The Curse of the Corporation

Part XXI – 1878 CE to 1909 CE

1878 CE - Germany - The Congress of Berlin, chaired by Bismark, limits Russian naval expansion, reduces the size of Bulgaria, hands Cyprus to Britain and Bosnia to Austria, and grants Montenegro, Serbia, and Romania independence. Russia defeats the Ottomans and at the Congress of Berlin the states of Serbia and Montenegro are granted independence and Bulgaria is granted broad autonomy.

1878 CE - France - Electricity is used in Paris to light up streets at night.


1878 - 1903 CE - Italy - Leo XIII, alias Gioacchino Vincenzo Pecci, is elected pope. He published the encyclical "Rerum Novarum" concerning labour and social policy. He was the first Pope to be filmed. He celebrated the 22nd Jubilee Year and St. Peter's was lit for the first time using electricity.

Leo XIII allowed the scholars to have access to the Vatican Archives. He enriched the Vatican library with the Visconti library and the Borghese codes. Leo XIII introduced telephones and radiators in the Vatican but never accepted the use of a car.

Leo XIII regulated the use of the "zucchetto"; a smaIl circular skull-cap to be worn by Popes, cardinals, bishops and prelates. It is made of silk cloth, only the Pope's is made of velvet; it is violet for bishops; red for cardinals, white for the Pope and black for all other prelates. The zucchetto is also called "Soli Deo" since it must be taken off only during the bow to the Holy Sacrament.

Leo XIII died at the age of 93. His body was transferred to San Giovanni in Laterano. His pontificate lasted twenty-five years and five months.

1878 - 1884 CE - Turkey - Joachim III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1878 CE - United States - Edward Baldwin Whitney, a member of the Skull and Bones, becomes a justice of the New York Supreme Court.

1879 CE - Germany - German engineer Werner Siemens demonstrates the first electric locomotive.

1879 CE - Georgia - Josef Vissarionovitch Djugashvili (Stalin) is born at Gori in Georgia.

1879 CE - Afghanistan - Britain invades Afghanistan which becomes, de facto, a British colony.

Battle of Isandhlwana by Charles Fripp

1879 CE - Africa - On the 11th January 1879 CE, a British Force under the command of Lord Chelmsford crossed the Buffalo River into Zululand. A small garrison was left at Rorke's Drift. The force consisted of 1,600 British troops, mainly from the 1st and 2nd Battalions 24th Regiment, and 2,500 native soldiers. A tented camp was established at Isandhlwana Hill. At 4 a.m. on the morning of 22nd January, Lord Chelmsford took half his force to reconnoitre to southeast in search of main Zulu army. Just after 8 a.m. a force of 25,000 Zulu warriors attacked the remainder of the force in the camp. Surprised, outnumbered by more than six to one, in a position offering little defence, the defenders were soon overpowered and a dreadful slaughter ensued. A few men escaped and re-crossed the Buffalo River to safety. Victoria Crosses were awarded to Lieutenants Melvill and Coghill, who saved the Queen's Colour of the 1st / 24th and to Private Wassell, 90th Foot who saved a comrade while escaping across the Buffalo River

The Battle of Isandhlwana was a major Zulu victory under King Cetshwayo over the British invaders. At the battle, the Zulu army assaulted an encampment of complacent British troops at Isandhlwana, killing almost all of them, with the remainder fleeing in a disorganised rout. After the battle, the Zulus, as was their custom, disemboweled the dead enemies so as to allow their spirits to travel to the after life. Back in England, the government under pressure from Queen Victoria sought to amend the realities of the battle and the foolhardy invasion by Lord Chelmsford by focusing attention on the battle later the same day at Rorke's Drift and by awarding Victoria Cross medals to undeserving but politically appropriate recipients.

1879 CE - Germany - Austria - Hungary - Germany and the Austro-Hungarian empire sign a treaty of alliance.

1879 CE - United States - Henry George, a San Francisco journalist, published Progress and Poverty. In the wake of unprecedented economic reversals, George's book questioned why so many Americans seemed to be poor in a nation that abounded in wealth. His answer presented a radical, disturbing paradox: Poverty persists amidst plenty because progress causes poverty.

Railroad advertisement promising abundant land in the West. The reality was somewhat different, as Henry George discovered. Source: Huntington Library.

The author derived his argument from his experiences in California following the Civil War. A Philadelphia native seduced by the lure of the West, George moved to a state described by boosters as a virtual utopia, only to discover that it was anything but. Rather than a community of independent yeoman, George discovered a landscape dominated by wealthy ranchers and land barons whose expansive estates were tilled by impoverished tenant farmers. Such a society hardly fulfilled the mythic promise of a democratic West. George concluded that progress tended to increase the value of land simply as a function of its resulting scarcity. Private control of this appreciating asset diverted a community's wealth into the pockets of idle landlords. The price of land - its rent value - represented an "unearned increment," a profit derived not from productive labor, but by hoarding a scarce resource. George asserted that the producing classes could overcome mere subsistence living and regain access to the land by confiscating this unearned increment. His solution, the "single-tax," was a tax on rent designed to eliminate profits derived from speculation.

Single tax theorist Henry George
Source: Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

George's writings inspired a diffuse "single-tax movement" that promoted social justice through tax reform. In an era in which both mainstream parties tended to defer to the interests of eastern capital, his ideas provided an alternative conception of taxation that appealed to diverse groups frustrated by the limitations of conventional politics. In a similar vein, a number of third-party movements in the second half of the 19th century coalesced in order to represent marginalized economic interests, culminating with the People's (Populist) Party in the 1890s. Their agendas often included tax reform, including an income tax intended to confiscate the "unearned" profits of monopolistic trusts.

1880 CE - United States - In the Republican convention of 1880 a resolute effort of the friends of General Grant to nominate him for a third term was defeated by the equal ardor and good management of an opposition which attached itself principally to Mr. Blaine.

William Burnham Woods, a Mason, becomes a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. He was nominated by President Rutherford B. Hayes.

Alexander II

1881 CE - Russia - Alexander II , April 17, 1818 CE - March 13, 1881 CE, was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 CE until his assassination. As such, he was also the Grand Duke of Finland from 1855 CE until 1881 CE.

After previous assassination attempts, Count Loris-Melikov was appointed the head of Supreme Executive Comission and given extraordinary powers to fight the revolutionaries. Loris-Melikov's proposals called for some form of parliamentary body, and the Emperor seemed to agree; these plans were never realized as on March 13, 1881 CE, Alexander fell victim to a Nihilist plot. While driving on one of the central streets of St. Petersburg, near the Winter Palace, he was mortally wounded by the explosion of hand-made grenades and died a few hours afterwards. Nikolai Kibalchich, Sophia Perovskaya, Nikolai Rysakov, Timofei Mikhailov, Andrei Zhelyabov were arrested and sentenced to death. Gesya Gelfman was sent to Siberia. The Tsar was killed by the Belarusian Ihnat Hryniavicki (Ignacy Hryniewiecki) (1856 - 1881 CE), who died during the attack. Hryniavicki was a Belarusian from Babrujsk, where suppression of Belarusians and Poles and persecutions were the harshest. The Russians had instigated a complete ban on Belarusian and Polish language in public places, schools and office in a process now known as Russification.

1881 CE - Tunisia - France occupies Tunisia.

1881 CE - Persia (Iran) - Persia loses Turkmenistan to Russia.

1881 CE - Germany - Siemens demonstrates the first electric tram system.

1881 CE - Italy - Pius IX, who died three years earlier, is being moved when a Roman mob attacked the procession and attempted to fling his body into the Tiber. This historic judgment is usually reserved for those popes considered as an anti-Christ. Pope Leo XIII gave a grudging recognition to democracy.

1881 CE - United States - On January 22, Cleopatra´s Needle was erected before 10,000 people in New York's Central Park. One side of the pedestal bronze plate says:

"This obelisk was erected first at Heliopolis, Egypt in 1600 B.C. It was removed to Alexandria in 12 B.C. by the Romans. Presented by the Khedive of Egypt to the city of New York. It was erected here on January 22, 1881 through the generosity of William H. Vanderbilt."

It was originally erected in Heliopolis, Egypt by Tuthmosis III. It's twin obelisk is located in London, England.

Cleopatra's Needle - Central Park, New York

It was given as a a gift by Khedive Ismail of Egypt in 1869 CE in gratitude to the United States for aiding in the construction of the Suez Channel. Lieutenant Commander Henry Gorridge, of the United States Navy, was in charge of transferring the obelisk, which was 21.5 meters high and weighed 193 tons, with a pedestal of 50 tons. It arrived at the Quarantine Station in New York on July 20, 1880 CE.

Thirty two horses were needed to transport the pedestal through the the city when it was installed in Central Park in Graywacke Knoll. The obelisk began its trip through Manhattan, requiring 112 days to arrive from Staten Island to North River and West Ninety-sixth Street, moving just 30 meters per day, to Eighty-sixth Street and afterwards through the park by Fifth Avenue to Eighty-second Street, being placed near the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

James A. Garfield

The office of President went to General James A. Garfield, (1) (A) who was elected by a majority of 59 electoral votes over his Democratic opponent, General Hancock. A man of force, of broad mind, of political experience, and of high impulses, General Garfield promised to make a successful President; but four months after his inauguration he was shot (A) at Washington in a railroad station by a disappointed office seeker named Guiteau on July 2, 1881 CE, and he died after great suffering on September 19. Guiteau was hanged on June 30, 1882 CE.

Vice-President, Chester A. Arthur became president as a consequence. Jonas Mills Bundy (2) (1835 - 1891 CE), a rumored Illuminati, was a key advisor to Arthur. President Garfield was a cousin to Presidents Franklin Pierce, Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison. (3)

In Springer v. U.S., 102 US 586, the Supreme Court rejected the claim that the Income Tax of 1864 was unconstitutional. Springer, the plaintiff, had argued the income tax was direct, and thus subject to apportionment among the states. The justices, however, drew upon legislative precedent in concluding unanimously that direct taxes encompassed only real estate or slaves. By contrast, the income tax "fell within the category of an excise or duty." The Court deferred to congressional authority in determining the scope of the tax power.

1882 CE - Egypt - Britain occupies Egypt.

1882 CE - Germany - Italy - Germany and Italy sign a treaty of alliance.

1882 CE - Russia - Pogroms (organized massacre) in Russia against Jews prompt large-scale Jewish migration from Eastern Europe.

Samuel Blatchford

Sir Francis Galton

1882 CE - United States - Samuel Blatchford, a Mason, is nominated by President Chester A. Arthur as a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. Blatchford would hold the post for eleven years.

1883 CE - England - Sir Francis Galton, cousin of Charles Darwin, formalized eugenics, the final solution that would be widely adopted and reach its peak under Hitler in Germany. In his Hereditary Genius (1869 CE) he presented strong evidence that talent is an inherited characteristic. Galton established a system of classifying fingerprints that is still used today. He was knighted in 1909 CE. The best known of his books is Inquiries into Human Faculty (1883 CE).

