæ ligamina sed per guttur eum apprehendens, traxit ad carcerem. He wished to untie the strings of his coif that he might prove to all his having the clerical tonsure; but this was not allowed. Then an officer seizing him, not by the strings of his coif but by his throat, dragged him to prison.
24. Ne aliquis scholas, &c. [translated in the text.]
27. Τελεια μαλισα, &c. [translated in the text.]
30. Pomoeria. The bounds.
31. Emisit me mater Londinum, juris nostri capessendi gratia; cujus cum vestibulum salutassem, reperissemque linguam peregrinam, dialectum barbaram, methodum inconcinnam, molem non ingentem solum sed perpetuis humeris sustinendam, excidit mihi (fateor) animus, &c. My mother sent me to London to commence the study of the law; but when, having paid my respects to the vestibule of this branch of learning I was met by a foreign language, a barbarous dialect, an uncouth style, and a mass not only vast but always to be endured, I confess my courage failed me.
4 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 32-40
32. Ita lex scripta est. So the law is written.
32. A priori. Beforehand.
35. Incipientibus nobis exponere jura populi Romani, its videntur tradi posse commodissime, si primo levi ac simplici via singula tradantur; alioqui, si statim ab initio rudem adhuc et infirmum animum studiosi multitudine ac varietate rerum oneravinius, duorum alterum, aut desertorem studiorum efficiemus, aut cum magno labore, sæpe etiam cum diffidentia (quæ plerumque juvenes avertit) serius ad id perducemus, ad quod, leviore via ductus, sine magno labore, et sine ulla diffidentia maturius perduci potuisset. To us about to expound the laws of the Romans, it seems that it may be done more advantageously if first delivered separately and in an easy and simple manner; otherwise, if in the very beginning we burden the mind of the student, as yet unexercised and weak, with a multitude and diversity of things, we either cause him to relinquish his studies altogether, or bring him much later, with great labor, and often with great diffidence (which very frequently deters young men) to that point, to which, conducted by a more easy method, he might have been brought earlier, with little trouble, and with sufficient confidence.
36. Tibi, princeps, neceffe non erit myfteria legis Angliæ longo difciplinatu rimare. Sufficient tibi, et fatis denominari legifta mereberis, fi legum principia & caufas, ufque ad elementa, difcipuli more indagaveris. Quare tu, princeps fereniffime, parvo tempore, parva induftria, fufficienter eris in legibus regni Angliæ eruditus, dummado ad ejus apprehenfionem tu conferas animum tuum Nofco namque ingenii tui perfpicacitatem, quo audacter pronuntio quod in legibus illis (licet earum peritia, quails judicibæ neceffaria eft, vix viginti annorum lucubrationibus acquqiratur) tu, doctrinam principi congruam in anno uno fufficienter nancifceris ; nec interim militarem difciplinam, ad quam tam ardenter anhelas, negliges ; fed ea, recreationis loco, etiam anno illo tu ad libitum perfruerit. So my Prince, there will be no occasion for you to search into the arcane of our laws with such tedious application and study ; it will be sufficient, you may be deemed a lawyer in some competent degree, when, as a learner, you shall become acquainted with the principles, causes and elements of the law. Wherefore, most gracious Prince, you will soon, with a moderate application, be sufficiently instructed in the laws of England, if so be you give your mind to it. I know very well the quickness of your apprehension and the forwardness of your parts ; and I dare say, that in those studies, though a knowledge and practice of twenty years is but barely sufficient to qualify for a judge, you will acquire a knowledge sufficient for one of your high quality, with the compass of one year ; and in the mean while attent to, and inure yourself to martial exercises, to which your natural inclination prompts you on so much, and still make it your diversion, as shall best please you, at your leisure.
40. Juris præcepta sunt hæc, honeste vivere, alterum non lædere, suum cuique tribuere. The precepts of the law are these, to live honestly, not to injure another, and to give to every one his due.
VOL. I., 42-50 A TRANSLATION &c. 5
42. In foro conscientæ. In the court of conscience.
43. Quod naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, vocatur jus gentium. That rule which natural reason has dictated to all men, is called the law of nations.
44. Jus civile est quod quisque sibi populus constituit. The civil law is that which every nation has established for its own government.
45. Viva voce. By word of mouth.
46. Ex post facto. After the fact.
46. In futuro. At a future period.
46. Privilegia. Private laws.
46. Vetant leges sacratæ, vetant duodecim tabulæ, leges privatis hominibus irrogari; id enim eet privilegium. Nemo unquam tulit: nihil est crudelius, nihil perniciosius, nihil quod minus hæc civitas ferre possit. The sacred laws forbid, the twelve tables forbid, that the interests of private individuals should be affected by special laws; for that is privilege. There has never been an instance of it: nothing could be more cruel, nothing more injurious, nothing which to this nation could be less tolerable.
50. Esse optime constitutam rempublicam, quæ ex tribus generibus illis, regali, optimo, et populari, sit modice confusa. That the best constituted republic, is that which is duly compounded of these three estates, the monarchical, aristocratical, and democratical.
6 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 50-65
50. Cunctas nationes et urbes, populus, aut primores, aut singuli regunt delecta ex his et constituta reipublicæ forma laudari facilius quam eveniri, vel, si evenit, haud diuturna esse potest. The government of all cities or countries is either democratical, aristocratical, or monarchical. it is more easy to approve of a government composed of these three in the form of a republic than to carry it into execution; or if effected, it cannot be lasting.
54. Mala in se. Crimes in themselves.
57. Mala in se. Crimes in themselves.
57. Mala prohibita. Crimes, because forbidden.
59. Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. New laws repeal those preceding which are contrary to them.
63. Leges sola memoria et usu retinebant. They retained their laws solely by memory and custom.
64. Tacito et illiterato hominum consensu et moribus expressum. Expressed or sanctioned by the tacit and unwritten customs and consent of men.
64. Liber judicialis. Judgment book.
65. Omnibus qui reipublicaæ præsunt etiam atque etiam mando, ut omnibus æquos se prebeant judices, perinde ac in judiciali libro scniptum habetur; nec quicquam formident quin jus commune audacter libereque dicant. To all who preside over the republic, my positive and repeated injunction is, that they conduct themselves towards all as just judges, as it is written in the dome-book, and without fear boldly and freely to declare the common law.
