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(See Cuckow-pint, Ilium)

The plant has a round flattened perennial rhizome, the upper part tunicated as in the onion, the lower and larger portion tuberous and fleshy, with numerous long white radicles in a circle from its upper edge, the under-side covered with a dark, loose, wrinkled epidermis. Spathe ovate, acuminate, convoluted into a tube at the bottom, flattened and bent at top like a hood, varying in colour internally, supported by an erect scape inverted at base by petioles and their acute sheaths. Spadix club-shaped, shorter than spathe, rounded at end, contracted at base, surrounded by stamens or ovaries; the upper portions of the spadix withers together with the spathe, whilst the ovaries grow into a large compact bunch of shining scarlet berries. Leaves, one or two standing on long sheathing foot-stalks, ternate. Leaflets oval, mostly entire, acuminate,smooth, paler on under-side, becoming glaucous with growth, the two lateral ones rhomboidal.

"…Aristotle says, that Boars feed upon the herb Arum, or Wakerobin, to keep them soluble…"

"…So the Herb Arisaron in Egypt, and Wakerobin, and Garlic, bear seeds like a Snake's head, and so Bugloss and Orchanet bear seeds like a Viper's head, and these are good to heal their venomous bitings…"


"…Make a solid pillar in a glass furnace, so great as a Walnut, and let it be made round only by the fire, as the manner is, as glass makers used to do…"

"…Your workmen must be diligent to perform their duty, then let the Pastils, being broken into pieces about the bigness of a Walnut, be put in Crucibles, and set in the holes of the the Fornace built for that purpose, with a pair of iron tongs to every pot…"


"…Theophrastus, speaking of those herbs that resemble the Scorpion and Polypus, says, that some herbs have a peculiar kind of form, as the root of the herb Scorpius, called by some Walwort, the root of Polypody…"


"…Rub off the Wan color of your cheeks…"


"…This is called by some a Mastiff, by others a Warrior, or a Hircan-Dog. Aristotle calls them Indian-dogs, and says, they are generated of a Dog and a Tygre…"


"…How Warts may be taken away…"

"… Warts use to possess the forehead, nose, hands, and other open places.  So does hard flesh, and other foulness of the skin.  Women cannot endure them…"


"…The Ancients used the greater Spurge, whose juice, anointed on with Salt, takes them  ( Warts) away.  And therefore they called it Warts-Herb…"


"…There may be made diverse kinds of sweet compounds, of which are made Beads, which some use to reckon their prayers by, and others to trim their cloths with.  Also Wash-Balls to cleanse and sweeten the hands…"


 "…Many eat Spiders and wild Olives and care not for the biting of Serpents, nor suffer any Wasting or Consumption, if they be of such a nature, that their looks or breath will not only blast men…"


"… Pliny and Virgil say, that Wasps and Hornets both, are generated of the flesh of dead Horses…"

"…Because the stinging of Bees, Wasps, Hornets, do so change the face, making the nose, mouth and other parts to stand awry, and to be full of swellings and depressions…"


"…It remains, that we speak of Perfumes.  For they are very necessary for the scenting of skin, cloths, and Powders.  And to enrich nobemen's chambers, with sweet odors in winter.  They are make either of Waters or Powders…"

Water Chestnuts    

"… Dioscorides says, there is a kind of Thistle commonly found in the waters, that only in rivers brings forth a certain seed as big as a Chestnut, with three points, membranous, full of with pith, that tastes like Chestnuts.  They call them Water Chestnuts vulgarly, and the inhabitants use them in meats, as they do Chestnuts…"


"…The ancients had Hour-Dials made by water.  And Water-Dials were usual and famous.   Heron of Alexandria wrote a book of them, but they are lost…."

