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Sabina, Poppae    

See: Nero

"…And therefore, it was not for nothing, that Poppae Sabina, Nero's wife, had always five hundred Asses with her.  And in a bath she soaked all her body with that Milk…"

Sacrifice and Magick   

Book by Proclus

"…Now we will show how to mix and compound many simples together, that the mixture may cause them to be more operative. Proclus, in his book of Sacrifice and Magick, says that the ancient priests were wont to mix many things together, because they saw that diverse simples had some property of a God in them, but none of them by itself sufficient to resemble him…"

Sacrifice and Magick   

Plotinus:  3rd Century Egyptian-born Greek philosopher and mystic, considered to be the father of Neoplatonism. An early hologrammatist, he sought the Oneness underlying the Everything and taught that every idea is contained in every other idea and that we are microcosms. Through meditation we can return to the unity.

Plotinus in his book of Sacrifice and Magick, says, "That the Philosophers considering this affinity and bond of Nature, wherewith all natural things are linked each to other, did thence frame these inferiors, and these inferiors in their superiors, earthly things in heavenly things in earthly but yet after an earthly sort."

"…The Platonicks, as Plotinus imitating Mercurim, writes in his book of Sacrifice and Magick, makes it to be a Science whereby inferior things are made subject to superiors, earthly and subdued to heavenly…"

Saddlebow    

"…We use to hang up Turkeys alive by the bills, at the Saddlebow, when we ride. .."

Saferna    

 "…And thus may all parts be kept free from hair.  The ancients used these as Saferna, and as Varro reports and teaches in his book of husbandry. .."

Saffron                    

Saffron - A bulbous iridaceous plant (Crocus sativus) having blue flowers with large yellow stigmas. The aromatic, pungent, dried stigmas, usually with part of the stile, of the Crocus sativus. Saffron is used in cookery, and in coloring confectionery, liquors, varnishes, etc., and was formerly much used in medicine.

"… Then bruise the roots of Celandine, and of the greater clivers Madder, of each a like qulity.  Mingle them, being bruised, very well with oil, wherein Cummin seed,  shavings of Box, and a little Saffron, are mingled, annoint your head, and let it abide so for twenty hours…"

"… Then bruise the roots of Celandine, and of the greater clivers Madder, of each a like qulity.  Mingle them, being bruised, very well with oil, wherein Cummin seed,  shavings of Box, and a little Saffron, are mingled, annoint your head, and let it abide so for twenty hours…"

Sagapenum / Sagapene       

Sagapenum: A fetid gum resin obtained from a species of Ferula. It has been used in hysteria, etc, Origin: L. Sagapenon, sacopenium, Gr., cf. F. Sagapin, gomme sagapin, sagapenum, Ar. Sikbinaj, Per. Sakbinah, sikbinah.

See:  Ferula

"…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum,…, Sagapenum, Camphire, Mastick, Frankincense,.."

"…The same may be effeced on Sagapene, whose roots must be gathered at the same time, and sliced.  And being put into a vessel with a gentle fire, will drop out a glutinous Liquor into the Receiver.  Which, bing clarified, will harden like Gum, and is kept for medicianal uses…"

Sage          

"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"A Decoction of the Leavs and Branches of Sage made and drunk, saith Dioscorides provoketh Urine, bringeth down Womens Courses, helpeth to expel the dead Child, and causeth the hairs to become black; It staieth the bleeding of Wounds, and clenseth foul Ulcers or Sores; The said Decoction made in Wine taketh away the itching ofthe Cods if they be bathed therwith. Agrippa saith, That if Women that cannot conceive by reason of the moist slipperiness of their Wombs shall take a quantity of the Juyce of Sage with a little Salt for four daies before they company with their Husbands, it will help them not only to Conceive, but also to retain the Birth without miscarrying. Orpheus saith, Three spoonfuls of the Juyce of Sage taken fasting with a little Honey, doth presently stay the spitting or casting up of Blood."

"… Take therefore three handfuls of Sage, Nettles, Rosemary, Mallows, and the rind of the roots of Walnut.."

"…Ficinus reports, and he had it out of Albertus, that there is a certain bird, much like a blackbird, which is generated of the putrefaction of Sage, which receives her life and quickening from the general life of the whole world…"

Sal Alchali        

 "…In this manner Sal Alchali is made…"

"…If you put some Sal Alchali into the Brine, it will make it much harder…"

Sal Ammoniacum    

See:   Ammoniac

Ammoniacum.  The plant grows to height of about 7 feet and in spring and early summer contains a milky juice. It is visited by numbers of beetles which puncture the stem and thus cause an exudation, part of which dries on the stem, the rest falling to the ground where it becomes mixed with stones and other impurities found in the gum collected by the natives. The gum resin is found in special cavities in the tissues of the stem, root and petioles of the leaves. The name of the drug is said to be derived from the Temple of Jupiter Ammon in the Libyan Desert where it was collected by the ancients

"…Wherefore, it this seems too violent, take nine pounds of the former Salts, being dissolved in water, and two ounces of Sal Ammoniacum…"

 "…Thus, Sal Ammoniacum, which has so long lain unknown, is discovered in our own country, and is nothing but Salt of Sulphur…"

Saladin   

"…When the Christians with an army besieged Ptolemais, when Saladin had appointed a Pigeon to be sent thus with letters to the besieged…"

Salamander           

"…For the Salamander itself genders nothing, neither is there any male or female among them, nor yet among Eels, nor any kind else, which does not generate of themselves either egg or young, as Pliny notes…"

"…A Salamander soaked in oil, will pull out the hair.  But it will be stronger, if you steep it long in oil and dissolve it.  The filthy matter that is white as milk, and is vomited up at the mouth by the Salamander , if it touch any part of the body, all the hair will fall off…"

Salazzo 

See:   Saltpeter

"… Then cast snow into a wooden vessel, and strew into it Saltpeter, powdered, or the cleansing of Saltpeter, called vulgarly Salazzo…"

Saldame  

 "…Upon the dish, or ball there is strewn white sand, that comes from Vincentia, cammonly called Saldame, and with water it is forcibly rubbed between our hands…"

Sal Gemma   

"…Then take a little Verdigrease, Tin calcined, and of the Firestone, powder all these with Sal Gemma, and common salt, and Salt Ammoniac.  Distill them, and pour the distilled liquor again upon the foeces, and distill it again, and do it again the third time. .."

Sallet  / Salad      

Salad - A preparation of vegetables, as lettuce, celery, water cress, onions, etc., usually dressed with salt, vinegar, oil, and spice, and eaten for giving a relish to other food; as, lettuce salad; tomato salad, etc.

"…Moreover, if you cut the leaves of Cuckowpint small, and mingle them with Sallets.  Those that eat of them, will have their mouths and tongues to drivel so much, with thick spittle, that they cannot eat till they have washed it off…"

"…There is also a kind of Succory, called Verrucaria from the effect.  For if one eats it but once in Sallets, all the Warts will be gone from any  part of the body…"

Sallow   

"…So the Olive tree, the Sallow, the Linden tree, the Elm, the White poplar tree, they declare the times of the suns standing, when it turns back again from the poles, for then they hide their leaves, and show only their hoar-white backs…" 

Sal Soda   

"…Oil of Sal SodaDissolve the Salt in water.  Strain it through a cloth and dry it.  Lay it on a Marble and set it in a moist place.  It will run down in an Oil…"

Salt                                                 

Salt - The chloride of sodium, a substance used for seasoning food, for the preservation of meat, etc. It is found native in the earth, and is also produced, by evaporation and crystallization, from sea water and other water impregnated with saline particles.

"…Avicenna says, that if any thing stand long in Salt, it will become wholly Salt, if in an unsavory vessel, it will become unsavory…"

"…Aelianus writes, that the keeper of Sheep, and Goats, and Mares, do besmear their hands with Salt and Nitre, and then rub the generative parts of them in the time of their coition, for their more lustful and eager performance of that action…"

Salt Alkali     

 "…The same is done by Oil of Tartar, or Salt Alkali, or Soda, and strong water of separation of Gold…"

"…rub it with Salt Alkali and Sulphur, making little balls of them, and that will eat them out, that nothing shall be seen…"

Salt Ammoniac                    

sal ammoniacus or ammonium salt

"…but you must first purify it and cleanse it a little, by casting upon it some broken glass, and lees of wine, and Salt Ammoniac, and Saltpeter, every one of them by turns, and by little and little…"

"…Also of Vinegar and Gold Litharge, there is made a decoction very good to dye the hair yellow as Gold.  Some there are, that draw out a strong water with fire, out of Saltpeter, Vitriol, Salt Ammoniac, and Cinaber, whereas the hairs dyed, will be presently yellow…"

Salt Gemma   

"…take Allome de Plume, Salt Gemma, one Drachm, Frankincense, one and a half, Camphire, two Drachms, Oil of Tartar, six ounces, Rosewater, one pound…"  (To make your face white)

Salt Liquor  

"…There are many things, which being watered with Salt Liquors, do forsake their bitterness, and become sweet…"

Salt of Soda       

"…Also iron dipped into a liquor of quicklime, and Salt of Soda purified with a Spunge, will become extreme hard…"

Salt of Sulphur    

See:   Sal Ammoniacum

 "…Thus, Sal Ammoniacum, which has so long lain unknown, is discovered in our own country, and is nothing but Salt of Sulphur…"

Salt of Tartar  

See: Tartar

"…Take the lees of old wine, and dry it carefully.  It is commonly called Tartar.  Put into an Alimbeck, made in such sort, that the flame may be retorted from the top, and so augment the heat…"

Salt of Urine   

"…But if you temper iron with Salt of Urine and Saltpeter dissolved in water, it will be very hard…"

Salt-meat    

"…The Egyptians, when their Dogs are backward in Copulation, make them more eager by giving them Salt-meats…"

Saltwater               

"… Amphiretus Acantius, being taken by Pirates, and carried to Lemnos, was kept in chains, in hope that his ransom would bring them a great sum of money.  He abstained from meat, and drank Minimum mixed with Saltwater  (to counterfeit a bloody Flux)…"

"…Wherefore, that they might preserve fruit from corruption, they have used to drench them in Saltwater.   Homer calls Salt a divine thing, because it has a special virtue against Putrefaction, and by it, bodies are preserved to all eternity.  Plato calls it the friend of God, because no sacrifices were welcome to him, without Salt…"

Saltwort  

Saltwort - A name given to several plants which grow on the seashore, as the Batis maritima, and the glasswort.