It is noteworthy that later Churchill and many others would support this race superiority philosophy. Essentially, eugenicists studied heredity in humans with the idea of trying to "improve" the human race. They advocated doing this by setting up systems that would encourage those people who were judged "fit" to reproduce while discouraging – through sterilization if necessary – those who were "unfit" from doing the same.

1883 CE - Viet Nam - Laos - Vietnam and Laos become French colonies.

President Chester Arthur
President Chester A. Arthur
Source: Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

1883 CE - United States - Even though Congress purportedly sought to lower duties somewhat, the 1883 Tariff Act preserved a high rate schedule. The act represented a rather half-hearted attempt on the part of pro-protection Republican legislators to accede to public sentiment for a more moderate, streamlined tariff system. In 1882 CE, President Arthur called for a Tariff Commission, composed of independent experts, to study the issue and recommend policy revisions. Since the president controlled the appointments, however, the commission was dominated by protectionists. The commissioners called for rate reductions for raw materials that would benefit manufacturers at the expense of raw material producers. Realizing that such a tactic would alienate the latter, congressional Republicans largely ignored the advice of the experts. The resulting bill kept all rates high (except for wool products), reduced some internal sin taxes, and generally enacted a series of confusing provisions that led detractors to dub it "the Mongrel Tariff." No substantive change in policy emerged.

1884 CE - Egypt - Commentary by a former Confederate soldier who sojourned throughout Europe and Africa in the 1870's witnessed first-hand the destructive force of British Christianity –

William Loring

"Leaving Alexandria, the railroad crosses a broad sheet of shallow salt water called Lake Mareotis. In vain you search for traces of those old convents, filled with thousands of Christian devotees, which bordered the beautiful basin once filled with fresh water. Nor is there a vestige of the splendid gardens where, amid clustering vines, Cleopatra and Antony drank golden wine to celebrate their union. All is swept away, and a salt lake with its arid border covers the spot. To add the finishing touch to the picture of sad havoc which Mahometan misrule had produced was reserved for civilized Europe. Just below Aboukir there was a massive dike, erected by the ancients to separate the sea from the shore, and in the course of centuries a large tract of land was reclaimed. The splendid engineering skill of the English opened this obstruction, created the present vast expanse of waste, and covered it with destructive salt water, in the merciful attempt to drown the French out of Egypt, when these most Christian nations were so intent upon annihilating each other. No less than sixty villages were submerged by the ocean and their teeming population driven from their homes to starve. The waters still cover the once fertile fields. How much more magnanimous it would have been if England in our own time, instead of driving Ismail from his home and battling against Arabi Pacha, who fought for the liberties of his race, had paid into the Egyptian treasury the value of the great property and territory thus destroyed. It might then have prevented the kourbash from wringing from the impoverished fellah the means needed to pay the indebtedness of Egypt. The hopeless misery entailed by British policy can never be estimated. The principal inhabitants of this inhospitable region are now jackals, which live here in great numbers. They are the scavengers of the suburbs of the city, and are named by the Arabs, for some unknown reason, " the father of Solomon." There is another little animal, more gentle and more numerous, often seen jumping about its borders, called the jerboa, which burrows in the ground. It is of reddish color, with short fore and very long hind legs, about the size of a large rat, and makes its appearance at dark, hopping about like a bird. Such are the living creatures which now monopolize a region where, less than a century ago, the eye was delighted with great numbers of thriving villages and the rich green of rice and wheat fields. Here, as elsewhere in the East, Christian England has left the eternal blight of her greed."

     A Confederate Soldier in Egypt, William Loring, Part I, 1884.

1884 CE - Sudan - Britain invaded Sudan, a country two thirds the size of India.

1884 - 1887 CE - Turkey - Joachim IV becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

Grover Cleveland as a gladiator

Cartoon depicting Grover Clevelandas as a gladiator, challenging all comers in his battles over tariff and silver

1884 CE - United States - The Vice-President, Chester A. Arthur, who had succeeded to the vacant Presidency, administered affairs with credit, and was a prominent candidate for the nomination in 1884 CE; but Mr. Blaine's popularity with the Republican masses was no longer to be overlooked, and he was named by the convention, with John A. Logan for Vice-President. After an exciting campaign, determined at the last moment by a sudden change of votes in New York, the Democratic candidates, Grover Cleveland of New York and Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana, were elected by a small majority.

The use of paper money as "legal tender" during the Civil War had lead to economic depression and the coin of the United States was not re-established until 1879 CE. The Legal Tender Cases, 12 Wall., 457, 79 U.S. 287, were argued over the Acts of Congress of February 25, 1862 CE, July 11, 1862 CE, and March 3, 1863 CE regarding the construction of validity of these acts which authorized the issuance of United States notes by the Secretary of the Treasury during any exigency where the public service might require it. The 1884 Supreme Court case of Julliard v. Greenman showed that the use of legal tender was forced by the emergency of the Civil War. The paper currency created the payment of a premium for it's use, as it was considered to be a privilege. The legal tender cases were in regard to the notes issued by private banking establishments on behalf of the United States during the economic exigency of the Civil War. A "National Emergency" would establish the same effect in 1933 CE, which would allow foreign banks to issue paper currency as "legal tender" under the disguise of pretended bankruptcy.

1885 CE - Africa - Portuguese explorers cross Africa from Angola to Mozambique.

1885 CE - Germany - An international conference at Berlin awards Congo to the king of Belgium, Mozambique and Angola to Portugal, Namibia and Tanzania to Germany, Somalia to Italy, most of western Africa to France, and Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana to Britain.

1885 CE - Turkey - The Ottoman Empire is ruled by 'Abdül-Hamíd II, "the Damned."

1885 CE - Bulgaria - The Ottoman provinces of Bulgaria unite and become de-facto independent.

1885 CE - Europe - Jews from central and eastern Europe emigrate to Palestine.

General Charles Gordon

1885 CE - Sudan - British general Charles Gordon became a national hero for his exploits in China and his ill-fated defence of Khartoum against Sudanese rebels.

The son of an artillery officer, Gordon was commissioned in the Royal Engineers in 1852 CE. He distinguished himself in the Crimean War (1853 - 1856 CE) and in 1860 CE volunteered for the 'Arrow' war against the Chinese. In May 1862 CE, Gordon's corps of engineers was assigned to strengthen the European trading centre of Shanghai, which was threatened by the insurgents of the Taiping Rebellion. A year later he became commander of the 3,500-man peasant force raised to defend the city. During the next 18 months Gordon's troops played an important role in suppressing the Taiping uprising.

He returned to England in January 1865 CE, where an enthusiastic public had already dubbed him 'Chinese Gordon'. In 1873 CE, he was appointed governor of the province of Equatoria in the Sudan. Between April 1874 CE and December 1876 CE he mapped the upper Nile and established a line of stations along the river as far south as present Uganda. He was then promoted to governor-general, where he asserted his authority, crushing rebellions and suppressing the slave trade. However, ill health forced him to resign and return to England in 1880 CE before travelling once more to places including India, China and South Africa.

In February 1884 CE, Gordon returned to the Sudan to evacuate Egyptian forces from Khartoum, threatened by Sudanese rebels led by Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi. Khartoum came under siege the next month and on 26th January 1885 CE the rebels broke into the city, killing Gordon (against al-Mahdi's instructions) and the other defenders. The British relief force arrived two days later.

The British public reacted to his death by acclaiming 'Gordon of Khartoum' a martyred warrior-saint and by blaming the government, particularly Gladstone, for failing to relieve the siege. However, historians have since suggested that Gordon defied orders and refused to evacuate Khartoum even though that remained possible until late in the siege.

1885 CE - Egypt - Britain invaded Egypt to protect their international shipping route to India. It said its occupation would be for a short time, which lasted until 1954 CE.

Stephen Grover Cleveland

1885 CE - United States - Grover Cleveland was elected on the Democratic ticket as the 22nd President of the United States. Cleveland was a puppet of the Illuminati. William Collins Whitney, (A) (B) was the power behind President Cleveland. He also directed a group of powerful important capitalists called the Whitney Group. His Vice-President was Thomas A. Hendricks. Cleveland was a cousin to Presidents Franklin Pierce, James Garfield and Benjamin Harrison.(4)

Grover Cleveland, a one-term President, became the first Democratic president of the post-Civil War era, and only the second Democrat since Buchanan. The former Buffalo mayor and New York governor made his reputation as an effective battler of corrupt machine politics, and saw in the tariff-fed surplus another source of graft in need of redress. Cleveland's victory over James G. Blaine owed much to defecting Republicans who detested Blaine's affiliation with political corruption. These dissidents, known as "Mugwumps," tended to be critics of the spoils system and advocates of tariff reform, just as the Liberal Republicans of 1872 CE had been.

In February, the President-elect, in a letter to Congressmen, urged the suspension of the purchase and coinage of silver; advice which unfortunately was not acted upon. Mr. Cleveland was strongly committed to the principle of Civil Service Reform, but did not in that respect command the entire sympathy of his party, which, having been out of office for twenty-five years, was naturally desirous of reaping the fruits of victory. Some friction consequently arose between him and some of the party leaders over that subject. In the end he relaxed slightly the rules he had at first sought to maintain, but on the whole preserved the public service from wholesale looting by spoilsmen. In September 1885 CE, occurred a hideous massacre of Chinamen at Rock Springs, Wyoming, their only offense being that they went industriously to work for honest wages in the place of strikers. The United States government was afterward constrained to pay China a handsome indemnity for the outrage.

Cartoon depicting Cleveland's efforts to trim tariff duties, amid complaints from American manufacturers. Source: Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

Increasingly after 1885 CE, Cleveland looked to the tariff as an issue to unite and define the Democratic party in opposition to the Republicans. The president and other Democratic leaders also hoped an emphasis on the tariff would diffuse the burgeoning agrarian discontent voiced by the southern and western wings of the Democratic Party. The general deflation of the last quarter of the 19th century was particularly detrimental to farmers - many faced debt and dislocation as the price of agricultural commodities like cotton continued to decline in the eighties and nineties. Since the rise of the Greenback party in the 1870s, agrarian interests had called for monetary reform as one method to redress falling prices and tight credit. One of the most popular solutions they came to embrace involved the unlimited coinage of silver - increasing the volume of specie backing federal dollars, they believed, would in turn increase the volume of currency, elevate prices, and free up available credit. To a sound money man like Cleveland, however, (as well as the eastern business interests of the party) any such policy was anathema. Tariff reduction seemed like a much more palatable platform.

1886 CE - Germany - German engineer Karl Benz builds a gasoline-powered car.

1886 CE - France - Edouard Drumont's book "Jewish France" begins the era of modern anti-Semitism.

France passed the Ferry Laws prohibiting members of religious orders to teach in public schools.

