The Curse of the Corporation

Part XX – 1860 CE to 1877 CE

1860 CE - Africa - Spain invades Morocco.

1860 CE - Lebanon - Syria - Muslims in Lebanon and Syria riot against the wealthier Christians.

Garibaldi Statue in Rome, Italy

1860 CE - Sicily - Italy - Garibaldi lands his forces in Sicily and invades southern Italy. On 18 September 1860 CE, the Piedmonts and Pope Pius IX's army clashed at Castelfidardo, where the Papal army, under a French general, was beaten. On October 15, Victor Emmanuel's troops entered the Kingdom of Naples, which a week later elected almost unanimously to join Piedmont. Garibaldi, from a sense of patriotic duty, retired from the political scene. The Kingdom of Italy is created with its capital at Florence. Victor Emmanuel II (1861 - 1878 CE) becomes King.

The Vatican lost all their dominions with the exception of Rome to the New Kingdom of Italy. A French garrison protects the pope for the next ten years.

1860 - 1863 CE - Turkey - Joachim II becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1860 CE - England - Jews in England for the first time were given equal rights with other citizens.

1860 CE - United States - The Civil War represented a watershed moment in the history of American taxation. The quick, limited engagement both sides confidently predicted soon proved a chimera. Instead, the exigencies of protracted, destructive warfare – engulfing private property and civilian populations as well as commissioned combatants – demanded innovations in government financing. While the outcome of the conflict may be attributed to any number of contingent factors, the varying fiscal strategies undertaken by the Union and Confederate governments undoubtedly influenced the capacity of both societies to sustain the war effort. North and South employed markedly different approaches. The North's proved more efficacious in the long run.

Abraham Lincoln, running as a Republican, was one of 4 contenders for the Presidency. Lincoln was elected President of United States by less than a majority of the popular vote with 39.9%. The other losing candidates included Stephen A. Douglas as a Democrat (29.5%), John C. Breckenridge as a Southern Democrat (18.1%) and John Bell, running as a Constitutional Unionist (12.5%). Douglas, Breckenridge and Bell were all Masons.

The people who had opposed the original concept of the federal government had predicted a civil war as early as 1788 CE based on their perceptions of the European governments of the era. These colonists aired their thoughts in the Anti-Federalist papers concerning potential domestic hostilities. Some of the authors included "The Farmer," Patrick Henry, and "Philanthropos." Three states – Rhode Island, New York, and notably the most powerful of the time, Virginia had retained the right to resume the powers granted by the federal government whenever they may be used to their detriment, in an act approving the Constitution on June 26, 1788 CE –

      We, the delegates of the people of Virginia, duly elected in pursuance of a recommendation from the General Assembly, and now met in Convention, having fully and freely investigated and discussed the proceedings of the Federal Convention, and being prepared as well as the most mature deliberation hath enabled us, to decide thereon, DO, in their name and in behalf of the people of Virginia, declare and make known, that the powers granted under the Constitution, being derived from the people of the United States, may be resumed by them, whenever the same shall be perverted to their injury or oppression; and that every power not granted thereby remains with them, and at their will. That therefore no right of any denomination can be cancelled, abridged, restrained or modified by the congress, by the Senate or House of Representatives, acting in any capacity by the President or any department or officer of the United States, except in those instances in which power is given by the Constitution for those purposes; and that among other essential rights, the liberty of conscience and of the press cannot be cancelled, abridged, restrained or modified by any authority of the United States [emphasis added].

      Act of the State of Virginia adopting the Federal Constitution, passed June 26, 1788.

The Chicago Daily Times, on December 10, 1860 CE, saw the pending disaster Southern free ports would bring to Northern commerce –

In one single blow our foreign commerce must be reduced to less than one-half what it now is. Our coastwise trade would pass into other hands. One-half of our shipping would lie idle at our wharves. We should lose our trade with the South, with all of its immense profits. Our manufactories would be in utter ruins. Let the South adopt the free-trade system, or that of a tariff for revenue, and these results would likely follow.

This editorial is remarkable. As yet there had been no secession, no new confederation, no free trade or low tariff zone. That happened three months later, when the North adopted the highest tariff in history – not a revenue tariff, but a prohibition tariff that kept a wide range of foreign goods out of U.S. markets. Foreign goods would almost have to go into the ports of the Confederacy, and the economic disaster these editorials predicted seemed most probable. Economics most of all would set the stage for war, and preserving the Union. (1) Other Northern editorials would sympathize with the Southern cause.

On December 10, 1860 CE, the State of South Carolina announced it would secede from the Union and become a separate republic.

1861 CE - Prussia - William I succeeds to the throne of Prussia.

1861 CE - Canada - Towards the end of 1861 CE, England sent 8,000 troops to Canada and in 1862 CE, English, French and Spanish troops landed at Vera Cruz, Mexico supposedly to collect on debts owed them by Mexico. The real purpose for the positioning of these troops was for a possible invasion of the United States.

1861 CE - Tunisia - Tunisia proclaims the first constitution of the Arab world, granting civil rights and rights to foreigners and Jews to own land.

1861 CE - Italy - Italy becomes a Kingdom.

James Buchanan

1861 CE - United States - President James Buchanan (A) (B) , serving as a lame duck president from the November 1860 CE election to Lincoln's inauguration on March 4, 1861 CE, did not block the takeovers of federal properties by the secessionist states.

December 27, 1860: South Carolina troops captured Fort Moultrie and Castle Pickney. The revenue cutter Aiken is surrendered by naval officer Coste.

January 3, 1861 CE: Savannah troops capture Fort Pulaski.

January 9, 1861 CE: Steamship Star of the West is fired upon when entering Charleston harbor to reinforce Fort Sumter.

January 10, 1861 CE: Louisiana troops take over forts Jackson, St. Phillips, and Pike, near New Orleans.

January 14, 1861 CE: The Pensacola navy yard is taken over in Florida, along with Fort Barrancas and Fort McRae. The siege of Fort Pickens begins.

January 1861 CE: New Orleans customs house is seized, reputedly with $500,000 cash.

February 4, 1861 CE: Arkansas troops seize the Little Rock arsenal.

February 16, 1861 CE: General Twiggs transfers his military unit to Texas state authorities. Colonel Waite transfers San Antonio to the Texas Rangers.

March 2, 1861 CE: The revenue cutter Dodge is seized by Texas Confederate naval units.

Few people in the North had believed that the slave States would carry out their threat of secession; but the election of Mr. Lincoln was no sooner assured than the South Carolina Legislature (November 10, 1860 CE), ordered the assembling of a convention, which, on December 20, declared the union between South Carolina and the other States dissolved for the reason, among others, that a President had been chosen "whose opinions and purposes were hostile to slavery."

Ordinance of Secession
Admitted to Confederacy
South Carolina
North Carolina

Texas – Ordinance of Secession adopted Feb. 1. Popular vote to secede – Feb. 23, effective Mar. 2, 1861.

Virginia – Ordinance of Secession adopted. Admitted to Confederacy May 7. Scheduled election of May 23 ratified the Ordinance of Secession.

Tennessee – Ordinance passed to "submit to the vote of the people a Declaration of Independence, and for other purposes." Election took place June 8. Action of legislature considered tantamount to secession.

Missouri and Kentucky also passed Ordinances of Secession.

Justin Morrill, chairman of the House Ways and Means Subcommittee on Taxation and crafter of the Union's Civil War tax and tariff legislation.

In early March, before Lincoln took the oath of office, Congress passed the Morrill Tariff, which had been introduced by Justin Smith Morrill. It became the highest tariff in American history, with duty on iron products of well over 50 percent. On the average, rates were about 47 percent. It was not a revenue tariff but a prohibition tariff, according to the British and foreign newspapers.

Abraham Lincoln informed the people that "combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary machinery of peacetime government had assumed control of various Southern states." He was referring to the European banking establishments and the Vatican. (A) He had coastal ports blockaded to keep supplies from being shipped in from Europe.

The Rothschilds financed the North through emissaries August Belmont, Jay Cooke (who was commissioned to sell bond issues, arranging with Belmont to sell Union bonds in Europe), J. and W. Seligman and Co., and Speyer and Co.

Judah P. Benjamin (1811 - 1884 CE) of the law firm of Slidell, Benjamin and Conrad in Louisiana was a Rothschild agent who became Secretary of State for the Confederacy in 1862 CE. His law partner John Slidell (August Belmont's wife's uncle) was the Confederate envoy to France. Slidell's daughter was married to Baron Frederick d'Erlanger in Frankfurt who was related to the Rothschilds and acted on their behalf. Slidell was the representative of the South who borrowed money from the d´Erlangers to finance the Confederacy.

On March 11, the Confederate Constitution was adopted, and a low tariff was instituted immediately, essentially creating a free trade zone in the South. Within less than two weeks Northern newspapers grasped the significance of these two tariffs – the high Morrill tariff in the North and the low tariff in the South – and, as one historian called it, the "war of the tariffs" began. This soon led to the hot war of the armies. Prior to the two tariffs, most Northern newspapers had called for peace through conciliation, but many now called for war. By August of 1861 CE, the Morrill Tariff was substantially increased to raise more revenue for the war effort.

The Federal Government's response to the bold move of South Carolina's secession was to immediately call on various States to send troops to suppress the South Carolinians. Six Southern states refused to comply. They too seceded and joining with South Carolina, formed The Confederate States of America, with Mississippian Jefferson Davis as their President. (Two of the seven Governors were Freemasons: John Ellis of North Carolina and Isham Harris from Tennessee). Some six weeks later a Peace Convention was held on February 4, 1861 CE, with both sides in attendance. It hoped to put an end to the dangerous situation, but it failed. Notable Freemasons at that meeting were John Crittenden and Stephen Douglas of Kentucky, and Robert Toombs from Georgia.

Several of these southern States entered upon the rebellion reluctantly, and their action was the result rather of a conspiracy at Washington than of their own impulse; but once committed to the cause their people showed no lack of enthusiasm for it. President Buchanan made no effort to maintain the national authority. On the contrary, his annual message in December virtually admitted the right of secession and encouraged the disunionists; and three of his cabinet, Howell Cobb of Georgia (Treasury), John B. Floyd of Virginia (War), and Jacob Thompson of Mississippi (Interior), were among the most active of the conspirators against the Union, even while they still held their offices under it. When Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated, March 4, 1861 CE, a provisional government for the "Confederate States of America" had been established at Montgomery, Alabama in February 1861 CE, with Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens for President and Vice-President; forts, arsenals, arms, and military supplies had been seized; and throughout the seceding States the national flag remained only on the forts of Charleston harbor, Pensacola, and Key West. On March 11, a permanent constitution was adopted at Montgomery, and under it Messrs. Davis and Stephens were afterwards elected President and Vice-President for six years.

The Confederate Constitution (2) which was adopted unanimously by the Congress of the Confederate States was almost identical to the United States constitution, but with a few differences:

  • In the preamble, it omitted the general welfare clause, and added that each ratifying state was acting "in its sovereign and independent character."
  • It explicitly guaranteed slavery in both states and territories, but banned the international slave trade.
  • It prohibited protective tariffs and Congressional appropriations for internal improvements.
  • The Confederate constitution limited the president to one six-year term, but gave him a line item veto.

Confederate War Financing

The antebellum south enjoyed one of the lightest tax burdens of all contemporary civilized societies. Local or state governments assessed all obligations. By contrast, the hastily assembled Confederate government lacked the bureaucratic infrastructure to levy or collect internal taxes. Its citizens possessed neither a tradition of compliance nor a means to remit payment. Land and slaves comprised the bulk of southern capital; liquid forms of wealth like specie or paper currency were hard to come by in a predominantly agrarian region.

Efforts to raise war revenue through various methods of taxation proved ineffective. The Confederate Congress enacted a minor tariff in 1861 CE, but it contributed only $3.5 million in four years. That same year, Congress implemented a small direct tax (0.5 percent) on real and personal property. But the government in Richmond was forced to rely on the individual states to collect the levy. Reprising the scenario played out during the Revolutionary War, most states did not collect the tax at all, preferring to meet their quota by borrowing money or printing state notes to cover it.

A Confederate bond.

The Davis administration turned to loans to finance the initial bulk of war debts. Riding a wave of patriotic enthusiasm in 1861 CE, the Treasury earned $15 million selling out their first bond issue. The second issue, however, consisting of $100 million in 8 percent yield bonds, sold slowly. Few southerners had the cash to purchase them, but in addition the year-end 12 percent inflation rate threatened to negate any promise of real financial return. It fell to investors to buy up the remainder of the 8 percent bonds, which they purchased with newly minted Confederate Treasury notes.

A $100 note issued by the Confederacy.

By necessity rather than choice, the South turned to the printing press to pay most of its bills. In its first year, the Confederate government derived 75 percent of its total revenue from Treasury notes, less than 25 percent from bonds (purchased, of course, with the notes), and under 2 percent from taxes. While the proportion of the latter two would increase slightly in later years, the foundation of Confederate war financing consisted of over $1.5 billion in paper dollars that began depreciating before the ink had a chance to dry. By refusing to establish the notes as compulsory legal tender, Treasury officials hoped to avoid undermining confidence in the currency. They preferred that the currency be backed by public confidence in the Confederacy's survival (notes were to be redeemable in specie at face value within two years of the end of the war).

A $2 note issued by the state of Georgia.

This being the case, various state, county, and city notes also circulated widely, diluting the medium further; the fact that these poorly printed bills were easily counterfeited did not help matters. Ironically, the Confederate decision to turn to paper money in lieu of a system of internal taxation abetted the most odious, regressive form of de facto taxation southern society endured: runaway inflation, appearing in the wake of military reversals in 1862 CE, and topping 9,000 percent by war's end.

By the spring of 1863 CE, the crushing burden of inflation motivated Richmond to come up with an alternative to fiat money. In April, they followed the Union's lead and enacted comprehensive legislation that included a progressive income tax, an 8 percent levy on certain goods held for sale, excise, and license duties, and a 10 percent profits tax on wholesalers. These provisions also included a 10 percent tax-in-kind on agricultural products. The latter burdened yeoman more than the progressive income tax encumbered urban salaried workers, since laborers could remit depreciated currency to meet their obligations. Adding to the inequity, the law exempted some of the most lucrative property owned by wealthy planters – their slaves – from assessment. Lawmakers considered a tax on slaves to be a direct tax, constitutionally permissible only after an apportionment on the basis of population. Since the war precluded any opportunity to count heads, they concluded that no direct tax was possible. Accumulating war debts and heightened condemnation of a "rich man's war, poor man's fight" led to revision of the tax law in February 1864 CE, which suspended the requirement for a census-based apportionment of direct taxes and imposed a 5 percent levy on land and slaves. These changes came too late, however, to have any sustained impact on the Confederate war effort.

The End of the Republic

With the knowledge of an impending bankruptcy on the part of the United States government due to the failure to pay debts with lawful money, the reluctance to finance more than it's share, and the ever-increasing antagonism against the institution of slavery, the Southern states seceded from the Union to form their own country. In it's ordinance of secession on January 10, 1861 CE, Florida formed itself as an independent nation, just as South Carolina had done.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln had lawfully been elected as President of the United States in November, 1860 CE, taking office on March 4, 1861 CE. Under Article 2, Section 1 of the Constitution, the President of the United States is elected by obtaining a majority of the electoral votes of the States.

By March 27, 1861 CE, (3) seven southern states vacated their congressional seats held under Article 1, Section 1, and the quorum to conduct business under the Constitution was lost. The only votes that Congress could lawfully take, under Parliamentary Law, were those to set the time to reconvene, take a vote to get a quorum, and vote to adjourn and set a date, time and place to reconvene at a later time, but instead, Congress abandoned the House without setting a date to reconvene. Under parliamentary law, the House of Representatives adjourned sine die on March 2, 1861 and thus ceased to exist as a lawful deliberative body. An adjournment sine die – that is, without day – closes the session, and if there is no provision for convening the assembly again, the adjournment dissolves the assembly. The only lawful, constitutional power that could declare war was no longer lawful or in session. The Senate adjourned sine die on March 28, 1861. The Southern states, by virtue of their secession from the Union, adjourned sine die, and some legislatures in the Northern states also adjourned sine die. The majority of the states which were constitutors to creating the original organic Constitution voided the original contract as having the States being superior over the Federal government.