VOL. I., 66-74 A TRANSLATION &c. 7
66. Legum Anglicanarum conditor. The founder of the English laws.
66. Restitutor. The restorer.
69. Viginti annorum lucubrationes. The lucubrations of twenty years.
69. Præteritorum memoria eventorurn. The remembrance of past events.
69. Legibus patriæ optime instituti. Best instructed in the laws of their country.
70. Non omnium, quæ a majoribus nostris constituta sunt, ratio reddi potest; et ideo rationes eorum quæ constituuntur inquiri non oportet; alioquin multa ex his quæ certa sunt subvertuntur. Reasons cannot be given for all the laws which our ancestors have appointed; therefore we should not seek them; otherwise many of those laws which are established would be subverted.
71. Si imperialis majestas causam cognitionaliter examinaverit, et partibus, cominus constitutis, sententiam dixerit, omnes omnino judices, qui sub nostro imperio stint, sciant hanc esse legem, non solum illi causæ pro qua producta est, sed et in omnibus similibus. If the Emperor shall have examined the cause, and shall immediately declare his opinion, let all the judges of the land know that this is law, not only with respect to that cause which first produced the opinion, but to every other of the like nature.
72. χχζ εζοχην By way of pre-eminence.
74. Quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem, cum populus ei et in eum omne suum imperium et potestateni conferat. The constitution of the prince has the force of law, as the people place all their power and authority in his hands.
8 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 74-78
74. Imperator solus et conditor et interpres legis existimatur. The Emperor alone is considered both as the maker and interpreter of the law.
74. Sacrilegii instar est rescripto principis obviari. It is sacrilege to oppose the rescript of the prince.
Sed et quod principi placuit legis habet vigorem: quum lege regia, quæ de ejus imperio lata est populus ei, et in eum omne suum imperium et potestatem concedat. Quodcunque ergo imperator per epistolam constituit, vel cognoscens decrevit, vel edicto praæcipit, legem esse constat; hæc stint quæ constitutiones appellantur. Plane ex his quædam stint personales, quæ nec ad exemplum trahuntur, quoniam non hoc princeps vult, nam quod alicui ob meritum indulsit, vel si quam poenam irrogavit, vel si cui sine exemplo subvenit, personam non transgreditur. Aliæ, autem, quum generales sint, omnes procul dubio tenent.
But also the constitution of the prince has the force of law: as by a law called the LEX REGIA, the people yield all their authority and power to him. It is evident, therefore, that whatever the Emperor has appointed by rescript, decreed as a judge, or ordained by edict, is law; these are what are called constitutions. Of these some are personal, which are not brought forward as precedents, the Prince not willing it; for what he has conferred as matter of grace, or reward, or infficted as punishment, or granted as unprecedented indulgence, does not extend beyond the particular object of it. But what is general, is doubtless binding on all.
75. Cuilibet in sua arte credendum est. Every man is to be credited in what concerns his own profession.
76. MaIus usus abolendus est. A bad custom should be abolished.
78. Id certum est quod certum reddi potest. That is certain which can be made certain.
VOL. I., 80-85 A TRANSLATION &c. 9
80. Leges non scriptæ. Unwritten laws.
80. Leges scriptæ. Written laws.
81. Tam immensus aliarum super alias acervatarum legum cumulus. Such a vast pile of laws heaped one upon the other.
81. Corpus juris civilis. The body of civil law.
82. Concordia discordantium canonum. The arrangement of the confused canons
82. Decretum Gratiani. The decree of Gratian.
82. Decretalia Gregorii noni. The decretals of Gregory the ninth.
82. Sextus decretaliuni. A sixth decretal.
82. Extravagantes Joannis. The extravagants of John.
82. Extravagantes Communes. Common Extravagants.
84. Leges sub graviori lege. Laws subject to a more weighty law.
10 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 85-94
85. Leges scriptæ. Written laws.
85. Articuli cleri. The articles of the clergy.
85. Prerogativa regis. The King's prerogative.
85. Quia emptores. Because purchasers.
85. Circumspecte agatis. That ye act circumspectly.
86. Ex officio. In the course of duty: by virtue of office.
86. Senatus decreta. Decrees of the Senate.
86. Senatus consulta Acts of the Senate.
86. In perpetuum rei testimonium. As a lasting testimony of the thing.
89. Ut res magis valeat quam pereat. That the whole subject matter may rather operate than be annulled.
89. Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant. New laws repeal those preceding which are contrary to them.
89. Quod populus postremum jussit id jus ratum esto. Let that which the people have last decreed be considered as law.
90. De facto. In fact.
91. Quo ad hoc. As to this.
91. Cum lex, &c. [translated in the text.]
94. Terra Walliæ cum incolis suis, prius regi jure foedali subjecta, jam in proprietatis dominium totaliter et cum in tegritate conversa est, et coronæ regni Angliæ tanquam pars corporis ejusdem annexa et unita. The country of Wales, together with its inhabitants, was formerly held under the King by the feudal law; it is now completely converted into a principality, and annexed to, and united with, the crown of England, as forming a part of the same kingdom.
94. Statutum Walliæ. The statute of Wales.
VOL. I., 98-111 A TRANSLATION &c. 11
99. Pro eo quod leges quibus utuntur Hybernici Deo detestabiles existunt, et omni jure dissonant, adeo quod leges censeri non debeant nobis et consilio nostro satis videtur expediens, eisdem utendas concedere leges Anglicanas. Inasmuch as the laws by which the Irish are governed, are hateful to God and incompatible with justice, and therefore ought not to be considered as laws it seems highly expedient to us and to our council, to give them the laws of England for their government.
107. Divisum imperium. A divided authority.
108. Dentur omnes decimæ primariæ ecclesiæ ad quam parochia pertinet. That all tithes be given to the mother church to which the parish belongs.
110. Summa et maxima securitas, per quam omnes statu firmissimo sustinentur; quæ hoc modo fiebat, quod sub decennali fidejussione debebant esse universi. The best and greatest security by which all persons are kept in the safest estate; which was effected in this manner, that every ten should be sureties for each other.
12 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 111-123
112. Centenarius. Head of a hundred.
112. Centeni ex singulis pagis sunt, idque ipsum inter suos vocantur; et quod primo numerus fuit, jam nomen et honor est. Each village is divided into hundreds, and are so called by their inhabitants; and that which first was a mere number has now become both a name and an honor.