Statue of Liberty
New York, New York

Statue of Liberty
Paris, France

1886 CE - Italy - Frederic Aguste Bartholdi, a Mason, is the sculptor of the Statue of Liberty, which was later placed in New York Harbor.

The Statue of Liberty was given to New York by French Freemasons and her mirror image stands on an island in the River Seine in Paris. These statues of liberty are representations of Queen Semiramis and Isis, et. al., with the rays of the Sun around her head. The ancients symbolized the Sun in this way. These statues are not holding the torch of liberty, but the torch of the illuminated ones, the reptilian Elite. The Statue of Liberty is a symbol of the Brotherhood of Freemasonry which says that they control America.

1886 CE - United States - In March, widespread strikes occurred on the railroads of the southwest, compelling the use of Federal troops to maintain the free transportation of the mails. Anarchists in Chicago committed wholesale murder with dynamite bombs at the "Haymarket" in May, for which a number of them were afterward put to death.

1887 CE - Germany - Heinrich Hertz discovers radio waves and invents radar.

1887 CE - Italy - Anton Anderledy is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Peter Jan Beckx.

1887 CE - Germany - Russia - Germany and Russia enter into secret Reinsurance Treaty, guaranteeing Russian neutrality if France attacks Germany.

1887 - 1891 CE - Turkey - Dionysius V becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1887 CE - United States - In his Annual Message, President Grover Cleveland advanced the tariff question as a defining issue for his party and presidency. His message to Congress indicted the tariff system as detrimental to laborers and a buttress to monopolistic business trusts. Lower tariff rates and the elimination of duties on raw materials, he argued, would result in lower consumer prices, a trend that would slow the development of combinations. Although reduced commodity prices were the last thing farmers desired, the president hoped the rhetoric of free trade, as well as his attack on concentrations of economic power, would appeal to them. The rhetorical link between the tariff and the trusts was a natural one for Democrats to draw. Since the time of Andrew Jackson, the party had railed against special privileges, monopolistic power, and corruption as corrosive to traditional liberties. Democrats often described the tariff as the "mother of trusts," since it subsidized American corporate dominance of the domestic market at the expense of farmers, middle class consumers and small business owners.

From a regional perspective, tariffs and excises funded special privileges that the South paid for but didn't enjoy, like Civil War pensions. The president did not shrink from taking on the Grand Army of the Republic. Republicans had traditionally reaped much political profit from pension distribution, and rarely missed an opportunity to expand the range of benefits to insure loyal voter turnout. Cleveland vetoed a bill extending veterans privileges in order to stem the tide of fraudulent pension claims. In effect, the president tied his re-election hopes and the fate of his party to his tariff stance.

Kaiser Wilhelm II

1888 CE - Germany - Germany Emperor Frederick III dies after only 99 days in office. His father, William I, had preceded him in death earlier this year in March. Kaiser Wilhelm II becomes king of Germany in June and launches the expansionistic "weltpolitik" and a militarization of Germany, proclaiming the coming of the "German century."

1888 CE - Turkey - The Convention of Constantinople declares the Suez Canal neutral and guarantees passage during war or peace.

1888 CE - United States - Cleveland's electoral strategy backfired. The Republicans portrayed him and the Democrats as advocates of "free trade" in the November elections. Their campaign emphasized the tariff's role in fostering industrial prosperity, high wages (shielding working men from "pauper European labor"), and a prosperous home market for farmers. Such rhetoric had a nationalist appeal that often took on an anti-European tone; anglophobia, in particular, appealed to Irish-American laborers. Businessmen threw their political and financial support decisively behind the GOP; those who were not inveterate supporters of protection nonetheless feared the Democrats would reduce the tariff too drastically. As a result, Benjamin Harrison, the Republican candidate, captured the presidency.

1889 CE - France - Paris holds the universal exposition and inaugurates the Eiffel Tower.

Eiffel Tower

Socialist parties from all over the world unite in the Second International during a convention in Paris.

1889 CE - Germany - Germany enacts the first pension plan in the world.

Benjamin Harrison

1889 CE - United States - Benjamin Harrison became the 23rd President of the United States on March 4, 1889 CE, with a Republican majority in each House of Congress. His Vice-President was Levi P. Morton. Benjamin Harrison was related to the following Presidents: William Henry Harrison (his grandfather), Jefferson, Jackson, and Tyler. (5)

On April 22, the new Territory of Oklahoma, formerly called the Indian Territory, was opened for settlement, and on April 29-May 1 the centenary of Washington's inauguration as first President of the United States was widely celebrated. A Pan-American Congress was opened at Washington in October. The most important pieces of National legislation of the year 1890 CE were the McKinley Tariff bill, a strong Protectionist measure, and a bill to protect trade against the improper restraints of trusts or monopolies. An act was also passed for the regulation of the currency, providing for the purchase of not more then 4,500,000 ounces of silver per month at not more than one dollar for 371¼ grains and the coinage of 2,000,000 ounces a month until July 1, 1891 CE, and thereafter as necessary.

Idaho and Wyoming were admitted as States in July. In October, in order to remove objections to the admission of Utah to Statehood, the Mormon church at a general conference, declared polygamy to be thenceforth abolished. The Mormon church had it's corporate charter dissolved two years previously with the loss of all its property due to its stand on polygamy.

The fall of this year was marked with serious Indian disturbances, owing to the "ghost dances" and "Messiah craze" among the Sioux, Comanches, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes. These were suppressed only after serious fighting, in the course of which the famous Sioux chief Sitting Bull was killed. The outbreak was not fully ended until January 1891 CE.

On the 4th of June 1889, Albert Pike wrote a letter to the supreme councils of the illuminati:

"To you, Sovereign Grand Instructors General, we say this, that you may repeat it to the Brethren of the 32nd, 31st and 30th degrees: 'the Masonic Religion should be, by all of us initiates of the high degrees, maintained in the purity of the LUCIFERIAN Doctrine. If Lucifer were not god, would Adonay (Jesus) … calumniate (spread false and harmful statements about) him? … Yes Lucifer is God … " (6)

1890 CE - Germany - Bismark loses the election and resigns.

AEG develops the AC motor and generator (first power plants) and alternating current makes it easy to transmit electricity over long distances.

1890 CE - United States - At Wounded Knee, South Dakota, American soldiers massacre 200 Sioux men, women and children. It is the last American Indian battle with the United States Army.

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act makes illegal all combinations in restraint of trade in interstate or foreign commerce. It does not apply to manufacturing monopolies, effectively making every citizen a "merchant" even upon his own person under the commerce clause.

The Republican-controlled "Billion Dollar Congress" passed the McKinley Tariff, which pushed tariff rates to all-time high. In an effort to placate farmers and debtors seeking more readily available currency, however, it also passed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.

Consequences of the McKinley Tarriff

James G. Blaine, Secretary of State. Source: Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii, c. 1917.
Source: Prints and Photographs Division,
Library of Congress.

Reciprocity. The Blaine-Harrison reciprocity provision of the McKinley Tariff enabled the President to reduce tariffs on foreign goods (especially raw materials) when other nations reduced their tariffs for U.S. products (especially industrial and staple agricultural goods). As a consequence, sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides were placed on the duty free list. This bargaining measure theoretically granted the president certain discretionary power to manipulate rates in order to open foreign markets to American products. James G. Blaine, the Secretary of State, spearheaded the effort to establish the reciprocity principle. He was a fervent proponent of expanding trade with Latin America, organizing the first Pan American Congress of 1889 CE, and saw tariff reciprocity as a tool to access Latin American markets and raw materials. Thus, the McKinley reciprocity provision represented one of the first efforts to utilize the tariff not simply as a means of to collect revenue or insure protection, but as a strategy for widening access to American trade.

Sugar. The previous 2 cent per pound duty on sugar had been a purely revenue duty, since 90 percent of all sugar consumed was imported (the other 10 percent came mostly from Louisiana). In fact, the sugar duty constituted the most important single item in the revenue from customs, amounting to $55 million per year in the years immediately preceding 1890 CE. The duty caused political difficulties for Republicans at a time when the budget surplus was already embarrassingly high, without any mitigating benefits gained from commodity protection. The revenue lost by forgoing the duty amounted to $50 to $60 million, plus an $8 million remunerative bounty paid to U.S. sugar growers. A 0.5 cent duty on refined sugar was retained, however, to the benefit of thefew large sugar refining companies that constituted a virtual monopoly in the United States.

Hawaii. Secretary of State Hamilton Fish sponsored a specific reciprocity treaty with Hawaii in 1875 CE that favored Hawaiian sugar, and by extension the white planters who owned 75 percent of the plantations. The island economy subsequently fell into a tailspin after the McKinley tariff placed sugar on the duty-free list. The economic crisis precipitated political war between the planters and native supporters of Queen Liliuokalani over the next two years. Whites gained the upper hand in 1893 CE, but President Cleveland withdrew a pending annexation treaty - in part because he feared the consequences of absorbing a considerable population of nonwhites. Five years later, President McKinley would finalize annexation in the wake of the Spanish-American War.

Republican Party. A month after Congress approved the McKinley Tariff, voters seemed to rebuke its Republican sponsors at the polls. The GOP suffered devastating defeats in the Senate and House (especially the latter). In retrospect, local ethno-cultural issues played a significant role in the final tally of the election of 1890 CE. But to contemporaries, the outcome suggested a resounding rejection of the Republican party's policy of protection.

Back row: Eugène and Armand Peugeot Seated: Alfred Fallat, brother-in-law of Armand, Pierre Peugeot and Alfred Bovet

1891 CE - France - Bicycle manufacturer Armand Peugeot builds the first French car.

1891 CE - Italy - Pope Leo XIII upheld private property, just wages, workers rights, trade unions and social justice. The pope is obsessed with the recovery of the papal states and temporal power of the Holy See. He is forced to renew Pope Pius IX's ban on participation by Catholics in elections thereby restricting the church's influence in the New Italy.

1891 - 1894 CE - Turkey - Neophytus VIII becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1891 CE - United States - A serious international complication was occasioned by the lynching of eleven Sicilians in the parish jail of New Orleans, Louisiana. The chief of the New Orleans police force, David C. Hennessey, was killed upon his own doorstep on the night of October 15, 1890 CE, the last words of the dying man being that he had been shot by "Dagos." The lowest Italian residents in New Orleans had been responsible for many murders and assaults, and had frequently succeeded in escaping punishment, partly by avoiding detection and partly owing to the fact that many had bound themselves to give perjured testimony whenever they should be called as witnesses against one of their countrymen. The belief that there was a "Mafia," or oath-bound society of assassination, appeared to many to be confirmed by this latest outrage on law and order. On November 20, 1890 CE, the grand jury returned indictments for the murder of Chief Hennessey against eleven suspects and held eight as accessories. When the cases of nine of these came to trial, six were acquitted and three received no verdict. Perjury of witnesses and bribery of the jury were the reasons at once assigned by the public in an explanation of the result. Mob passion was aroused, and on March 14, 1891 CE, great throngs of people began to assemble and denounce the trial. The populace entered the jail, and the leaders, apparently with little opposition from the police, shot down the eleven Sicilians.