In April 1861 CE, the Russian Ambassador to America had advised Lincoln's government: "England will take advantage of the first opportunity to recognize the seceded states and that France will follow her."

The opening shot of the confederate rebellion rang out on April 12th, 1861 CE, only one month after Lincoln was proclaimed President of the United States, the 4th of March 1861 CE. This first shot on Fort Sumpter was fired by General Beauregard, who was a professed Roman Catholic and came from a well known family of Jesuits. The Confederate States of America were readied for war and their leader, Jefferson Davis had been given the blessing of the Pope to be their new President. The papacy wanted to destroy the American popular government and the "divide and conquer" strategy was a tried and true tool. Also, the Catholic Church, afterall, benefited enormously from the southern slave trade and had to protect its vested interest from this talk of potentially freeing the slaves in America.. The Catholic Church's wealth was derived largely from the financial gain, as it was in the Middle Ages, by imposed serfdom upon others. As the war progressed, Lincoln was also thinking of taxing liqour heavily or even making it illegal. This would have been a huge blow to the Catholic monasteries who turned out over 25% of all alcohol produced in the U.S. at the time. This provided another reason to target Lincoln for assassination.

Lincoln immediately responded with his first proclamation, [April 15, 1861 CE, 12 Stat. 1253], while absent the presence of either house of Congress, which stated in part:

"Now, therefore, I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President of the United States, in virtue of the power vested in me by the Constitution and the laws, have thought fit to call forth, and hereby do call forth, the militia of the several States of the Union, to the aggregate number of seventy-five thousand, in order to suppress said combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly executed."

The only branch of the government with the enumerated power to call out the State militias was the now-defunct Congress:

The Congress shall have Power To: … provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

Acting under the rules of war and the law of necessity, Lincoln called out the militia. In the same proclamation, Lincoln subsequently proceeded to reconvene the Congress, as it was within his authority to do, fully knowing that Congress did not have a quorum upon which to properly conduct business. Lincoln continued to prosecute the war, issue proclamations and have the de facto Congress create laws.

A proclamation is legally defined as being -

" … the act of causing some state matters to be published or made generally known. A written or printed document in which are contained such matters, issued by proper authority; as the president's proclamation, the governor's, the mayor's proclamation … The president's proclamation has not the force of law, unless when authorised by congress; … "

      Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Vol. 2, p. 374, 1843.

The inherent problem at this time was that the Federal Government could not declare war against the Southern States as it would have been recognition of the sovereignty of the Confederate States of America. If this sovereignty had been recognized, there could have been no claim made against the property of the States or the People. The President was soon granted power by Congress to confiscate property when used for insurrectionary purposes. To be "seized, confiscated and condemned," as stated in 12 Stat. 319, is the same manner in which a libel in admiralty is commenced.

The President also holds the position as that of the Commander in Chief under Article 2, Section 2. By Proclamation No. 3 of April 15, 1861, Congress was reconvened under the usurped military authority of Lincoln as Commander-in-Chief on July 4, 1861, not under any lawful civil authority of the Constitution, thereby placing the judicial and legislative branches of government under the rule of martial law as exercised by the pretended military authority of the president. The Congress was not reconvened under the Rules of Order for Parliamentary bodies. Offices held by members of both houses of Congress became de facto. Judicial officers of the United States could, from this time forward, only be appointed to de facto positions there was only a de facto Senate to approve of any appointments made by the President.

Abraham Lincoln was rumored to be a Rosicrucian, which is a branch of Freemasonry. Lincoln's wife was Mary Todd, a relative of the Satanic Collins bloodline, who was into the occult. Lincoln's Vice President was Hannibal Hamlin during his first term. His second-term Vice President, Andrew Johnson, a confirmed Mason, was selected to run on Lincoln's successful re-election ticket of 1864 CE. Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln's future Secretary of War, was an avid Freemason. (4)

Meanwhile, in his first inaugural address, Mr. Lincoln declared that he had neither the right nor the desire to interfere with slavery in the States, as he was blocked from doing so by the United States Constitution. He denied the right of secession, and he expressed his determination to enforce the laws through the national jurisdiction.

"… we find that, in legal contemplation, the Union is perpetual, confirmed by the history of the Union itself. The Union is much older than the Constitution. It was formed, in fact, by the Articles of Association, in 1774. It was matured and continued by the Declaration of Independence, in 1776. It was further matured, and the faith of all the thirteen States expressly plighted and engaged that it should be perpetual, by the Articles of Confederation, in 1778. And, finally, in 1787, one of the declared objects for ordaining and establishing the Constitution, was "to form a more perfect Union."

      Inaugural Address, Abraham Lincoln, March 4, 1861.

For the principal posts in his Cabinet he chose his principal rivals at the Chicago convention. Mr. Seward became Secretary of State, Mr. Chase became Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Cameron became Secretary of War, Mr. Bates became Attorney-General. The other positions were filled by Gideon Welles as Secretary of the Navy, Caleb B. Smith as Secretary of the Interior, and Montgomery Blair as Postmaster-General.

Hannibal Hamlin
Vice President
William H. Seward
Secretary of State
Salmon P. Chase
Secretary of the Treasury
Simon Cameron
Secretary of War – 1861
Edward Bates
Attorney General
Gideon Welles
Secretary of the Navy
Edwin M. Stanton
Secretary of War – 1862
John P. Usher
Secretary of the Interior

President Lincoln now referred to the secession of the Southern states as a rebellion. The United States could not recognize the Confederacy as a separate nation as the Confederacy was merely part of the "perpetual Union," a business corporation, which the Southern states had agreed to join as shareholders under the Articles of Confederation. Lincoln still had control, as the duly elected Executive Officer of the United States government and commander-in-chief of the military forces to control the pro-Union corporations of the original states as the chief executive officer. The Southern states could have been released from their corporate obligations if all the states of the Union had agreed to either release the Southern states or dissolve the Union. The 1869 United States Supreme Court decision in Texas v. White based its argument of the illegitimacy of secession on the use of the word perpetual in the 1781 Articles of Confederation, which made the Union of States indissoluble. The de facto Supreme Court was protecting its position by merely reiterating the fact that the original members of the Union, which are artificial entities known as corporations, have perpetual existence. A corporation cannot be dissolved but by consent of all parties once it has been entered into, or else by misuse, non-use or abuse of the corporate charter by the incorporators. However, this had been done by the Northern States by inflicting uneven tariff costs on Southern ports in violation of direct and indirect taxation. The Northern States had been the first to abuse the corporate charter.

An historical fact, yet one not generally known, is that Great Britain recognized the belligerency of the Confederate States on May 13, 1861 CE; France did likewise on June 10, 1861 CE; Spain on June 17, 1861 CE; and Portugal on July 29, 1861 CE. The czar of Russia, on July 10, 1861 CE, refused to assume a position of neutrality as between North and South and made no recognition of Southern belligerency. (5)

It was during the early years of this great American conflict, that international governments resolved to control the people of their own countries through the system of laws by outwardly changing nothing, but inherently changing everything. Legal fictions had been used for centuries, but this concept would be tremendously expanded.

But I now employ the expression "Legal Fiction" to signify any assumption which conceals, or affects to conceal, the fact that a rule of law has undergone alteration, its letter remaining unchanged, its operation being modified.

      Ancient Law, Henry Sumner Maine, Chapter 2, Legal Fictions, 1861.

Sir Henry Sumner Maine was a professor of International Law at Cambridge University in England. Maine, more than any other man, brought legal historians around to the belief that law and legal institutions must be studied historically if they are to be understood. Maine was of the view that people worked with one another in civilized society because of consent, tradition, inertia, or mutual advantage as opposed to force. Through Maine's historical analysis, it can be seen that optimum fairness or justice is achieved by people in civilized society through contract, not status: words for which Maine became known for – contract versus status.

The Federal government took steps to financially aid itself by passing acts for the confiscation of property being held by anyone sympathetic with the Confederate cause. These laws were codified in the Statutes at Large of the United States – 12 Stat 319, and still exist today (A) (B) (C).

The origin of political emancipation had begun on August 30, 1861 CE as a result of a dispute between Major General John C. Fremont and Lincoln. Fremont, in charge of the Western Department of the United States Army stationed in St. Louis, Missouri, had issued a proclamation which stated that all slaves owned by Confederates in Missouri were free. Lincoln became furious upon hearing this as he feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to join the Confederate forces. Lincoln asked Fremont to modify his order and free only slaves owned by Missourians actively working for the South. Fremont refused claiming that "it would imply that I myself thought it wrong and that I had acted without reflection which the gravity of the point demanded." Fremont was then replaced by Henry W. Halleck.

In December 1861, New York Banks voted to suspend trade in gold, causing a domino effect with other private banks, resulting in the suspension of specie trade by the United States government on January 1, 1862. Suspension of specie trade placed the United States government into the position of being forced to use commercial paper. As commercial paper is backed only by the faith and credit of the government, it is backed by bonds which are purchased in order to create the necessary funds for currency. As the government did not have lawful money to "pay" its debts, it could only now "discharge" those debts from a position of bankruptcy. International bankruptcy lasts for 70 years, and the United States government had been in bankruptcy since 1789 CE. The first bankruptcy would have been over in 1859 CE. What had prompted the eruption between the Southern states and the federal government was the money issue. The creditors of the United States government could have foreclosed on them unless they declared (very discreetly) bankruptcy. The evidence of it is in the following war financing.

Union War Financing

1861 - 1862 CE - United States - In addition to its developed industrial base, the North entered the war with several apparent institutional advantages, including an established Treasury and tariff structure. With the exodus of southern representatives, the Republican-dominated Congress ratcheted up tariff rates throughout the war, beginning in 1862 CE with the Morill Tariff Act, which reversed the downward trend instituted by the Democrats between 1846 CE and 1857 CE. Subsequent tariff legislation, especially the 1864 act, raised rates further. Protective tariffs were politically popular among manufacturers, northern laborers, and even some commercial farmers. But Customs duties amounted to about $75 million annually, only nominally more, after adjusting for inflation, than the value of duties collected during the 1850s. Still, the high rate structure established in the Civil War would remain a hallmark of the post-war political economy of the Republican party.

Ideological reservations tempered some of the Treasury's supposed institutional advantages. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon Chase, like many northern policymakers, generally distrusted any form of exchange other than specie. They preferred to pay government debts by physically moving gold out of the Treasury instead of transferring funds from demand deposits via check. They also refused to utilize established private banks in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia as repositories for federal funds, further complicating financial transactions. Chase hoped to follow Albert Gallatin's model of financing the War of 1812, which (initially) emphasized borrowing over taxation. Ultimately, however, mounting debts, a shortage of specie, and the threat of inflation led the Union to adopt innovative plans for both borrowing and internal taxation.

Salmon Chase, who was never a President, but was the Treasury Secretary under Lincoln, has his picture on the $10,000 bill, which was never used in general circulation. The question arises, why is the image of Chase on such a significant currency note? It turns out that Salmon Chase always resented Lincoln because Chase wanted to win the Presidency several times and lost to Lincoln.

Further, once appointed as Treasury Secretary, Chase was the individual who created the first "Internal Revenue Division," moved the American monetary system away from gold and silver coins, created the first paper "fiat" money, promoted a national banking system to handle all debts and added "In God We Trust" to the currency as a bonus. He promoted himself to becoming Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by writing his own nomination for Lincoln to use. In an unusual move, the Senate confirmed it on the same day with no committee and no discussion, conveniently in time for Chase to orchestrate some of the largest shifts to federal governent control. He, as Supreme Court Justice, then addressed the constitutionality of war legislation, reconstruction, taxes and state regulations.

Chase Manhattan Bank, now part of J.P. Morgan Chase, was founded in 1877 CE and named after Samuel P. Chase, which goes all the way back to the original founding of "The Bank of The Manhattan Company" by Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr.

Prominent financier Jay Cooke

In contrast to the Confederacy, which relied on loans for about 35 percent of its war finances, the Union raised over 65 percent of its revenue this way. Having little personal experience, Chase turned to Philadelphia Banker Jay Cooke to administer the sale of war bonds. Although he expected banks and wealthy citizens to purchase most of them, Cooke employed a sophisticated propaganda campaign to market the bonds to the middle classes as well. Patriotic newspaper advertisements and an army of 2,500 agents persuaded almost one million northerners (about 25 percent of ordinary families) to invest in the war effort; bond sales topped $3 billion. In this way, Cooke previewed the techniques with which governments in the 20th century would fund modern wars.

In order for the bond program to be successful, the North needed an unrestricted currency supply for citizens to pay for them and a source of income to guarantee the interest. The Legal Tender Act filled the first requirement. Passed in February 1862 CE, the act authorized the issue of $150 million in Treasury notes, known as Greenbacks. In contrast to Confederate paper, however, Congress required citizens, banks, and governments to accept Greenbacks as legal tender for public and private debts, except for interest on federal bonds and customs duties. This policy allowed buyers to purchase bonds with greenbacks while the interest accrued to them was paid in gold (funded, in part, by specie payments of customs duties). Investors enjoyed a bountiful windfall, since government securities purchased with depreciated currency were redeemed with gold valued at the prewar level. Taxpayers essentially made up the difference. Because most bonds were acquired by the wealthy or by financial institutions, the program concentrated investment capital in the hands of those likely to use it, much as Alexander Hamilton's debt plan had sought to do.

The Acts of April 16, 1862 for the District of Columbia, and of June 10, 1862 for the Territories of the United States, would later be used as the basis for the Emancipation Proclamation and subsequently the 13th Amendment –

An Act for the Release of certain persons held to service or labor in the District of Columbia.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that all persons held to service or labor within the District of Columbia by reason of African descent are hereby discharged and freed of and from all claim to such service or labor; and from and after the passage of this act neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except for crime, whereof the party shall be duly convicted, shall hereafter exist in said District…

APPROVED, April 16, 1862. 12 Stat. 376 [p. 405]

An Act to secure Freedom to all Persons within the Territories of the United States.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the passage of this act there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in any of the Territories of the United States now existing, or which may at any time hereafter be formed or acquired by the United States, otherwise than in punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.

APPROVED, June 19, 1862. 12 Stat. 432 [p. 461]

It is interesting to note that the State of Virginia had seceded from the Union on April 17, 1861, but that the Virginia legislature had voted on May 13, 1862 to allow several western counties of Virginia to become a separate State of the Union, in accordance of Art. 4, Sec. 3 of the Constitution. This would cause Lincoln's own words during his March 4, 1861 inaugural address to ring true:

"… why may not any portion of a new confederacy, a year or two hence, arbitrarily secede again, precisely as portions of the present Union now claim to secede from it?"

Chap. VI. An Act for the Admission of the State of "West Virginia" into the Union and for other purposes.

Whereas the people inhabiting that portion of Virginia known as West Virginia did, by a Convention assembled in the city of Wheeling on the twenty-sixth of November, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, frame for themselves a Constitution with a view of becoming a separate and independent State ; and whereas at a general election held in the counties composing the territory aforesaid on the third day of May last, the said Constitution was approved and adopted by the qualified voters of the proposed State ; and whereas the Legislature of Virginia, by an act passed on the thirteenth day of May, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, did give its consent to the formation of a new State within the jurisdiction of the said State of Virginia, to be known by the name of West Virginia, and to embrace the following named counties, to wit : Hancock, Brooke, Ohio, Marshall, Wetzel, Marion, Monongalia, Preston, Taylor, Tyler, Pleasants, Ritchie, Doddridge, Harrison, Wood, Jackson, Wirt, Roane, Calhoun, Gilmer, Barbour, Tucker, Lewis, Braxton, Upshur, Randolph, Mason, Putnam, Kanawba, Clay, Nicholas, Cabell, Wayne, Boone, Logan, Wyoming, Mercer, McDowell, Webster, Pocahontas, Fayette, Raleigh, Greenbrier, Monroe, Pendleton, Hardy, Hampshire, and Morgan ; and whereas both the Convention and the Legislature aforesaid have requested that the new State should be admitted into the Union, and the Constitution aforesaid being republican in form, Congress doth hereby consent that the said forty-eight counties may be formed into a separate and independent State.

Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the State of West Virginia be, and is hereby, declared to be one of the United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original States in all respects whatever …

APPROVED, December 31, 1862. 12 Stat. 633

Documentary tax stamp (left) on deed to land, 1863.

The Union government's decision to implement a broad system of internal taxation not only insured a valuable source of income, but shielded the northern economy from the sort of ruinous inflation experienced by the South. Despite another $150 million Greenback issue, the overall northern inflation rate reached only 80 percent, comparable with the domestic rates during World Wars I and II. The Internal Revenue Act of 1862, 37 Stat. 432 [p. 461], enacted by Congress in July 1862 CE, soaked up much of the inflationary pressure produced by Greenbacks. It did so because the Act placed excise taxes on just about everything, including sin and luxury items like liquor, tobacco, playing cards, carriages, yachts, billiard tables, and jewelry. It taxed patent medicines and newspaper advertisements. It imposed license taxes on practically every profession or service except the clergy. It instituted stamp taxes, value added taxes on manufactured goods and processed meats, inheritance taxes, taxes on the gross receipts of corporations, banks, and insurance companies, as well as taxes on dividends or interest they paid to investors. To administer these excise taxes, along with the tariff system, the Internal Revenue Act also created a Bureau of Internal Revenue, whose first commissioner, George Boutwell, described it as "the largest Government department ever organized."

The majority of internal taxes and tariffs duties were regressive, consumption-oriented measures that affected lower income Americans more severely than higher-income Americans. In response, Republicans looked to reinforce the system's fairness by implementing a supplementary system of taxation that more accurately reflected taxpayers' "ability to pay." The income tax addressed this need.

Receipt for Civil War excise tax on a Jersey wagon, 1863.

The first federal income tax in American history actually preceded the Internal Revenue Act of 1862. Passed in August 1861 CE, it had helped assure the financial community that the government would have a reliable source of income to pay the interest on war bonds. Initially, Salmon Chase and Thaddeus Stevens, Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, wanted to implement an emergency property tax similar to the one adopted during the War of 1812. This way, the government could adapt the administrative system that state and local governments had developed for their own property taxes. But legislators understood such a property tax as a direct tax. Article 1, Section 9 of the Constitution required the federal government to apportion the burden among states on the basis of population rather than property values. Emphasizing population over property value would actually render the tax quite regressive. Residents of lower-density western states, border states, and poor northeastern states stood to bear a greater burden than those of highly-populated urban states, despite the latter's valued real estate. Their representatives also complained that a property tax would not touch substantial "intangible" property like stocks, bonds, mortgages, or cash.

As an alternative, policy makers sought to follow the example of British Liberals, who had turned to income taxation in order to finance the Crimean War without heavy property taxation. Justin Morrill, (R-VT), Chairman of the Ways and Means Subcommittee on Taxation and the architect of the regressive tariff structure, introduced a proposal for the first federal income tax. Because it did not tax property directly, congressional leaders viewed the income tax as indirect, and thus immune from constitutional strictures.

Drawing of taxpayers lining up at a collector's office to pay the 1862 income tax.

The first income tax was moderately progressive and ungraduated, imposing a 3 percent tax on annual incomes over $800 that exempted most wage earners. These taxes were not even collected until 1862 CE, making alternative financing schemes like the Legal Tender Act critical in the interim. The Internal Revenue Act of 1862 expanded the progressive nature of the earlier act while adding graduations: It exempted the first $600, imposed a 3 percent rate on incomes between $600 and $10,000, and a 5 percent rate on those over $10,000. The act exempted businesses worth less than $600 from value added and receipts taxes. Taxes were withheld from the salaries of government employees as well as from dividends paid to corporations (the same method of collection later employed during World War II). In addition, the "sin" excise taxes imposed in the 1862 act were designed to fall most heavily on products purchased by the affluent. Thaddeus Stevens lauded the progressivity of the tax system –

"While the rich and the thrifty will be obliged to contribute largely from the abundance of their means … no burdens have been imposed on the industrious laborer and mechanic … The food of the poor is untaxed; and no one will be affected by the provisions of this bill whose living depends solely on his manual labor."

On May 9, 1862 CE, when Major General David Hunter issued General Orders No. 11, which, like John C. Fremont's orders in August of 1861, had proclaimed that southern slaves were free, it received the same response (A) (B) from Lincoln. The Act of Congress of June 19, 1862 CE, granted freedom to those people held to slavery or involuntary servitude within any territory of the United States. It was the prelude to the Thirteenth Amendment, which would be the key as to how the United States government would emerge from the Civil War as being dominant over the states, instead of subservient to them.

Authority to issue executive orders had been delegated to the Secretary of State, William H. Seward by Lincoln. On October 20, 1862 CE, Executive Order # 1 was issued. This established a provisional court to function during the military occupation of Louisiana. Charles A. Peabody was appointed as judge, and compensation for the officers of the court was specified. As the rebellion grew, more Executive orders were issued.

On June 19, 1862, under the de facto Congress, an Act, had been passed "to secure the Freedom of all Persons within the Territories of the United States, 12 Stat 432 [p. 461]. This act was the precursor to Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation" of January 1, 1863.

Two weeks later, on July 1, 1862, one of the first Internal Revenue Acts, also 12 Stat 432, was passed, see pages 459-460 [at p. 488 in .pdf]. The significance of this act is that it defined "person or persons" to only mean the following –



Sec. 68. And be it further enacted, That on and after the first day of August, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, every individual, partnership, firm, association, or corporation (and any word or words in this act indicating or referring to person or persons shall be taken to mean and include partnerships, firms, associations, or corporations, when not otherwise designated or manifestly incompatible with the intent thereof,) shall comply with the following requirements, that is to say:

First. Before commencing, or, if already commenced, before continuing, any such manufacture for which he, she, or they may be liable to be assessed, under the provisions of this act, and which shall not be differently provided for elsewhere, within thirty days after the date when this shall take effect, he, she, or they shall furnish to the assistant assessor a statement, subscribed and sworn to, or affirmed, setting forth the place where the manufacture is to be carried on, name of the manufactured article, the proposed market for the same, whether foreign or domestic, and generally the kind and quality to be manufactured or proposed to be manufactured.

Second. He shall within ten days after the first day of each and every month, after the day on which this act takes effect, as hereinbefore mentioned, or on or before a day prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, make a return of the products and sales or delivery of such manufacture in form and detail as may be required, from time to time, by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.

Third. All such returns, statements, descriptions, memoranda, oaths and affirmations, shall be in form, scope, and detail as may be prescribed, from time to time, by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.

In the Internal Revenue Act of June 30, 1864, 13 Stat 223 at page 306, the "states" were properly defined as meaning the "territories and District of Columbia" [at p. 333 in .pdf], as the Federal Government had no taxing authority within the State unless in accordance with the Constitution.

Sec. 132. And be it further enacted, that wherever the word state is used in this act, it shall be construed to include the territories and the District of Columbia, where such construction is necessary to carry out the provisions of this act.

APPROVED, June 30, 1864

The significance of these two acts is that when the 13th and 14th Amendments were ratified, corporations, trusts, partnerships, associations &c. were given the status of "person", and the de jure States, by ratifying these amendments, once again became "territories of the United States," under complete control of a de facto Congress. The created government – the United States – had become greater than the creators – the State republics.

Confederate dead by a fence on the Hagerstown road
Antietam, Maryland – September 1862

By the fall of 1862 CE, the position of President Lincoln with respect to slavery had become a cause of dissension in the Republican party, by the advanced section of which his cautious and conservative policy was viewed with increasing impatience. That policy was tersely expressed in his answer to a public letter from Horace Greeley –

"My paramount object is to save the Union, and not either to save to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it – if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it – if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. What I do about slavery and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save this Union, and what I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union."

President Lincoln with Gen. George B. McClellan and officers
Antietam, Maryland – October 3, 1862

Lincoln's comments would be reflected in Articles 5 & 6 of the soon-to-be published Lieber Code. But when he wrote this, the President had already resolved to proclaim emancipation as a war measure on the morrow of the next Union victory; and the battle of Antietam gave him the opportunity. The proclamation, issued September 22, 1862 CE, announced that on the 1st of next January, all slaves in States or designated parts of States in rebellion should be "then, thenceforward, and forever free," and should be so treated by the civil, military, and naval authorities of the United States. The final proclamation in accordance with this preliminary announcement was duly issued at the appointed time.

David Davis

Noah Haynes Swayne, a confirmed Mason, was nominated by President Abraham Lincoln as United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. Swayne would serve in this capacity for nineteen years (1862 - 1881 CE). David Davis, a Mason, became an Associate Justice (1862 - 1877 CE) after being nominated by Lincoln. Davis, a close friend of Lincoln's, is listed in 10,000 Famous Freemasons as having been buried with Masonic ceremonies in Bloomington, Illinois.

1862 CE - Egypt - Ismail, a successor of Muhammad Ali, becomes the ruler of Egypt.

1862 CE - Italy - Twelve thousand priests signed a petition to make Rome the capital of a new Italy, and to say a word for peace, Pope Pius IX' reaction is to discipline these rebels, every one.

Otto Van Bismarck

1862 CE - Prussia - Prussian king Wilhelm I appoints Otto von Bismarck as chancellor. Bismarck said the great questions are decided not by speeches and majority decisions but by iron and blood. He is credited with making Germany a united nation by drawing Prussia into three wars.

1863 CE - Austria - King Franz Joseph (1848 - 1916 CE) and his minister of Austria foolishly permitted themselves to be drawn into the war against Denmark, from which Prussia alone stood to profit.

1863 CE - Mexico - On June 10, 1863 CE, French General Elie-Frederic Forey with the help of 30,000 additional French troops took over Mexico City and controlled most of the country, this being done in order for a possible invasion of the United States.

1863 CE - Russia - Through his representatives in Paris and London Czar Alexander II in Russia discovered that the Confederates had offered the states of Louisiana and Texas to Napoleon III [of France] if he would send his troops against the North. Russia had already indicated their support for Lincoln but wanted something more to send their large navy to defend the country. On January 1, 1863 CE as a gesture of goodwill Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation to free the slaves just as the Czar had done with the serfs in 1861 CE. On September 8, 1863 CE, at the request of President Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward, Alexander sent the Russian fleet to San Francisco and New York and ordered them "to be ready to fight any power and to take their orders only from Abraham Lincoln."

In 1863, during the American Civil War, the Russian Navy's Atlantic and Pacific Fleets wintered in the American ports of New York and San Francisco respectively. Some historians credit this visit as a major factor in deterring France and England from entering the war on the Confederate side. Delahaye (16) states that besides supporting the Union, Russia was also preparing for a war with France and England should they intervene in the Polish insurrection of 1863. The Russian Navy was weak and could easily be blockaded in its home ports, but if it was in the US when the war started it could more easily attack British and French commerce.

1863 CE - Cambodia - Cambodia becomes a protectorate of France.

1863 CE - Switzerland - The Red Cross is founded of the Swiss philanthropist Jean Henri Dunant.

1863 - 1866 CE - Turkey - Sophoronius III becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1863 CE - United States - Slaves were known as "persons," and were considered to be property. The manner of "incorporating them into the state" had been a problem with the United States government since the inception of the country. The white aristocracy who had inherited the reins of government from England, resoundingly showed this in what appeared to be a Supreme Court decision regarding Scott v. Sanford in 1857. Six years later, it became known as to how this decision had been reached in an opinion (at page 24) on citizenship by U.S. Attorney General Edward Bates.

The plaintiff [Scott] having made his election to sue in the United States court, the defendant might, if he would, have pleaded in bar to the merits of the action, but he exercised his election to plead in abatement.

To the jurisdiction of the court; thus, that the action, if any, "accrued to the said Dred Scott out of the jurisdiction of this court, and exclusively within the jurisdiction of the courts of the State of Missouri, for that, to wit, the said plaintiff, Dred Scott, is not a citizen of the State of Missouri, as alleged in his declaration, [not because he was not born there, and born free, but] because he is a negro of African descent; his ancestors were of pure African blood, and were brought into this country and sold as negro slaves, and this the said Sandford is ready to verify. Wherefore he prays judgment whether this court can or will take further cognizance of the action aforesaid." To this plea the plaintiff demurred, and the circuit court sustained the demurrer, thereby declaring that the facts stated in the plea, and confessed by the demurrer, did not disqualify Scott for being a citizen of Missouri and so that the United States circuit court had jurisdiction of the cause.

The circuit court having taken jurisdiction, the defendant had, of course, to plead over to the merits of the action. He did so, and issues were joined, and there was an elaborate trial of the facts, which resulted in a verdict and judgment in favor of the defendant. And thereupon the plaintiff brought the case up to the Supreme Court by writ of error.

The power of the Supreme Court over the proceedings and judgments of the circuit court is appellate only, and this for the sole purpose of enabling the court above to affirm what has been rightly done, and reverse what has been wrongly done in the court below. If the error of the court below consist in the illegal assumption of power to hear and determine the merits of a case not within its jurisdiction, of course the court above will correct that error, by setting aside whatever may have been done by that usurped authority. And in doing this the court above has no more power than the court below had to hear and determine a case not within its jurisdiction is as great an error in the court above as in the court below; for it is equally true, in all courts, that the jurisdiction must first be ascertained before proceeding to judgment.

In this particular case the Supreme Court did first examine and consider the plea in abatement, and did adjudge that it was a good plea, sufficient to oust the jurisdiction of the circuit court. And hence it follows, as a necessary legal consequence, that whatever was done in the circuit court after the plea in abatement, and touching the merits of the case, was simply void, because done coram non judice.

The inception of the Federal "person" began with the Emancipation Proclamation which delineated a clear distinction between "persons" and "people" –

… all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons

This statement in the Emancipation Proclamation establishes the fact that the President and military authority would control all commercial entities known as "persons." It would be enforced not by the Executive branch of government or the Executive Office, but by the "Executive Government," coinciding with the British doctrine that "only the king can make a corporation," (A) (B) (C) and marking the de facto takeover of the government by the President under military authority. A "person" can comprise any of the following legal entities: corporations, trusts, commercial names, trade marks, trade names, bodies politic or bodies corporate. Five short years later, the creation of "persons" became full-fledged through the 14th amendment.

1. A human being. 2. An entity (such as a corporation) that is recognized by law as having the rights and duties of a human being. 3. The living body of a human being <contraband found on the smuggler's person&rt;…

      Black's Law Dictionary, Person, 7th Ed., pp. 1162-1163, 1999.

An organization (such as a business or a governmental unit) that has a legal identity apart from its members.

corporate entity. A corporation's status as an organization existing independently of its shareholders. As a separate entity, a corporation can, in its own name, sue and be sued, lend and borrow money, and buy, sell, lease, and mortgage its property.

public entity. A governmental entity, such as a state government or one of its political subdivisions.

      Black's Law Dictionary, Entity, 7th Ed., p. 553, 1999.

It is interesting to note that the current United States Code does not define "people", "man" or "woman" in its Rules of Construction. It should also be noted here that the terms "human being," "human" or "being" are not defined in the 6th or 7th Edition of Black's Law Dictionary.

§ 8. "Person", "human being", "child", and "individual" as including born-alive infant

(a) In determining the meaning of any Act of Congress, or of any ruling, regulation, or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies of the United States, the words "person", "human being", "child", and "individual", shall include every infant member of the species homo sapiens who is born alive at any stage of development.

      United States Code, Title 1, Chapter 1 – Rules of Construction, Section 8. Jan. 7, 2011.

As the United States government was now operating under admiralty jurisdiction in bankruptcy, the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863 CE, merely became a commercial contract offered to the Southern States, and agreed to by assent and acquiesence. The United States government, from the position as a bankrupt debtor, offered the contract to the Southern States by public proclamation. Under admiralty law, by not responding or rebutting the allegations made in the proposed contract, the non-responding party admits that the allegations are truthful and factual.

1. The Southern States had been given 100 day commercial notice from September 22, 1862 CE to January 1, 1863 CE.
2. The proclamation only freed "persons" not "people."
3. The proclamation enjoined the newly-freed "persons" not to participate in violence.
4. The "people" of the Southern States admitted to being in rebellion by being absent from their representation in Congress.
5. It was a signed and sealed document.