113. A palatio. From a royal court.
113. Jura regalia. Regal rights.
113. Regalem potestatem in omnibus. Regal power in all things.
113. Contra pacem domini Regis. Against the peace of our lord the King.
113. Contra pacem domini. Against the peace of the King.
113. Contra pacem ballivorum. Against the peace of the bailiffs.
113. Contra pacem vice-comitis. Against the peace of the sheriff.
115. Jura regalia. Regal rights.
123. Eo instanti. From that instant.
VOL. I., 123-128 A TRANSLATION &c. 13
124. Confirmatio chartarum. A confirmation of the charters.
125. Residuum. The remainder.
125. Si aliquis rnulierem pregnantem percusserit, vel ei venenum dederit, per quod fecerit abortivam, si puerperium jam formatum fuerit, et maxime si fuerit animatum, facit homicidium. If any one strike a woman when pregnant, or administer poison to he. by which abortion shall ensue, if the child should be already formed, and particularly if it be alive, that person is guilty of manslaughter.
126. Se defendendo. In self-defence.
126. Qui in utero sunt, in jure civlli intelliguntur in rerum natura esse, cum de eorum commodo agatur. Those who are in the womb, are considered by the civil law to be in the nature of things, as they are capable of being benefited.
127. Per minas. By threats.
127. Non suspicio cujuslibet vani et meticulosi hominis, sed talis qui possit cadere in virum constantem; talis enim debet esse metus, qui in se contineat vitæ periculum, aut corporis cruciatum. It must not be the apprehension of a foolish and fearful man, but such as a courageous man may be susceptible of; it should be, for instance, such a fear as consists in an apprehension of bodily pain, or danger to life.
127. Ignoscitur ei qui sanguinem suum qualiter redemptum voluit. He is justified who has acted in pure defence of his own life or limb.
128. Civiliter mortuus. Dead in law.
14 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 128-143
128. Ed quod desiit esse miles seculi qui factus est miles Christi, nec beneficium pertinet ad eum qui non debet gerere officium. He who becomes a soldier of Christ hath ceased to be a soldier of the world, nor is he entitled to any reward who acknowledges no duty.
129. Nullus liber homo aliquo modo destruatur nisi per legale judicium parium suorurn, aut per legem terræ. No freeman shall be deprived of life but by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land.
129. Aliquo modo destruatur. To be deprived of life.
132. Dent operam consules ne quid respublica detrimenti capiat. Let the consuls take care that the commonwealth receive no injury.
132. Senatus consultum ultimæ necessitatis. The decree of the Senate on emergencies of especial consequence.
133. Ne exeat regno. Let him not leave the kingdom.
136. De talliagio non concedendo. Concerning the not granting talliage.
136. Confirmatio Cartarum. A confirmation of the charters.
137. Nulli vendemus, nulli negabimus, nulli differemus rectum vel justitiam. To none will we sell, to none deny, to none delay either right or justice.
137. In bonis, in terris, vel persona. Either in his goods, lands, or person.
141. Esto perpetua. Mayst thou endure forever.
143. Parler le ment. To speak the mind.
VOL. I., 143-145 A TRANSLATION &c. 15
143. Commune consilium regni, magnum consilium regis, curia magna, conventus magnatum vel procerum, assisa generalis. The common council of the kingdom, the great council of the king, the high court, the assembly of the nobles, and the general assize.
143. De minoribus rebus principes consultant, de majoribus omnes. The princes consult concerning matters of small consequence, in greater matters the whole nation.
144. Communitas regni Angliæ. The community of the kingdom of England.
144. Novis injuriis emersis nova constituere remedia. New injuries having arisen, to appoint new remedies for them.
144. Hæc sunt instituta quæ Edgarus Rex consilio sapientum suorum instituit. These are the laws which King Edgar has instituted in an assembly of the wise men of his realm.
144. Hæc sunt judicia quæ sapientes consiio regis Ethelstani instituerunt. These are the decrees which the wise men, with the advice of King Ethelstane, have appointed.
144. Hæc sunt institutiones, quas Rex Edmundus et episcopi sui cum sapientibus suis instituerunt. These are the institutions which King Edmund and his bishops and his wise men have decreed.
144. Quanta esse, &c. [Translated in the text.]
145. Faciemus summoneri, &c. ad certum diem, scilicet ad terminum quadraginta dierum ad minus et ad certum locum. We will cause to be summoned, &c. at a certain day, that is within forty days at the least, and at a certain place.
16 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 148-160
148. Ex necessitate rei. From the urgency of the affair.
149. Caput, principium et finis. The head, beginning, and end.
150. Sulla tribunis plebis sua lege injuriæ faciendæ potestatem ademit, auxilii ferendi reliquit. Sulla, by his law, deprived the tribunes of the people of the power of doing injury, but left them that of protection.
155. De communi consilio super negotiis quibusdam arduis et urgentibus, regem, statum, et defensionern regni Angliæ et ecclesiæ Anglicanæ concernentibus. Concerning the common council upon certain difficult and urgent affairs relating to the king, the state, and defence of the kingdom of England and of the English church.
156. Si antiquitatem spectes, est vetustissima; si dignitatem, est honora tissima; si jurisdictionem, est capacissima. If you consider its antiquity, it is most antient; if its dignity, it is most honorable; if its jurisdiction, it is most extensive.
158. Lex et consuetudo parliamenti. The law and custom of parliament.
158. Ab omnibus quærenda, a multis ignorata, a paucis cognita. To be sought by all, unknown to many, known by few.
160. Ad synodos venientibus, sive summoniti sint, sive per so quid agendum habuerint, sit summa pax. Let there be perfect security to those coming to the synods; whether summoned or coming on their own business.
160. Extenditur hæc pax et securitas ad quatuordecim dies, convocato regni senatu. This freedom from molestation is extended to fourteen days from the assembling of the senate of the kingdom.
VOL. I., 161-168 A TRANSLATION &c. 17
162. Ex licentia regis. By permission of the king or royal licence.
162. Litera attornatus ad Parliamentum. By Letter of attorney to Parliament.
168. Pro re nata. According to circumstances.
168. pudet hæc opprobria nobis
Et potuisse dici et non potuisse refelli.
We are ashamed of these things not only that they can be said of us, but because the assertion of them cannot be refuted.
168. Rationabiles expensas suas in veniendo ad dictum Parliamentum, ibidem morando, et exinde ad propria redeundo. Their reasonable expenses in coming to the said parliament, during their attendance there, and for their return home.
168. Non sunt aliquæ civitates seu burgi infra comitatum Lancastriæ, do quibus aliqui cives vel burgenses ad dictum Parliamentum venire debent seu eolent, nec possunt propter eorum debilitatem et pauportatem. There are no cities nor boroughs within the county of Lancaster, from which any citizens or burgesses either ought or are accustomed to attend the said Parliament, nor can they on account of their poverty and decay.