When intelligence of the massacre reached Rome, the Italian government made formal protest to the Secretary of State for the United States, who answered that under the Constitution such cases belonged independently to the state, and that the Federal Government had no power to consider anything but an indemnity. For a time the diplomatic relations of the two governments seemed on the point of rupture, but, ultimately, the United States Treasury paid over to Italy the sum of $25,000 as an indemnity to the relatives.

L. Frank Baum

L. Frank Baum, author of the Wizard of Oz, wrote in the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer (Kansas) that the army should "finish the job" by the "total annihilation" of the few remaining Indians. The U.S. did not follow through on Baum's macabre demand, for there really was no need. By then, the native population had been reduced to 2.5% of its original numbers and 97.5% of the aboriginal land base had been expropriated and renamed. Hundreds of native tribes with unique languages, learning, customs, and cultures had simply been erased from the face of the earth, most often without even the pretense of justice or law.

1892 CE - Germany - Rudolf Diesel invents the internal combustion engine.

1892 CE - Italy - Luis Martin is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Anton Anderledy.

Benjamin Harrison

1892 CE - United States - On May 1, 1892 CE, President Harrison sent out invitations to the leading nations to join the United States in a monetary conference, and acceptances came from all the principal European powers. On November 22d the conference was held, at Brussels. As the United States had been the prime mover in the matter, it devolved (A) (B) upon the delegates from this country to open the discussion and submit a line of procedure. This was done by Mr. Allison, on November 25th, who submitted for discussion the following resolutions:

1. That the re-establishment and maintenance of a fixed parity between gold and silver and the continued use of both as coined money of full debt-paying power, would be productive of important benefits to the world.

2. That these ends can be accomplished by removing the legal restrictions which now exist on the coinage of silver into full legal-tender money, and restoring by international agreement the parity value between the metals which existed prior to 1873, at such a ratio as may be decided upon by this conference.

3. That the essential provisions of such an international arrangement should be (a) unrestricted coinage of both gold and silver into money of full debt-paying power; (b) fixing the ratio in coinage between the two metals; (c) establishing a uniform charge, if any, to the public for the manufacture of gold and silver coins.

The conference refused to discuss this proposal, on the ground that it dealt with fundamental principles and not with matters of special reference to the conference. On the 17th of December the conference adjourned to meet May 30, 1893 CE, provided the governments represented should approve, but as the necessary approval was lacking, the conference did not reassemble.

The presidential election provided a rematch between Benjamin Harrison and Grover Cleveland. Both advanced the same positions on the tariff question that they had four years earlier. This time around, the voters elected Cleveland to his second nonconsecutive term, winning by the largest margin in two decades. This reversal of political fortunes raised expectations among advocates of tariff reform.

1893 CE - Italy - Pope Leo XIII an encyclical Rerum Novarum (Concerning New Things), sharply criticized both capitalism and socialism. He said that the state itself should act to remove serious abuses. He stated freedom and truths are incompatible as truth must be enforced by the state at the church's command wherever possible.

Grover Cleveland

1893 CE - United States - Grover Cleveland becomes the 24th President of the United States on the Democratic ticket. His Vice President was Adalai E. Stevenson, who served from 1893 CE until 1897 CE. Cleveland was a puppet of the Illuminati, while Stevenson was a Freemason. (7)

The economic dislocations of the most severe depression in the nation's history to date - stock market collapse, falling prices, violent labor strife, and the failure of hundreds of banks and businesses, including railroads - led numerous policymakers to conclude that capitalism had reached a crossroads. Many commentators pointed to expanded access to foreign markets as a potential cure for industrial overproduction. Frederick Jackson Turner's famous address at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition in Chicago captured the prevailing intellectual climate. He argued that America's seemingly limitless western frontier had effectively "closed" - the 1890 census indicated that eastern migration outpaced western migration for the first time. In the absence of this "safety valve" to absorb excess labor from eastern urban areas, receptive overseas markets seemed all the more critical as a corrective for a glut of manufactured goods, deflation, and severe unemployment. For their part, Democratic advocates of lower tariffs, like the influential economist David Wells, had preached the importance of foreign markets for years. Republicans, on the other hand, looked to reciprocity agreements as the wedge to expand trade.

United States Treasury Building

1893 CE - United States - The condition of the United States Treasury was such that fear existed as to the ability of the government to maintain its gold reserve for the protection of its treasury-notes. Business disturbances reduced the revenues below estimates, expenditures exceeded receipts and gold was constantly drawn out of the treasury. At the close of the fiscal year the reserve had decreased to $95,000,000, with prospects of further depletion. (8) An extra session of Congress was called in August to consider the financial condition. The President thought that the repeal of the Sherman law – which made compulsory the monthly purchase of 4,500,000 ounces of silver by the United States Treasurer – would bring some relief to the government. The law was repealed in October 1893 CE, but the shrinkage still went one, and when Congress adjourned, the reserve had fallen to $84,000,000, and at the end of January, 1894, to $65,000,000.

1894 CE - France - Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for high treason, the most famous victim of anti-semitism in France.

1894 CE - United States - On the 17th of January, the Secretary of the Treasury called for proposals for $50,000,000 five-per-cent bonds, payable in coin at the option of the government in ten years. These bonds brought $58,660,907, being sold at a premium; but as $24,000,000 of gold for their purchase was withdrawn from the treasury by the deposit of Treasury notes, only $34,000,000 was actually realized by the transaction, yet enough was obtained to bring the reserve up to $106,000,000. The exportation of gold still continuing, the reserve declined till in August it was $52,000,000, and a fresh loan on the same terms of a similar amount was offered Nov. 13, 1894 CE. Bids for more than three times the sum named were received, and the allotment of the bonds in December brought $58,820,747 into the treasury, which brought the reserve up to over $105,000,000. But by the end of December it had depleted to $86,000,000, in January 1895 CE, to $49,000,000, and in February to a little more than $41,000,000.

Given the widespread expectation that the Democratic majority would orchestrate significant tariff reform, the Wilson-Gorman Tariff proved to be one of the great disappointments of the second Cleveland administration. Protectionist Democrats in the Senate dismantled the House's more ambitious bill, restoring rates that had been marked for reduction. The resulting bill lowered duties slightly, but a myriad of concessions to protectionist interests neutralized its ambitious intent. A dejected President Cleveland allowed the bill to pass without his signature. Agrarian interests in the South and West viewed the compromised tariff as yet another betrayal by their party and president, to go along with Cleveland's hard money stance, his efforts to repeal the 1890 Silver Purchase Act, his brutal suppression of labor unrest, his seeming favoritism toward eastern capital interests, and his corresponding lack of empathy for the suffering of farmers and workers.

Consequences of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff

The Income Tax. The tariff bill's one high note rested with a modest income tax provision (assessing a rate of 2 percent for incomes over $4,000). The measure represented the first federal income tax since the Civil War. Unlike its wartime counterpart, however, broad-based popular pressure drove the passage of the new income tax in Congress. Prolonged economic dislocation and the transformation of the industrial economy set the stage. Reform parties from the Greenbacks and Anti-Monopolists in the 1870s and 1880s to the Populists in the 1890s had called for a graduated income tax in their platforms. Democrats from the South and West introduced nearly 70 income tax bills between 1874 CE and 1893 CE.

As was the case during the Civil War, revenue generation did not constitute the primary justification for the income tax. Rather, Gilded-Age tax reformers were responding to economic inequities fostered by unprecedented concentrations of corporate wealth in the guise of trusts and business combinations. It seemed unfair that the bulk of national revenue flowed from regressive tariff rates that taxed ordinary Americans at the point of consumption, while the profits of giant enterprises like railroads, sugar refiners, and steel manufacturers went untapped. Private accumulations in the form of securities, bonds, and savings also remained out of bounds. The issue became one of fairness and ability to pay. Benton McMillin, Democrat from Tennessee and chairman of the Ways and Means Subcommittee on Internal Revenue, said as much when he introduced the income tax measure that would eventually be fused to the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Bill:

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Benton McMillin of Tennessee, author of the post-Civil War income tax.

"I ask of any reasonable person whether it is unjust to expect that a small percent of this enormous revenue shall be placed upon the accumulated wealth of the country instead of placing all upon the consumption of the people … It is not a proposition to put an undue embargo upon wealth, but it is to make the wealth that is accumulated in this country pay some share of the expenses of government … My friends, are we going to put all of this burden on the things men eat and wear and leave out those vast accumulations of wealth?"

Opponents of the income tax, most of whom resided in eastern urban areas, derided it as "class legislation," some going so far as to label it communistic or the tool of socialist labor. David Wells, Democratic economist and well-known opponent of the tariff system, nonetheless condemned the income tax as "flagrant spoliation." He pointed to the excessively high exemption, which promised to exclude over 90 percent of all eligible taxpayers. Exemptions and graduated rates, Wells argued, violated the principle of equality before the law by penalizing the rich and favoring those below the exemption level. He added that the income tax had encouraged fraud and perjury during the Civil War, and currently threatened to encroach on state tax bases.

But many well-to-do proponents of the income tax, like E.R.A. Seligman, defended it as a moderate measure designed to "help round out the existing tax system in the direction of greater justice." The well-known lawyer and reformer viewed the progressive tax as decidedly preferable to more radical socialist prescriptions. He recognized the tax would help to correct the perception among many Americans that "our present tax system largely exempts those that are best able to pay," and criticized resistance from eastern urbanites as short-sighted.

A cartoon from the Ram's Horn, a social gospel magazine, depicting the workingman as burdened by both high taxes and a plutocrat, August 22, 1896.

Despite the New York Tribune's pronouncement that "the Democratic hen had hatched a Populist chicken," the income tax passed in 1894 CE more closely resembled Seligman's modest corrective than the wedge against corporate power and corruption desired by disaffected agrarians. Seligman and the Populists did share a conviction that the state could be employed to moderate the inequities of the free market. But middle-class Progressive reformers like Seligman endorsed government as an instrument of minimal adjustment, designed to immunize capitalism against radical socialist revision. The Populist movement articulated a more expansive vision of the government's role in promoting social justice and economic equity. Their goal was to transform a political economy dominated by eastern capital into a more democratic social order reminiscent of traditional republicanism. The party platform called for a number of reforms besides the income tax that implied a more active state, including monetary reform, regulation of transportation, antitrust legislation, and a sub-treasury to purchase agricultural surplus and extend credit to farmers.