This proclamation served constructive notice to the Southern States of the anticipated actions which were going to be taken against them by the Federal government.

Notices are … constructive, as when the party by any circumstance whatever, is put upon inquiry, which amounts in judgment of law to notice, provided the inquiry becomes a duty.

With respect to the necessity for giving notice, … the rules of law are most evidently founded on good sense and so as to accord with the intention of the parties. The giving notice in certain cases obviously is in the nature of a condition precedent to the right to call on the other party for the performance of his engagement, whether his contract were express or implied.

      Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Notice, 1856.

The Negro slaves were then enjoined by military law to abstain from violence.

To command; to require; as, private individuals are … enjoined by law to arrest an offender when present at the time a felony is committed or dangerous wound given …

      Bouvier's Law Dictionary, Enjoin, 1856.

The Emancipation Proclamation, Proclamation No. 17, 12 Stat. 1268 [p. 872], served multiple purposes. Emancipation serves multiple purposes, and is, primarily, the release of children from parental control, which may be express, as by voluntary agreement of parent and child, or implied from such acts and conduct as import consent, and it may be conditional or absolute, complete or partial. Emancipation is, secondarily, the release of a person from slavery. The liberating act of manumission (A) is the release of a person held captive as a slave. Emancipation hath the same reference to children, as manumission to servants. Emancipation also constitutes a manner in which the substitution of one sovereign State for another may occur by means of "State succession."

This proclamation not only served to release slaves from bondage, but also overturned State court decisions, released all children from parental control AND eventually lead to the creation of a new corporate government in 1871 CE. This act would give to this new "State" the right to allow parents to relinquish custody of their children to control by the government. Under the English statute of 12 Car. II. c. 24 (1660) [p. 507]Parents may dispose of the custody of their children during their minority. Vaughan 177, 3 Mod. 24 [p. 79] — the same right to release custody of a child to the crown by deed or will existed in England.

On January 17, 1863 CE, the de facto Congress, by Joint Resolution No. 9, passed an Act which created the legal tender for the payment of the services of the military forces, which were referred to as "greenbacks." This type of money was known as "scrip," and is the forerunner of the current-day Federal Reserve Note. It is legal tender used during periods of war, as money is defined as being only gold or silver coin. Many historians have noted that this lead to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln because he would not deal with the European banks. It also marks the fact that the United States government did not have enough money to pay for the war effort.

The "Greenback"
First paper currency of the United States

The national banking system was conceived in the crisis atmosphere of the Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln's administration was concerned with long-term financing of the war effort. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase believed a bond-secured currency would stimulate the sale of government bonds and assure a homogeneous national currency.

Lincoln, therefore, was able to solve America's monetary crisis without the help of the International Bankers. The London Times later said of Lincoln's greenbacks –

"If that mischievous financial policy which had its origin in the North America Republic during the late war in that country, should become indurated down to a fixture, then that Government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off its debts and be without debt.

It will become prosperous beyond precedent in the history of the civilized governments of the world. The brains and wealth of all countries will go to North America. That government must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe."

These actions by Lincoln would prompt Bismarck, the German Chancellor, to say –

"He [Lincoln] obtained from Congress the right to borrow from the people by selling to it the 'bonds' of States … and the Government and the nation escaped the plots of the foreign financiers. They understood at once, that the United States would escape their grip. The death of Lincoln was resolved upon." (A)

Before the Lincoln administration, private commercial banks were able to issue paper money called state bank notes but that ended with the National Banking Act of 1863 which prohibited the states from creating money. A forerunner of the Federal Reserve Act, it began the movement to abolish redeemable currency. A system of private banks was to receive charters from the federal government which would give them the authorization to issue National Bank Notes. This gave banks the power to control the finances and credit of the country and provided centralized banking under Federal control in times of war. The financial panic created by the International Bankers destroyed 172 State Banks, 177 private banks, 47 savings institutions, 13 loan and trust companies, and 16 mortgage companies.

In 1861 CE, Secretary Chase had recommended a system of federally chartered national banks. Each would have the power to issue standardized national bank notes based on United States bonds held by the bank. Substantial public concern with the state of the currency and the press of financing the Civil War quickly overcame opposition to federal bank chartering and the National Currency Act was passed by Congress and signed into law by the President on February 25, 1863 CE. The administration of the new national banking system was vested in the newly created currency bureau and its chief administrator, the Comptroller of the Currency.

On March 3, 1863 CE, Congress passed an Act which reorganized the Courts in the District of Columbia in the same nature as other District Courts of the United States, i.e., into courts of a territorial nature, thereby subjecting the courts to the exclusive and universal legislative control of the Congress under Article 4, Section 3 of the United States Constitution. The United States Supreme Court, and other territorial courts, are not Article III courts.

Through sections 4 & 5 of the Enrollment Act of March 3, 1863 CE, military districts under legislative (as opposed to executive) martial law were created. Section 4 has never been amended or repealed (and section 5, although amended, still exists substantially as when it was first enacted), meaning that the military districts still exist today.

An Act for enrolling and calling out the national Forces, and for other Purposes.

Whereas there now exist in the United States an insurrection and rebellion against the authority thereof, and it is, under the Constitution of the United States, the duty of the government to suppress insurrection and rebellion, to guarantee to each State a republican form of government, and to preserve the public tranquility; and whereas, for these high purposes, a military force is indispensable, to raise and support which all persons ought willingly to contribute; and whereas no service can be more praiseworthy and honorable than that which is rendered for the maintenance of the Constitution and Union, and that consequent preservation of free government: Therefore - …

SEC 4. And be it further enacted, That, for greater convenience in enrolling, calling out, and organizing the national forces, and for the arrest of deserters and spies of the enemy, the United States shall be divided into districts, of which the District of Columbia shall constitute one, each territory of the United States shall constitute one or more, as the President shall direct, and each congressional district of the respective states, as fixed by a law of the state next preceding the enrolment, shall constitute one: Provided, That in states which have not by their laws been divided into two or more congressional districts, the President of the United States shall divided the same into so many enrolment districts as he may deem fit and convenient.

SEC. 5. And be it further enacted, That for each of said districts there shall be appointed by the President a provost-marshal, with the rank, pay, and emoluments of a captain of cavalry, or an officer of said rank shall be detailed by the President, who shall be under the direction and subject to the orders of a provost-marshal-general, appointed or detailed by the President of the United States, whose office shall be at the seat of government, forming a separate bureau of the War Department, and whose rank, pay, and emoluments shall be those of a colonel of cavalry.

      The Enrollment Act, 12 Stat. Thirty-Seventh Congress, Sess. III., Ch. 75, pp. 731 – 732, March 3, 1863.

On March 10, 1863 CE, Lincoln issued Executive Order No. 2 (6), which granted clemency to those soldiers who had deserted from the armed forces.

President Lincoln had authority to issue executive orders under the war powers of the Constitution and thus commissioned General Orders No. 100 of April 24, 1863 CE, known as the Lieber Code, as a special field code to govern his actions under martial law, which justified the seizure of power and extended the laws of the District of Columbia beyond the boundaries of Washington, D.C. into the "District States" which had been created by Washington on March 4, 1791. These actions implemented the provisions of Article I, Section 8, Clauses 17-18 of the Constitution into the several states. Military jurisdiction is still in force today through the continued use of executive orders and the establishment of military courts. The Lieber Code was named in honor of its drafter, Dr. Francis Lieber, a law professor who had two sons fighting for the Union and one son fighting for the Confederacy during the 1861 - 1865 War.

Bodies of Federal soldiers, killed on July 1, near the McPherson woods
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania – July 1863

Stephen Johnson Field was nominated by nominated by President Abraham Lincoln as an Associate Justice. Field, a Mason, would serve in this capacity for thirty-four years, from 1863 CE until 1897 CE.

The list of prominent people connected with the Civil War and politics in that era who were Masons is very long, including Winfield Scott, George B. McClellan, Robert Anderson, Winfield Scott Hancock, Benjamin F. Butler, Simon Cameron, Lewis Cass, John J. Crittenden, Andrew G. Curtin, David G. Farragut, Nathaniel P. Banks, John A. McClernand, Thomas H. Benton, John A. Logan, Sam Houston, Stephen A. Hurlbut, Andrew Johnson, Edwin M. Stanton, Gideon Welles, Albert Sidney Johnston, P.G.T. Beauregard, Howell Cobb, John B. Floyd, Albert Pike, Sterling Price, Robert Toombs, Godfrey Weitzel and Henry A. Wise. (7)

Bishop John Carroll
linocut by Charles Zarobila
about 1776.

Persephone (A) (B), what is known today as "Freedom," was sculpted in Rome and installed atop the Capitol Dome on December 2, 1863 in the middle of the Civil War, on the 47th anniversary of the death of America’s first Roman Catholic bishop, John Carroll. The event was marked by a salute of 47 gunshots as a tribute to Carroll, the Jesuit bishop who had put Washington D.C. under the protection of the Catholic icon Mary. John Carroll had died 47 years earlier on December 3, 1816 CE. The event was heralded by 47 gunshots, thirty-five from a field battery on Capitol Hill, twelve from the surrounding forts. Present Lincoln did not attend the ceremony, claiming that he had “a fever.” The Capitol, incidentally, is erected on property owned by Bishop Carroll's family. In the 1663 CE Maryland records, the exact site was recorded under the title "Rome," its owner a man named "Pope."

Roman Catholicism is a universal secular government domiciled at the Vatican City State in Rome. Its sovereign, the Pope, is an absolute ruler who is deemed infallible. In the political context, the Roman Catholic Church has been determined by the United States District courts to be a foreign State. (8)

1864 CE - Italy - The pope demanded a return to the teachings of St. Thomas Aquinas that the popes should not reconcile to or agree with progress, liberalism or modern civilization. This dealt a fatal blow to liberal Catholicism leaving no alternative but separation of church and state. Pope Pius IX's issued his Syllabus of Errors condemned most modern social theories and institutions, such as labor unions and parliamentary democracy. The Austrian Chancellor, Metternich classified Pope Pius IX as warm of heart, weak of head and lacking utterly in common sense. Pope Pius IX however directly ruled nearly three million people as their absolute monarch, there is no freedom of thought or expression, no elections, books and papers are censored, Jews are locked up in ghettos, a police state flying the Papal flag. It is respectfully pointed out to him that Jesus said my kingdom is not of this world and begged him to save Italy and the Papacy before it is too late.

1864 CE - Switzerland - All the major powers agree at the Geneva convention on rules for the treatment of prisoners of war.

1864 CE - England - Karl Marx, a communist Jew, creates the First International in London, a coalition of socialist parties from all over the world.

Karl Marx did recognize and articulate certain correct and vitally important things about the nature of capitalism. Capitalism is utterly dependent on the exploitation of human beings for their labor, and in order to function must reinvent Man as a commodity, an economic unit of production and consumption. This dehumanizing concept has proven one of the most destructive aspects of the Jewish incursion into Western civilization.

Capitalism is dependent for the generation of capital not only on profit, but on the highly cost effective form of profit known as usury, the collection of interest on loaned money. Long recognized as the ultimate tool of Jewish power, usury was forbidden for centuries to Christians by the Church. Only Jews were allowed to practice it and any Aryan (White) found charging interest was subject to a variety of penalties ranging from fines to the public removal of bits and pieces of the offender's anatomy.

1864 CE - Italy -

"The State has not the right to leave every man free to embrace whatever religion he shall deem true."

"The Church has the right to require that the Catholic Religion shall be the religion of the State, to the exclusion of ALL OTHERS."

"Cursed be those who assert liberty of conscience and of worship and such that maintain that the church may not employ FORCE."

      The syllabus of Pope Pius IX, December 1864.

1864 CE - United States - The National Currency Act was completely rewritten and re-created as the National Banking Act. In that act, the Comptroller of the Currency was authorized to establish a staff of national bank examiners to supervise and periodically examine the national banks. From the very first, the act empowered the Comptroller to regulate lending and investing activities of national banks. Although national banks no longer issue currency, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) continues to regulate their activities.

Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury under Lincoln, would publicly state –

"[My role] in promoting the passage of the National Banking Act was the greatest financial mistake of my life. It has built up a monopoly which affects every interest in the country. It should be repealed, but before that can be accomplished, the people will be arrayed on one side and the bankers on the other, in a contest such as we have never seen before in this country."

Lincoln said –

"The money power preys upon the nation in times of peace and conspires against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy. I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country.

Corporations have been enthroned, an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until the wealth is aggregated in the hands of a few and the Republic is destroyed … I feel at the moment more anxiety for the safety of my country than ever before, even in the midst of war."

(Frank and Marie-Therese Wood Print Collections, Alexandria, VA)

(Harper's Weekly, Sept. 5, 1868 / New York Public Library, New York City)

Nathan Bedford Forrest, KKK member under the direction of Masonic Confederate General Albert Pike who was the chief judicial officer of the Klan, leading a Confederate force, also distinguished himself as a war criminal at Fort Pillow, Tennessee; with the April 12th, 1864 CE massacre of over 300 Union troops who had laid down their arms in surrender as portrayed in this contemporary illustration. (left) An 1868 CE Thomas Nast cartoon shows Forrest, center with a medal of "honor" marked Fort Pillow. (right) [IPK]

The war grew increasingly costly (topping $2 million per day in its latter stages) and difficult to finance. The government's ability to borrow fluctuated with battlefield fortunes. The Confederate navy harassed northern shipping, reducing customs receipts, and inevitable administrative problems reduced the expected receipts from income and excise tax collection.

In response, Congress approved two new laws in 1864 CE that increased tax rates and expanded the progressivity of income taxation. The first bill passed in June upped inheritance, excise, license, and gross receipts business taxes, along with stamp duties and ad valorem manufacturing taxes. The same act proceeded to assess incomes between $600 and $5,000 at 5 percent, those between $5,000 and $10,000 at 7.5 percent, and established a maximum rate of 10 percent. Despite protest by certain legislators regarding the unfairness of graduated rates, the 1864 act affirmed this method of taxing income according to "ability to pay." An emergency income tax bill passed in July imposed an additional tax of 5 percent on all incomes in excess of $600, on top of the rates set by previous income tax bills. Congress had discovered that the income tax, in addition to its rhetorical value, also provided a flexible and lucrative source of revenue. Receipts increased from over $20 million in 1864 CE (when collections were made under the 1862 income tax) to almost $61 million in 1865 (when collections were made under the 1864 act and emergency supplement).

"Council of War" Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
examining map held by Gen. George G. Meade
Massaponax Church, Virginia – May 21, 1864

Ruins of depot, blown up on Sherman's departure
Atlanta, Georgia – 1864

The affluent upper middle classes of the nation's commercial and industrial centers complied widely with the income tax. Ten percent of all Union households had paid some form of income tax by war's end; residents of the northeast comprised 15 percent of that total. In fact, the northeast, a sector of American society that owned 70 percent of the nation's wealth in 1860 CE, provided the most critical tax base, remitting 75 percent of the revenues. In total, the North raised 21 percent of its war revenue through taxation, as opposed to the South, which raised just 5 percent this way.

Federal taxes were also instrumental in instituting a system of national banking during the war. The National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864 imposed a system of "free banking" - banks established by general incorporation as opposed to specific charters - on a national level. State banks were granted national charters and allowed to issue national bank notes (these notes were separate from Greenbacks). One third of a national bank's capital had to consist of federal bonds, since the new national notes were to be backed by federal bonds. The National Banking Acts thus served as another means to induce bankers to purchase bonds. In an attempt to avoid increased regulation, however, many state banks declined to seek national charters. To remedy this problem, the 1864 act imposed a 10 percent tax on state bank notes to drive them out of existence. As a result of this tax, the number of national banks tripled by the war's end, while their purchase of U.S. bonds nearly quadrupled.

Gen. William T. Sherman on horseback at Federal Fort No. 7
Atlanta, Georgia – 1864

The Pope, at this time, in Rome was Pius IX. Pius was the first Pope to officially declare himself to be 'infallible'. He also was very close to the General of the Jesuits, also called the Black Pope, who at this time was Cardinal Giacomo Antonelli. Pius was on very good terms with Jefferson Davis and wrote him acknowledging him with such titles as "honorable Mr. President" - titles which showed his approval of the Confederates States of America as a sovereign entity and Davis as its leader.