18 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 169-173
172. Et pur ceo que elections deivent estres franches, le roi defende sur sa greve forfaiture, que nul haut homme n'autre per poiar des armes, ne per menaces, ne distourbe de faire franche election. And therefore that elections may be free, the king forbids, under penalty of heavy forfeiture, that any nobleman or other person, should, by force of arms, or by threats, prevent a free election being made.
172. Teste. Witness.
173. De ambitu. Of bribery.
VOL. I., 174-180 A TRANSLATION &c. 19
174. Chivalier, qui avoit lea parolles Ies communes en coat Parlement. Knight, who was the Speaker of the Commons in this Parliament.
174. Germanus frater dornini Burgavenny, qui electus prolocutor per communes sacræ regiæ majestati est presentatus, et ita egregie, eleganter, prudenter, et diserte in negotio sibi commisso se gessit ut omnium præsentium plausu et lætitia maximam sibi laudem comparavit, cujus laudi sacra regia majestas non modicum eximium honoris cumulum adjecit: nam, pæsentibus et videntibus dominis spiritualibus et temporalibus et regni communibus, cum equitis aurati honore et dignitate ad laudem Dei et Sancti Georgii insignivit, quod nemini mortalium per ulla ante sæcula contigisse audivimus.
The brother of Lord Abergavenny, who, being chosen Speaker by the Commons, was presented to his sacred Majesty, and acted so correctly, courteously, prudently, and eloquently in the business entrusted to him, that he received the greatest applause and commendation from all present, to which praise the King made a great and unparalleled addition: for in the presence of the Lords spiritual and temporal, and the Commons of the kingdom, he conferred on him the honor and dignity of knighthood, to the praise of God and St. George, which we have never heard that any one ever before attained under such circumstances.
175. Articuli cleri. Articles of the clergy.
177. Sub silentio. Tacitly, or in silence.
177. Mutatis mutandis. The respective differences being allowed for - or, being altered according to the circumstances of the case.
178. Ut statuta illa, et omnes articulos in eisdem contentos, in singulis locia ubi expedire viderit, publice proclamari, et firmiter teneni ot observani faciat. That he cause those statutes, and all articles therein contained, to be publicly proclaimed and strictly observed and kept in every place where it shall seem expedient.
179. De novo. Anew.
179. Passim. Every where through the whole work.
181. Caput, principium et finis. The head, beginning, and end.
184. Jure divino. By divine right.
185. Jure divino. By divine right.
20 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 187-213
187. Solent foeminarum ductu bellare, et sexum in imperiis non discernere. They are accustomed to wage war under the conduct of women, and not to consider sex in the government of their empire.
188. Vice versa. By converse position.
189. Eo instanti. From that instant.
189. Hæres natus. The heir born.
189. Hæres factus. The heir appointed.
189. Interregnum. The space between two reigns.
192. Edmundus autem latusferreum, rex naturalis de stirpe regum, genuit Edwardum, et Edwardus genuit Edgarum, cui de jure debebatur regnum Anglorum. But Edmund Ironside, who was natural king by descent from the race of kings, begat Edward, and Edward begat Edgar, to whom of right the kingdom of England belonged.
192. Absque generali, senatus et populi, couventu et edicto. Without the general assembly and edict of the senate and people.
193. Dernier resort. The last resort.
194. Regni Angliæ; quod nobisjure competit hæreditario. Of the kingdom of England; which falls to 'us by hereditary right.
196. Soit mys, &c. [translated in the text.]
197. De jure. By right.
197. De facto. In fact.
197. Nuper de facto, et non de jure, reges Angliæ. Late kings of England in fact and not of right.
198. Excepta dignitate regali. The royal dignity being excepted.
213. Piissima regina conjux divi Imperatonis. The most pious Queen Consort of the sacred Emperor.
213. Circa ardua regni. Concerning the arduous affairs of the kingdom.
VOL. I., 213-219 A TRANSLATION &c. 21
213. Augusta legibus soluta non est. The Queen is not exempt from the laws.
214. Bedefordsciro manor. Lestone redd. per annum xxii lib. &c.; ad opus Reginæ ii uncias auri. - Herefordscire: In Lene, &c. consuetud. ut præpositus manerii veniente domina sua (Regina) in maner, pæsentaret ei xviii oras denar, ut esset ipsa læto animo. Bedfordshire: The manor of Leighton pays twewnty-two pounds per annum, &c.; two ounces of gold for the Queen's use. Herefordshire: In Lone, &c. it is the custom for the steward of the manor, on the arrival of his lady (the Queen) at the manor to congratulate her with a present of eighteen oras denaru.
214. Causa coadunandi, &c. [translated in the text.]
215. Civitas Lundon, &c. [translated in the text.]
215. Vicecomes Berkescire, &c. [translated in the text.]
215. Civitas Lundon, &c. [translated in the text.]
215. Pro roba, &c. [translated in the text.]
215. Solere aiunt barbaros reges Persarnm ac Syrorum uxoribus civitates attribuere, hoc modo; hæc civitas mulieri redimiculum pæbeat, hæc in collum, hæc in crines, &c. They say that the barbarian kings of Persia and Syria were accustomed to assess cities for their wives in this manner; one city was to provide her head-dress, another the ornaments for her neck, and the third those for her hair, &c.
216. De sturgione observetur, quod rex ilium habebit integrum: de balena vero sufficit, si rex habeat caput, et regina caudam. Of the sturgeon be it known that the king shall have the whole: but with respect to a whale it is sufficient if the king have the head and the queen the tail.
217. Pro dignitate regali. For the royal dignity.
22 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 220-229
220. Consules, a consulendo; reges enim tales sibi associant ad consulendum. Counsellors, from consulting; for kings assemble such for consultation.