Jacksonian Democrats in the antebellum era viewed a strong government as the font of corruption and privilege. In the 1890s, however, agrarian radicals turned to government as an instrument to redress these ills. The Cleveland administration abhorred such statist solutions. Cleveland's response to the income tax was lukewarm at best. The official Democratic Party platform of 1892 CE had not even endorsed such a measure. Given Cleveland's devotion to laissez-faire principles, it is little wonder that a modest income tax (and frustrated efforts at tariff reform) was not enough to redeem his presidency in the eyes of his party's southern and western wings.

Sugar. Given the rise of the People's Party and the popular sensitivity to the perils of monopoly, the Wilson-Gorman Tariff's sugar provisions proved damaging to the Democrats, who nominally posed as the champions of the public against the trusts. Ironically, Congress actually lowered the 0.5 cent duty on refined sugar implemented in 1890 CE. But the American Sugar Refining Company's domination of the domestic sugar market had become the subject of greater publicity in the interim; any tariff aid to a monopolistic trust was bound to be viewed negatively. Even though the refined sugar duty under the Wilson-Gorman Tariff was actually lower than the McKinley rate, the refined sugar provision turned out to be one of the biggest disappointments among earnest tariff reformers.

The Wilson-Gorman Tariff's other sugar provisions had drastic consequences on the international front. The depression-induced decline in customs duties prompted Congress to removed sugar from the duty-free list. The rate increase subsequently wreaked havoc on the Cuban economy, which relied heavily on the American market for its sugar crop. In response to tariff-inflated prices, Cuban exports to the United States fell off 50 percent, exacerbating sociopolitical strife and fomenting a revolution that set the stage for the Spanish-American War in 1898 CE.

Reciprocity. The Wilson-Gorman Tariff also repealed the 1890 McKinley reciprocity provisions.

In 1894 CE, Christmas was included in the first group of federal holidays. Previously, Congress had met, and mail was delivered, on Christmas Day.

The Worldwide Church of God, the Seventh-Day Adventists, and the Jehovah's Witnesses, all Christian religions, do not celebrate Christmas.

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

1895 CE - Germany - The German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers X rays.

1895 CE - Italy - Pope Leo XIII pronounced the Anglican Church invalid.

1895 CE - Russia - Vladimir IIich Ulyanov (Lenin) (1870 - 1924 CE), a Russian Jew, is deported to Siberia for five years, 1895 - 1900 CE.

1895 - 1897 CE - Turkey - Anthimus VII becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1895 CE - United States - In February, the President and Secretary of the Treasury made an arrangement with a syndicate of foreign bankers for maintaining the gold reserve, by which the government purchased 3,500,000 ounces of gold at $17.805 per ounce, giving in payment four-per-cent bonds to the amount of $62,317,500. The contract provided that at least one half of the gold was to be supplied from Europe, the shipments not to exceed 300,000 ounces per month, and that the syndicate should exert its influence to protect the treasury against withdrawals of gold pending the performance of the contract. The delivery of gold to the treasury began at once, and the reserve reached $68,000,000 by February 20th, $87,000,000 by February 28th, $90,000,000 by March 30th, and $107,523,162, June 29th – when the amount contracted for was all delivered and the obligation of the syndicate terminated.

In one of the landmark cases in the history of constitutional law, Pollock v. Farm Loan and Trust Co., the Supreme Court declared the Income Tax of 1894 unconstitutional. The Court had never before invalidated a congressional tax measure; in four cases since 1868 CE, including the most recent, Springer v. U.S., 1880, the justices had deferred to Congress and upheld income taxation, ruling it an excise or indirect tax, rather than a direct tax requiring apportionment among the states.

Income Tax Cartoon

Cartoon commenting on the Supreme Court decision overturning the 1894 income tax law, 1895. Source: Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

But in two separate Pollock rulings in April and May, the Court reversed its prior pronouncements. Speaking for the majority, Chief Justice Fuller focused on the specific sources of income subject to assessment. Since it had long been established that a tax on land was a direct tax, Fuller concluded that a tax on the income derived from land (rents or real estate sales) must also be considered a direct tax. Similarly, he dismissed any distinction between real and personal property; the direct tax clause circumscribed federal taxes on personal property and the income derived from it just as it did for real estate. The justices also agreed that Congress could not tax the income from state and municipal bonds. This decision had nothing to do with direct taxation; it struck the court, rather, as a violation of the principle of federalism – the national government had no power to tax the instrumentalities of the state. Since the elimination of these bases of taxation stood to alter the tenor of the original income tax law as passed by Congress, the Court proceeded to strike down the entire measure.

In coming to these conclusions, the justices concurred with the historical argument presented by the appellants – that the delegates at the Constitutional Convention had designed the direct tax clause to protect the sovereignty of the states by limiting the power of the national government in matters of taxation. (In fact, the delegates had proscribed the clause in the process of addressing slavery's impact on representation, not to protect state sovereignty.)

Dissenting Justices Harlan and White rued the majority's rejection of the Springer precedent. To proponents of income taxation, the ruling seemed a reactionary response on behalf of monied interests, or, as the Pulitzer's New York World characterized it, "another victory of greed over need." More conservative commentators, however, rejoiced at the decision. "Thanks to the Court," the New York Tribune effused, "our government is not to be dragged into a communistic warfare against the rights of property and the rewards of industry."

Cartoon commenting on the first of two Supreme Court decisions striking down the 1894 income tax law, 1895.

Yet the Pollock decision did not signal the utter demise of the income tax. The justices did not go nearly as far as the plaintiffs desired. The Court did disqualify certain classes of property from federal income taxation (real and personal property, state and municipal bonds), and overturned the 1894 act. But the justices did not rule that all sources of income fell under the direct tax rubric. They conspicuously demurred on the status of salaries, gifts, inheritances, and corporate profits. Counsel for the appellants had hoped the Court would declare all categories of income subject to apportionment, and thus beyond the pale. Similarly, Joseph Choate, one of the attorneys for the plaintiffs, sought to convince the Court that income taxation violated the "uniformity clause" in Article I, section 8 of the Constitution. He attempted to expand the concept of uniformity beyond geography to gradations of wealth, rendering the Constitution, in effect, "wealth blind." If the Court had accepted this idea, the instruments of a progressive tax - exemptions, exceptions, graduated rates - would have been neutralized at both the state and federal levels. Justice Joseph Field applauded this line of argument; in his concurring opinion he criticized his colleagues for ignoring the matter of uniformity and failing to render such "class legislation" completely inoperable.

In short, the Pollock decision raised an institutional barrier to the implementation of a national income tax, but did not preclude its resurrection at a later date.

1896 CE - France - The French philanthropist Pierre Decoubertin revives the Olympic Games.

The French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.

1896 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Qajar dynasty, with Mozafaruddin Shah as its ruler. Constitutional Law was written for the first time in Iran and the first Parliament set up in October 1906 CE.

1896 CE - Italy - Pope Leo XIII issued Satis Cognitum, inviting both Orthodox Catholics and Protestants to return to Rome and specifically avoided any mention of schism. However, he rejected a federation of churches as falling far short of the true mystical body of Christ.

1896 CE - Austria - Hungary - The Austro-Hungarian monarchy is a patchwork quilt, the national chain-gang of Europe, a state that is not a nation but a collection of nations. Yet it has survived formidable European coalitions to dismember it. All nations of the coalition hate the government, but they hate each other. The government uses an abundance of Roman Catholic priests to teach them to be docile and obedient, and they censor the press towards this end. Sometimes the censors suck all the blood out of the newspaper leaving it colorless and inane. The army is everywhere. Parliament is split with Clericals, the Progressists, the German Nationalists, the Young Czechs, the Social Democrats, Christian Socialists and others.

1896 CE - United States - On January 6, the Secretary of the Treasury called for sealed proposals for the purchase of $100,000,000 United States four-per-cent coupon bonds, payable in coin in thirty years. When the bids were opened their number was 4,640, offering to take $568,259,850 of bonds. The $100,000,000 was distributed to the Eastern, Western, Central and Southern states. This large over-subscription was a surprise to the country and the Treasury officials, and demonstrated the financial strength of the nation.

For the first time, the Democratic Party platform endorsed income taxation. A number of Democrats had already introduced constitutional amendments to allow for it, and found that rhetorical attacks on the Supreme Court resonated well with their constituents. The electoral campaign of William Jennings Bryant, however, focused extensively on the silver issue. The Republican platform made no mention of an income tax. The party's nominee, William McKinley, campaigned on prosperity ("a full dinner pail"), "sound money," and high tariffs. In a watershed election, a victorious McKinley managed to retain Republican electoral strongholds while making inroads into urban areas (New York, Boston, and Chicago) formally known as Democratic bulwarks. Bryant ran strongly only in the South, the Populist West, and silver mining states. The watershed election of 1896 CE brought an end to an era of closely contested partisan elections, and inaugurated a period of political stability that would allow for a broader airing of issues on the national stage.

McKinley won the presidential race with a great deal of support from Big Business, e.g., John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil contributed $250,000 to the "front porch" campaign that defeated Bryan and his populist platform of returning to the constitutionally mandated monetary system and reform of McKinley's high tariffs that had allowed domestic manufacturers to raise their prices to a level that matched the artificially-induced higher prices of foreign goods, thus causing a severe depression.

1897 - 1901 CE - Turkey - Constantine V becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1897 CE - United States - William McKinley is elected as the 25th President of the United States. McKinley was a Freemason (9) who was initiated on May 1, 1865 CE, at Hiram Lodge No. 21, in Winchester, Virginia. Brother McKinley became affiliated with Canton Lodge No. 60, Canton, Ohio on August 21, 1867 CE; and demitted from same to become a Charter Member of Eagle Lodge No. 431, also in Canton. Following Brother McKinley's death on September 14, 1901 CE, the name was changed to William McKinley Lodge effective October 24, 1901 CE. McKinley was governor of Ohio from 1892 CE until 1896 CE. (10) McKinely was assassinated and died in office on September 14, 1901 CE. His first Vice-President was Garret A. Hobart from 1897 CE until 1899 CE, whose status as a Freemason is unknown. His second Vice-President was Theodore Roosevelt in 1901, who was a Freemason and member of the Illuminati. (11) This is not the first, nor the last time, that Freemason power has placed a person in position as Vice-President before a President dies or is removed from office.

William McKinley

Under the stimulus of a large excess of exports, gold flowed into the country, and the Treasury reserve increased until, on December 31, 1898 CE, it reached $281,729,434, the highest amount on record [as of 1904 CE]. On June 30, 1899 CE, the amount was $273,393.480.

Cartoon parodying Republican tariff policy, c. 1897

The United States government showed great resiliency in being able to pay it's entire Civil War debt, enjoy a tremendous trade surplus and acquire vast amounts of gold reserves based on the financial strength of the nation. In less than fifteen years, America would fall victim to the Federal Reserve Act which based value on labor rather than on gold.