See:   Kali, Soda

"…The herb Kali or Saltwort is commonly called Soda…"

Saltpeter                           

Saltpeter:  Common name for potassium nitrate, in the context of geologic deposits, it may also be used to refer to other nitrate minerals such as calciumnitrate.

See Nitre, Solzaao, Al-hali, Alome.

"…The Marchasite or fire-stone, the Lees of wine, that kind of Salt which is found in Africa under the sand, when the moon is full, which is commonly called by the name of Al-hali, Saltpeter, and lastly Alome…"

 "…Make a large round vessel of Brass, and put into it Saltpeter, unrefined, and will fill it.  Men call it Solzaao mingled with Ice…"

Salve      

"…The weapon Salve…Given heretofore to Maximilian the Emperor, by Paracelsus, experimented by him, and was always very much accounted of by him while he lived…"

Sanders           

Sanders - An old name of sandalwood, now applied only to the red sandalwood.

"…Take four pounds of rose water, two of orange flowers, one of myrtle, three ounces of sweet Trifoil, one of Lavender.  Add to these, two ounces of Benjamin, one of Storax, the quantity of bean of Labdanum, as much of Mace and cloves, a drachm of cinnamon, Sanders, and Lignum Aloes, an ounce of Spikenard…"

"…In the month of July, take three ounces of the seed, stamp it gently, and steep it in two glasses of the best white Wine, with Gentian, Tormentil, white Dittany, Zedoary, and Carline gathered in August.   Red Sanders, long Aristolochie, of each two Drams. …"

Sanguine        

"…You must take a Peach stone, and put it into a Carrot that is then growing, and the stalk which grows of that stone in the Carrot.  If it be carefully nourished and presrved, will bring forth Peaches of a Sanguine color…"

"…They strike them through as with a sword, set their entrails on fire, and make them waste into a leaness, especially if they are of a Cholerick or Sanguine complextion…"

Sanguine Tree / Sanguinaria        

"…Oil out of the Sanguine tree for lights…"

"…Take the berries of the ripe red Sanguinaria.  These when they are dried, will be so shriveled, and like to Pepper, that any man almost may be deceived by it, unless he tastes of it…"

Sanguis-draconis  

"…Afterwards, take the whites of two Eggs, and mix them with Bole-armenick and Sanguis-draconis, and dip some Flax into it, and apply it to the Reins…"

Sanicle  

 "…. Vulnerary potions…Or take two handfuls of Pirole, of Sanicle, of Sowbread one.  Of Ladies Mantel half one.  Boil them in two measures of Wine, and drink it morning and evening…"

Sapper   

Sapper - .] One who saps; specifically (Mil.), one who is employed in working at saps, building and repairing fortifications, and the like.

"… Fed thus, they will grow as fat as great Sappers in Fig time, and so tender, that they will melt in your mouth, and they taste better by far then Pheasants, Heathcocks, or Thrushes…"

Saphire / Sapphire            

"…To turn a Saphire into a Diamond …This stone, as all others, being put in the fire, loses his color.  for the force of the fire makes the color fade.  Many do it several ways.  For some melt Gold, and put the Saphire in the middle of it…"

"…Artificers begin with a Sapphire.  For when it is colored, unless it be presently removed from the fire, it loses its tincture, and the longer it remains in the fire, the brighter it grows…"

Sarcocolla    

"… Distil all these severally.   Elder flowers, and flowers of wild Roses, Broom, Honeysuckles, Solomon's Seal, and Briony roots, sour Grapes, and Sarcocolla…"  (To make the face white, clear, ruddy and soft)

Sargus / Sargi      

"…in like manner the Morhenne loves the Hart , and the partridge love each other; and both these are good for the one and the same remedy. So the fish Sargus and the goat…"

"…The Sargus loves goats exceedingly, as we shall show, and hunts after the smell of them. .." 

Sarsaperilla   

"…Take a pound of Lingnum Guaiacum, half a pound of Sarsaperilla beaten small, five ounces of the stalks and leaves of Sena, one handful of Agrimony and Horsetail, a Drachm of Cinnamon, and as much Cloves, and one Nutmeg…"

Satyrion  

A kind of orchid.

"…Smell also Hyssop, and the sweet Lily.  Wear a ring made of the hoof of a time or wild Ass.  Also Satyrion, the male and female, are thought alike…"

Saunders        

The name Santalinus refers to its name of red Sandalwood, which all its Indian titles signify, though it bears no relationship to Santalum. It is imported, usually from Ceylon, in the form of irregular logs or billets, without bark and sapwood, and about 3 to 5 feet in length. They are heavy, dense, reddish or blackish brown outside, and, if cut transversely, a deep blood-red inside, variegated with zones of a lighter red colour. In pharmacy the wood is in the form of chips, raspings, or coarse red powder. When rubbed, the wood has a faint peculiar odour, but is otherwise odourless, with a slight, astringent taste.

"…Also as much of the Flowers of Sage, Rosemary, olive and plantaine leaves, two handfuls of Hypocistis, Horehound, and the tops of Bramble, one pound of the Flower of Myrtle, half a pound of the seed, two handfuls of Rosebuds, with their stalks, two Drachms of Saunders, Corriander prepared, and Citron Pill…"

"…Take purple Violets, Eggshells, Saunders, Camphire mingled with water.  Set the water in open air, and wash the redness therein…"

Savanrola   

"… Isaac says, that a peacock killed will be kept two days, and three in winter, that the hard flesh of it may grow soft.   Haliabas hangs them up three days, hanging stones to their feet.   Savanrola hangs them up ten days without weights.  Simeon Sethi says, that partridge newly killed are not to be ate, but after a day or two, that they may lose their hardness…"

Savin    

"… Nardum kills sheep.   Dioscorides.  Cattle and goats, if they drink the water where Rhododendron is steeped, will die.  Pliny and Ononymus, an author nameless.   Flea Bane kills Goats and Sheep.  So does Savin…"

Savory           

Savory is a hardy, pubescent annual, with slender erect stems about a foot high. It flowers in July, having small, pale lilac labiate flowers, axillary, on short pedicels, the common peduncle sometimes three-flowered.  In ancient days, the Savorys were supposed to belong to the Satyrs, hence the name Satureia. Culpepper says:

'Mercury claims dominion over this herb. Keep it dry by you all the year, if you love yourself and your ease, and it is a hundred pounds to a penny if you do not.'

"…Take two pounds of Rose water, of Lavender half one, of Cretan Wine thirteen drachms, of the flowers of Gilliflowers, Roses, Rosemary, Jasmine, the leaves of Marjoram, wild Betony, Savory, Fennel, and Basil Gentle, half a pound.  An ounce of Lemon peel, a drachm of Cinnamon, Benjamin, Storax and Nutmegs…."

"… Cherries may be preserved in Honey if you put them into a vessel that is strawed in the bottom with Savory, and so cast some Honey upon them…"

Sawdust   

"…The ancients have invented many trees, whose fruit may be long preserved in their own Sawdust because of its dryness…"

"…Many diffuse the Sawdust of the Poplar, or Fir tree, among their fruit for their preservation.  Apuleius says, you may lay them involved with fine Tow into a basket, and they will keep…"

Saxifrage            

"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"This hath a few smal reddish Kernels or Roots, covered with some Skins lying among diverse smal blackish Fibres, which send forth diverse round, faint, or yellowish green Leavs, and grayish underneath, lying above the ground unevenly dented about the edges, & somwhat hairy, every one upon a little footstalk from whence riseth up a round brownish hairy green stalk, two or three foot high, with a few such like round Leaves as grow below, but smaller, and somwhat branched at the top, whereon stand pretty large white Flowers of five Leaves apiece, with some yellow threds in the middle, standing in long crested brownish green Husks: After the Flowers are past there ariseth somtimes a round hard head by, forked at the top, wherein is containedsmall blackish Seed, but usually they fall away without any Seed; and it is the Kernels or grains of the Root which are usuallycalled the white Saxifrage Seed, and so used. "

"…Likewise Stone-crop and Saxifrage are good to break the stone in a mans bladder…"

"…Take Saxifrage, Maidenhair, Pellitory of the wall, Parsley, Pimpernel and Ceterach.   Distill them in Balneo Mariae, and let the patient drink of it every other day.  For it corrodes and eats away the Stone, though never so great…"

Scab   

"…They contract the place with the Decoction of the forementioned things, then they set a Leech fast on upon the place, and so they make a crusty matter or Scab..."

Scabbard   

 "…Others carried letters in their Scabbards, and sent them away by messengers, and were not found out…"

Scabious    

"…a handful of Sowthistle, Scordium, Betony, Scabious, and a half of Mercury precipitate.  A pint of Malmetry, a quart of the waters of Sowthistle, and Scabious.  Mix the Wine and waters, and lay the Guaiacum in it a day, and then the rest…"  ("A preservation against the Pox,")

Scag tree   

"… I have often engrafted it upon that kind of Damosin tree which bears a Plum like a Goat's stone both in shape and greatness, (it may be it is our Scag tree) and by this means I procured great Apricots…"

Scale      

Scale - . The dish of a balance; hence, the balance itself; an instrument or machine for weighing; as, to turn the scale; -- chiefly used in the plural when applied to the whole instrument or apparatus for weighing.