On June 10, 1864 CE, Lincoln took Charles Chiniquy for a ride in his carriage to talk inbetween his visits to the thirty thousand wounded soldiers picked up on the battle-fields of the seven days' battle of the Wilderness, and the thirty days' battle around Richmond. Lincoln knew Chiniquy because he had defended Chiniquy in court against an attack by Jesuits, and had convincingly won the case against the Jesuits about ten years earlier in Urbana, Illinois. The only thought which seemed to occupy the mind of the President was the part which Rome had in that horrible struggle. Chiniquy tells us that Abraham Lincoln said the following words more than once –

"This war would never have been possible without the sinister influence of the Jesuits. We owe it to Popery that we now see our land reddened with the blood of her noblest sons …

I conceal what I know, on that subject, from the knowledge of the nation; for if the people knew the whole truth, this war would turn into a religious war, and it would, at once, take a tenfold more savage and bloody character, it would become merciless as all religious wars are. It would become a war of extermination on both sides. The Protestants of both the North and the South would surely unite to exterminate the priests and the Jesuits, if they could hear what Professor Morse has said to me of the plots made in the very city of Rome to destroy this Republic, and if they could learn how the priests, the nuns, and the monks, which daily land on our shores, under the pretext of preaching their religion, instructing the people in their schools, taking care of the sick in the hospitals, are nothing else but the emissaries of the Pope, of Napoleon, and the other despots of Europe, to undermine our institutions, alienate the hearts of our people from our constitution, and our laws, destroy our schools, and prepare a reign of anarchy here as they have done in Ireland, in Mexico, in Spain, and wherever there are any people who want to be free … "

     Fifty Years in the Church of Rome, Charles Chiniquy, Chap. 60, 1886.

Constantino Brumidi had arrived from Italy to do the artwork for the Dome of the Capitol. He painted what is called the “Apotheosis of Washington,” his “deification.” According to Webster’s Dictionary, Apotheosis means “the act of placing a prince or other distinguished person among the heathen deities.” Between the deified Washington and the earth flies the Virgin pursuing “evildoers” with the Roman Eagle at her side. Her position between heaven and earth was meant to identify her as the Mediatrix, the most prominent role of the Roman goddess, Minerva (or Venus). The eagle at her side is the mascot of Jupiter, the ruling god of Rome, representing Roman justice.

The motto of the United States Justice Department is Qui Pro Domina Justita Sequitur, “He who follows the Goddess Justica.” Persephone, or Minerva, or Venus (different names for the same goddess), when judging the dead in Hades, was called “Justica.” The Justice Department’s motto encircles the eagle, of course, who was said to follow Justica.

Apotheosis of Washington
Constantino Brumidi, fresco, 1865
Canopy of the Dome

Young America (kneeling lower left) wears a little cap known as a “Phrygian cap.” Phrygia was a district in Pergamum, or Pergamos, which Revelation 2:13 calls “Satan’s seat.” Phrygian caps were given to freed slaves to show the world their liberated status. However, Roman law stated that this freedom could be revoked at any time for any cause. In other words, their liberty was given as a privilege, not as an inherent right.

The Phrygian cap is worn by the syncretic Hellenistic and Roman, though originally Persian, saviour god Mithras.

The Phrygian cap was worn during the Roman Empire by former slaves who had been emancipated by their master and whose descendants were therefore considered citizens of the Empire. This usage is often considered the root of its meaning as a symbol of liberty.

A brimless, limp, conical cap fitting snugly around the head and given to a slave in ancient Rome upon manumission. It was used as a symbol of liberty by the French revolutionaries and was also worn in the United States before 1800.

      American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Ed., 2000.

Black Obelisk of Shalmanezer

The most significant fact of all comes upon inspection of the famous Black Obelisk of Shalmanezer, King of Assyria, which stands today in the British Museum. It depicts King Jehu of Israel kneeling before the king of Assyria, paying tribute. In fact, this is the only ancient monument that portrays art-wise a character in the bible that was alive at the time of the portrait. Jehu is pictured wearing a Phrygian Cap in order to show that he is free only because the king of Assyria has given him the privilege of freedom in exchange for tribute.

Jehu is the one who fulfilled the prophetic word of Elijah that Ahab’s next generation would be killed and would cease to rule Israel. This prophecy was given after Ahab and Jezebel killed Naboth (and his sons) and stole his vineyard. Jehu also destroyed Baal worship out of Israel (2 Kings 10:28). But he failed to destroy or overthrow the golden calves (2 Kings 10:29). In fact, his destruction of Baal worship simply eliminated a denominational competitor for the religious devotion of the Israelites. The destruction of Baal worship merely solidified the golden calf as the national religion of Israel.

In Strong’s Concordance, the word “calf”, number 5695, is translated. It is the Hebrew word Egel, pronounced, EAGLE. In the eyes of the people who decided to use the “American Eagle” as their national symbol, it was the concept behind the Roman Eagle they were borrowing, and made it palatable to the American public. But the real power brokers behind the scenes were well versed in the Cabalah, the mystical Jewish writings, and in their way of thinking the eagle was identified with the golden calf, the “egel.”

The ancticipated reconstruction of the rebel governments began in Congress with Lincoln's proclamation to the Wade-Davis Bill on July 8, 1864 CE. The Congressional reply was known as the Wade-Davis Manifesto of August 5, 1864 CE.

1865 CE - United States - Southern states were defiant to Northern oppression until the end, some even preferring annihilation rather than surrender. However, they were gradually surrounded, and with the advance of the Union armies, the Confederate Congress adjourned sine die in March 1865 CE, and evacuated Richmond. The Confederate Armies eventually surrendered, but the Confederate Congress never did, like Tallahassee, the only southern capitol never to surrender to Union troops.

Ulysses S. Grant

Robert E. Lee

The Union army under Thomas had defeated the Confederates lead by Hood on December 15, 1864 CE at Nashville. The harbor of Charleston had been closed to the Confederates since the summer of 1863 CE, when the batteries of General Gilmore and the squadron of Commodore Dahlgren reduced Fort Wagner, demolished Sumter, and enabled the blockading ships to enter the port. Mobile was closed on August 5, 1864 CE, when Farragut forced his way past forts Gaines and Morgan and demolished the Confederate flotilla in the bay, leading the fight lashed to the rigging of the Hartford. Wilmington, the only important port remaining to the Confederates east of Texas, was defended by Fort Fisher, which fell before a combined land and naval attack by Terry and Porter on January 16, 1865 CE.

Sheridan's charge at Five Forks
(lithograph published c. 1886)

The situation of Lee was now desperate. In the hope of breaking through Grant's lines and uniting with Johnston, he made a fierce assault upon Fort Steedman near Petersburg, Virginia on March 25, but was repulsed with heavy losses. Grant pressed his advantage, extending and strengthening his left, where, on April 1, Sheridan gained a great victory at Five Forks, just southwest of Petersburg, Virginia. This was the decisive battle. Lee evacuated Petersburg and Richmond the next day, and retreated toward Lynchburg, closely followed and flanked by Grant. The Confederates had approximately 50,000 to 60,000 men when they abandoned their capital. In six days these were reduced one-half by capture and other casualties of the hasty retreat, and many of the remainder had lost or thrown away their arms.

On April 9, 1865 CE, the Army of Virginia surrendered to Grant at Appamattox Court House, Virginia, twenty-eight thousand men giving their parole and then dispersing quietly to their homes. Johnston surrendered 37,000 men to Sherman on April 26, and one by one the other Confederate commands laid down their arms or broke up, and disappeared. Jefferson Davis was captured by the Federal cavalry at Irwinsville, Georgia, and long confined at Fortress Monroe on an indictment of treason, but at last he was released on bail furnished by Horace Greeley and other northern men, and the prosecution was dropped. The great Rebellion, which had cost 600,000 lives, was ended.

General view of the burned district
Richmond, Virginia – April 1865

General Robert E. Lee, a West Point graduate, had his estate at Arlington, which was held in his wife's name, initially taken in 1864 CE for the non-payment of taxes. An Act of Congress of 1862 CE, and amended in 1863 CE, required that the owner of the property must appear in person to pay the taxes and fees. Lee's wife would have been forced to appear at the tax sale to pay the money, while her husband was in command of the Confederate Army. Lee's son later sued to get the property back, and had the jury return a verdict in his favor, only to have the U.S. Supreme Court maintain possession of the property in the hands of the United States government on the doctrine that the government cannot be sued without its consent.

General Lee, son of "Light Horse Harry" Lee of the American Revolution, had come from a long line of prominent people in government, as his ancestors, Richard Henry Lee and Francis Lightfoot Lee, had been two of the original signers of the Declaration of Independence. Lee had signed an oath of allegiance to the United States before his death in 1870 CE, which had been overlooked for over 100 years. When it was discovered, Lee was posthumously given a full pardon by President Gerald R. Ford (A) (B) in 1975 CE.

The tremendous burdens of the war were borne by the North with an ease which has no parallel in the history of such conflicts. Expenses were met by an increase in the tariff, by internal taxes, popular loans, and the issue of Treasury notes; and although the evils of inconvertible paper money were not escaped, industries were stimulated by the tariff, the creation of a national banking system gave a safe and stable currency, and peace was followed by a rapid extinguishment of debt, a reduction of taxes, and an appreciation of the legal-tender notes. In the South, on the contrary, which under the slave system could not manufacture what it needed, and by the blockade was cut off from foreign trade, the distress was extreme. All the obligations of the government became worthless, and nearly the whole population was reduced to poverty.

Mr. Lincoln had been re-elected in 1864 CE, and in his second inaugural address on March 4, 1865 CE, there was a memorable passage which disclosed at once the depth and nobility of his character, and his feeling towards the suffering people of the shattered Confederacy –

"With malice towards none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and orphans; to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations."

Washington, D.C. President Lincoln's funeral procession
Pennsylvania Avenue, April 19, 1865

But on the 14th of April, five days after Lee's surrender, the President was assassinated at the Ford Theatre in Washington by an actor named John Wilkes Booth, who, shouting "Sic semper tyrannis! The South is avenged!" escaped for a time in the confusion. On the same night, one of the accomplices named Payne made a desperate attempt upon the life of Secretary of State William Seward.

It has been alleged since 1865 CE that Booth was supposedly caught by Federal authorities at Garrett's farm near Port Royal, Virginia, early in the morning of April 26. As the storyline goes, they were hiding in a barn when they were found, with Harold giving up. Booth refused, so the barn was set on fire. Booth still didn't come out and was shot to death by Sergeant Boston Corbett. Corbett had not been under orders to do this. Booth's body was searched, and a diary was among the things found. Booth's remains were returned to Washington where "positive identification" was made and an autopsy performed.

John Wilkes Booth, the man who killed Lincoln was a 33rd degree Mason. John Wilkes Booth was never killed by Corbett in the barn. Booth escaped from Washington with a Masonic password to Kansas On his death bed, Booth confessed to his physician who he was and that he had shot Lincoln. (9)

Within days Booth's co-conspirators were arrested by the government. They were tried by a military tribunal, and all were found guilty. Mrs. Surratt, Powell, Atzerodt, and Herold were all hanged on July 7, 1865 CE. Dr. Mudd, O'Laughlen, and Arnold were given life terms in prison. Edman "Ned" Spangler, a Ford's stagehand who was convicted of helping Booth escape from the theatre, received a sentence of six years in prison.

Charles Chiniquy, was the great exposer of the Jesuit assassination of President Lincoln, when he wrote his masterpiece Fifty Years In The Church Of Rome in 1886 CE. He proves that Lincoln was assassinated by the Jesuits (A) (B) (C), and that it was covered-up by the United States government at the time.

Of the Jesuit hand in Lincoln's murder we read –

"I feel safe in stating that nowhere else can be found in one book the connected presentation of the story leading up to the death of Abraham Lincoln, which was instigated by the "black" pope, the General of the Jesuit Order, camouflaged by the "white" pope, Pius IX, aided, abetted and financed by other "Divine Righters" of Europe, and finally consummated by the Roman Hierarchy and their paid agents in this country and French Canada on "Good Friday" night, April 14, 1865, at Ford's Theatre, Washington, D.C."

     The Suppressed Truth About The Assassination Of Abraham Lincoln, by Burke McCarty, 1973, originally published in 1924.

Andrew Johnson

Abraham Lincoln has been portrayed as a martyr since 1865, however, since the assassination, a book entitled "The Real Lincoln" and others have presented viewpoints showing that Lincoln was a very different person than has been portrayed to the people of America since this event.

Vice-President Andrew Johnson, a Mason (11) from Tennessee, succeeded to the office of President as the seventeenth President. Johnson's Lodge records were lost during the Civil War. He was initiated as a Mason on May 5, 1851 CE, at the Greenville Lodge No. 119, in Greenville, Tennessee. Johnson was the Military Governor of Tennessee from 1862 CE until 1865 CE. There was no Vice President during his term in office.

After the Civil War, Confederate General Albert Pike was found guilty of treason and jailed, only to be pardoned by fellow Freemason President Andrew Johnson on April 22, 1866 CE, who met with him the next day at the White House. There, Lincoln's successor, President Andrew Johnson granted a pardon to Pike for his role in the murder of Lincoln. On June 20, 1867 CE, Scottish Rite officials conferred upon Johnson the 4th to 32nd Freemasonry degrees, and he later went to Boston to dedicate a Masonic Temple. A non-Masonic President had been removed from office, followed by a Masonic Vice President who took over. The same scenario would happen 98 years later with John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Baines Johnson.

The Southern States re-entered the Union under the same obligations, but under different relations, that were in place prior to the Civil War. Andrew Johnson entered office with a rancorous feeling against traitors, but he soon changed his tone, quarreled violently with the Republican majority in Congress, vetoed bills for the protection of the colored people, and adopted a scheme of reconstruction which would have restored the Confederate States to the Union with the disloyal element in full control and the freedmen helpless and unrepresented. There was little disposition among the vanquished secessionists at that date to accept the political consqeuences of the war, and they lost no time in showing, by brutal vagrancy laws and other devices, that their purpose was to reduce the ex-slaves to a servitude as harsh in some respects as the former bondage.

Johnson issued the Amnesty Proclamation on May 29, 1865 CE to reunite the country. It stipulated that the South would not be responsible for the debt incurred, that all secession laws were to end, and that slavery was to be abolished. Needless to say, the Rothschilds who had heavily funded the South lost a lot of money. In addition, the cost of the support of the Russian fleet cost the country about $7.2 million. Johnson didn't have the constitutional authority to give money to a foreign government, so arrangements were made to purchase Alaska (A) (B) from the Russians in April 1867 CE, 15 Stat. 198 {p. 229]. It was labeled as "Seward's Folly" because it appeared that Seward purchased what was then a worthless piece of land, when in fact it was compensation for the Russian Navy.

Congress had already proposed to the States a thirteenth amendment, Resolution No. 11 of Feb. 1, 1865, 13 Stat. 567 [p. 594], ratifying the proclamation of emancipation by a constitutional prohibition of slavery, and by Proclamation No. 52 of December 18, 1865 CE, 13 Stat. 774 [p. 646], it was declared as ratified by the necessary three-fourths of the states. The 13th Amendment granted tremendous powers to the federal government. The ratification of this amendment placed the states in the new position of merely being Federal territories, as the United States had merely become one national "state" as it was the de facto Congress which had proposed the amendment.


Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

The martial law of the federal government was embedded within the 13th Amendment under Article 42 of the Lieber Code, stating that slavery would be in accordance with municipal or local law. Municipal law is civil equivalent of martial law. By ratifying this amendment, the States allowed the federal government to invade each State court system through military authority within the Lieber Code in order to determine criminal law. The federal government would indirectly be able to determine whether a defendant was guilty of a crime in order to determine if that "person" would become a slave due to conviction. This is part of the tremendous new powers granted by the 13th Amendment as would later be stated in the 1903 case of U.S. v. Morris.

Southern leaders continued to dominate the new freedmen by white supremacy through legislation. This convinced Northern leaders that the Southern State governments were suppressing the newly freed slaves to supply themselves with cheap labor. This legislation, known as the "Black Codes," eventually lead to the establishment of Military governments under the Reconstruction Acts.