Water of Depart   

"…Use Water of Depart, that seperates Gold from Silver, made of Saltpeter and Vitriol, and especially if it have first corroded any Silver.  This will last twenty days, until the skin be changed…"

Water of Honey    

"…We can also make the hair grow suddenly, with Water of Honey, and the fat of an Eel and Horse, as I said…"

Water of Styx   

"…In Nonacris, a country of Arcady, there flow very cold waters out of a stone, which are called the Water of Styx, which break to pieces all vessels of Silver and Brass, and nothing can hold them but a mules foot, wherein it was brought from Antipater, into the country where Alexander was, and there his son Folla killed the King with it…"

Water Libard   

"… Claudianus says, that there is a kind of Libard, which he calls a Water-libard, that is gendered of a mingled seed, when a strong and vigorous Libard meets with a Lioness, and happily couples with her; and this kind of Libard is like the sire for his spots, but his back and the proportion of his body is like his dam…"


 "…In the Water-Lilly, the Element of water is chief…"


"…Take a certain reasonable quantity of the leaves of Persisatinllrens, called Arsmart, or vulgarly called Watterper which you will dry in the shade…"

Water Squils  

"… Ducks will grow fat with all nutriment, if it be in abundance, especially with wheat, millet seed, barly, and with Water-squils, locusts, and creatures found in lakes, Columella…." 


"…Then take a foil of Wax or Lead, of a convenient thickness, that exceeds the breadth of the arch of the Hexagon, and in length exceeds them both…"

 "…But Aristotle brings an experiment from a vessel of Wax.  For if one make a ball of Wax that is hollow, and shall dip it into the sea, it being of a sufficient thickness to contain, he shall find it full of fresh water, because the corpulent saltness cannot get in through the pores of the Wax…"


"…It is a thing to be noted in a Bur, that a flower grows within the roughness and prickles of it, which does not show itself, but conceives and brings forth feed within itself, much like as Weaselsand Vipers do…"

"… The gall of a Stellio beaten with water, will make Weasels come together, says Pliny.  Also, the wise Plinianists write, that with the gall of a Chamaelion cast into water, weasels will be called together…"

Weasel's Bane  

See: Bane

Are Salt Ammoniac, and Corn moistened with some Liquor.  Scatter this about such places as Weasels haunt.  When they eat it, they die, or fly away.


"… Lentiles, onions, garlick, leeks, Weedbine, Dorycnium, Picnocomum, new red Wine, these infuse dreams, wherein the phantasms are broken, crooked, angry, troubled…"


"…For there shall you know what the Wine is, proving it by smelling to it, whether it corrupt, or Weevils breed in it, these are signs it putrifies…"

Whale   Whale-fish     

"… Sturgeons or Whales are allured with the lungs of a Bull, roasted, hung upon a line with a hook and cast into the sea…"

"…The bait for a Sturgeon, or Whale-fish…"


"…Wherefore he  (  Galen's father) took the purest and the cleanest Wheat and Barley that he could get, and having picked out all other seed whatsoever, sowed them in the ground…"

"…Pliny writes, that the Corn Siligo is changed into Wheat the second year…"


"…Others bind a Cat or Whelp, and so they hear cries in the air…"

"…So that they ordained a Dog to be offered in sacrifice to it, as Columella says, that this star is pacified with the blood and entrails of a sucking Whelp…"


Whetsone - A piece of stone, natural or artificial, used for whetting, or sharpening, edge tools.

"…The Ancients commended for this purpose a Whetstone of Cypress, that we sharpen Iron upon, to restrain Virgin's breasts, and not let them grow big.  Dioscorides…"

"… If it is kept in Lees of Oil, as also Whetstones, shoes, Brazen vessels from Rust, all household stuff made of wood, potters vessels and the like…"


"…The roots of old Grass, and Raisins, and the leaves of a wild Pear tree bruised, and the root of the Bramble, and Whey of Milk, burnt Acorns, Prunes roasted, and the decoctions of Chinches, and pot shards red hot, all of these put severally into   Vinegar, will make it tart…"

"…Steep crumbs of Bread in Whey or in Milk.  Then press it out, and with that water wash your face.  For it will wonderfully white your face, and make the skin fair…"

White Lead 

"…The ancient writers that have been conversant in the nature of metals, are wont to call tin by the name of White Lead, and lead, by the name of Black Tin. .."