The strain of the Depression had forced the government to run a deficit since 1893 CE. The need for revenue and the mandate of the election of 1896 prompted congressional Republicans to pass the Dingley Tariff, pushing rates to an all-time high. By request of President McKinley, the act also reinstated, redefined, and advanced the reciprocity principle. The tariff of 1897 enjoyed the most extended tenure of any general tariff act in U.S. history (the Walker Tariff of 1846 was second). Its longevity was attributable in part to the stability of the Republican regime in the wake of the political "realignment" following the 1896 CE elections, as well as the general prosperity that followed.

Membership badge of the Order of Founders and Patriots of America

The medal from Admiral Dewey's grouping is the membership badge of the Order of Founders and Patriots of America, founded in 1896 CE. Membership is open to males descended from someone who settled in the colonies prior to May 1657 CE, and from someone who "adhered to the cause of the patriots" in the Revolution. The organization still exists, with membership of about 1200.

George Dewey was member No. 552 of the national society and No. 93 of the Pennsylvania society. He was governor general of the society 1904 - 1906 CE. Please note the similarity to the Order of the Garter Star.

1897 CE - Switzerland - Jews of Palestine led by Theodor Herzl at Basel, Switzerland, call for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine (first Zionist Congress).

1897 CE - Germany - German chemist Felix Hoffmann invents aspirin.

1897 CE - Italy - Pope Leo XIII established new norms for censorship and in 1900 CE a new index that denied any real significance to Christian Democracy in Italy. The Roman Church's barbaric castration of boys for adult sopranos ended about this time, having originated in Constantinople. Religious dogma also led some pious men to emasculate themselves to avoid sexual sin or temptation. This barbaric practice persisted into the twentieth century in Russia.

1897 CE - Russia - Leo Tolstroy, a Russian novelist, proposed that the Doukhobor Sect be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. This infuriated the Russian Orthodox Church and caused more trouble for this religious group. Tolstroy would in 1899 provide the funds to ship some 7,500 Doukhobors to Canada.

Ancient Model Aircraft

Ancient Model Aircraft

1898 CE - Egypt - There are artifacts belonging to ancient Egyptian and Central American cultures that look amazingly like modern-day aircraft. In 1898 CE, a peculiar six-inch wooden object was found in a tomb at Saqquara, Egypt that dated back to about 200 BCE. The object had a body or fuselage, seven-inch wings that curved downward slightly, a fixed rudder and a tail. It looked very much like a modern airplane or glider. Experts believe the object is so aerodynamic that it is actually able to glide. But since airplanes had not yet been invented in 1898 CE, it was labeled as a model of bird and stored away in the basement of the Cairo museum.

The small object discovered in Central America (shown at right), and estimated to be 1,000 years old, is made of gold and could easily be mistaken for a model of a delta-wing aircraft - or even the Space Shuttle. It even features what looks like a pilot's seat. [about]

1898 CE - Crete - The Ottoman protectorate grants autonomy to Crete.

1898 CE - United States - During the administration of William McKinley, in 1898 CE, the United States became embroiled in war with Spain, commencing with the sinking of the battleship Maine in Cuba. As a result of her defeat at the hands of the Americans, Spain ceded the islands of Porto Rico, Guam and the Philippine Islands to the United States in 1898 CE by the treaty of Paris. The Americans paid Spain twenty million dollars for the Philippine rights. The Philippines however declared their independence.

U.S.S. Maine

Salvaging the U.S.S. Maine in 1911

Title and sovereignty over Cuba was also included in this treaty. This marks the first time that the United States Congress owned and controlled territory outside of the United States by cession through military conquest. Cuba was given a provisional government and later granted it's independence from the United States government. The Philippine Islands were eventually granted their independence from the United States after World War II. Porto Rico is still owned by the United States, although it has never been incorporated within the United States. It's name was changed to Puerto Rico in 1932 CE, however Puerto Rico still maintains its Coat of Arms showing Spanish authority.

The Spanish-American War proved too brief to inspire the array of financial innovations required to prosecute the Civil War. Congress, however, did not rely exclusively on tariffs or excises to fund the war effort; it turned instead to a national inheritance tax to meet the costs of combat.

In 1976 CE, Adm. Hyman Rickover of the U.S. Navy mounted yet another investigation into the cause of the Maine disaster. His team of experts found that the ship's demise was self- inflicted – likely the result of a coal bunker fire.

Andrew Carnegie

The inheritance tax boasted several well-known proponents, the most surprising of whom may have been steel magnate Andrew Carnegie. In The Gospel of Wealth, his renowned 1890 CE essay in the North American Review, Carnegie advocated a progressive federal inheritance tax designed to confiscate most of a decedent's estate, leaving only a modest allowance for immediate heirs. Notable academic economists from Richard T. Ely to E.R.A. Seligman concurred with Carnegie.

Cartoon commenting on excise tax increases during the Spanish-American War, 1898.

The bill passed by Congress in 1898 CE taxed legacies and inherited personal property on a graduated scale according to the size of the estate and the degree of relationship to the deceased (surviving husbands and wives received a general exemption). A maximum rate of 15 percent applied to bequests from estates valued over $1 million to distant relatives, nonrelatives, or "bodies politic or corporate." The bill also included an excise on receipts in excess of $200,000 assessed to firms in the petroleum and sugar refining industries. Overall, war-time inheritance taxation yielded about $22.5 million.

The inheritance tax endured a war revenue reduction bill in 1901 CE, but Congress repealed it a year later. Several prominent southern legislators argued to retain the tax, since it reached citizens and classes of property untouched by other federal tax provisions, but a large Republican majority insured its demise.

The tax did survive judicial review. In Knowlton v. Moore (1900 CE) the Supreme Court ruled inheritance taxation as an "indirect excise not subject to apportionment." More important, the justices found that the tax's progressivity did not violate the Constitution's uniformity clause.

Cartoon commenting on turn of the century tax policies, c. 1899-1900.

1899 CE - Africa - Britain occupies the Sudan.

1899 CE - France - French President émile Loubet, 1838 - 1929 CE, cancels the deportation sentence imposed, on 9 September 1899, on French Jew, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, 1859 - 1935 CE, by a second court martial, which again had falsely found him guilty, "with extenuating circumstances" this time, of passing secrets to the Germans, repeating the travesty of justice of the first court-martial of 22 December 1894 CE, which sent Dreyfus to notorious Devil's Island. In July 1906 CE, the civilian Cour d'Appel would exonerate Dreyfus, on 22 July 1906 CE, he would be reinstated in the army and awarded the Légion d'Honneur. Major Hubert Joseph Henry, forger of the military cover-up, had alread confessed and, at the end of August 1898 CE, committed suicide, which provoked Major Marie-Charles-Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy, 1847 - 1923 CE, the real spy, who had forged evidence against Dreyfus, whom a court-martial had falsely exonerated, to flee the country.

1899 CE - Netherlands - As a result of the Vatican stance against Democracy the Vatican is excluded from the first Hague International Peace Conference summoned by the Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, 1895 - 1917 CE, to discuss the limitation of armaments.

1899 CE - Russia - The Doukhbour, a traditionalist sect of the Russian Orthodox Church, are outcasts because they rejected icon worship, practice pacifism, practice humanitarian love, communal life and believe all people are equal. Some 7,500 men, women and children embark this year for Saskatchewan, Canada. The Federal Government of Canada promised them they could practice their communal land and village system, use their Russian language schools and practice their pacifist beliefs as the early Christians had done before them.

1899 CE - Uganda - An estimated 2.4 million people were exterminated by the British as a result of a 5 year war in the kingdoms of Bunyord/Mengo (Buyaga, Bugangaizi) in mid-western Uganda. The invading British pillaged, raped and murdered the people. They introduced syphilis, which became an epidemic. Those they didn't kill, were hounded out of their prime lands to make room for British settlers. Large tracts of lands were depopulated.

1899 - 1900 CE CE - United States - Questions of trade gradually grew inseparable from questions of foreign policy. Secretary of State John Hay's "Open Door Notes" to European powers called for territorial integrity (no scramble for European colonization) and equal commercial opportunity in China, the linchpin of the potentially lucrative Asian market. The "open door principle" became a foreign policy imperative, as internationalists continued to question the efficacy of high tariffs that discouraged free and market expansion. American officials called for an Open Door in Asia, where they had less influence relative to other established European nations. In the western hemisphere, where the United States stood as the dominant power, they supported a selective reduction of tariffs through reciprocity agreements. Rather than encourage hemispheric competition for certain commodities (like agricultural products), Americans preferred to reduce duties only on the specific goods they needed to import. Besides, many Latin American countries, as well as Canada, saw disadvantages to economic integration with a potentially hegemonic United States.

The Antikythera Mechanism

1900 CE - Crete - A perplexing artifact was recovered by sponge-divers from a shipwreck in 1900 CE off the coast of Antikythera, a small island that lies northwest of Crete. The divers brought up from the wreck a great many marble and bronze statues that had apparently been the ship's cargo. Among the findings was a hunk of corroded bronze that contained some kind of mechanism composed of many gears and wheels. Writing on the case indicated that it was made in 80 BCE, and many experts at first thought it was an astrolabe, an astronomer's tool. An x-ray of the mechanism, however, revealed it to be far more complex, containing a sophisticated system of differential gears. Gearing of this complexity was not known to exist until 1575 CE! It is still unknown who constructed this amazing instrument 2,000 years ago or how the technology was lost. [about]

1900 CE - Germany - Sigmund Freud publishes the Interpretation of Dreams. Max Planck invents the Quantum Theory.

1901 CE - France - Restrictive measures in France forced the Jesuits, Benedictines, Carmelites and other religious orders to leave the country. Subsequently, 14,000 schools were suppressed; religious orders and congregations were expelled; the concordat was renounced in 1905 CE; church property was confiscated in 1906 CE. For some years the Holy See, refusing to comply with government demands for the control of bishops' appointments, left some ecclesiastical offices vacant.

1901 CE - England - Edward VIII (Albert Edward), king of Great Britain and Ireland, eldest son of Queen Victoria is a member of the Freemasons.

1901 - 1912 CE - Turkey - Joachim III, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1901 CE - United States - The control of finite resources, and with it the diminution of democracy, was well advanced by 1901 CE when Morgan and Rockefeller, who headed the two main financial groups in America, amalgamated 112 corporate directorates, combining $22.2 billion in assets – a massive sum in those days.

The first thirty years of the twentieth century witnessed the rise of the modern income tax in the United States. More energized than demoralized by the Supreme Court's invalidation of the 1894 income tax, fiscal reformers mounted a powerful campaign to resuscitate the levy. By 1913 CE, they had engineered ratification of a new constitutional amendment, clearly establishing the federal government's authority to levy an income tax.