1866 CE - Prussia - Prussia declares war to Austria ("Seven Weeks' War") and expels Austria from the German Confederation.

1866 CE - Romania - The Ottoman protectorates of Moldavia and Wallachia unite in the federation of Romania.

1866 CE - Italy - The Holy Office (Vatican) declared that slavery is not at all contrary to the Natural Law. This is consistent with Canon Law (see years 340 CE, 600 CE, 655 CE, 1187 CE, and 1548 CE), but is the opposite of Canon Law (see years 1537, 1591 CE, 1639 CE, 1741 CE, and 1839 CE). It is noteworthy that numerous antislavery texts are placed on the Forbidden Reading Index in the 18th and 19th centuries.

1866 CE - United States - In order to finalize the takeover, a Fourteenth Amendment was proposed which purported to secure to freedmen the right of citizenship, to provide that those who are denied the suffrage shall not be counted in the basis of representation, to disqualify certain classes of Confederates from holding office without the consent of Congress, to affirm the validity of the United States debt, and to prohibit the payment of the rebel debt or claims for the emancipation of slaves. A portion of what would become the Fourteenth Amendment was previously passed into legislation on April 9, 1866, 39 Stat. 27 [p. 57]. Ownership of slaves would eventually be transferred from the hands of private individuals to that of being wards of the government. This amendment removed the major stumbling-block the Crown of England had with pursuing their financial interests in America – that of being blocked by the several states in order to directly tax each citizen through the military authority of the federal government via tax treaties.

Ten states of the former Confederacy rejected the 14th amendment with contempt and defiance. Congress thereupon placed them under military rule, to await "reconstruction" – 14 Stat. 428 and 15 Stat. 2 – under more stringent conditions. Editorials stated that the true reason for refusing Southern representation in Congress was that the political power of the country would be transferred to the South because of the influx of black voters. Tennessee ratified the 14th amendment at once, and, having a loyal government, was restored to the Union without waiting for action elsewhere. Whenever this amendment should be adopted, Congress offered to readmit to representation the former rebel states accepting it. The former states of the Confederacy were not the only ones to reject or take no action on the 14th amendment.

Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest

Nathan Bedford Forrest, former leader in the Confederate cavalry who eventually rose to the rank of Major General, becomes first Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan. Forrest was approached by the leaders of the Den of the Invisible Empire, which had possession of the secret archives of Samuel Adams (of the American Revolutionary War era) and which organization still existed under the name of the Sons of Liberty. Forrest agreed to accept the leadership, but preferred the name of the recently formed Ku Klux Klan, for the visible organization. The Ku Klux Klan has been Masonic since its conception. In 1869 CE, Albert Pike would also be one of the top leaders in the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.

1867 CE - Germany - Bismark creates the North German Confederation under Prussian control.

The first volume of Das Kapital was published. Together with the Communist First International, formed in the same year, it had great influence on the subsequent development of communism and socialism.

John A. McDonald

1867 CE - Canada - Sir John Alexander MacDonald became the first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada until 1891 CE. Though accused of devious and unscrupulous methods, he is remembered for his achievements. MacDonald was a confirmed Mason.

1867 CE - Austria - Hungary - The compromise of February 18, 1867 CE divided the Habsburg Empire into two great segments, Austria and Hungary, under a single monarch, Franz Joseph (1848 - 1916 CE) as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, with a common army and common foreign policy. The standing army is based on conscription for a two-year term and a ten-year commitment to the reserves. This political arrangement would last for fifty years. The people showed little interest in the political changes. They lived under absolute police rule and heavy press censorship. Vienna, Austria and surrounding areas are predominately German speaking. North of Vienna is the Czechs, to the east Slovaks and to the south Magyars (Hungarians). In August Napoleon and Eugenie came to Salzburg, Austria to establish contact with Emperor Franz Josef with a view to future alliance against Prussia.

1867 - 1871 CE - Turkey - Gregory VI, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople, after a twenty-seven year absence from the position.

Major General Gordon Granger

1867 CE - United States - The Presidency of the United States, controlled by Freemasonry, is thoroughly documented in testimony given in March of 1867 before the House Judiciary Committee by General Gordon Granger. (12) General Granger related a meeting between himself, President Andrew Jackson, who was a Mason, and Albert Pike, the most famous of all Masons. General Granger reported his surprise that President Jackson considered himself to be subordinate to Albert Pike. This subordination is detailed in the oath the initiate takes during the Third Degree, called the Master Mason's degree, inside the Blue Lodge. This oath states, "I do promise … that I will obey all … summonses given to me from the hand of a Brother Master Mason … "

Because of the refusal or reluctance on the parts of some of the states to ratify the 14th amendment, radical steps were taken to remove certain representatives from Congress in order to gain the correct number of votes so that the Reconstruction Acts and 14th Amendment could be passed. The 1968 Utah Supreme Court case (13) of Dyett v. Turner gives a very clear presentation of the manner in which representatives of both the Northern and Southern states were unseated or removed from Congress.

On March 2, 1867 CE, Congress passed the initial act, 13 Stat. 428, (A) (B) to establish more loyal governments in the former rebel states, and also gave congressional approval, 13 Stat. 432, (A) (B) to all the proclamations made by Presidents Lincoln and Johnson between March 4, 1861 CE and June 30, 1866 CE, thereby establishing the military acts of the President as being legal and proper, with no court having the authority to overturn any resolutions, executive orders or proclamations.

Legislation regarding the Reconstruction Acts under the government continued beyond March of 1867 – 15 Stat. 14 {p. 45], Resolution 32, 15 Stat. 29 {p. 60], Resolution 39, 15 Stat. 35 {p. 66], 15 Stat. 41 {p. 72], Readmission of Arkansas, 15 Stat. 72 {p. 103], Readmission of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida and Alabama, 15 Stat. 73 {p. 104], 15 Stat. 248 {p. 279], and Resolution No. 58, 15 Stat. 257 {p. 288], Reconstruction of Georgia, 15 Stat. 59 {p. 92].

William Seward

Ratification of the 13th Amendment had given Congressional approval to the Emancipation Proclamation. The President now had the approval of Congress to control all "persons," and was given the military authority to do so under the Reconstruction Acts. Power had been granted to the Secretary of State, William H. Seward, during Lincoln's first term in office to sign Executive orders.

The Southern people were without the right to vote during this time. By being disfranchised, the people were separated from the original contract with the states, and had to eventually contract with the new federal government of the United States by registering to vote as "citizens of the United States" because the "the established principle that the military shall be subordinate to the civil authority [was] reversed." The act of registering to vote made the citizens into direct members of the federal government. Upon it's inception, the average man or woman had no say in the government of the United States because they had been excluded from participating in it. The government of the United States had been run solely by the representatives of the States until this time.

The sole purpose of the Reconstruction Acts were to make the People of each State the agents of the Federal government. This Act is representative of the military takeover of the States of the Union [United States of America – the original 13 States under the Articles of Confederation] by the Federal government [United States] through the office of the President as the Commander-in-Chief of the United States military. The Reconstruction Acts not only altered the nature of the government of the individual States, but also altered the entire nature of the Federal government. It is a misconception to believe that the act only changed the State governments, when both the Federal AND State governments were "reconstructed."

The reservation of power to the States or to the people within the 10th Amendment might be considered by some to be now compromised. However, the 14th amendment delegated the power to the United States to control all "persons." Under military law, the general population and the States were under the paramount authority of the United States government.

"I consider the foundation of the Constitution as laid on this ground; That "all powers not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people."

"To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus specially drawn around the powers of Congress, is to take possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible of any definition."

      Thomas Jefferson, February 15, 1791.

The Ku Klux Klan, formed in 1867 CE, was the military arm of the Knights of the Golden Circle which had been formed in 1854 CE. If the Confederate States of America had succeeded in their secession, it would have meant they maintained their independence and each state would have been an independent country.

1868 CE - Australia - New South Wales (Australia) became a penal colony for Britain in 1788 CE. It is estimated that 161,000 English, Irish and other convicts were forced to settle there. Prison transport ended in this year. Other regular emigrants began to settle the country.

1868 CE - France - The first Cro-Magnon skeletal remains of men are discovered in a cave in France.

1868 CE - Uzbekistan - Russia invades Uzbekistan.

1868 CE - United States - The animosity of President Johnson towards the two houses of Congress, sometimes strangely emphasized by Mr. Johnson's personal foibles, had now become a deplorable scandal. A Tenure of Office Act was passed in March 1867 CE, to limit his power of making removals. He flouted it by removing Mr. Stanton from the office of Secretary of War. By August 1867 CE, the attempt to remove Stanton from office had failed, and impeachment proceedings were begun against him in February 1868 CE by the Radical Republicans. Johnson was charged with attempting to fire Stanton without Senate approval, for treason against Congress, and public language "indecent and unbecoming" as the nation's leader. Sen. Benjamin F. Wade, President pro tempore of the Senate and next in the line of Presidential succession, was so sure that Johnson would be impeached that he already had his Cabinet picked. Stanton was to be his Secretary of Treasury. The May 26th vote was 35-19, one short of the necessary two-thirds needed to impeach Johnson.

On July 27, 1868, the day before the "ratification" of the 14th Amendment was passed, Congress passed an Act concerning the Rights of American Citizens in foreign States, which proclaimed the right to expatriate from the United States 15 Stat. 223 {p. 254]. There is a distinction drawn between "American citizens" and "citizens of the United States."

On July 28, the 14th Amendment was considered to be ratified over the objections and rejections of several of the states, both Northern and Southern. The end-results of the 14th Amendment had profound effects (A) (B) (C) on the Second, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Amendments. This infringement on the Second Amendment begins with those "persons" who are designated as "citizens of the United States." The 14th Amendment was actually "ratified" by Executive Order # 6 of July 20, 1868 CE, and Executive Order # 7 of July 28, 1868 CE by Seward.

William Seward
Harper's Weekly, April 6, 1861

The passage of the 14th Amendment by Executive Order was made under the authority of the President as Commander in Chief. It changed the operation of the Constitution of the United States from that of being a contractual instrument made by the States which had controlled the Federal government, into a new contract which could be altered and changed at the will of the President by Executive Order. The President now commercially controlled the "citizenship" of all "persons" through the 14th Amendment.

Further, within the Proclamation of the passage of the 14th Amendment, 15 Stat. 709 [p. 393, see p. 395], the states are referred to as "States of the United States," not as the "United States of America" or "States of the Union" or the "several States," denominating possession of the States by the Federal Government.

The dominant phrase with the 14th Amendment is found in Section 1: "privileges or immunities." Americans are lead to believe that they possess something unknown and exceptional merely because it is referred to as a "privilege." They also feel protected because they have "immunity" from some other unknown thing(s), which they unwittingly believe will cause them no harm or ill effect. What exactly are a "privileges" or "immunities"?

Privilegium est quasi privata lex. 2 Bulst. 189. Privilege is, as it were, a private law.

      Black's Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition, p. 1423, 1933.

The word "privilege" is derived from the combination of the two Latin words "privi" or "privy," meaning private, and "leges," meaning law. Removal of the superfluous wording in the above definition simply shows that "Privilege is … a private law." Privilege is further defined follows:

privilege, ius, (iuris, n.) praecipuum, beneficium; in neg. sense - exemption, immunitas.

      Cassell's Latin Dictionary, 5th Edition, p. 799, 1968.

immunitas -atis, f. (immunia), exemption from public offices or burdens; with genit. : omnium rerum, Caes.; plur.: immunitates exemption: magni muneris, Cic.

      Cassell's Latin Dictionary, 5th Edition, p. 288, 1968.

Privilege … a peculiar advantage, exemption, or immunity …

      Black's Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition, p. 1419, 1933.

Immunity. Exemption, as from serving in an office, or performing duties which the law generally requires other citizens to perform … Freedom from duty or penalty … The term aptly describes an exemption from taxation …

A particular privilege …

      Black's Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition, p. 921, 1933, (citations omitted).

"Privileges" are, therefore, private laws in the positive sense, while "immunities" are private laws in the negative sense. A law in the positive sense would be a positive law, while a law in the negative sense would be a non-positive law. A positive law is authoritatively imposed, whereas a non-positive law is not. Private law is law between private individuals.

Private Law. As used in contradistinction to public law, the term means all that part of the law which is administered between citizen and citizen, or which is concerned with the definition, regulation, and enforcement of rights in cases where both the person in whom the right inheres and the person upon whom the obligation is incident are private individuals. See Public Law.

      Black's Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition, p. 1419, 1933.

Private law can also be included within international parameters. This occurs under the following conditions –

Private International Law. A name used by some writers to indicate that branch of the law which is now more commonly called "Conflict of Laws"(q. v.).

      Black's Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition, p. 1419, 1933.

Conflict of Laws. Inconsistency or difference between the municipal laws of different states or countries, arising in the case of persons who have acquired rights or a status, or made contracts, or incurred obligations, within the territory of two or more jurisdictions.

… that branch of jurisprudence, arising from the diversity of the laws of different … jurisdictions, … which … decides which law or system is to govern in the particular case, or … the degree of force to be accorded to the law of another jurisdiction … but … inaccurate, by Dicey, Conflict of Laws, Moore's Ed. 12, who points out that the defect of the name "Conflict of Laws" is that the supposed conflict is fictitious and never really takes place, and that the expression has the further radical defect of concealing from view the circumstance that the question by the law of what country a given transaction shall be governed is often too plain to admit of doubt. If, he says, the term applies to the conflict in the mind of a judge as to which of two systems of law should govern a given case, this amounts simply to saying that the term, "conflict of laws" may be used as an inaccurate equivalent for the less objectionable phrase "choice of laws … "

      Black's Law Dictionary, 3rd Edition, pp. 396-397, 1933.

This conflict of laws occurs between the "citizens of the United States" and the "citizens of the several States." As there never was any federal common law within the District of Columbia, the federal government only has statutory law, as it is an international corporation. The people of the several States, however, still have the common law with which to defend themselves in any court action. The general problem is that the people do not know how to invoke the common law or move the court into a common law jurisdiction.

The 14th Amendment, which is private Roman Catholic Ecclesiastical Trust Law, constitutes a constructive, cestui que trust, a public charitable trust, "PCT," that was expressly designed to bring every corporate franchise artificial person called a "citizen of the United States" into an inseparable merging with the government until the two are united (with the power inhering in the government, not the people). A cestui que trust is fundamentally different from a regular trust, which is express in nature and consists of a contractual indenture involving three (3) parties: Grantor (Creator or Trustor), Trustee, and Beneficiaries. In an express trust, legal ownership is transferred by written contract between Grantor and Trustee in which the Grantor surrenders ownership of property to the legal person, the Trust, to be managed by the Trustee on behalf of those who are to benefit from the arrangement, the Beneficiaries. A cestui que trust, on the other hand, differs from an express trust in several crucial ways:

a. It is not formed by express contract, i.e. overt agreement expressed in writing, but by legal construction, i.e. fiat.

b. A cestui que trust has no Grantor, but, being a constructive trust created by operation of law, i.e. by make-believe, has only co-trustees and co-beneficiaries. The co-trustees are the parties with the duties for managing property for the "public good," i.e. for the benefit of those designated as co-beneficiaries.

The legislature of each State is considered to be a body politic or body corporate. In law, it is considered to be a separate "person." Passage of the 14th Amendment directly placed each State legislature under the jurisdiction of the United States and made each one a legal resident or domiciliary of the District of Columbia. Each State, as a "body corporate," "body politic," or "person," is therefore considered to be a "citizen of the United States." The U.S. government became the principal (A) (B) and all the States in the Union would be re-formed as agents of the United States. "State succession from one state to a second and different state is determined by the "state territory" of the federal State.

Even 100 years later, the Utah Supreme Court was not aware as to the exact manner in which the 14th Amendment had been ratified, and debates in Congress were still being presented to eliminate the amendment. With this style of "ratification" comes the proof that the United States Constitution is operated through the military power of the President as Commander in Chief and NOT by the the Congress as it bypasses the proper method for ratification of a Constitutional amendment.

Thomas Jefferson's fearful comment to George Washington in 1792 CE about the Executive branch engulfing the Legislative branch had become reality.