"… Take a perfect Balance, and put in one Scale of any metal. .."

"…If you would know how much Gold is upon a vessel Gilded.  Put the cup in one Scale, and as much pure Silver in the other, that the Scales may hang equal in the air…"

Scallion   

"…You must take ten or twelve Lilly stalks, about such time as they are ready to yield flowers.  Bind them all together and hang them up in the smoke.  Then will there spring out of them some small roots, like unto a Scallion…"

Scallop       

Scallop - Any one of numerous species of marine bivalve mollusks of the genus Pecten and allied genera of the family Pectinidæ. The shell is usually radially ribbed, and the edge is therefore often undulated in a characteristic manner. The large adductor muscle of some the species is much used as food.

"…So the fish called Ortica, and the Purple, and Muscles, and Scallops, and Perwincles, and Limpins, and all shellfish are generated of mud…"

Scammony        

Scammony - A species of bindweed or Convolvulus (C. Scammonia). An inspissated sap obtained from the rot of the Convolvulus Scammonia, of a blackish gray color, a nauseous smell like that of old cheese, and a somewhat acrid taste. It is used in medicine as a cathartic.

"…That Hellebore which grows in Thassus, as also Wild Cucumber, as also Scammony, are good to make Phthorium Wine, which causes abortions…"

 "…But in such places where cattle eat Scammony, Black Hellebour, Perwincle, or Mercury, all their milk subverts the belly and stomach, such as is reported to be in the mountains of Justinum…"

Scarus  

See:  ( Gilthead)

"…To catch a Scarus or Gilthead…the Scarus of all fish is the most lascivious.  His insatiable desire of the female is the cause he is taken.  Cunning fishermen that know this…"

Schaeinanthus    

"…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, Savory, Elder, Sage leaves,… Spodium, Schaeinanthus, Bdellium, Mummy, Sagapenum…"

Scholiast     

"… Homer's Scholiast says, that Mules were first devised by the Venetians, a city of Paphlagonia…"

"…This medley, Hesychius and Varinus have described. That of them comes this Thoes, as the Greeks call it. The Scholiast upon Homer say, that is like to the Hyena…"

Sciatica            

"…  Hermenias, a Theban, endeavoured, to cure many of the Sciatica, in Beotia, by Music…"

"…It may be drunk for Sciatica, taken in Wine…"

Science        

"…Likewise he learns of living creatures, which though they have no understanding, yet their senses are far quicker then ours, and by their actions they teach us physic, husbandry, the art of building, the disposing of household affairs, and almost all arts and Sciences. .."

"…The most noble Philosophers that ever were, Pythagorus, Empedocles, Democritus, and Plato, forsook their own countries, and lived abroad as exiles and banished men, rather than as strangers; and all to search out and to attain this knowledge; and when they came home again, this was the Science which they professed…"

Scion   

"…We brought an example hereof out of Pliny, that Corellius took a Scion of a Chestnut tree, and grafted the same into the tree again, and thereby produced a greater and better Chestnut…"

Scope  

"… An experiment which Democritus has set down.  You must put your Quince-pears into a new earthen vessel.  Cover it.  And Pitch it all over, and so put it in a But of Wine.  But so, that they may have Scope to swim upon the top of the Wine…"

Scordium    

"…a handful of Sowthistle, Scordium, Betony, Scabious, and a half of Mercury precipitate.  A pint of Malmetry, a quart of the waters of Sowthistle, and Scabious.  Mix the Wine and waters, and lay the Guaiacum in it a day, and then the rest…"  ("A preservation against the Pox,")

Scorpion                 

"… Taken in the same manner, it provokes appetite, being taken early in the morning.  And is good against the bitings of the Scorpions…"

"…so cunningly, that even without eggs, or any apparent seeds, they will bring forth living creatures, (as they will bring forth bees, of an Ox, and a Scorpion, of Basil…"

Scorpion's Bane    

See: Bane

"…Aconite called Theliphonum, from killing Scorpions.   Scorpions are stupefied by touching it, and they wax pale, showing that they are conquered…"

Scorpius   

"…Theophrastus, speaking of those herbs that resemble the Scorpion and Polypus, says, that some herbs have a peculiar kind of form, as the root of the herb Scorpius, called by some Walwort, the root of Polypody…"

Scowrings   

"…Birds are not to be eaten when the Gooseberries are ripe.  For their feathers will grow black thereby, and men that eat them, fall into scowrings.  Dioscorides…"

Scripture   

"…We read in Scripture, that Elizeus did this, who at Jericho in Palestine, cast in salt into a fountain, and made it potable water, which was before bitter and corrupt…"

Scriveners   

"…Powder Juniper gum, which Scriveners call Vernish,…"

Scruples   

"…Which a man may use after unclean women.  Take a Drachm of Hartwort and Gentian, two Scruples of Sanders and Lignum Aloes, half a Drachm of Powder of Coral, Spodium, and Hart horn burned…"

Scopes  

See:   Nightbird 

"…The Falcon, Seagull, the Turtle, the Blackbird, the Vulture, the Nightbird, called Scopes, perish with Pomegranate kernels…"

Scythe   

 "…After that the iron is made into a Scythe, let it grow hot to the color of gold, and then quench it in oil, or smear it with tallow, because it is subtle iron, and should it be quenched in waters, it would either crumble or be wrested…"

Scythia  

"…And elsewhere, Scythia first produced that root which is called Scythia, and about Baeotia it grows very sweet…"

Sea-Cole  

"…To dye the eyebrows with black earth like Birume or Sea-Cole.  Being burned, it is a very fine black.  And it is added to those remedies that serve to dye the eyebrows and the hair black…"

Sea-Eagle   

"…For the male Eagle, if once he perceive that she has played the harlot, divorces her from him, and is thoroughly revenged upon her. These birds are now commonly called Sea-eagles…"

Sea-Grass  

"…How to make Coleworts branch before their time, and this is by laying good store of Sea Grass about it, held up with little props, or else by laying upon it black nitre, as much as you can take up with three fingers, or thereabouts, for this will hasten the ripening thereof. .."

Seagull  

"…The Falcon, Seagull, the Turtle, the Blackbird, the Vulture, the Nightbird, called Scopes, perish with Pomegranate kernels…"


Sea-Lamprey   

"…The Sea-Lamprey stayeth a ship, not principally with any one part, but with her whole body. And there be many like examples. On the other side, many things work by some of their parts, as the Cockatrice and the Basilisk, by their eyes…" 

Sea-Lettuce    

"…Figs that shall be Purgative if you pound Hellebore and Sea-Lettuce together, and cast them upon the Fig tree roots…"

Seal   

"…it may be of great use when places ae besieged, and in armies, and affairs of great men, to know how to open lettrs, that are sealed with the General's Seal, and signed with his name…"

Seamen  

 "…It is a common opinion among Seamen, that Onions and Garlic are at odds with the Loadstone.  And Steersmen, and such as tend the Mariners Card are forbidden to eat Onions or Garlic, lest they make the Index of the Poles drunk…"

Sea - Onion        

"…But it would be much better, if you would put the clove or head of a Sea-onion into that part which you have robbed of the Pith…"

"…a medicament that nourishes much, and abates thirst, and this was the food the besiegers of cities and the besieged also lived on.  It was called Epimenidian Composition, from the Sea-onion called Epimenidium, that is one of the ingredients of that composition…"

Sea-Samine   

"…Likewise they  ( Gourds) will grow without seeds in them, if the seeds which are planted, be macerated or steeped in Sea Samine oil…"

Sea-Scolopendra    

"…  Dioscorides says, that the Sea-Scolopendra boiled in oil, and smeared on the part, will pluck off the hair by the roots…"

Sea-Squils   

"…Because the Julides are a bait almost for all fish, or your groundlings or little Sea-squils, therefore they are part of all baits.  Or, take the Liver of the Tuny Fish, four drachms, Sea-squils, eight drachms, Seasame seed, four drachms, beans ground, eight drachms, of raw Dog fish, two drachms.  Pound all these, and make them up with new wine distilled into balls, for good baits…"

Sea-water              

"…it is no small commodity to mankind, if Sea-water may be made potable…"

"…You must take Seawater, or else Brine, and make it boil, ando so put your Pomegranates into it…"

Seaweed      

"…Some preserve them ( Apples) by lapping them up in Reits or Seaweed, and so shutting them up into earthen pitchers…"

"…And the joints of wood they fenced with Chalk, or with ashes tempered with blood, or clay molded with hair or Straw, and with Seaweed wet with Vinegar, for so they were safe from fire…"

Sebesten  

 "…There is also a kind of fruit called by the Apothecaries, Sebesten,…"

 "…This is also made of the fruit Sebesten in Syria, and likewise it may be made of ordinary Birdlime…"

Secrets     

 "…The Ancients, against the stink of armpits, used liquid Allome with Myrrh to anoint them.  Or the Secrets and Arm-holes were strewed with the dry leaves of Myrtles in powder…"

"…Or, if they sit in a Decoction of it, especially, if we mingle other Astringent things with it, and wet the Secrets therewith…"

Sediment  

"…Put this into a Glass Vial, and let the water Evaporate in Balneo.  Take the Sediment out for your use…"

Seirce                 

"…Take six parts of Stibium, four of Orpin, three of Arsenic, as much of Sulfur, two of Tutty.  Beat them all asunder, and sift thru a fine Seirce…"