220. Ad consulendum, ad defendendum regem. For advising and defending the king.
222. Secundum subjectam materiam. According to the subject matter.
223. Virtute officii. By virtue of their office.
226. Nec regibus infinita aut libera potestas. The power of kings should be neither free nor unlimited.
229. Penes me. In my possession.
229. Ceo est le serement quo le roy jurre a soun coronement: quo il gardera et meinteuera lez droitez et lez franchisez de seynt esglise grauntez auncienment dez droitez roys christiens d'Engletere, et quil gardera toutez sez terrez, honoures et dignites droiturelx et franks del coron du roialme d'Engletere en tout manor dentierte sanz null manor damenusement, et lez droitez dispergez dilapidez ou perduz de la corone a soun poiair reappeller en launcien estate, et quil gardera le peas do seynt esglise et al clergie et al people do bon accorde, et quil face faire en toutez sez jugementez owel et droit justice oue discretion et misericorde, et quil grauntera a tenure lez leyes et custumez du roialme, et a soun poiar lez face garder et affirmer que lez gentez du people avont faitez et estiez, et les malveys leyz et custumes do tout oustera, et ferme peas et establie al people do soun roialme en ceo garde esgardera a uoun poiair; come Dieu luy aide.
This is the oath which the king swears at his cororation; that he will keep and maintain the rights and franchises of holy church granted anciently by the rightful christian kings of England, and that be will keep all the lands, honors and dignities, rights and privileges, of the crown of the kingdom of England in all respects entire, without any kind of injury, and that he will recall to their ancient state, as far as in him lies, all the scattered, injured, or lost rights of the crown, and that he will keep the peace of holy church, and concord between the clergy and people; and that he will cause equal and true justice to be administered in all his judgments with discretion and mercy, and that he will cause to be maintained the laws and customs of the kingdom, and as far as in him lies will make those be confirmed and kept which the people have made and chosen, and will abolish entirely all bad laws and customs, and will, in all respects, as far as he can, maintain a firm and established peace for the people of his kingdom: So help him God.
VOL. I., 230-234 A TRANSLATION &c. 23
230. Arcana imperii. The secrets of the empire.
231. Bona Dea. The good goddess.
231. Nihil enim aliud potest ret, nisi id solum quod de jure potest. For the king can only act according to law.
232. Rex debet esse sub lege, quia lex facit regem. The king should be subject to the law, because the law makes the king.
232. In omnibus imperatoris excipitur fortuna; cui ipsas leges Deus subjecit. The interest of the emperor is in all things to be reserved; to whom God has made the laws themselves subject.
232. Decet tamen principem servare leges, quibus ipse solutus est. Nevertheless it becomes a prince to protect those laws from which he is himself exempt.
232. Præ. Before.
232. Rogo. To ask.
234. Majora et minora regalia. The greater and lesser regalia.
234. Majora regalia imperii preeminentiam spectant; minora vero ad commodum pecuniarum immediate attinet; et hæc proprie fiscalia aunt, et ad jua fisci pertinent. The greater royalties of the kingdom appertain to dignity of station; but the inferior immediately concern the acquisition of money; these are properly fiscal, and relate to the rights of the king's revenue.
234. Rex est vicarius et minister Dei in terra: omnes quidem sub eo aunt, et ipse sub nullo nisi tantum sub Deo. The King is the vicegerent and minister of God on earth: all are subject to him; and he is subject to none but to God alone.
24 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 235-247
235. Basileus. King.
235. Imperator. Emperor.
240. Nullum tempus occurrit regi. No time runs against the king.
240. Ipso facto. By the fact itself.
242. Interregnum. The space between two reigns.
242. Eo instanti. From that moment - immediately.
242. Demissio regis vel coronæ. The demise of the king or the crown.
243. In ejus unius persona veteris reipublicæ via atque majestas per cumulatas magistratuum potestates exprimebatur. All the power and majesty of the old commonwealth were concentrated in the person of that one man by the united powers of the magistrates.
247. Comites. Attendants.
247. Jure gentium. By the law of nations.
VOL. I., 247-253 A TRANSLATION &c. 25
247. Securitas legatorum, &c. [translated in the text]
248. Sæpe quæsitum est an comitum numero et jure habendi sunt, qui legatum comitantur, non ut instructior fiat legatio, sed unice ut lucro suo consulant, institores forte et mercatores. Et quamvis hos sæpe defenderint et comitum loco habere voluerint legati, apparet tamen satis eo non pertinere, qui in legati legationisve officio non sunt. Quum autem ea res nonnunquam turbas dederit, optimo exemplo in quibusdam aulis ohm receptum fuit, ut legatus teneretur exhibere nomenclaturam comitum suorum.
It was often a question whether they who accompanied the embassador, not that the embassy might be better appointed, but merely to consult their own advantage, perhaps as hucksters and merchants, should be reckoned in the number and enjoy the rights of his train. And although the embassadors often protected them, and wished to reckon them in the number of their suite, yet it is evident that they who are neither in the office of embassador, nor employed in the embassy, do not belong to it. But as this frequently caused disturbances, it was formerly adjudged in some courts the best mode of proceeding, that the embaasador should be bound to show a list of the names of his attendants.
249. Quo ad hoc. As to this.
249. Hostes hi sunt, qui noble, aut quibus nos, publice bellum decrevimus: cæteri latrones ant prædones sunt. Those are enemies who have publicly declared war against us, or against whom we have publicly declared war; all others are thieves or robbers.
252. Quam legem exteri noble posuere, eandem fills ponemus. We will impose the same law on foreign merchants that they have imposed on us.
253. Nobiliores natalibus, et honorum luce conspicuos, et patrimonio ditiores, perniciosum urbibus mercimonium exercere prohibemus. We forbid those who are noble by birth, conspicuous from the splendor of their honors, and wealthy in their patrimony, to exercise traffic, so pernicious to cities.
26 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 253-263
253. Homo mercator vix ant nunquam potest Deo placere; et ideo nullus Christianus debet esse mercator; ant si voluerit esse projiciatur de ecclesia Dei. A trader can seldom or never please God; therefore, no Christian ought to be a trader; or, if he will be one, he should be cast out from the church of God.
253. Falsa fit penitentia [laici] cum penitus ab officio curiali vel negotiali non recedit, quæ sine peccatis agi ulla ratione non prævalet. The repentance [of a layman] becomes fallacious if he quit not entirely the professions of law and traffic, which it is impossible to exercise in any manner without sin.
255. Trinoda necessitas: scilicet pontis reparatio, arcis constructio, et expeditio contra hostem The threefold obligation: that is, to repair bridges, to build towers, and to serve against the enemy.
255. Erant in Anglia, quodammodo, tot reges vel potius tyranni, quot domini castellorum. There were in England, in effect, as many kings, or rather tyrants, as there were lords of castles.
256. Ne exeat regno. Let him not leave the kingdom.
257. Ad hoc autem creatus est et electus ut justitiam faciat universis. But he is created and chosen for the purpose of dispensing justice to all.