White Mint    

See:  Mint

 "…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, Savory, Elder, Sage leaves, White Mint, Rosemary, Basil, Marjoram, Pennyroyal, Rosebuds, the roots of Betony, Pellitory, Snake-weed, White Thistle, Aristolochy, Elder, Cretan Dittany, Currants…"

White Tartar   

"…This Silver being wholy dissolved take the vessel off the fire and trax it with as much White Tartar as is required to absolve all the liquor…"


"…  Cicero reports, that Pythagoras made a young man more calm by a flower tune, who was a Tancomonite, and was Whitled with Wine, and mad for a Whore, and spurred forward by a Phrygian tune…"


Whore - A woman who practices unlawful sexual commerce with men, especially one who prostitutes her body for hire; a prostitute; a harlot.

See:   Harlot

"…Or thus may you restrain that part of common Whores, with Galls, Gums, whites of Eggs, Dragon's blood, Acacia, Plantain, Hypocistis, Balanstia, Mastick, Cypress nuts, Grape skins, Acorn cups.  Or in that hollow part where the Glans breaks forth, and gaping, shows the Nucleus, with Mastick and Terra Lemnia…"

"…The Decoction of Ladies Mantel, or the juice, or distilled water of it cast into the Matrix, will so contract it, that Whores can scarce be known from maids…"


"…while Olives are yet black and unripe, you must tuck them off the tree with your hand on a fair Sun shining day.  And cull out the sound ones from those that have any blemish.  And into every Peck and a half of Olives, put a quart and somewhat more of whole Salt.  Then put them into Wicker baskets…"

"… If you put them in Wicker baskets, and Plaster up the baskets round about.  But the rods which the baskets be made of must be Beech rods…"

Wild Cole   

"…So there is one plant, called Dogs Bane.  Chrysippus says, that dogs are killed with it, if the shoots of it are given to them with water.   Dogs Cole, or Wild Cole, if it be given with flesh, so the fumes of lead…"

Wild Cucumber    

"…That Hellebore which grows in Thassus, as also Wild Cucumber, as also Scammony, are good to make Phthorium Wine, which causes abortions…"

Wild Olive  

Wild olive trees, which are classified as O. europaea var. oleaster, still exist in countries in southern Europe and northern Africa bordering on the Mediterranean Sea.

"…The Olive, Wild Olive, Tares, Corn in Straw, Grass, and they are all the better sprinkled in Brine, but he more effectual they will be if she Fast three days before…"


Any tree or shrub of the genus Salix.

"…To overcome the ship presently, they boiled Willow coals, salt, spirit of wine, Brimstone, pitch, with the yarn of the soft wool of Ethiopia, and Camphire, which, it is wonderful to speak, will burn alone in the water, consuming all matter…"

"…The instrument of the harper, who when Agamemnon went from Greece to Troy, did keep Clytemnestra chaste by, his Music was made of Willow, called Agnus Castus…"


"…But this Grafting cannot be done without boring a hole into the stock, as Didymus shows us.  You must bore the Cherry tree stock through with a Wimble…"

"…I pierced the Vine with a Wimble, even unto the very Marrow, and put into it certain ointments fit for such an effect.  (It will suffice, if you put them with the rine.)  And this I did in diverse parts of the Vine.  Here and there about the whole body of the Vine.  And that about Grafting time by Inoculation…"


 "…Since Wine and Vinegar are wonderful good against the pestilence, or else of the Bay tree, whose leaves bruised and smelled to, will presently drive away pestilent contagion…"

"…Then take some Cyrenian juice, as the Greeks call it, and pour it into the place that is hollow.  But first you must steep this juice in water, to the thickness of sodden Wine…"


"…Add to the liver of a Sow fatted with Figs, Winepickle, Pepper, Thyme, Lovage, Suet, and a little Wine and Oil.   Aetius…"


Winnow - To separate chaff from grain.

"…The Sesamum and Almonds must be dried, and ground, and Winnowed…"


"…In like manner Winter-cress or ilium, and pennyroyal, though they begin to wither being gathered, yet if you hang them upon a stick about the time of the solstice, the will for a time flourish…"


"…So then Magick is taken amongst all men for wisdom, and the perfect knowledge of natural things: and those are called Magicians, whom the Latin's call Wisemen, the Greeks call Philosophers…"

Witch / Witchcraft                

"…I pass over other men of the same temper, who affirm that I am a Witch and a Conjurer, whereas I never wrote here nor elsewhere, what is not contained within the bounds of nature…"

 "…They yield a fourth part, and it is a powerful antidote against poison and Witchcraft, and it is the best menstruum to extract the scent out of Musk, Civet and Amber, and to make sweet ointments of, because it does not quickly grow rank.."