All States were forced to incorporate the provisions of the 14th Amendment within their own State constitutions, see Florida, thereby creating the "persons" as the contractual nexus at the State level in order for the Federal government to control all these fictions of law. The Southern states were held under military jurisdiction until 1878 CE by appointed legislatures and military commanders.

These new "states" became "States of the United States" as evidenced by Proclamation 13 15 Stat. 708 [p. 392] of July 27, 1868.

What Alexander Hamilton had hoped for in 1787 CE would finally be achieved –

… if we still will adhere to the design of a national government, or, which is the same thing, of a superintending power, under the direction of a common council, we must resolve to incorporate into our plan those ingredients which may be considered as forming the characteristic difference between a league and a government; we must extend the authority of the Union to the persons of the citizens, – the only proper objects of government.

     The Federalist Papers, No. 15.

The true purpose of the 14th amendment was not only to give the slave his freedom, but also to make all people equal, by way of contract instead of status, under the paramount jurisdiction of the Federal government, as stated in the following United States Supreme Court cases –

The tie between the United States and every citizen in every part of its own jurisdiction has been made intimate and familiar. To the same extent the confederate features of the government have been obliterated. The States in their closest connection with the members of the State, have been placed under the oversight and restraining and enforcing hand of Congress. The purpose is manifest, to establish through the whole jurisdiction of the United States ONE PEOPLE, and that every member of the empire shall understand and appreciate the fact that his privileges and immunities cannot be abridged by State authority; …

     The Slaughter House Cases, 111 U.S. 746, 28 L. Ed. 36, 53, 4 S.Ct. 652 (1884).

The persons declared to be citizens [within the scope of the 14th Amendment] are "All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof." The evident meaning of these last words is, not merely subject in some respect or degree to the jurisdiction of the United States, but completely subject

      Elk v. Wilkins, 112 U.S. 94, 101, 102 (1884).

We have cited these cases for the purpose of showing that the privileges and immunities of citizens of the United States do not necessarily include all the rights protected by the first eight amendments to the Federal Constitution against the [176 U.S. 598] powers of the Federal government. They were decided subsequently to the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, and if the particular clause of that amendment, now under consideration, had the effect claimed for it in this case, it is not too much to say that it would have been asserted and the principles applied in some of them.

      Maxwell v. Dow, 176 U.S. 581, 597, 598 (1900).

The day before the 14th amendment was "ratified," Congress passed a bill which allowed anyone who would be naturalized as a citizen of the United States the choice of refusing such a naturalization. This Act is found at 15 Statutes at Large, Chapter 249-250, pp. 223-224. Even though this statute is no longer included in the United States Code, it has not been repealed and is still in effect. This act was originally intended for anyone who did not want to accept the citizenship that was offered.

The phrase "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" in the 14th Amendment was originally intended for the collective naturalization of the black men and women who were held as slaves, and for the naturalization of foreigners who would come to the shores of America. It should also be noted that not all people who were held in the condition of slavery were black. The phrase "and subject to the jurisdiction thereof" was intended to govern the status of the American Indian. The United States government did not grant the same citizenship as the original creators of that document were given, therefore a different "citizenship" was created. Because of the duality of the United States and State governments, there is still a distinguishment between the "citizens of the United States" and "citizens of a state." (A) (B) (C) (D)

The creation of the "person" known as a "citizen of the United States," is for the total commercial control of all men and women in America by the Federal government through the creation of individual unincorporated business trust accounts. Anyone who had been held as a slave by a private owner prior to the Civil War, now became a commercial instrumentality of the United States government after the war.

"The de facto (A) (B) transition of the United States from a federation to a federal state is marked by the gradual use of a singular rather than a plural verb."

     International Law – Charles G. Fenwick, 3rd rev. ed., p. 148 n. 62, (Appleton - Century - Crofts, Inc., 1948).

"The United States went to war in 1861 to preserve the Union; it emerged from the war in 1865 having created a nation. Before the two words 'United States' were generally used as a plural noun: 'the United States are a republic.' After 1865 the United States became a singular noun. The loose union of states became a nation."

     Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution – James M. McPherson, p. viii, (Oxford University Press, 1991).

The application of martial law varied in each State depending on whether the State was one of the Southern Confederacy, one of the original pro-Union states, or came into the new Union after the 1861 - 1865 CE war.

Ulysses S. Grant

Schuyler Colfax

The Republicans in 1868 CE nominated General Grant for the Presidency, with Schuyler Colfax for Vice-President, and he was easily elected over Horatio Seymour, whom the Democrats, after an effort to take up Chief Justice Chase, presented on a platform which declared the reconstruction acts unconstitutional, revolutionary, and void, and demanded the payment of the national debt in depreciated paper. The fourteenth amendment became a part of the constitution in July of this year, and eight of the rebel States, having accepted it, were restored to representation in Congress and took part in the election. The southern States, however, consisted of representatives of the military jurisdiction, and not of any parties elected by the people of each State. Even this early, however, in the history of reconstruction it became evident that the rights of the freedmen, guaranteed by the amendments, could not be maintained without the active intervention of the Federal authority. The new voters, maltreated by their local leaders, and left to their own ignorance or the arts of adventurers, administered State affairs extravagantly and corruptly; and the whites met them with murder, terrorism, and an abuse of the forms of election almost too brutally frank to be called fraud. General Grant's administration was much occupied with these difficulties, and it cannot be said that they were solved. Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas, the last of the reconstructed States were readmitted in January, February, and March 1870 CE. The 15th amendment, declaring that "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude," was proclaimed as adopted March 30, 1870 CE.

As the United States government was originally intended to be the international agent of the States, it now became the international agent of the people of the several States. With the 15th Amendment, the people now registered, (A) (B) a.k.a. "enrolled," to be residents of the United States and would now be placed under international law through the use of the voter registration acts. Any individual who was designated as a "citizen of the United States" became a member of the corporation of the United States. The 14th Amendment citizen, as such, could exist only in a legal / fictional / corporate capacity on paper, with most people being completely unaware of their new "legal status."

1869 CE - Egypt - Egypt opens the Suez canal.

1869 CE - Austria - The independent Police Ministry in Austria is abolished, Jews are largely emancipated, compulsory and free elementary education is established. The Roman Church authority is gradually whittled away. Civil marriage is legalized and schools are taken away from Church control. This is followed by a law putting all Christian creeds on an equal footing. Pope Pius IX denounced the new laws as truly unholy, as absolutely null and void as destructive, abominable and damnable. The Bishops of Austria instructed their flocks to disobey the laws. One outspoken Bishop is sent to prison and subsequently pardoned.

1869 CE - England - The British Juvenile Emigration Movement commenced this year and over the next sixty years 80,000 (70 years 100,000) alleged pauper and criminal children are deported to North America into slavery (indenture). Thousands of children aged 2 to 15 years old were transported to Canada without their parents knowledge or consent. This system only collapsed during the Great Depression and with the threat of World War II. Some suggest the Earl of Shaftesbury started the practice in 1868 CE by sending indentured boys to Toronto, Canada. The agencies involved are the Liverpool Sheltering Home, the Catholic Emigration Association and the Church of England Society for Waifs and Strays. The shame attached to this wave of deportees is so strong that most when released from their indentures hide their background even to their own children and spouses. Others estimate the numbers total 150,000 when deportation to Australia, New Zealand and Africa are included. The evangelist Anne MacPherson opened her Home of Industry in London's east end and began shipping children to Canada. She also worked with the infamous Dr. Thomas Barnardo who is responsible for shipping 30,000 children to Canada.

These actions continued again by England after World War II and into the early 1950's, when thousands of British children were transported to Australia without their parents knowledge or consent. Due to the war, many English parents were destitute and relinquished their children to orphanages, generally Catholic, on the condition of taking them back when they were in a better financial condition. Meanwhile, the orphanages would tell the children that the parents did not want them back or that they had died, and subsequently transported them to Australia. When the parents returned to obtain the children, they were told that the children had already been adopted and would give no further information. Years later some of these children traveled back to England only to find their real parents and family still living. This sad tale was finally brought to light in 2003 on the television show Sixty Minutes II by reporter Bob Simon, in a presentation entitled The Lost Children.

1869 CE - Italy - Pius IX proclaimed infallibility during the first Vatican Council (1869 - 1870 CE) or twentieth General Council convinced that no Pope, himself included, could ever make a mistake in matters of faith and morals. This means infallibility is the Divine Right to proclaim wrong. Many believe Pius has moved the church into the darkness by placing himself above God. He is fully aware that the tradition leading up to this position is based on lies and forged documents. Infallibility is grounded in the ancient philosophy of an unchanging universe. This solid state theory is based on the understanding that the sun is the center of a unchanging universe. Things of earth may change but the Sun God does not change. This blunder has the disadvantage that no claim can be withdrawn, no doctrine denied, no moral decision reversed, even when new facts suggest a radical change. Many feel that it goes against all that is known about the early Christian church. Others contend even Peter made errors concerning Church matters of faith and doctrine and when an error is pointed out by Paul he saw no loss of face or faith in admitting his error. Five hundred thirty two bishops met to vote on the issue, one hundred and forty refused to vote, three hundred titular Bishops supported the Pope, two thirds of the American Bishops are opposed. One historian of the times counted ninety-five Popes who claimed to have divine power, based on Scripture, to depose kings. Pius IX spoke angrily of the many malicious errors regarding infallibility, disposing sovereigns is a matter of authority, not infallibility. As a result of Vatican I the issue of Church control of education in Europe is hotly debated and many countries eliminate the church control of education. Church control of education is eliminated in Germany in 1871 CE and France in 1886 CE.

1869 CE - United States - Ulysses S. Grant becomes the 18th President of the United States as a Republican. His Vice-President during his first term was Schuyler Colfax. Grant's Vice-President during his second term was Henry Wilson. All three men's status as Masons is uknown. Jonas Mills Bundy (1835 - 1891 CE), however, was a member of the Illuminati, and a key advisor to Presidents Grant, Garfield, and Chester A. Arthur. (14) Grant was related to the following Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, maybe Washington, Van Buren, and Taft. (15)

In Veazie Bank v. Fenno, the Supreme Court upheld the 10 percent federal tax on state bank notes instituted by the National Banking Act in 1864.

Republicans phased out unpopular war excise taxes throughout the late sixties and early seventies, except for sin taxes on alcohol, tobacco, and certain luxury items. Tobacco and alcohol excises were consistent moneymakers, providing nearly 50 percent of federal tax revenues by the 1890s.

GOP lawmakers also retained the high tariff structure as a permanent fixture of the postwar era. By the late 1860s, the average tariff duty was 47 percent, a rate generally maintained for the rest of the century – although many goods, like metals and metal products, cotton textiles, and woolen items often bore a rate of 100 percent. The tariff protected finished goods more than raw materials, ensuring that the margin of profit for manufacturers and industrialists was greater. This policy fostered higher rates of investment in the manufacturing sector, and was thus partially responsible for the economic/capital expansion in post-Civil War era. Customs duties also furnished the funds to redeem war bonds. Since tariffs taxed consumption regressively, the government essentially managed its debt by transferring wealth from lower income levels to bondholders.

In the latter half of the 19th century, tariff revenue and excise taxes underwrote the Republican regime's state-building endeavors, funding such federally supported programs as southern reconstruction, western pacification, social insurance for Civil War veterans and their families, and internal improvements. These programs proved popular among the electorate and generated much support for the Republican party. They also encouraged the formation of interests groups – such as the Grand Army of the Republic – that lobbied for the institutionalization and extension of federal largesse. The distribution of benefits tended to be progressive, even if the system of taxation used to pay for them was regressive. So despite the various inequities of the Republican tax system, the popularity of the programs it funded and the war it had helped win made its retention politically viable.

1870 CE - France - The empire is dissolved and a republic (the "third republic") is proclaimed in France, led by president Adolphe Thiers.

1870 CE - Prussia - Prussian troops advanced on Austria and in five days are pushed back nearly to the Elbe. Ten thousand men and 279 officers are lost in the attack. Prussia now occupied Bohemia (Austria). Bismarck goaded the French into a declaration of war. France declares war on Prussia. Bismark provoked, and won, the Franco-Prussian War against Napoleon III and obtained the alliance of the southern German states of Baden, Wurttemberg and Bavaria.

The French garrison protecting the pope is withdrawn because of the Franco-Prussian war.

1870 CE - Italy - The fall of Napoleon permitted Victor Emmanuel to seize Rome in 1870 CE. Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, crowned king of Italy after defeating Austrian and papal forces, marched into Rome in 1870 CE and expropriated the Papal States after a plebiscite in which Catholics, at the order of Pius IX, did not vote. In 1871 CE, Pius IX refused to accept a Law of Guarantees. Confiscation of church property and hindrance of ecclesiastical administration by the regime followed.

The Italian troops took Rome, the people are jubilant, the Jews, by royal decree, are given the freedom that the Papacy had denied them for over fifteen hundred years. The last ghetto in Europe is dismantled. The Italian government assured the pope of personal inviolability, the tenure of the Vatican and other buildings. Rome becomes the capital of Italy.

However, Pius IX refused to recognize the loss of temporal power and became a "prisoner" in the Vatican; his successors followed his example. The Pope, whose previous residence, the Quirinal Palace, had become the royal palace of the Kings of Italy, withdrew in protest into the Vatican, where he lived as a self-proclaimed 'prisoner', refusing to leave or to set foot in St. Peter's Square, and ordering Catholics on pain of excommunication not to participate in elections in the new Italian state.

The newly unified Kingdom of Italy expelled all but one Jesuit as a result of pressure from most European countries. Pietro Angelo Secchi, an important astronomer, was spared as his skills outweighed the fact of his membership in the order.

Thomas John Barnardo

1870 CE - England - Thomas John Barnardo set up an agency in London's east end and sent 30,000 children into slave labor conditions in Canada. He established homes in Peterborough, Ontario and Russell, Manitoba.

1870 CE - United States - The postbellum era saw the heyday of active party politics and electoral participation. Republicans and Democrats tended to avoid well-articulated national platforms that might backfire in heavily competitive local races. Democrats nominally stood for states' rights and limited government, while Republicans trumpeted their war legacy and carried on the Whig tradition of government-sponsored economic development. As support for reconstruction (and protection of African American citizenship in the South) faded in the mid-1870s, however, Republicans tempered their overtly activist approach.

The locus of federal authority rested with the legislative branch rather than the executive, but the parties' hold on the reigns of power was tenuous. Closely contested elections rendered stable congressional majorities a rarity – from 1877 CE to 1893 CE, neither party controlled the House for two consecutive two-year terms.

In this context, the tariff issue had political resonance beyond the realm of revenue or protection. Increasingly in the 1870s and 1880s, both parties turned to the tariff to construct broader, stabler electoral coalitions. The other major issues in the Gilded Age – civil service reform, railroad regulation, temperance, immigration restrictions, and monetary reform – proved too volatile. Republicans extended their wartime tariff regime in the name of industrial prosperity, high wages, and a strong home market, while Democrats opposed high duties as instruments of high prices, inequity, and corruption.

Congressional politicians of both parties could afford to wield a broad rhetorical brush on the national stage, since rhetoric did not prevent them from structuring unwieldy tariff bills to cater to their constituents' substantive interests. Votes in Congress often depended on the commodity in question, or the effect of the duty on a legislator's constituents. Producers of goods as varied as coal, hides, timber, wool, iron, steel, textiles and machine tools wanted protective duties enacted or extended. Manufacturers of finished goods lobbied for tariff protection for their products, but preferred low tariffs on raw materials. Farmers in the west and south, meanwhile, tended to oppose protective tariffs because they believed restrictive American markets only encouraged foreign nations to close their ports to American agricultural products. Duties also seemed to inflate the price of farm equipment and other manufactured goods they purchased.

The vicissitudes of postbellum politics were just one factor infusing taxation with broader political and cultural significance. The United States' rapid growth and industrialization in the late 19th century altered the nation's social order and induced painful economic dislocations. In this context, many Americans began to recast tariff and tax policies as potentially powerful instruments to promote lofty goals, from the expansion of global markets to the promotion of social justice. Shortly after the cessation of hostilities, the policy of the United States concerning the "forced consent" of government upon the people of this nation began to be questioned.