 "…Then put the new Chalk into the cloth again.  Stir it and strain it till it all passes through the cloth, the then suffer the water to settle, and Seirce it thru a strainer…"

Sejus   

"…Our wise ancestors, says Pliny, who knew the goodness of a goose liver, taught how by cramming to make it grow great, also taken forth, it is augmented by sweet milk.  And it is not without cause demanded, who was the first man that found out so profitable a thing.  Whether it was Scipio Metellus, that was Consul, or Mar. Sejus, that in the same age was a gentleman of Rome.   Palladius taught the way how…"

Selenites   

(see Gypsum)

"…The stone Selenites, (as much as to say the Moonbeam) called by others Aphroselinon, contains in it the image of the Moon , and shows waxing and waning of it every day in the same image…" 

Sementina    

See: Pear

"… Pears may be long preserved in sodden Wine, especially the Tarentine Pears, and the Musk Pears, and the Gourd Pears.   Varro says, that the Pears called Anciana, and Sementina are to be preserved in sodden Wine…"

Semiramis   

"…Our Naples abounds so with them, that we would not go forth to see the orchards of the Hesperides, Alcinus, Semiramis, and at Memphis, that were made to hang above ground…"

Semnothites   

"…and those are called Magicians, whom the latines call Wise-men, …The Celts in France call them Druids, Bards, and Semnothites; The Egyptians call them Priests; and the Cabalists call them Prophets…"

Semper-vive    

"… Tarentinus would have it imposed upon dry Wormwood and Semper-vive.  But dry Quince leaves and small sand are better.  Which must be layed in layers among the grain.  It is best to cover the store with Coniza, add after ten measures of grain, to lay another layer of Coniza till all be deposed…"

Seneca   

"…  Seneca reports that Hostius made such Concave-glasses , that they might make things show greater.  He was a great provoker to lust.  So ordering his glasses, that when he was abused by sodomy, he might see all the motions of the sodomite behind him, and delight himself with a false representation of his privy parts that showed so great…."

Sena   

"…Take a pound of Lingnum Guaiacum, half a pound of Sarsaperilla beaten small, five ounces of the stalks and leaves of Sena, one handful of Agrimony and Horsetail, a Drachm of Cinnamon, and as much Cloves, and one Nutmeg…"

Senegreek  

"…it would bring forth herbs that had smooth bluish stalkes, and leaves full of juice and substance, such as Penny-wort, Purslane, Senegreek, and Stone-crop…"

Sepulchre  

 "…And in our time, about the year 600, in the island Nesis, that stands in Naples, there was a Marble Sepulchre of some Roman found, and that being opened, a Vial was found with it, in which there was a candle…"

Serapio  

"… Serapio writes, the pigeons are killed when they eat corn or beans steeped in water, wherein wihte Hellebore has been infused…"

Serapis  

"…The Greeks say, that in the Temple of Serapis, that is vaulted at Alexandria, there was a Loadstone set, that held a statue of Brass in the air, for it had a piece of Iron in the head of it.  But that is false, that Mahomets chest hangs by the roof of the Temple.   Petrus Pellgrinus says, he showed in another work how that it might be done…"

Serpent                            

"…But this was a kind of a Moon-Calf, Paracletes said, that if you cut a Serpent in pieces, and hide him in a vessel of glass, under the mud, there will be gendered many Worms, which being nourished by the mud, will grow every one as big as a Serpent, so that of one Serpent may be a hundred generated…"

 "…But such as grow near to a Serpent's hole, or any noisome plants, are very hurtful.  But Tarentinus speaks of this matter more precisely…"

Service Tree  /  Service         

"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"It Flowreth before the end of May, and the Fruit is ripe in October. ---- Services when they are mellow are fit to be taken to stay Fluxes, Scowring, and Castings, yet less than Medlars: if they be dried before they be mellow, and kept  all the yeer, they may be used in Decoctions for the said purpose, either to drink, or to bath the parts requiring it: and is profitably used in that manner to stay the bleeding of Wounds, and at the Mouth or Nose, to be applied to the Forehead andNape of the Neck. "

 "…They Grafted it into the Service tree, likely for this cause, that whereas the fruit of itself would make a man Laxative, the sharp taste of the Service tree being mixed with it, might cause it to be more binding…"

"…Unripe Services are long boiled in water.  With these mingle whites of Eggs, and water wherein Gum-Arabick is dissolved.  Wet a Linen cloth in such water, and lay on the belly…"

Sesame   

 "…Or, take the liver of the Tuny fish, four drachms, Sea-squils, eight drachms, Sesame seed, four drachms, beans ground, eight drachms, of raw Dog fish, two drachms…"

Sesama / Sesamon        

"…The indians make it is said, Oil of Sesamon.  It is made as we said before.  It sends forth excellent Oil abundantly…"

"… Also, Soot is tempered for this purpose  ( to dye the eyebrows black), with the smoke of paper, and Oil of Sesama.  The Soot being wiped off of a new vessel with a Feather…"

Sesamum   

"… There is another composition of the same, that has of Athenian Sesamum half a sextarius, of honey a half part, of oil a Cotyle, and a Chaenice of sweet almonds mundified…"

"… I shall let pass those common things, as Spilt, and Bean Corn, and Amel-corn, Typh-wheat, Panick, Sesamum; being all well known…"

Sestertia   

"…And there is extant a decree of Divus Augustus, wherein he commanded to pay them at Naples yearly 20000 Sestertia out of his treasury, drawing his colony to Capua, and he assigns the cause, by reason that they of Campania affirmed that Spelt-meal could not be made without that stone…"

Sesquialtera   

"…Raise two Brass Looking-glasses , or of Crystal, at right angles upon the same Brass, and let them be in a proportion called Sesquialtera, that is, one and half, or some other proportion, and let them be joined together longways, that they may be shut and opened like to a book…"

Sethi, Simeon      

"…  Simeon Sethi says, that partridge newly killed are not to be ate, but after a day or two, that they may lose their hardness.."

"..  Simeon Sethi says, that if any man shall dip a wick in Cutles Ink, and Verdigrease, those that stand by will seem partly brass color, partly black, by reason of the mixture…"

Sextary / Sextarii  / Sextarius        

"…Some to fix Amphorae thereof add ten Sextarii of salt, that it may not early corrupt.   Others put Fennel and Thyme in the bottom, and the Caricae on the top, and so in order, till the vessel be full…"

"…There is another composition of the same, that has of Athenian Sesamum half a Sextarius, of Honey a half part, of oil a Cotyle, and a Chaenice of sweet Almonds Mundified…"

Sextus   

"…In Nilus there is a black stone found, that a dog will not bark if he sees it.  You must also carry a dog's tongue under your great toe within your shoe, or the dry heart of a dog about you.   Sextus…"

Shard     

"…Take a little tile Shard, and lay it upon the middle of the Lettuce when it is a little grown up…"

"… Palladius puts them between two tile Shards, and closes them up with Loam round about…"

Shit  

"…And make two holes, one for their heads to put forth, and the other for their tails, that, that they may both eat their meat and Shit it out again when it is digested..."

Shears    

"…At last, cut them with Shears into square pieces, that they may be convenient for use…"

Sheep             

"…Sometimes yet the properties of things are operative, yes, and that more forcibly, after death, the Wolf is hurtful and odious to Sheep after he is dead…."

"…Aelianus writes, that the keeper of Sheep, and Goats, and Mares, do besmear their hands with Salt and Nitre, and then rub the generative parts of them in the time of their coition, for their more lustful and eager performance of that action…"

Sheep's Bane   

See: Bane

"…Nardum kills Sheep.   Dioscorides.  Cattle and goats, if they drink the water where Rhododendron is steeped, will die.  Pliny and Ononymus, an author nameless.   Flea Bane kills Goats and Sheep.  So does Savin…"

Sheer  

Sheer - Very thin or transparent; -- applied to fabrics; as, sheer muslin.

"… And we shall make him feel the more pain, if he be anything dainty.  I find in writing, that if you stick under the table a needle, that has often sowed the winding Sheer of the dead. .."

Shellfish     

See:   Murex

"…If you burn three Shellfish, especially of that kind which is called Murex, and when you have pound them together, cast the ashes thereof upon the Ivy berries…"

"…I taught formerly in my book of plants, that with white clear silver colored Herbs, Shellfish, and stones, the face might be made white, polished and silver colored. .."

Shephard \  Shepherd              

Shepherd - A man employed in tending, feeding, and guarding sheep, esp. a flock grazing at large.

"… Hares feed upon Herbs that have juice like Milk, and therefore in their bellies they have a cream, whence Shepherds have learned to make cream of many such Herbs pressed together…"

"… Shepherd's make a Shepherd's pipe of Rhododaphne, and by piping on this, they will so delight Horses, that they will run after them…"

Shepherd's pipe  

"…  Shepherd's make a Shepherd's pipe of Rhododaphne, and by piping on this, they will so delight Horses, that they will run after them.  And when the Shepherds play on, the Horses will stand still, and weep for joy..."

Siccity   

"...Pears will keep among Corn, for as Palladius says, the Siccity thereof is notably preservative…"

Siculus, Diodorus  

See Diodorus

"…But Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, say that Sopithes a King, gave Alexander an hundred and fifty of these dogs, all very huge and strong, and usually coupling with tygres…" 

Siege   

"…And I have heard that the poor eat it in some places, and it hurts them not, and that some in a Siege have lived a month with such Bread…"

Siderites   

(See Loadstone)

"…Others call it Siderites from "", that in Greek signifies iron, and the Latine call it Magnes, Heraclius, and Siderites.   Hesychius makes the stone Siderites to be different from Heraclius, for he says, one has an iron color, and the other a silver color…"

Sieve               

"…And when you have so done, put it into a very fine ranging Sieve, and sift out the smallest of it, and that which is left behind in your Sieve…"

"…Dry the flowers and herbs in the shade.  And when they are withered, beat them, and Seirce them through a Sieve. .."