In its first two years, the tax was modest, providing only a small part of the government's total revenue. But World War I transformed it, moving income taxes to the center of federal finance. Democrats and progressive Republicans remained the strongest advocates of income taxation, but even mainstream Republicans came to accept the levy. By the early 1920s, it was firmly established as a centerpiece of the federal tax system.

Albert Pike

In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, British-centered finance had gained supremacy over American industry and U.S. policy-making. Under British sponsorship, Pike's Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, came to rule over much of the world's Freemasonry. At length its headquarters moved from South Carolina to Washington, D.C. James Daniel Richardson is installed as Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Freemasonry in America, a post he would hold until his death in 1914 CE.

New York Chief Detective Lieutenant Joseph Petrosino, had warned the Secret Service about an imminent assassination attempt against President William McKinley. Petrosino had learned of the plot by infiltrating his agents into the Henry Street Settlement House in New York, a hot bed of British Fabian Society and international anarchist activity. The Secret Service ignored his warnings, and McKinley was assassinated months later, leaving British agent and B'nai B'rith ally, Teddy Roosevelt, to assume the Presidency. Theodore Roosevelt, a racialist Anglophile, passionate Freemason (12) and British agent (A), had become U.S. President September 14, 1901 CE, upon the shooting death of William McKinley.

Roosevelt was initiated into Freemasonry on January 2, 1901 CE at the Matinecock Lodge No. 806 in Oyster Bay, New York. Brother and President Roosevelt visited the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania (in its present home, the Masonic Temple at One North Broad Street) on November 5, 1902 CE, for the Celebration of the Sesqui-Centennial of Brother George Washington's Initiation into Freemasonry. Roosevelt was governor of New York from 1899 CE until 1901 CE. Brother and President Roosevelt issued an Executive Order, dated October 17, 1901 CE, which changed the name of the "Executive Mansion" to the "White House." His Vice-President was Charles W. Fairbanks from 1905 CE until 1909 CE. Theodore Roosevelt, who was blood related to both President Martin Van Buren and to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, is on record. There are Dutchmen in the genealogy of the Roosevelt presidents in the line that goes back to the British royalty. Other prominent elitists tie back to the Netherlands and Belgium. Elizabeth Van Buren wrote The Sign of the Dove which is a book about the Merovingian's [the 13th Top Illuminati bloodline] and Jesus. The book takes a Gnostic approach to religion, and puts forth the idea that the Merovingian's were of extra-terrestrial descent. (13) Roosevelt was related to the following Presidents: George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Martin Van Buren, Franklin Roosevelt and William Taft. (14)

Teddy Roosevelt's reign was the Lost Cause triumphant: Roosevelt's revered exiled uncle, James Bulloch, Judah Benjamin's secret service chief in England, had ghostwritten young Teddy's book on naval history; and Teddy's clique had finally conquered Cuba in the 1898 U.S. War with Spain. The Washington, D.C. statue honoring Klan founder Albert Pike was dedicated 39 days after Teddy Roosevelt's inauguration. The B'nai B'rith and 'Egyptian Principles' in his admiring biography of Judah Benjamin, Eli Evans quotes the famous attack against Benjamin's pro-slavery fanaticism by Ohio's Senator Ben Wade –

"when old Moses, under the immediate inspiration of God Almighty, enticed a whole nation of slaves, and ran away … to old Canaan, I suppose that Pharaoh and all the chivalry of old Egypt denounced him as a most furious abolitionist … There were those who loved Egypt better than they loved liberty … They were 'Israelites with Egyptian principles.'''

Senator Wade's barb hit its mark. Judah Benjamin had deserted the religion of Moses. He had spat on the law of freedom, the gift that Jews celebrate in the Passover seder (which was also Christ's last supper).

Theodore Roosevelt. Photo courtesy of the National Archives.

The change was unsettling for GOP stalwarts, who had tried to derail Roosevelt's soaring political career by installing him as vice president. In 1897 CE, he had been named Assistant Secretary of the Navy by President McKinley. He soon resigned, however, to lead his famous Rough Riders in the Spanish-American War. Upon his return to the United States, he won election as governor of New York. Widely considered a reformer within his own party, Roosevelt worried the GOP establishment. Republican power brokers, including McKinley confidant Mark Hanna, believed Roosevelt would pose less of a threat once occupied with the exalted but largely ceremonial duties of the vice presidency.

After McKinley's assassination, those same leaders confronted the unsettling results of their handiwork. Roosevelt, however, moved quickly to reassure party leaders and the nation that he would continue the careful, conservative policies of his predecessor.

Roosevelt was slow to move on tax issues, at least early in his presidency. Congress, however, had other plans. In March, lawmakers passed the War Revenue Reduction Act, repealing or reducing most of the taxes enacted to pay for Spanish-American War. Several levies, however, remained largely intact, including the inheritance tax and numerous excises. Democrats criticized the law for failing to reduce consumption taxes adequately, especially in light of the Republican preference for steep tariffs. Democrats also argued for a new income tax on individuals and corporations, but GOP leaders easily defeated such ideas.

1902 CE - England - The Third International Congress for the Welfare and Protection of Children held in London saw the Reverend Marshall G. Vine, warden of Red Hill Reformatory, which sent boy slaves to Canada, established a general rule that boys ought never to return to parents who plan to sweat them. The audience boisterously responded with a hearty Hear, Hear. Between 1869 CE and 1940 CE, approximately 80,000 to 100,000 children, aged 2 years to 15 years, are deported to Canada, where it is estimated that 50% were sweated, i.e., mistreated, abused and neglected. Many were sold into farm slavery for a profit.

Sereno Payne (R-N.Y.) served as chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee from 1899 - 1911 CE. Illustration courtesy of the House Ways and Means Committee.

1902 CE - United States - House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Sereno Payne (R-N.Y.) introduced a bill to repeal all remaining taxes levied for the Spanish-American war. Reassured by predictions of a large surplus in the federal Treasury, lawmakers agreed. While most Democrats urged retention of the federal inheritance tax and various corporation taxes, they ultimately acquiesced in the GOP plan. Both the House and Senate passed the tax cut overwhelmingly.

1903 CE - Panama - Panama proclaims its independence from Colombia.

1903 CE - England - Ellinor Close this year proposed that 7,000 – 2 to 3 year olds be deported, and thereby trained in New Brunswick at Canadian expense and returned to England when employable. The Times praised the scheme because the children are to be the ailing and feeble-minded, therefore England would not be bled of her best stock. Ellinor Close's Children's Farm Association did implement the plan for several years. The death rate in these New Brunswick institutions reached 80% per year in some years. The abuse both sexual and physical was reported to run high.

St. Pius X

1903 - 1914 CE - Italy - Pius X, alias Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, with the motto to restore all things in Christ, is elected pope. Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria had vetoed Cardinal Rampolla, the favorite candidate for pope. After being elected to clarify his position, he said his intention is to be a religious rather than a political pope. He established the Gregorian chant as the model of ideal church music.

1904 CE - Viet Nam - Phan Boi Chau founds the Vietnamese Reformation Society and leads protests against the French.

1904 CE - Nambia - On August 14, The Hereros rebelled against the German colonialists. The cattle-herding tribe of German South West Africa (later Namibia), were the first genocide victims of the 20th century. Kaiser Wilhelm II had sent General Lothar von Trotha to put down the Herero uprising. Trotha drove the Hereros into the desert and then issued a formal "extermination order" authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some 9,000 escaped to neighboring countries. In 2004 CE, a senior German government official apologized for the genocide during a ceremony in Namibia marking the 100th anniversary of the uprising.

Namibia, Africa

1904 CE - Italy - Pope Pius X insisted unyieldingly on church rights that led to a diplomatic break with France and church property is transferred to lay associations.

1904 CE - Russia - Japan - The Russo-Japanese War begins. The occasion for the Russo-Japanese war of 1904 CE was Russia's refusal to withdraw its troops from Manchuria following the suppression of the 1900 Boxer Rebellion in China, a withdrawal required by the treaty protocol. Negotiations brought no Czarist back-down, and on 9 February 1904 CE, Japan launched an attack, and mauled the Russian Far Eastern Fleet anchored at Port Arthur. Japan, in this fight, possessed the advantage of a modernized and German trained army of 300,000 field troops, with a reserve of 400,000 trained reservists. Czarist Russia's conscript army in the Far East, ill trained and low in morale, was 80,000 at the beginning of 1904 CE, and was reinforced slowly, to a low maximum of 250,000 in December 1904 CE. The Japanese fleet was superior both in size and in quality. In short, a surprise naval attack, the blockade and siege of Port Arthur, a land victory at Mukden, and the destruction of Russia's Baltic fleet, brought success to Japan and the acquisition of Port Arthur, eventually renamed Vladivostok.

Theodore Roosevelt

1904 CE - United States - Theodore Roosevelt won an easy re-election campaign, despite the misgivings of conservative Republicans.

The Supreme Court found the oleomargarine tax to be constitutional. Originally enacted in 1886 CE at the behest of dairy interests, the tax was designed to prevent margarine – which was relatively cheap to manufacture – from competing with butter in the marketplace. The tax was almost purely regulatory, although it did raise significant revenue as margarine became increasingly popular.

1905 CE - Germany - Einstein publishes the "Special Theory of Relativity."

Count Alfred von Schlieffen submits a plan for a German preemptive strike via Belgium against France.

1905 CE - Italy - Pope Pius X, for fear of socialism, partly lifted the ban on Catholics participation in elections as a matter of faith. He considered modernism as a synthesis of all heresies.

Sergei Nilus

1905 CE - Russia - The Protocols of the Elders of Zion are published by Sergei Nilus. The book in which they are embodied was first published in the year 1897 CE by Philip Stepanov for private circulation among his intimate friends. The first time Nilus published them was in 1901 CE in a book called The Great Within the Small and reprinted in 1905 CE. A copy of this is in the British Museum bearing the date of its reception, August 10, 1906 CE. All copies that were known to exist in Russia were destroyed in the Kerensky regime, and under his successors the possession of a copy by anyone in Soviet land was a crime sufficient to ensure the owner's of being shot on sight. The fact is in itself sufficient proof of the genuineness of the Protocols. The Jewish journals, of course, say that they are a forgery, leaving it to be understood that Professor Nilus, who embodied them in a work of his own, had concocted them for his own purposes.

"The Zionists-the Jesuits are the Great Zionists. They control all of the historical High Zionists-Theodor Herzl, David Ben-Gurion, Golda Meir. Zionism is a Masonic term, coined by the Jesuits. They are the rulers; they are the Protocols; they are the Elders of Zion. So the Zionists are, indeed, evil and wicked; but they are controlled by Rome. The Jews are not all Zionists."

      Protocols of Zion, Sergei Nilus, Preface, 1897.