258. Durante bene placito. During pleasure.
258. Quamdiu bene se gesserint. So long as they shall have conducted themselves uprightly.
259. Dicebatur fregisse juramentum regis juratum. He was said to have broken the sworn oath of the king.
263. Disputare de principali judicio non oportet; sacrilegii enim instar est, dubitare anis dignus sit quem eligerit imperator. It is not fit to dispute concerning the judgment of the prince; for It is a kind of sacrilege to doubt the eligibility of him whom the emperor shall have chosen.
VOL. I., 265-283 A TRANSLATION &c. 27
265. Compositio ulnarum et perticarum. Composition of yards and perches.
265. Compositio mensurarum. The composition of measures.
266. Pondus regis. The king's weight.
266. Mensura domini regis. The king's measure.
275. Valor beneficiorum. The value of benefices.
276. Terræ dominicales regis. The king' demesne lands.
277. Fundi patrimoniales. Lands of inheritance.
280. De prerogativo regis. Of the king's prerogative.
281. Omnes res suas liberas et quietas haberet. That he should retain his property free and undisputed.
281. Quod enim jus habet fiscus in aliena calamitate ut re tam luctuosa compendium sectetur? For what right has the exchequer in other men's misfortunes, that it should seek gain from so lamentable a source?
282. Quæ enim res in tempestate levandæ navis causa ejiciuntur, hæ dominorum permanent. Quia palam est, eas non eo animo ejeci, quod quis habere noluit. Those things which are cast overboard for the sake of lightening the ship still belong to the owners. For it is clear that they were not thrown away as relinquished on any other account.
283. In naufragorum miseria et calamitate tanquam vultures ad prædam currere. To run like vultures to their prey, amidst the misery and calamity of shipwrecked sufferers.
28 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 285-291
285. Vetus depositio pecuniæ. The previous concealment of the money.
286. Jus commune et quasi gentium. The common law, and as it were the law of nations.
287. Primum coram comitibus et viatoribus obviis, deinde in proxima villa vel pago, postremo coram ecclesia vel judicio. First before the inhabitants of the place and passing travellers, then in the next town or village, lastly before the church, or judgment-court.
288. Pecus vagans, quod nullus petit, sequitur, vel advocat. Wandering cattle, which no one seeks, follows, or calls to.
288. Bona vacantia. Goods having no claimant.
289. Hæc que nullius in bonis sunt, et ohm fuerunt inventoris de jure naturali jam efficiuntur principis de jure gentium. Those things which are no man's property and formerly belonged to the finder as by natural right, become now the property of the king by the law of nations.
289. Bona confiscata. Confiscated goods.
290. Census regalis. The royal revenue.
291. Omnia. All things.
291. Quæ. Things which.
291. Omnia quæ movent ad mortem aunt Deo danda.
What moves to death we understand is forfeit as a deodand.
COWELL, Tit. Deodand.
VOL. I., 291-297 A TRANSLATION &c. 29
291. Si quis, me nesciente, quocunque meo telo vet instrumento in perniciem suam abutatur; vel ex ædibus meis cadat, vel incidat in puteum meum, quantumvis tectum vet munitum, vet in cataractum, et sub molendino meo confringatur, ipse aliqua mulcta plectar; ut in parte infelicitatis meæ numeratur habuisse vet ædificasse aliquod quo homo periret. If any one, without my knowledge, use any weapon or instrument of mine for his own destruction; or fall from my house, or into my well, however securely covered or fenced, or into my mill-stream, or be crushed in my mill, let me suffer by some fine; as the misfortune may be reckoned in part mine, to have built or possessed any thing by which a man should perish.
293. De idiota inquirendo. Of inquiring concerning an idiot.
293. Purus idiota. An absolute idiot.
293. A nativitate. From his birth.
293. Non compos mentis. Not in his right mind.
295. Sic utere tuo ut alienum non lædas. Use your property in such a manner that you injure not that of another.
295. Solent prætores, si talem hominem invenerint, qui neque tempus neque finem expensarum habet, sed bona sua dilacerando et dissipando profundit, curatorem ei dare, exemplo furiosi: et tamdiu erunt ambo in curatione, quamdiu vet furiosus sanitatem, vet ilte bonos mores, receperit. The prætors are accustomed, when they find a man who sets no bounds to his expenses, but lavishes his fortune in acts of dissipation, to appoint him a guardian as though he were a madman; and as the madman so the spendthrift shall be in wardship until the one be restored unto a sanity of mind and the other to reformed manners.
296. Census regalis. The royal revenue.
296. Quota. Portion.
297. Quantum. Quantity.
30 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 304-336
304. Custuma. Customs.
304. Consuetudines. Customs.
304. Costuma antiqua sive magna. Ancient or great customs.
304. Costuma parva et nova. New and small customs.
304. Costuma antiqua et magna. Ancient and great customs.
304. Ad valorem. According to the value.
306. Remissum magis specie quam vi, quia cum venditor pendere juberetur, in partem pretii emptoribus accrescebat. Remitted rather in appearance than reality, for when the seller was ordered to pay it, he enhanced proportionally the price to the buyers.
316. Pro tempore, pro spe, pro commodo, minuitur eorum pretium atque augescit. Their price was lessened and increased according to time, expectation, or advantage.
328. Custodiam comitatus. The custody of the county.
329. Incolæ territorii. The inhabitants of the territory.
329. Ex quibus rex unum confirmabat. Of whom the king confirmed one.
330. In crastino animarum. On the morrow of All Souls.
331. Non obstante aliquo statuto in contrarium. Notwithstanding any statute to the contrary.
335. De coronatore eligendo. Of choosing a coroner.
336. Quod talem eligi faciat, qui melius et sciat et velit et possit, officio illi intendere. That he cause such one to be chosen as is the best informed, and most willing and able to hold that office.
VOL. I., 336-343 A TRANSLATION &c. 31
336. Statutum de militibus. The statute concerning soldiers.
336. De coronatore exonerando. Of discharging the coroner.
337. De officio coronatoris. Of the office of coroner.
337. Super visum corporis. On the view of the body.
337. De corpore delicti constare oportebat; i. e. non tam fuisse aliquem in territorio isto mortuum inventum quam vulneratum et cæsum. Potest enim homo etiam ex alia causa subito mon. It was necessary that the crime should be evident; that is, not merely that a person was found dead in that district, but that he was wounded and slain. For a man may die suddenly from other causes.