Siligo      

siligo : siliginis : wheat, wheat flour.

See:   Corn

"…In the Country beyond the River Po, that part which is called Monsterax, there is a kind of Corn called Siligo, which being thrice sown, makes good bread-corn…"

"…Pliny writes, that the Corn Siligo is changed into Wheat the second year…"

Silk   

"… Silk is made to weigh more.  They put it upon the vapor that rises from boiling water, and this makes it swell with moisture, and grow heavier…"

Silver                                                

Silver - A soft white metallic element, sonorous, ductile, very malleable, and capable of a high degree of polish. It is found native, and also combined with sulphur, arsenic, antimony, chlorine, etc., in the minerals argentite, proustite, pyrargyrite, ceragyrite, etc. Silver is one of the noble" metals, so-called, not being easily oxidized, and is used for coin, jewelry, plate, and a great variety of articles. Symbol Ag (Argentum). Atomic weight 107.7. Specific gravity 10.5. &hand; Silver was known under the name of luna to the ancients and also to the alchemists. Some of its compounds, as the halogen salts, are remarkable for the effect of light upon them, and are used in photography.

"…In Nonacris, a country of Arcady, there flow very cold waters out of a stone, which are called the Water of Styx, which break to pieces all vessels of Silver and Brass, and nothing can hold them but a mules foot, wherein it was brought from Antipater, into the country where Alexander was, and there his son Folla killed the King with it…"

"…That is called a Parabolical Section, that more forcibly farther off and in shorter time, will set matter on fire.  That is opposite to it.  It will melt Lead and Tin.  My friends related to me, that Gold and Silver also…"

Simaus   

"… The Tibarita, says Simaus, before they drank, fenced themselves by feeding on Coleworts.   Alexis…"

Simple /  Simples                  

"…Moreover, it is required of him, that he be a Herbalist, not only able to discern common Simples, but very skillful and sharp-sighted in the nature of all plants; for the uncertain names of plants, and their near likeness of one to another, so that they can hardly be discerned, has put us to much trouble in some of our works and experiments…"

"…And there are diverse confections of Wine which you may read of in the most exact writers of Physick, and of matters of Husbandry, which are easy both to be learned, and also practised by those that are well acquainted with the operations of Simples…"

Simpos   

"… Plutarch, in Simpos, says, that sleep is caused by cold, and therefore Dormitives have a cooling quality. .."

Sinon   

"…Also the Grecians compacted with Sinon, that by night, when the Trojans were asleep, those that came to Troy should have a token, when he should open the Trojan Horse, to let forth the soldiers that were within…"

Sinoper      

"…The stone Hematites being rubbed, is like blood, and is good for those that bleed, and for blood-shot eyes. And the stone Sinoper is of the same both color and virtue…"

"…Take a Lily   Clove or Head, and when you have opened it well, pour into it some Sinoper, or any other coloring, and the Lily flower that grows out of the Clove so dressed, will be of the same color…"

Skate  

"…And out of Aristotle, Pliny reports, that no fish of different kinds mingle their seeds, save only the Skate and the Ray, of both which is gendered the fish Rhinobatos, which is like the Ray in all his former parts…"

Skirworts   

"…As Pliny says, we have made most wholesome Bread of these mingled with meal, especially for men wasted and in consumptions, also Bread is made of Rape-roots, Turnips, and Skirworts"

Slight      

"…We may add to these Slights another device…"

"…For this will make them red.    Beritius, that he might cause the reflex of the Sunbeams to be more forcible upon the fruit, used this Slight…"

Sloes   

 "…if you will curb soft and loose breasts…as are unripe Services, Sloes, Acacia, Pomegranate Pills, Balanstia, unripe Pine nuts, wild Pears, and Plantain,  if they all boil in Vinegar, and be laid to the breasts, or some of them…"

Smack  

Smack - Taste or flavor, esp. a slight taste or flavor; savor; tincture; as, a smack of bitter in the medicine. Also used figuratively. A small quantity; a taste.

"…For when he cuts Bread with the knife, or anything else, and shall touch his lips with the Napkin, it will give him such a filthy and abominable taste, that whatever he touches, tastes, or licks, will have a most horrible Smack with it…"

Smallage           

"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"It groweth naturally in wet and Marsh grounds, but if it be sown in Gardens it there prospereth very well.--- It abideth green all the Winter, and Seedeth in August. Smallage is hotter, dryer, and much more Medicinable than Parsley, for it much more openeth Obstructions of the Liver and Spleen, rarifieth thick Flegm, and clenseth it and the Blood withal. It provoketh Urine and Womens Courses, and is singular good against the yellow Jaundice…"

"…And to be short, in the same manner are extracted the oils out of the seeds of Carrot, Angelica, Marjoram, Rue, Rosemary, Parsley, Smallage and Dill, and suchlike…"

"…When these are hatched, you must bring up the Chickens with Barley-flour, and some leaves of Smallage shred among it…"

Smalt   

"…After gems we will endevour to make Smalt or Enamael.  It is a work almost of the same nature, and of the same mixture and colors…"

"…To make Smalt of a paler yellow instead of Jalloline, add Jaletto, and you will have your desire…"

Smaragde    

"…When you give the tincture to a Cyanus, you may easily turn it into a Smaragde, by adding Crocus of iron, in half the quantity of the copper or brass, viz., if at first you put in a forth part of Copper…"

Smatterers     

"…I tried this often, and found it false.  And that there is no truth in it.  But there are many Smatterers and ignorant fellows, that would not try to reconcile the ancient writers, and excuse these lies…"

Smell-feast       

"…That all things the Smell-feast eats, may taste bitter…"

"…It is an easy matter to drive away from out tables, and great men's tables, all Smell-feast, and Cogging Foisting fellows, and this will make our guests very cheerful and glad, to see such Cormorants and parasites driven away, and derided by all men…"

Smerismation   

"… Upon the supersicies of the Tympanum let there be C a very little hole with a cover to it, or let it have as the Greeks call it, Smerismation, to shut and open it handsomely…"

Smilax   

See:   Woodbind

"… I think of porous wood, for the holes and pores are passable every way, and being filled with air, they found with every small stroke.  And among the porous wood, is the Ivy, and especially the tree called Smilax or Woodbind…"

Smith      

"…Add burned Copper, and so it will be of a deeper color.  But if you desire it a paler, add teh flakes of Copper, which fly off while the Smith hammers it, being red hot…"

"…Where Silver or Gold is mingled with Brass, and what is their several weights.  Which speculation is useful not only for Bankers, but also for Smiths, when they desire to try metals in fixing of Silver, or other operations, which I will attempt to declare plainly…"

Smug    

"…Take the vessel from the fire, and pour forth the Quicksilver, and so as before, and always once ounce of water will distill forth.  Keep this for chemical operations.  I found this the best for to Smug up women with…"

Snail            

"…The Snails that are found in moist places, and leave behind them, as they creep, a silver cord ( Dioscorides says, will cure the spots in the face) women much desire them…"

"…Snails to be rejected, when they stick fast to briars and shrubs, for they trouble the belly and the stomach, and cause vomiting…" 

Snake            

"…And that evil men's backbones do breed such monsters after death, Ovid shows, that many hold it for a truth. Pliny received it of many reports, that Snakes gendered of the marrow of men's backs…"

 "…If you give a Hawk a Hen fed with Snake or Lizard's flesh, or with Barley boiled in the broth of them, it will make him Mew his feathers betimes…"

Snake-weed    

 "…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, Savory, Elder, Sage leaves, White Mint, Rosemary, Basil, Marjoram, Pennyroyal, Rosebuds, the roots of Betony, Pellitory, Snake-weed, White Thistle, Aristolochy, Elder, Cretan Dittany, Currants…"

Snuff   

"…I much rejoiced when I found among the ancients, that Anaxilaus the philosopher, was often found to make sport with the Snuff of a candle and the wick, and by such delusions would make men's heads show like monsters, if we may believe Pliny…"

Soap                      

Soap - A substance which dissolves in water, thus forming a lather, and is used as a cleansing agent. Soap is produced by combining fats or oils with alkalies or alkaline earths, usually by boiling, and consists of salts of sodium, potassium, etc, with the fatty acids (oleic, stearic, palmitic, etc).

"Augment Soap…If you mingle the ashes of Oxen's shank-bones, well burnt in Potter's ovens, or White Brimstone…"

"…And because the Lead that is put in will bear up the Tin aloft therefore you must make certain little balls or pills compounded of Soap and Lime, or else Saltpeter and Brimstone, or some other like fat earthy stuff…"

Sobriety  

Sobriety - . Habitual soberness or temperance as to the use of spirituous liquors; as, a man of sobriety.

"…Let one drink of this Wine, who is given to Drunkenness, and he will loath Wine, and always hate it, and will never drink it again.  Or if he do, he will frink but little, and with much Sobriety..."

Soap Geta     

"…Take Soap Geta, and reduce it into a small powder…"

Socrates    

"…Theophrastus would have Hemlock gathered and fetched from Sufa, because Thrasias was of opinion, that there it might safely be taken, and in other very cold places. For whereas in Athens the juice of it's poison, odious among the Athenians, because it is given to kill men in common executions, and Socrates there taking it, died presently…"

Soda       

Soda - formerly obtained from the ashes of sea plants and certain other plants, as saltwort.