"…So great is the power of Witchcraft of their eyes.  For though the mischief be often caught in copulation with them, yet it is the eyes that work…"


"…And then they bind the tree about with a kind of Broom Withes, that the Daws or Crows, or other kinds of birds may not come at the fruit to gnaw it…"


"…The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose…"

"…The seed of Withywind being planted near to Basil, as soon as it shoot up, will presently wind itself round about the stalks of the Basil, and by often winding about them, will wrap them all into one…"


"…that I should speak somewhat also concerning Iron, for this is a metal which the Wizards of India did highly esteem, as having in it much goodness, and being of such a temperature, that it may easily be transformed into a more worthy and excellent metal then itself is…"


"…The Hedge Sparrow, which Aetius mentions, I know to be good against the Stone in the kidney or bladder.  It is the least of all lbirds, and lives in the hedges and carries his tail upright.  On the top of his wings, there are some streaks of ash color.  He is of short flight and lastly, much like a Wren…"


Wolf - An animal of the genus Canis, a beast of prey that kills sheep and other small domestic animals; called sometimes the wild dog.

"…Sometimes yet the properties of things are operative, yes, and that more forcibly, after death, the Wolf is hurtful and odious to Sheep after he is dead…."

"…A Dog and a Wolf, a Lion and a Panther, an Ass and a Horse, a Partridge and a Hen, are of one bigness, and therefore may couple together, but a Horse and a Dog, or a Mare and an Elephant, or a Hen and a Sparrow cannot…"

Wolfbane / Wolfsbane        

See: Bane

(See Monkshood, Aconitum)

"…  Galen writes of another, who eat Henbane without any harm.  And another, Wolfbane, so that a Hen would not come near her…"

"… Wolf's Bane kills Wolves and many other wild beasts, and it is so called from the effect…."


"…Let there be a vessel above the tower, either of Brass, Clay, or Wood…"

"…Water is mingled with the oil, that the fraud may not be known.  Let it be done with troubled waters, as with the decoction of Wood, Rapes, Asphodills, that it may the harder be discerned from it…"


See:   Smilax

"… I think of porous wood, for the holes and pores are passable every way, and being filled with air, they found with every small stroke.  And among the porous wood, is the Ivy, and especially the tree called Smilax or Woodbind…"


"…Then he took Wool, and sometimes green leaves of the Vine, or of the Plane tree, and wrapped it about the Kernel .  Lest he should have set it without any covering about it, the Emots or such like Vermin should have gnawn it…"

"…Because as Democritus states, the dryness of the dust preserves them  ( Quinces)  from Putrefaction.  They may be also kept in Wool, fine Tow, or the like in chests…"


Worm - . A creeping or a crawling animal of any kind or size, as a serpent, caterpillar, snail, or the like.

"…there will certain Worms breed in it, which by little and little become like Ducks , in the head, feet, wings and feathers, and at length grow to be a big as Geese…"

"… If water breeds Worms cast in Quicklime, and they will die…"


Wormwood - A composite plant (Artemisia Absinthium), having a bitter and slightly aromatic taste, formerly used as a tonic and a vermifuge, and to protect woolen garments from moths. It gives the peculiar flavor to the cordial called absinthe. The volatile oil is a narcotic poison. The term is often extended to other species of the same genus.

"… Then take fifteen pounds of   Romane Mint, and beat it in a Marble Mortar, with a wooden Pestle, until it comes to the form of an ointment.  Add as much more Mint and Wormwood, and put them into the oil…"

"… Tarentinus would have it imposed upon dry Wormwood and Semper-vive.  But dry Quince leaves and small sand are better.  Which must be layed in layers among the grain.  It is best to cover the store with Coniza, add after ten measures of grain, to lay another layer of Coniza till all be deposed…"


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