338. Custos rotulorum. Keeper of the Rolls.
338. Custodes. Keepers.
338. Conservatores pacis. Keepers of the peace.
339. De probioribus et potentionibus comitatus sui in custodes pacis. From the most upright and powerful of their county as keepers of the peace.
339. Ipsius patnis beneplacito. By the good pleasure of his father.
340. Quorum aliquem vestrum A, B, C, D, &c. unum esse volumus. Of whom we will that some one of you, A, B, C, D, &c. be one.
341. Procedendo. Proceeding.
343. Comes stabuli. Count of the stable.
32 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 345-362
345. Excubias et explorationes quas wactas vocant. Watches and searches, which they call wactas.
345. Trinoda necessitas. The threefold obligation.
346. Expeditio contra hostem, arcium constructio, et pontium reparatio. Going against the enemy, construction of towers and reparation of bridges.
346. Ad instructiones reparationesque itinerum et pontium, nullum genus hominum, nulliusque dignitatis ac venerationis meritis, cessare oportet. With respect to the construction and repairing of ways and bridges no class of men of whatever rank or dignity should be exempted.
346. Curatores viarum. Keepers of the ways.
355. Contra omnes homines fidelitatem fecit. Against all men did fealty.
360. Droit d'aubaine. The right of inheriting the estate which an alien has at his death.
360. Jus albinatus. Alien law.
361. Postliminium. A return of one who had gone to sojourn elsewhere, or had been taken by the enemy, to his own country, right, and estate, again. - A recovery.
362. Jus albinatus. Alien law.
362. Ex donatione regis. By the gift of the king.
363. Manes. Remains.
VOL. I., 365-369 A TRANSLATION &c. 33
365. Per clerum et populum. By the clergy and people.
366. Per annulum et baculum. By the ring and staff.
366. "Nulla electio prælatorum (sunt verba Ingulphi) erat mere Libera et canonica; sed omnes dignitates, tam episcoporum quain abbatum, per annulum et baculum regis curia pro sua complacentia conferebat." Penes clericos et monachos fuit electio, sed electum a rege postulabant. "There was no election of prelates (says Ingulphus) purely free and canonical; but the king's court granted all dignities at its pleasure, as well of bishops as abbots, by the ring and the staff." The election was in the power of the clergy and monks, but they requested election by the king.
367. Per sceptrum. By the sceptre.
366. Per annulum et baculum. By the ring and staff.
367. Conge d'eslire. Permission to elect.
369. Primæ, or primariæ preces. First prayers, or suits.
369. Rex, &c. salutem. Scribatis episcopo Karl. quod Roberto de Icard pensionem suam, quam ad preces regis prædicto Roberto concessit, de cætero solvat: et de proxima ecclesia vacatura de collatione prædicti episcopi, quam ipse Robertus acceptaverit, respiciat.
The king, &c. sends greeting. That you write to the Bishop of Carlisle, that he henceforth pay to Robert de Icard, the pension which he granted to the said Robert at the desire of the king: and that the aforesaid Bishop see that the said Robert be appointed to the next church vacancy in his collation.
370. Conge d'eslire. Permission to elect.
34 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 372-383
372. Vicem seu personam ecclesiæ gerere. To represent the church.
375. Qui illi de temporalibus, episcopo de spiritualibus, debeat respondere. Who should answer to him concerning temporal, to the bishop concerning spiritual, affairs.
377. Malum in se. Crime in itself.
377. Schismaticus inveteratus. An inveterate schismatic.
377. Malum prohibitum. Fault because forbidden.
378. Minus sufficiens in literatura. Deficient in learning.
378. Vicarius non habet vicarium. A vicar has no deputy.
381. In commendam. In trust.
381. Ecclesia commendata. A living in trust.
381. Commendam retinere. To retain a trust living.
381. Commendam recipere. To receive a trust living.
381. De novo. Anew.
383. Mandamus. We command.
VOL. I., 386-394 A TRANSLATION &c. 35
386. Quasi. As.
386. Comites. Earls.
386. A societate nomen sumpserunt, reges enim tales sibi associant. They received their name from their society, because they were the king's companions.
387. In capite. In chief, or of the king.
389. Jure ecclesiæ. By right of the church.
390. Pares. Peers - equals.
390. In judicio non creditur nisi juratis. No one is believed in court but upon his oath.
390. Scandalum magnatum. Scandal of the peers.
391. Viri magnæ dignitatis. Men of great dignity.
392. Toga virilis. The gown of manhood.
392. Equites aurati. Knights.
393. Jus imaginum. The right of images.
393. Armigeri natalitii. Esquires by birth.
36 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 394-403
394. Probus et legalis homo. A true and lawful man.
396. Sapientes, fideles, et animosi. Wise, faithful, and brave.
396. Prout eis visum fuerit, ad honorem coronæ et utilitatem regni. As it should seem to them, for the honor of the crown and the advantage of the kingdom.
396. Reges ex nobilitate, duces ex virtute sumunt. They chose their kings for their nobility, their leaders for their valor.
396. De heretochiis. Of heretochs or leaders.
396. Isti vero viri eliguntur per commune consiliurn, pro communi utilitate regni, per provincias et patrias universas, et per singulos comitatus in pleno folkmote, sicut et vieecomites provinciarum et comitatuum, eligi debent. These men are chosen for the general benefit of the kingdom, by the common council, by the provinces, the whole country, and by each county in full assembly [folkmote], as also the sheriffs of provinces and counties should be elected.
396. Quum bellum civitas, aut illatum defendit aut infert, magistratus qui ei bello præesint deliguntur. When a city is engaged either in an offensive or defensive war, magistrates qualified to direct that war are chosen.
403. Misera est servitus ubi jus est vagum aut incognitum. Wretched is the thraldom where the law is either uncertain or unknown.
VOL. I., 403-424 A TRANSLATION &c. 37
405. Si milites quid in clypæo, &c. [translated in the text.]
411. Jure gentium. By the law of nations.
411. Mancipia, quasi manu capti. Mancipia, as [manu capti] taken by hand.
411. Jure civili. By the civil law.
411. Servi aut fiunt aut nascimtur: fiunt jure gentium, aut jure civili; nascuntur ex ancillis nostris. Slaves are either born or made so; they are made slaves by the law of nations, or by the civil law; they are born slaves as the children of our female captives.