See:   Kali, Saltwort

"…The herb Kali or Saltwort is commonly called Soda…"

"… Put it into a Brass Cauldron and boil it, pouring in for every pound of Soda, a Firkin of water. .."

Sodden         

"…That the air may have no access unto them. Pliny says, that Cervises are to be preserved in Sodden Wine , by the judgment of Cato…"

"…Neither did they stay there, but also proceeded to use Sodden Wine, new Wine, vinegar, and Wine Lees, for that purpose…"

Solder       

"…Then make a little pipe as big as a finger, and as long as ones hand, that it may come to the center of the ball, and so stick forth beyond the superficies, like a pyramis, the basis outward, the point inward.   Solder it fast to the ball. …"

"…Maybe they are pursuaded of this by the metals of the ancients, that were within all Brass, but outwardly seemed like pure Silver.  But those were Soldered together, and beaten with hammers, and then stamped…"

Sodomy / Sodomite  

"…  Seneca reports that Hostius made such Concave-glasses , that they might make things show greater.  He was a great provoker to lust.  So ordering his glasses, that when he was abused by Sodomy, he might see all the motions of the Sodomite behind him, and delight himself with a false representation of his privy parts that showed so great…"

Solzaao   

See Saltpeter.

 "…Make a large round vessel of Brass, and put into it Saltpeter, unrefined, and will fill it.  Men call it Solzaao mingled with Ice…"

Solanum  / Solanum Manicon     

See BellaDonna,   Nightshade, Fair Lady, Hypnoticon, Stramonium

"…We may make the same of Nightshade, which is also called, Hypnoticon, from the effect of it.  A drachm of the rind, drank in wine, causes sleep, but gently and kindly.  This later age, seems to have lost the knowledge of Solanum Manicon…" 

"…With Stramonium, or Solanum Manicum. - the seeds of which, being dried and macerated in Wine, the space of a night, and a drachm of it drank n a glass of Wine, (but rightly given, lest it hurt the man) after a few hours will make one mad, and present strange visions, both pleasant and horrible…"

Solinus             

"…Solinus writes, that this is supposed to make that people flap-mouthed and to grin like dogs. - drinking the milk of bitches..." 

"…Other properties there are also of places and fountains, which he that would know, may learn out of Theophrastus, Timaus, Poffidonius, Hegefias, Aristides, Meirodorus, and the like, who have very diligently sought out, and registered the properties of places, and out of them, Pliny, Solinus, and such writers have gathered their books…"

Soldier      

"…Also there is a kind of root, found by them that were with Valerius, which is called Chara, which mingled with milk relieved a Soldier that was hungry, and it was made up like to Bread…"

"…Also the Grecians compacted with Sinon, that by night, when the Trojans were asleep, those that came to Troy should have a token, when he should open the Trojan Horse, to let forth the Soldier that were within…"

Solomon   

"… Aristotle says it, and Solomon before him, that all rivers came from the sea, and return to the sea…"

Solomon's Seal       

"… Distil all these severally.   Elder flowers, and flowers of wild Roses, Broom, Honeysuckles, Solomon's Seal, and Briony roots, sour Grapes, and Sarcocolla…"  (To make the face white, clear, ruddy and soft)

"…Crop in the morning the flowers of Mullens, and steep them in Greek Wine, with the roots of Solomon's Seal…"

Solstice       

A stopping or standing still of the sun.  The point in the ecliptic at which the sun is farthest from the equator, north or south, namely, the first point of the sign Cancer and the first point of the sign Capricorn, the former being the summer solstice, latter the winter solstice, in northern latitudes; so called because the sun then apparently stands still in its northward or southward motion. The time of the sun's passing the solstices, or solstitial points, namely, about June 21 and December 21.

"…In like manner Winter-cress or Ilium, and Pennyroyal, though they begin to wither being gathered, yet if you hang them upon a stick about the time of the Solstice, the will for a time flourish…"

"…  Paxamus says, Wine either grows sour or dead about the Solstices, and when the seven stars set, or when the Dog Star causes heat…"

Soluble  

Soluble - Susceptible of being dissolved in a fluid; capable of solution; as, some substances are soluble in alcohol which are not soluble in water.

"…And by this means it will yield you grapes that being eaten, will make your body Soluble…"

Soot    

"… Also, Soot is tempered for this purpose  ( to dye the eyebrows black), with the smoke of paper, and Oil of Sesama.  The Soot being wiped off of a new vessel with a Feather…"

Soothsayer  

"…For Sudinus the Soothsayer, being to offer sacrifice, prayed unto the gods, and cuts the sacrifice in two…"

Sophistic Metal   

"…To soften a sophistic metal…"

Sophocles   

"…Wine made of barley they call Brytum.   Sophocles in Triptolemo, and Aeschylus in Lycurgo.  But Hellantcus says, Brytum is made in farms out of roots."…


Sopithes

"…But Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, say that Sopithes a King, gave Alexander an hundred and fifty of these dogs, all very huge and strong, and usually coupling with tygres…" 

 Soporiferous medicines  

"…   Soporiferous medicines do consist for the most part of cold and moist things.   Plutarch, in Simpos, says, that sleep is caused by cold, and therefore Dormitives have a cooling quality…"

Sorcery / Sorcerer        

"…if I had no care to retell the calumnies of detractors and envious men, that most immodestly wound me, calling me a Sorcerer, a Conjurer, which name from my tender youth I have abhorred…"

"…There are two sorts of Magick; the one is infamous, and unhappy, because it has to do with foul spirits, and consists of incantations and wicked curiosity; and this is called Sorcery; an art which all learned and good men detest; neither is it able to yield an truth of reason or nature, but stands merely upon fancies and imaginations.."

Sotacus 

"…Also, Pliny from Sotacus makes five kinds of it ( Loadstone)…"

Sotion          

"… Sotion relates it thus.  Some make wine of green Figs, filling half the vessel with them, and the other half to the brim they fill with fair water, and they try still by tasting.  For when it tastes like wine, they strain it and use it…"

"… Onions may be thickened, as Sotion shows…"

Soul of the World   

"…So then, seeing that forms come from heaven, they must needs be counted divine and heavenly things, for such is the pattern and the most excellent cause of them, which Plato, that chief philosopher, calls the Soul of the World, and Aristotle, Universal Nature, and Avicenna calls it Form-giver…"

Souse     

"…You must take green Nuts, and pluck them out of their shells, and so let them be soused in Honey.  And the Honey wherein they are Soused, will become very Medicinable, insomuch that if you make a Potion of it, it will be very helpful to cure the arteries, and the jaws…"

"… If you take out the stone before you Souse them ( Peaches)…"

Sow          

"…For if you cut open a Sow, that is great with Pig, you whall find the Boar-pigs lying in the right side, and the Sow-pigs in the left side of her womb…"

"…The Sow will soonest fat, for in sixty days she will be fat.  First keep hungry three days, as the rest must be.  She grows fat with Barly, Millet, Acorns, Figs, Pears, Cucumbers. .."

Sowbread                        

See:   Cyclamen

Sowbread: common wild European cyclamen with pink flowers [syn: Cyclamen hederifolium, Cyclamen neopolitanum] .

 "…. Vulnerary potions…Or take two handfuls of Pirole, of Sanicle, of Sowbread one.  Of Ladies Mantel half one.  Boil them in two measures of Wine, and drink it morning and evening…"

"…Take Sow-Bread roots, three parts.  Cleansed Barley, six parts.   Tartar Calcined, one part.  Roots of wild Cucumbers powdered, two parts…"

Sowredock   

"…Against TettersDistil water from the roots of Sowredock, and add to every pound of these, of Pompions and Saltpeter, half an ounce.   Tartar of White Wine, two ounces.  Let them soak for some days…"

Sowthistle        

"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"They grow in our Gardens and manured Grounds, and somtimes by old Walls, the path sides of Fields and High-waies. --Sow-thistles are cooling and somwhat binding, and are very fit to cool an hot Stomach, and to ease the gnawing pains thereof; The Herb boyled in Wine is very helpful to stay the dissolutions of the Stomach: And the Milk that is taken from the Stalks when they are broken, given in drink, is beneficial to those that are short Winded and have a wheesing withal: Pliny saith that it hath caused the Gravel and Stone to be voided by Urine, and that the eating thereof helpeth a stinking breath: Three spoonfuls of the Juyce thereof taken in white Wine warmed, and some Oyl put thereto causeth Women in Travel to have so easie and speedy delivery, that they may be able to walk presently after: The said Juyce taken in warm drink, helpeth the Strangury and pains in making water.