Lysander Spooner

And the constitution, so far as it was their contract, died with them. They had no natural power or right to make it obligatory upon their children. It is not only plainly impossible, in the nature of things, that they could bind their posterity, but they did not even attempt to bind them. That is to say, the instrument does not purport to be an agreement between any body but "the people" then existing; nor does it, either expressly or impliedly, assert any right, power, or disposition, on their part, to bind anybody but themselves.

      On Treason, Lysander Spooner, Part VI, p. 4, 1870.

The United States Constitution was converted into a trust (A) (B), defined as: "A legal obligation with respect to property given by a donor (the King of England and Holy Roman Church as the first parties) to a trustee (Government as the second party) for the advantage of a beneficiary (the crown as third parties)." The property in this trust includes all land, personal possessions and the physical body of each man, woman and child. The donor of the trust is the King of England and the Holy Roman Church. The trustees are all federal and state public officials, which means that government officials are truly agents of foreign powers – the Kings and Queens of England and the Vatican.

"Protestantism has not, and never can have, any right where Catholicity has triumphed. Therefore we lose the breath we expend in declaiming against bigotry and intolerance and in favour of Religious Liberty, or the right of any man to be of any religion as best pleases him."Catholic World, July 1870.

Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck

Kaiser Wilhelm I

1871 CE - Germany - The German Empire, a confederation of 26 states, was formed. Bismark unites the northern and southern German states under Prussia, Prussian king Wilhelm I is proclaimed German emperor, a constitution creates a parliament (Reichstag), and universal male suffrage is introduced.

Government policy launched a Kulturkampf, whose May Laws of 1873 CE were designed to annul papal jurisdiction in Prussia and other states and to place the Church under imperial control. Resistance to the enactments through persecution forced the government to modify its anti-Church policy by 1887 CE. Germany removed the clergy from controlling education. Not to do so would eliminate scientific, political and social advancement because of the Church's position on infallibility.

1871 CE - Austria - Austria is described as a mosaic of nationalities and provinces without an inner unity. Although Austria had been at relative peace since 1866 CE the fear of a war with Russia remained a distinct possibility.

1871 CE - Philippine Islands - The Augustinian Friars in the Philippines installed Rafael de Izquierdo as Governor. He said he came to the Islands "with a crucifix in one hand and a sword in the other." He immediately rescinded all liberal laws. Rafael de Izquierdo, the Augustinian appointed Governor of the Phillipines put down a rebellion by about 200 dockworkers in the Province of Reuoled who had killed their Spanish overseers. He believed the Philipino priests were behind the uprising so he ordered the execution of three Friars, Jose Burgus, Marino Gomez and Jacinto Zamora and deported others.

1871 CE - France - The socialists of Paris establish a "commune," but the French government soon retakes Paris, resulting in the deaths of 20,000 communards.

1871 - 1873 CE - Turkey - Anthimus VI, restored for the second time, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1871 CE - United States - On February 21, 1871 CE, the government of the District of Columbia became incorporated under the name "District of Columbia," (16 Stat. 419, Chap 62 [p. 452]) [evidenced by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1967] thereby becoming a "legal entity," and effectively bypassing Article I, Section 8, Clause 17 of the U.S. Constitution. The District of Columbia corporation "adopted" the Constitution of the United States as its corporate charter when it proclaimed in this act that it could "exercise all other powers of a municipal corporation not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States and the provisions of this act."

The purpose for this incorporation was due to the fact that the "citizens of the United States" that had been created under the Fourteenth Amendment were to be held as wards of the State by implied contract, this being accomplished under the military government and military law. As the rebellion of the Southern States was never recognized by the United States government, the Confederacy lacked any legal legitimacy to be treated as a separate nation. However, the underlying sinister purpose of the Fourteenth Amendment made the citizens of the United States into alien enemies. As Washington, D.C. was already an international autonomous city-state similar in many respects to the The City of London and The Vatican, it needed a mechanism through which to control all American citizens by admiralty contract, as the common man was not party to the federal constitution.

With regard to the incorporation of the United States –

[2](a) The property of a corporation is owned by the corporation, and not by the individual members.

      Handbook of the Law of Private Corporations, Frank P. Clark, p. 2, 1897.

C.S.S. Alabama against the U.S.S. Kearsarge

Because of the corporate change within the U.S. government, any future dealings with Native American Indian Tribes were under the Indian Contract Act (A) (B) of March 3, 1871 CE.

Without declaring martial law, President Grant sent troops into nine counties of South Carolina to enforce a proclamation commanding the residents to give up their arms and ammunition. Grant suspended the writ of habeas corpus. More than 600 arrests had been made by the end of 1871 CE.

The signal achievement of General Grant's administration was the settlement of the long-standing controversy with Great Britain over the aid furnished by that power to the Confederacy. By the treaty of Washington (1871 CE), the so-called Alabama claims were referred to a tribunal of arbitration at Geneva, which found Great Britain responsible for the depredations of the Alabama (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) and several other cruisers, and awarded $15,500,000 to the United States as damages on September 14, 1872 CE. The Alabama had been manned by British sailors during the war.

1872 CE - France - France pays an indemnity and German troops leave France.

1872 CE - United States - On May 22, 1872, Congress passed the Amnesty Act, 17 Stat. 142, c. 193. This act restored franchise to the white south. From 1867 until the passage of the General Amnesty Act of 1872, Southerners were given pardons to vote and hold office. By March 4, 1871, 4,616 people had been relieved of the disabilities of Reconstruction. The Amnesty Act of 1872 restored rights to all southerners or others except "Senators and Representatives of the thirty-sixth and thirty-seventh Congress, officers in the judicial, military, and naval service of the United States, heads of departments and foreign ministers of the United States" who had supported the Confederacy. This bill passed in the House without debate, and was passed by the Senate by a vote of 38 to 2. It is estimated that those excluded numbered between three and six hundred.

Lawmakers allowed the Civil War income tax to expire, bringing to a close the first national program to tax the population on a progressive basis. Congress had consistently reduced the tax rates and increased exemptions since 1867 CE. The American public, and affluent citizens in particular, had accepted income and excise taxes only as emergency war measures; once the crisis passed, they expected the tax burden to dissipate. No tangible organized support for a permanent income tax emerged in the immediate postwar years. While a few congressional Republicans understood that the tax's progressivity could serve to mitigate the regressive nature of the tariff (as it had during the war), most legislators were content to see it phased out, and even resented its redistributional nature.

Internal Revenue Liquor Stamp

A retail liquor dealer tax stamp, 1873. Source: Tax History Project Document Collection.

Congress enacted a 10 percent across-the-board reduction in protective tariffs, and eliminated duties on coffee and tea whose sole purpose was revenue generation rather than protection. The call for tariff reform had come from Democrats, commercial and industrial groups, western agriculturists, and nonpartisan reformers alike who believed the time was ripe for revision. As the tariff system persisted, it grew more complex and arcane; discrepancies in duty schedules caused administrative difficulties and encouraged fraud. A large budget surplus and healthy economy, reformers argued, would cushion the impact of revision. The fact that Republicans controlled both houses of Congress and the presidency seemed to ensure that any alterations of the tariff schedule would not compromise the overall integrity of the system. Opting for a broad general reduction, Congress did not address particularly burdensome tariff rates on specific products.

President Ulysses S. Grant.
Source: Brady-Handy Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

In November, Ulysses S. Grant retained the presidency in a landslide, soundly defeating Horace Greeley, the Liberal Republican candidate. The Liberal Republican party was actually a collection of upper-middle class defectors from the GOP, who had grown frustrated with the scandal and political spoils of the Grant administration. They tended to advocate civil service reform and other means to remove government administration from the realm of partisan politics. Many Liberals were also advocates of tariff reduction - in part to discourage the corruption associated with a bloated tariff and bulging federal surplus. Their defeat and humble return to the Republican fold consolidated protectionist sentiment within the party.

General Grant was ill-served by many of his friends and office-holders, and his somewhat drastic methods in dealing with the South were disapproved by a considerable party among Northern Republicans. The Liberal movement in 1872 CE was a protest at once against "bayonet rule" and administrative abuses. The President's renomination by the regular convention being certain, the Liberal Republicans met at Cincinnati in May, and named for the presidency Horace Greeley, the founder and editor of the New York Tribune. In July, the Democratic national convention at Baltimore also nominated Mr. Greeley, and the strange spectacle was presented of the party of slavery and secession supporting one of the ablest and most ardent of their life-long enemies. Mr. Greeley had strong qualities as a candidate; his pure transparent character, his honesty, and his unselfishness had caused his name to be affectionately cherished in thousands of homes; and at one time his election seemed highly probably; but in the end General Grant's triumph was signal. Crushed by private sorrows heaped upon his public disappointments, and cruelly hurt by the scurrilities of an exceptionally angry campaign, Mr. Greeley died a few weeks after the election. Over his grave all parties united in tributes to his noble nature, and in appreciation of the great the permanent usefulness of his busy life.

Tomb of Charles Taze Russell

Charles Taze Russell founded the International Bible Students Association, which was the forerunner to the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, known today as the Jehovah's Witnesses. Russell was a Knights Templar Mason of the York Rite, in Allegheny Pennsylvania. Russell also had a secret Rosicrucian membership with the Quakertown, Pennsylvania group of Rosicrucian's, as revealed by the pyramid he ordered erected over his grave site, show by the use of the Winged Sun Disk. Russell owned a cemetery in Pittsburgh. (16)

1873 CE - Germany - The German stock market crashes.

1873 - 1878 CE - Turkey - Joachim II, restored, again becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.

1873 - 1877 CE - United States - One of the longest and most severe economic depressions in the nation's history began with the Panic of 1873, precipitated by the bankruptcy of the Northern Pacific Railroad and its principle investor, Civil War bond salesman Jay Cooke. Unemployment soared, while falling prices and a paucity of circulating currency hurt small farmers and other debtors.

1874 CE - United States - The Republican party bore the brunt of voter frustration and backlash against the worsening Depression, the policies of southern reconstruction, and the scandals of the Grant Administration. For the first time since secession, the Democrats gained control of the House and Senate. Reversing an extended period of Republican hegemony, the next two decades would be marked by extremely competitive electoral politics.

1876 CE - Afghanistan - 16,000 British-Indian troops attacked Afghan rebels and were annhilated, only one Briton survives.

1875 CE - France - A republican constitution is approved in France.

1875 CE - United States - The tariff reduction of 1872 CE proved short-lived. Protectionists in Congress managed to repeal it three years later, citing the reduction in Customs revenue induced by the Panic of 1873. Because the initial reductions had been across the board, they were relatively simple to reverse. Since coffee and tea remained on the free list, however, the restoration of tariff rates made little public impact.

1876 CE - England - Queen Victoria of England becomes Empress of India.

A Mr. Maloney, with two companions, forcibly removed his three children from the poor house, saying he hadn't agreed to their deportation to Canada. Lilian Birt, the founder of the Home, said the unreasonableness of this outraged father is a result of the priest who consigned him to purgatory or even Hell if he did not take his children out of a Protestant institution. Between 1869 CE and 1940 CE between 80,000 - 100,000 children are deported to Canada many without the parents knowledge or consent. See 1869 CE, 1870 CE.

1876 CE - United States - The Democratic party soon recovered from the defeat of 1872 and three years later, with the aid of the "solid South," it held a majority of the House of Representatives for the first time since the beginning of the Rebellion. For the Presidential campaign of 1876 CE, it nominated the ablest of its Northern leaders, Mr. Samuel J. Tilden. The Republicans, after an animated demonstration by the friends of Ex-Speaker Blaine, named Rutherford B. Hayes. The election was claimed for Hayes by a majority of one electoral vote; but the result depended upon contested returns from the States of Louisiana, Florida, South Carolina, and Oregon. Unable to agree upon a joint rule for counting votes, the two houses of Congress referred the case to an Electoral Commission, composed of five Senators, five Representatives, and five judges of the Supreme Court; and by this body the election was awarded to Mr. Hayes. The administration of Mr. Hayes is memorable for the removal of the military force which had thus far sustained military governments in the reconstructed States, the practical extinction of the Republican party throughout the territory of the Confederacy, and the practical elimination of the freedman as an element in Southern politics. Financial matters occupied much of the attention of Congress; and on the 1st of January, 1879, the Treasury and the banks resumed specie payments, suspended since the early part of the war. The act under which this important result was accomplished had been framed by Senator Sherman, and it was his fortune now to carry it into effect as Secretary of the Treasury.

The creation of "citizens of the United States" continued full-scale after the Civil War. Prior to the Western states being admitted into the Union, they were territories which were exclusively governed by the Congress. Upon statehood, Congress gave a collective naturalization to the people inhabiting these territories and considered them to be "citizens of the United States." Thus, the population of the federal citizens continued to increase through the "collective naturalization" of all the people in the Western states and their descendants, naturalized foreigners and the American-born Negro. This doctrine affected all people in the states of Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, Alaska and Hawaii (17). The Fourteenth Amendment was thought to protect the black man from state encroachment upon his rights, but instead placed all individuals who lived in these thirteen states under the subjection of the Fourteenth Amendment, in addition to all voters. The 13th Amendment was the first amendment to be "open-ended," as was the 14th Amendment. The Congress and the President have had the ability to continually change or add to the 13th and 14th amendments since the time of the Civil War. The 1968 Civil Rights Act, as an example, is part of the ever-evolving 14th Amendment. As the president has the power to override acts of Congress through the use of Executive Orders, he also has the ability to indirectly amend the Constitution with regard to these amendments.

American Indians retaliated with ferocity to attacks made upon them in western America. On March 17, American soldiers attack camp of Oglala Sioux Indians under Crazy Horse, at Powder River. The Sioux are victorious. On June 17, Chief Sitting Bull and 1,000 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors route U.S. General George Crook and 1,300 combatants at The Battle Where the Girl Saved Her Brother (Battle of the Rosebud), Montana. On June 24, The 7th U.S. Cavalry under Gen. George A. Custer were killed to a man, 212 dead, by Sioux Indians at the Battle of Little Bighorn, Montana.

Rutherford B. Hayes

1877 CE - United States - Rutherford B. Hayes is elected as the 19th President of the United States on the Republican platform. His Vice-President was William A. Wheeler. Both men's status as Masons are uknown.

John Marshall Harlan becomes United States Supreme Court Associate Justice, a position he held until 1911 CE. A confirmed Mason, Harlan was nominated by President Rutherford B. Hayes.

In 1877 CE, in Lampasas County, Texas, a group of farmers formed a group called the Knights of Reliance who were concerned about the financial power being "concentrated into the hands of a few." Later renamed the Farmers Alliance, it spread to 120 chapters throughout Texas and by 1887 CE the movement stretched up to the Dakotas and as far east as the Carolinas. By the time 1890 CE rolled around, this Populist philosophy had succeeded in establishing itself and they had elected governors and congressmen.

They advocated a progressive income tax; for railroads, communications, and corporations to be regulated by the Federal government; the right to establish labor unions; and government mediation to stabilize falling commodity prices and the initiation of credit programs. They were against the gold standard and the country's private banking system which was centered at Wall Street. They were impressed with Lincoln 's "greenbacks" because of the ability to adapt in order to meet the credit needs of the economy. They wanted the money supply to be controlled by their elected representatives and not the money interests of Wall Street. They created the People's Party and ran their own independent presidential candidate in 1892 CE. In 1896 CE, they hitched their wagon to the campaign of Democrat William Jennings Bryan who lost to William McKinley effectively ending the Populist movement. This political movement created the initial stirrings for what eventually became the Federal Reserve Act.

1877 CE - Canada - A dispute respecting the northwest boundary was referred to the Emperor of Germany, and decided in favor of the United States. The question of the compensation to be made by this country for fishery privileges on the British North American coast was not so satisfactorily adjusted. A commission of arbitrators, meeting at Halifax, awarded Great Britain, (1877 CE) the extravagant sum of $5,500,000 for twelve years' use of the inshore fisheries by American vessels; besides which Canadian fish and fish-oil were, by the treaty, to be admitted to the United States free of duty. Since the expiration of this arrangement, the fishery difficulties with Canada have been renewed with many circumstances of exasperation.

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