412. Quid pro quo. Value for value, or reciprocal compensation.
412. Servi nafcuntur Slaves to be born.
412. Jure naturæ. By the law of nature.
413. Intra moenia. Within the walls.
414. Intra moenia. Within the walls.
415. Pro tempore. For a time.
417. Nam, qui facit per alium, facit per se. For he who does a thing by the agency of another, does it himself.
417. Nam, qui non prohibet cum prohibere possit, jubet. For he who does not forbid a crime while he may, sanctions it.
419. Ob alterius culpani tenetur, sive servi, sive Liberi. Is held accountable for the fault of another, whether of his servant, or his child.
421. Pro salute animæ. For the health of their souls.
422. Consensus, non concubitus, facit nuptias. Consent, not cohabitation, makes the marriage.
422. Pro salute animarum. For the health of their souls.
422. Ab initio. From the beginning.
424. Duas uxores eodem tempore habere non Iicet. It is not lawful to have two wives at one time.
424. A fortiori. By a stronger reason.
424. Habiles ad matrimonium. Fit for marriage.
38 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 426-430
426. Concubitu prohibere vago. To forbid a promiscuous intercourse.
426. Quia non sua culpa, sed parentum, id commisisse cognoscitur. Because she was considered to have committed it, not through her own fault, but that of her parents.
427. Per verba de præsenti tempore. By words of the present tense.
427. Per verba de futuro. By words of the future tense.
427. In facie ecclesiæ. In the face of the church.
427. Juris positivi. Of positive law.
427. Juris naturalis aut divini. Of natural or divine law.
428. A vinculo matrimonii. From the bond of matrimony.
428. A mensa et thoro. From bed and board.
429. De estoveriis habendis. Of recovering estovers.
VOL. I., 431-444 A TRANSLATION &c. 39
431. Nemo in propria causa testis esse debet. No one should be a witness in his own cause.
431. Nemo tenetur seipsum accusare. No one is bound to accuse himself.
432. Aliter quam ad virum, ex causa regiminis et castigationis uxoris suæ, licite et rationabiliter pertinet. Otherwise than lawfully and reasonably belongs to the husband for the due government and correction of his wife.
432. Flagellis et fustibus acriter verberare uxorem. To beat his wife severely with scourges and sticks.
432. Modicam castigationem adhibere. To use moderate chastisement.
434. Pater est quem nuptiæ demonstrant. The nuptials show who is the father.
435. Judex de ea re cognoscet. The judge shall take cognizance of that matter.
436. Tanquam testamentum inofficiosu.m. As an unkind will.
440. Patria potestas in pietate debet, non in atrocitate, eonsistere. Paternal power should consist in kindness not in cruelty.
441. In loco parentis. In the place of a parent.
444. De ventre inspiciendo. For inspecting whether a woman be pregnant.
444. Rogaverunt omnes episcopi magnates, ut consentirent quod nati ante matrimonium essent legitimi, sicut illi qui nati sunt post matrimoniiim, quia ecclesia tales habet pro Iegitimis. Et omnes comites et barones una voce responderunt quod nolunt leges Anglke mutare, quæ hucusque usitatæ sunt et approbatæ. All the bishops requested the peers to consent that children born before marriage should be legitimate, as those which are born after marriage, because the church esteems them so. But all the earls and barons answered unanimously, that they would not change the Laws of England which were hitherto used and approved.
444. Et omnes comites, &c. [translated in the text.]
40 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 445-452
445. Infra annum luctus. Within the year of mourning.
445. Extra quatuor maria. Beyond the four seas.
445. Præsumitur pro legitimatione. The presumption is in favor of legitimacy.
445. Sit omnis vidua sine marito duodecim menses. Let every widow remain unmarried twelve months.
447. Filius nullius. The son of no one.
447. Filius populi. The son of the people.
448. Tutor. A teacher.
448. Curator. A guardian.
449. Summa providentia. The greatest prudence.
449. Nunquam custodia alicujus de jure alicui remanet, de quo habeatur suspicio, quod possit vel velit aliquod jus in ipsa hæreditate clamare. The guardianship of no person shall of right continue in him, of whom a suspicion may be entertained that he can or will claim any right in the inheritance.
450. Quasi agnum committere lupo, ad devorandum. Like committing the lamb to the wolf to be devoured.
450. Pro tempore. For a time.
450. Pupillum o utinam, quem proximus hæres Impello, expungam.
O were my pupil fairly knock'd o' th' head!
I should possess th' estate if he were dead.
DRYDEN'S PERSIUS, s. ii., 1. 23.
452. Nisi convenissent in manum viri. Unless they should come under the care of a husband.
VOL. I., 452-464 A TRANSLATION &c. 41
452. Ad annum vigesimum primum; et eo usque juvenes sub tutelam reponunt. To the twenty-first year; and they place their youths under guardianship till that period.
452. Prochein amy. Next friend - next of kin to an infant.
452. Prima facie. On the first appearance.
452. Doli capax. Capable of deceit.
453. Malitia supplet ætatem. Malice is held equivalent to age.
455. Ad studendum et orandum. For study and prayer.
457. Universitates. Universities.
457. Collegia. Colleges.
457. Tres faciunt collegium. Three make a college.
457. Si universitas ad unum redit. If the university be reduced to one.
457. Et stet nomen universitatis. And the name of "university" may remain.
458. Quatenus. As.
458. Interregnum. The space between two reigns.
459. Pro opere et labore. For work and labor.
460. Illicitum collegium. An unlawful college.
460. Neque societas, neque collegium, neque hujusmodi corpus passim omnibus habere conceditur; nam et legibus, et senatus consultis, et principalibus constitutionibus ea res coercetur. Neither to all and everywhere is it allowed to have a society, college, or body of this kind; for the permission is controlled by the laws, by the decrees.of the senate, and by the constitutions of the prince.
461. Creamus, erigimus, fundamus, incorporamus. We create, we erect, we found, we incorporate.
464. Sodales legem quam volent, dum ne quid ex publica lege corrumpant, sibi ferunto. Let the societies prescribe for themselves any law they please, provided it infringe not the public law.
42 A TRANSLATION &c. VOL. I., 465-472
465. Pro salute animæ. For the health of the soul.
467. In mortua mana. In a dead hand.
467. Collegium, si nullo speciali privilegio subnixum sit, hæreditatem capere non posse, dubium non est. There is no doubt that a college cannot take an inheritance uniess by special privilege.
472. Si quid universitati debetur, singulis non debetur; nec quod debet universitas, singuli debent. Whatever be due to an university, is not due to each member singly; nor is each singly answerable for the debts due from the university.
Index Volume II