This comment ties together the Roman Catholic Church – the "Universal Church" – alleged to have begun by the Jewish disciples of Jesus, the Prieuré de Sion – a continuation of the Jewish Merovingian line, the inception of the Illuminati by St. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit Society of Jesus – the army of the Pope, the "resurrection" of the Illuminati by Adam Weishaupt – a Jewish Jesuit, the planned takeover of the Masonic lodges by the Jewish-controlled Illuminati, and the final mergence of the Illuminati and Masonic lodges at the Congress of Wilhelmsbad, as ALL being under the control and influence of the Jew.

1906 CE - Italy - Against the advice of most of the bishops, Pope Pius X prohibited any compromise settlement concerning the Law of Separation of church and state, thereby securing in his mind the churches independence. The price to be paid by the Vatican is material ruin.

Franz Xavier Wernz is elected Jesuit Superior General, succeeding Luis Martin.

1906 CE - United States - In a speech on April 14, 1906 CE, President Theodore Roosevelt endorsed a progressive estate tax:

"It is important to this people to grapple with the problems connected with the amassing of enormous fortunes, and the use of those fortunes, both corporate and individual, in business. We should discriminate in the sharpest way between fortunes well-won and fortunes ill-won; between those gained as an incident to performing great services to the community as a whole, and those gained in evil fashion by keeping just within the limits of mere law-honesty.

Of course no amount of charity in spending such fortunes in any way compensates for misconduct in making them. As a matter of personal conviction, and without pretending to discuss the details or formulate the system, I feel that we shall ultimately have to consider the adoption of some such scheme as that of a progressive tax on all fortunes, beyond a certain amount either given in life or devised or bequeathed upon death to any individual - a tax so framed as to put it out of the power of the owner of one of these enormous fortunes to hand on more than a certain amount to any one individual; the tax, of course, to be imposed by the National and not the State Government.

Such taxation should, of course, be aimed merely at the inheritance or transmission in their entirety of those fortunes swollen beyond all healthy limits."

Signature of William Henry Moody

William Henry Moody, a Freemason, was nominated as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court by Masonic President Theodore Roosevelt. He held the position from 1906 CE until 1910 CE.

1907 CE - Russia - Lev (Leon) Davidovich Bronstein (Trotsky), 1879 - 1940 CE, a Jewish Russian, is deported to Western Siberia, where he escaped.

1907 CE - Persia (Iran) - Britain and Russia sign a treaty dividing Iran into respective spheres of influence.

1907 CE - Persia (Iran) - Mohammad Ali Shah, 1872 - 1925 CE, was the shah of Iran from January 8, 1907 CE to July 16, 1909 CE. He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father. He dissolved the Assembly and was supported by Russia. However, he abdicated following a new constitutional revolution and he was remembered as a symbol of dictatorship.

He fled to Russia and his attempts to regain the throne did not result in success. His son and successor, Ahmad Shah Qajar was the last ruler in the Qajar dynasty.

1907 CE - Europe - Britain, France and Russia create the "Triple Entente" against Prussia's expansionism under Wilhelm II.

1907 CE - United States - Roosevelt stepped up his campaign for several progressive additions to the nation's tax system. In his December 7 message to Congress, he urged lawmakers to consider an income tax.

"When our tax laws are revised the question of an income tax and an inheritance tax should receive the careful attention of our legislators. In my judgment both of these taxes should be part of our system of Federal taxation. I speak diffidently about the income tax because one scheme for an income tax was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court; while in addition it is a difficult tax to administer in its practical working, and great care would have to be exercised to see that it was not evaded by the very men whom it was most desirable to have taxed, for if so evaded it would, of course, be worse than no tax at all; as the least desirable of all taxes is the tax which bears heavily upon the honest as compared with the dishonest man. Nevertheless, a graduated income tax of the proper type would be a desirable feature of Federal taxation, and it is to be hoped that one may be devised which the Supreme Court will declare constitutional."

The inheritance tax was even more desirable, Roosevelt continued. Not only did it serve the cause of social justice, but it also enjoyed the Supreme Court's constitutional impramatur:

"The inheritance tax, however, is both a far better method of taxation, and far more important for the purpose of having the fortunes of the country bear in proportion to their increase in size a corresponding increase and burden of taxation. The Government has the absolute right to decide as to the terms upon which a man shall receive a bequest or devise from another, and this point in the devolution of property is especially appropriate for the imposition of a tax. Laws imposing such taxes have repeatedly been placed upon the National statute books and as repeatedly declared constitutional by the courts; and these laws contained the progressive principle, that is, after a certain amount is reached the bequest or gift, in life or death, is increasingly burdened and the rate of taxation is increased in proportion to the remoteness of blood of the man receiving the bequest."

Roosevelt rejected arguments that an estate tax would penalize thrift.

"A heavy progressive tax upon a very large fortune is in no way such a tax upon thrift or industry as a like would be on a small fortune. No advantage comes either to the country as a whole or to the individuals inheriting the money by permitting the transmission in their entirety of the enormous fortunes which would be affected by such a tax; and as an incident to its function of revenue raising, such a tax would help to preserve a measurable equality of opportunity for the people of the generations growing to manhood. We have not the slightest sympathy with that socialistic idea which would try to put laziness, thriftlessness and inefficiency on a par with industry, thrift and efficiency; which would strive to break up not merely private property, but what is far more important, the home, the chief prop upon which our whole civilization stands. Such a theory, if ever adopted, would mean the ruin of the entire country – a ruin which would bear heaviest upon the weakest, upon those least able to shift for themselves. But proposals for legislation such as this herein advocated are directly opposed to this class of socialistic theories. Our aim is to recognize what Lincoln pointed out: The fact that there are some respects in which men are obviously not equal; but also to insist that there should be an equality of self-respect and of mutual respect, an equality of rights before the law, and at least an approximate equality in the conditions under which each man obtains the chance to show the stuff that is in him when compared to hisfellows."

Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin

1908 CE - Germany - The first "zeppelin", created by Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, lands in a Germany city.

1908 CE - England - Germany - Britain and Germany engage in a "naval race."

1908 CE - Turkey - In Turkey, the Sultan, "Abdul the Damned," was overthrown by the Young Turks, whose impetus, unfortunately, was more merely nationalistic than liberal. Meanwhile, Greece was able to add Thessaly (1881 CE, with adjustments in 1897 CE). A rebellion on Crete led to autonomy (1898 CE) as a prelude to Greek control (1912 CE). Romania and Bulgaria declare their independence from the Ottoman empire.

1908 CE - Austria - Bulgaria became independent and Austria annexed the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with most of its protectorate from the Congress of Berlin.

1908 CE - United States - William Howard Taft won the presidential election to succeed Roosevelt. Handpicked by his predecessor, Taft was considered fairly liberal within his party, but he presented a less threatening image to party regulars. While supporting certain reformist ideas, including the possibility of limited taxes on income and estates, he moved cautiously in advancing such ideas.

The United States and England, long under the jurisdiction of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (1817 CE) as mission territories, were removed from its control and placed under the common law of the Church.

"The Catholic church has persecuted … when she thinks it is good to use physical force she will use it … Will the Catholic Church give bond that she will not persecute? … The Catholic Church gives no bonds for her good behaviour."Western Watchman, December 24th, 1908.

1909 CE - Palestine - Tel Aviv is founded as a Hebrew speaking Jewish city.

1909 CE - Persia (Iran) - The Qajar dynasty is ruled by Ahmad Shah. The Qajar dynasty fell to the Pahlavi dynasty in 1925 CE.

Lt. Joseph Petrosino

William Howard Taft

1909 CE - Italy - Lieutenant Joseph Petrosino, the detective who warned American Secret Service of the plot to kill President McKinley, was assassinated in March 1909 CE in Sicily while meeting with Italian police to establish cooperation, and probing links between criminal elements and anarchist networks operating in both the United States and Italy.

1909 CE - United States - William Howard Taft became the 27th President of the United States on the Republican ticket. A Freemason, (15) , Taft was initiated on February 18, 1909 CE. Brother Taft was made a "Mason at Sight" within the Body of Kilwinning Lodge No. 356 in Cincinnati, Ohio, by Grand Master Charles S. Hoskinson. His father and two brothers were also Members of this Lodge. Brother and President Taft addressed the Brethren, saying, "I am glad to be here, and to be a Mason. It does me good to feel the thrill that comes from recognizing on all hands the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man." Brother and President Taft visited the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on the occasion of a Special Communication held in the Masonic Temple (One North Broad Street), on March 12, 1912 CE. Taft was a member of the Order of Skull and Bones. The Taft family, which dates back to Braintree Massachusetts in 1679 CE, helped start the Skull & Bones Order, and at least eight Taft's have been in the Order. (16) His Vice-President was James S. Sherman from 1909 CE until 1912 CE.

An uneasy coalition of Democrats and western Republicans joined to support passage of an individual income tax. The specter of a hostile Supreme Court haunted the debate. Some observers believed the justices would invalidate an incom etax, just as they had in 1895. Others, however, thought the Court had changed to reflect growing bipartisan – and popular – support for the levy. A few income tax supporters wanted to press the issue regardless of the Court's likely response, eager to make the case for progressive taxation. In any case, the income tax coalition developed a moderate proposal and sought to attach it to tariff legislation in the Senate.

Sen. Nelson Aldrich. Illustration courtesy of the United States Senate.

Barry Morris Goldwater

GOP leaders were alarmed by rebellion in their own ranks, with numerous Republican progressives indicating their support for a new income tax. Senate Finance Committee Chairman Nelson Aldrich (R-R.I.) tried to fend off the income tax proposal, but pro-tax forces enjoyed considerable momentum. Worried that Aldrich would lose the battle, Prisdent Taft convinced the senator that a modest tax on corporate income would siphon off support for general income taxation. In doing so, it would deny victory to the congressional income tax coalition, preserving GOP unity.

Taft - who had earlier indicated some openness to income taxation anyway - orchestrated passage of a 1 percent tax on net corporate income. Framed as an excise tax on the privilege of doing business as a corporation, the levy was carefully designed to sidestep constitutional issues surrounding the income tax.

As Taft had predicted, the corporation tax successfully deflated the larer income tax movement – at least for the time being.

The corporation tax included a publicity requirement that all returns be open to public inspection. As with publicity provisions during the Civil War, this requirement proved unpopular, especially among small business owners unaccustomed to releasing information. Taft argued, however, that publicity would enhance federal oversight of corporations, aiding lawmakers, administration officials, and investors. In fact, the publicity feature was key to Progressive support for the law, helping convince many lawmakers to accept the corporate excise tax in lieu of a broader income tax that included individuals.

Former U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater is born in the Arizona Territory. His uncle, Morris Goldwater, was grand master of Arizona in 1888 CE. The Masonic Scottsdale (Arizona) Lodge 43 recognized Senator Barry Goldwater for his 50 years of public service and 62 years in Masonry.

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