"…Hawks, as soon as they feel their sight dim, they eat Sowthistle…"

"…a handful of Sowthistle, Scordium, Betony, Scabious, and a half of Mercury precipitate.  A pint of Malmetry, a quart of the waters of Sowthistle, and Scabious.  Mix the Wine and waters, and lay the Guaiacum in it a day, and then the rest…"  ("A preservation against the Pox,")

Spanish Soder   

"…This is only for friends.  Take nine parts of burnt Tin, seven of Lead, two of Cinnabaris.  Of Spanish Soder and Tartar, one part and a half.  Of the Blood stone one part, of Painters Red a fourth part…"

Sparagrass    

"…Water to whiten, plan, and beautify the face…take equal parts of the root of Solomon's Seal, greater Dragon and lesser, Sparagrass, Briony, and white Lillies, as much as you please…"

Sparrow     

"…A Dog and a Wolf, a Lion and a Panther, an Ass and a Horse, a Partridge and a Hen, are of one bigness, and therefore may couple together, but a Horse and a Dog, or a Mare and an Elephant, or a Hen and a Sparrow cannot…"

"…The Hedge Sparrow, which Aetius mentions, I know to be good against the Stone in the kidney or bladder.  It is the least of all lbirds, and lives in the hedges and carries his tail upright.  On the top of his wings, there are some streaks of ash color.  He is of short flight and lastly, much like a Wren…"

Sparrows Tongue   

"…The herb Polygonum, or Sparrows-tongue, bruised, and thus distilled, is excellent for the inflammation of the eyes and other diseases.  Out of St. Johnswort, is drawn a water good against cramps, if you wash the part affected with it.  And others also there are, too long to rehearse…"

Spartum   

"…Hens die by eating the seeds of Broom, called Spartum…"

Spattle        

"…Take two ounces of Lead ashes, four of Tin and make it into a body, with double the quantity of Glass.  Roll it into round balls, and set it on a gentle fire all night.  Take heed it stick not to the sides of the pot, but stir it about with an Iron Spattle…"

"… Oil of Eggs is made by another art.  Take fifty or sixty Eggs, boil them till they are hard.  Then peal them, and take out the yolk.  Set them over warm coals in a tinned Posnet, till all their moisture be consumed, still stirring them with a wooden Spattle…"

Spawn   

"…The Eggs of the Barbel, or Spawn are not to be eaten in May, because they are dangerous…"

Spectacles / Spectacle     

"…The same effects are in the Spectacles, which are most nessary for the use of mans life.  Whereof no man yet has assigned the effects, nor yet the reasons of them.  But of those more at large in our Opticks…"

"…Among sports that are carried about, a Spectacle is of no small account. That glass instrument we put to our eyes to see the better with…"

Spelt            

"…Then boil Spelt.  And when it is boiled, take the fume of it by a Tunnel.  Then rub your face with a course Linen cloth…"

"… Pliny teaches that Spelt will grow white by a kind of chalk, thus.  Let this Spelt be of Beer-corn, which he called a seed…" 

Sperage      

"…The herb Corruda, whereof Sperage comes, is most fitly planted where reed grows, because they are of such likeness and nearness; and both of them are inciters to lust. The vine and the olive tree do joy in each other company, as Africarus writes both of them are commodious for men's uses…"

"…You must put the slips as soon as ever they appear out of the earth, into a broken Reed.  And there let them grow for a while, and afterward when you take away the Cane or Reed, the Sperage will be whiter then ordinary…"

Sphaerical   

"…Nor is it far distant from that point, from the supersicies of the glass, called Parabolical, which must remain firm in that place which I said before.  Let experiment be made of its vertue, by threads passing from its center, or Iron wire, or hair.  And it is no matter whether it be Parabolical or Sphaerical…"

Sphaeral Sections   

"… Vitellio describes a certain compositon of a burning-glass, made of diverse Sphaeral Sections.  But what he writes he proves not, nor does he understand what he says…"

Sphaerical Cylinder  

"…Get a Sphaerical Cylinder, or Convex diffection of a Pyramidal Concave, the portion of which segment is not known…"

Spice       

"…How to Extract Oil out of Spices and sweet things, is declared before…"

"…Boil it at a gentle fire, adding a little Allom, and you shall have a red color most perfect to dye the face.  If you would have it sweet smelling, add a little Musk, Civet, Cloves, or any Spices…"

Spicknard    

"How a dead carcass may be kept long…Then make a mixture of unquenched Lime five pounds, of burnt Alome one pound, good Salt two pound, of Aloes and Myrrh half a pound.  Of Aloes wood half a pound, of the oil of Spicknard three ounces…"

Spider          

 "…Many eat Spiders and wild Olives and care not for the biting of Serpents, nor suffer any Wasting or Consumption, if they be of such a nature, that their looks or breath will not only blast men…"

 "…In time past there was great store of Spiders in Aquilia, which they commonly call Tarantula…"

Spikenard                    

An aromatic plant. In the United States it is the Aralia racemosa, often called spignet, and used as a medicine. The spikenard of the ancients is the Nardostachys Jatamansi, a native of the Himalayan region. From its blackish roots a perfume for the hair is still prepared in India.

"… Palladius records out of the same author, that if you steep Artichoke seeds for three days together in the oil of Bays, or Spikenard, or Balm gum, or the juice of Roses, or of Mastick…"

"…Take four pounds of rose water, two of orange flowers, one of myrtle, three ounces of sweet Trifoil, one of Lavender.  Add to these, two ounces of Benjamin, one of Storax, the quantity of bean of Labdanum, as much of Mace and cloves, a drachm of cinnamon, Sanders, and Lignum Aloes, an ounce of Spikenard…"

Spilt   

"… I shall let pass those common things, as Spilt, and Bean Corn, and Amel-corn, Typh-wheat, Panick, Sesamum; being all well known…"

Spirit     

"…there are two sorts of Magick; the one is infamous, and unhappy, because it has to do with foul Spirits, and consists of incantations and wicked curiosity; and this is called Sorcery; an art which all learned and good men detest…"

"…Virgil well perceiving, calls this spirit, the Soul of the World. The Spirit, says he, cherishes it within, and conveying itself through the inmost parts, quickens an moves the whole lump, and closes with this huge body…"

Spirits     

 "…As for example, to draw out of things dewy vapors, unsavory and gross scents or Spirits, clots, and gummy or filmy Humors; and that intimate Essence which lurks in the inmost bowels of things, to fetch it forth, and Sublimate it, that it may be of the greater strength…"

"…The Dregs and Faeces of of the Wine must be buried again, and the Spirits be Distilled out as before, and reserved by themselves…"

Spirit of the World   

"…by reason of their mutual love, and so they hold and stand together, every member of it being linked to each other by a common bond, which the Spirit of the World, which we spoke of before, has inclined them unto. For this cause Orpheus calls Jupiter, and the Nature of the World, man and wife, because the world is so desirous to marry and couple her parts together…"

Spirit of Wine            

See:   Magistery of Wine

 "…But I draw a Quintessence from Clove-gilliflowers, Roses, Flower-gentle, with Spirit of Wine.  Then I add Allom, and the juice of Citron, and I made an excellent color to beautify the face…"

"…You shall draw out a water from the seeds of Cardamom, (which Apothecaries call Grains of Paradise) Cubebs, Indian Cloves, raspings of Brasil and Spirit of Wine distilled…"

Spittle           

 "…To wash away the Salt, wet a golden vessel or plate with water or Spittle, that the quantity of the powder you need may stick on the outward surfaces…"

"…When you would use it, write with water or Spittle, and they will be black letters…"

Splenewort   

or Ceterach.

"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"The smooth Spleenwort from a black, threddy and bushy Root, sendeth forth many long single Leaves, cut in on both sides into round dents, almost to the middle, which is not so hard as that of Pollipodie, each devision being not alwaies set opposite unto the other, but between each, smooth, and of a light green on the upper side, and a dark yellowish roughness on the back, folding or rolling it self inward at the first springing up. It groweth as well upon stone walls as moist and shadowy places about Bristol and other the West parts plentifully; as also on Framingham Castle, on Beckonsfield Church in Barkshire, at Strowde in Kent, and elswhere, and abideth green all the Winter. It is generally used against infirmities of the Spleen, it helpeth the strangury and wasteth the Stone in the Bladder, and is good against the yellow Jaundice and the Hiccough; but the use of it in Women hindreth Conception.

"…and there Macerated with water, we have brought forth in a manner the very same herbs, as out of an Oaken root, the herb Polypody, and Oak-fern, and Splenewort…"

Spodium        

"…Which a man may use after unclean women.  Take a Drachm of Hartwort and Gentian, two Scruples of Sanders and Lignum Aloes, half a Drachm of Powder of Coral, Spodium, and Hart horn burned…"

 "…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum,… Rose of Jerusalem, Doronicum, Ammoniac, Opoponax, Spodium, Schaeinanthus, Bdellium, Mummy…"

Sponge                    

Sponge - Any one of numerous species of Spongiæ, or Porifera. See Illust. and Note under Spongiæ. The elastic fibrous skeleton of many species of horny Spongiæ (keratosa), used for many purposes, especially the varieties of the genus Spongia. The most valuable sponges are found in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, and on the coasts of Florida and the West Indies.

"…Also Iron dipped into a Liquor of Quicklime, and Salt of Soda purified with a Sponge, will become extreme hard…"

"…How a dead carcass may be kept long… Then wash it with a Sponge. dipped in Vinegar and Aquavita.  Then let it dry…"

Sprig           

"…Take flowers of Clove-gilliflowers, Bruise the ends of the Sprigs, and draw forth the juice…"

"…his paint your face, and you shall have a pleasant red color without any stinking smell.  Or wet the Sprigs of Clove-gilliflowers in juice of Lemons, and set them in the Sun…"

Spurge  / Sperge           

See Turnsole.

Spurge - is the common name for the more than 1,500 species of the plant genus Euphorbia of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. These plants are characterized by their milky sap and by the arrangement of the flowers: one female flower and several surrounding male flowers, grouped together in a cuplike structure. Spurges occur in tropical and warm-temperate regions and include annual and perennial herbs, shrubs, trees, and succulents. 

"…That kind of Spurge which is called Heliofeopium, because it follows the sun, disposes of her leaves as the sun rules them, for when the sun rises, she opens them, as being desirous that the morning should see them rise, and shuts them when the sun sets, as desiring to have her flower covered and concealed from the night…"

"…The Ancients used the greater Spurge, whose juice, anointed on with Salt, takes them  ( Warts) away.  And therefore they called it Warts-Herb…"

Spurge   

"…And after two days, when these Liquors are incorporated together, they wax hot, and begin to Spurge…"

Squil           

"… It was called Epimenidian Composition, from the Sea-onion called Epimenidium, that is one of the ingredients of that composition.  It was made thus, the Squil was boiled and washed with water and dried, and then cut into very small pieces, then mingle sesamum a fifth part, poppy a fifteenth part, and make all these up with honey, as the best to make up the mass, to mitigate it…"

"…Athenian Sesamum half a Sextarius, of honey a half part, of oil a Cotyle, and a Chaenice of sweet Almonds mundified.  The Sesamum and Almonds must be dried, and ground, and winowed, then the Squil must have the outsides taken off, and the roots and leaves must be cut into small pieces, and put into a Mortar and bruised, till they be well mollified…"

Squatino-raia   

"…Theodorus Gaza translates the word 'Rhinobatos' into 'Squatino-raia' in Latin, that is a Skate-ray…."

Staechados    

"…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, …, Cinnamon, Staechados, Germander, Granes…"

 St. Augustine    

"…The Loadstone so disagrees with the Diamond, that if Iron is laid by it, it will not let the Loadstone draw it.  And if the Loadstone does attract it, it will snatch it away again from it.   St. Augustine…"

St. John's Gospel   

 "…For I have seen St. John's Gospel, "In the beginning,…" written so small, in so little place, that it was no bigger than a small pimple, or the sight of a Cock's eye…"

Stag              

"…And you must counterfeit Stags, Boar, Rhinocerets, Elephants, Lions, and what other creatures you please…"

"…  Stags are held with sounds, and caught with sweet Music…"

Stallion   

"…So the Stallion, when he comes and sees such goodly preparation as it were for his wedding, presently begins to foam at the mouth, and to neigh after her, and is possessed with the fire of raging lust throughout his whole body, raving and taking on, that he cannot forthwith satisfy himself upon his bride…"

Stamp  

"…That may be also made of Gold, without any detriment to the Stamp or engraving…"

Starch  

"…With us, women that have to do in the Sun, to defend their faces from the heat of it, that that may not be black, they defend it with the white of an Egg beaten with a little Starch, and mingled…"

Starwort   

 "…The Distilled water of Starwort, being often injected into the Matrix, will make one scarce know which is corrupted, and which is not…"

Stare      

"… Quail, and Stares, are rejected, at that time of the year, that Black Hellebour is the meat they like only…"

"…The Eagle is killed with Comfrey.  The Ibis with the Gall of Hyena.  The Stare with Garlic seed…"

Stavesacre   

"…That Aconitum, which is called Myoetonon, kills Mice a great way off.   Dioscorides and Nicandor.   Stavesacre has almost the same forces, whose root or seed in powder, mingled with meal, and fried with butter, kills Mice if they eat it…"

Steel                        

Steel - A variety of iron intermediate in composition and properties between wrought iron and cast iron (containing between one half of one per cent and one and a half per cent of carbon), and consisting of an alloy of iron with an iron carbide. Steel, unlike wrought iron, can be tempered, and retains magnetism. Its malleability decreases, and fusibility increases, with an increase in carbon.

"…Cast into Wine, Salt, Pepper and sour Leaven, mingle them and they will soon make it   Vinegar.  But to do it more quickly, quench in it often a red hot Brick or piece of Steel…"

"…Let it not be a Steel glass, because it cannot sustain the heat of burning, and by burning it loses its brightness.  Let it be therefore of glass a finger thick.  Let the Tin foil be of purged Antimony and Lead, such as they make in Germany…"

Steep             

Steep - To soak in a liquid; to macerate; to extract the essence of by soaking; as, to soften seed by steeping it in water.

"…Take Moss of the Oak, which smells like Musk.  Gather it clean, in December, January, or February.  Wash it five or six times in sweet water, that it may be very clean.  Then lay it out in the Sun and dry it.  Afterwards, Steep it in Rosewater…"

"…Let Crumbs of Bread Steep in Ass's Milk or Goat's Milk, with ten whites of Eggs Bruised with their shells…"

Steersmen    

 "…It is a common opinion among Seamen, that Onions and Garlic are at odds with the Loadstone.  And Steersmen, and such as tend the Mariners Card are forbidden to eat Onions or Garlic, lest they make the Index of the Poles drunk…"

Stella  

Fulvius Stella

"…The same author in his 'Parallels,' reports out of Agesilaus, his third book of Italian matters, that Fulvius Stella loathing the company of a woman, coupled himself with a mare, of whom he begot a very beautiful maiden-child, and she was called by a fit name, Epona…"

Stellio    

"…Of a Stellio is made an ill Medicament.  For when he is dead in Wine, all the faces of those that drink of it, will be red spotted.  Wherefore, they that would disfigure Whores, kill him in an Ointment.  The remedy is, the Yolk of an Egg, Honey and Glass.   Pliny…"

"…The gall of a Stellio beaten with water, will make weasels come together, says Pliny.  Also, the wise Plinianists write, that with the gall of a Chamaelion cast into water, weasels will be called together…"


Stellion   

"…The Stellion, which is a beast like a lizard, is an enemy to the Scorpions, and therefore the oil of him being putrefied is good to anoint the place which is stricken by the Scorpion…" 

Stibium        

See:   Antimony

"…Burn burnt Brass with Stibium, and melted with half Silver.  It will have the perfect color of Gold…"

"…  Stibium that Druggists call Antimony, is ground small in Handmills…"

Stile   

"…And if you bind this with Wax to the top of a knife, or point of a Stile, and shall sprinkle softly some drops of water upon them, when it feels the wet, it will twist like a Harp string, and the paper will rise, and so will money turn on the point of the Stile…"

Still /  Stillatory          

An alembic; a vessel for distillation.  A laboratory; a place or room in which distillation is performed.

 "…The Snails that are found in moist places, and leave behind them, as they creep, a silver cord ( Dioscorides says, will cure the spots in the face) women much desire them.  For they put them in a Still and draw out water from them, that polishes the skin exceedingly, and makes it contract a silver gloss…"

"…Crop in the moring the flowers of Mullens, and steep them in Greek Wine, with the roots of Solomon's Seal.  Then receive the water Distilled in glass Stills…"

St. Johns Apple    

"..for if we Graft an Apple into a Quince tree, the tree will yield a very good Apple, which the Athenians call Melimelum, but we call it a St. Johns Apple…"

St. Johns Wort        

"… Take three pounds of old Oil, put into it two handfuls of the flower of St. Johns Wort, and let them macerate in it for two months in the sun…"

"…The herb Polygonum, or Sparrows-tongue, bruised, and thus distilled, is excellent for the inflammation of the eyes and other diseases.  Out of St. Johnswort, is drawn a water good against cramps, if you wash the part affected with it.  And others also there are, too long to rehearse…"

Stone               

Stone -  A calculous concretion, especially one in the kidneys or bladder; the disease arising from a calculus.  The hard endocarp of drupes; as, the stone of a cherry or peach. (Pit)

See:   Kernel

"…and found it by the way to Rome, a mile from Theano, and it  (water) is exceeding good against the Stone…"

"…To bring away the Stone,…Take Saxifrage, Maidenhair, Pellitory of the wall, Parsley, Pimpernel and Ceterach.   Distill them in Balneo Mariae, and let the patient drink of it every other day.  For it corrodes and eats away the Stone, though never so great…"

"… for the Stones or Kernels of the Pomegranates are changed from their right blue, into a baser color, and the Pomegranate itself…"

Stone-crop      

"…Likewise Stone-crop and Saxifrage are good to break the stone in a mans bladder…"

"…it would bring forth herbs that had smooth bluish stalkes, and leaves full of juice and substance, such as penny-wort, Purslane, Senegreek, and Stone-crop…"

Storax        

Storax:  Any one of a number of similar complex resins obtained from the bark of several trees and shrubs of the Styrax family. The most common of these is liquid storax, a brown or gray semifluid substance of an agreeable aromatic odour and balsamic taste, sometimes used in perfumery, and in medicine as an expectorant. A yellow aromatic honeylike substance, resembling, and often confounded with, storax, is obtained from the American sweet gum tree (Liquidambar styraciflua), and is much used as a chewing gum, called sweet gum, and liquid storax

"…Is to be made by putting Benjamin into a glass retort, and fitting it to the furnace.  Then increase the fire without any fear of combustion, and you will obtain a fragent oil, to be used in precious ointments.  So Oil of Storax, Calamite, and Labdanum, and other Gums…"

Yet it does come out but in a small quantity of an excellent odor, and free from the stink of the fire, as thus they deal with Opoponax, Galbanum, Storax and others

Strabo            

Strabo, b. c.63 BC, d. AD c.21, was a Greek geographer and historian. His 17-volume Geography is one of the earliest books on the subject.

Strabo, traveled between Armenia and Sardinia and from the Black Sea to Ethiopia, incorporating both his own observations and earlier sources in the Geography. Books 1-2 of the Geography are introductory; Books 3-10 cover Europe; 11-16 cover Asia; and 17 deals with Africa, primarily Egypt. All except part of Book 7 have been preserved. Strabo synthesized the geographical knowledge of the period and included descriptions of important political events and great men. Intended for the use of military leaders and statesmen, the Geography is not uniformly useful because Strabo both took Homer too literally and refused to accept the descriptions of firsthand observers such as Herodotus

"…But Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, say that Sopithes a King, gave Alexander an hundred and fifty of these dogs, all very huge and strong, and usually coupling with tygres…" 

"…  M. Lelius Strabo, was the first that appointed this, and he appointed Crammers to take care of them, and ordered how much every crammed bird should eat. .."

Strainer     

"…Being now brought to the form of an Ointment, press it through a Linen Strainer with your hands, that if any parts of it be not well boiled or any woody pieces be there, they may be kept back by the narrowness of the Strainer. .."

"…After some days strain it through a hair cloth Strainer, or one of cloth to cleanse it from filth and Excrements…"

Stramonium  

See BellaDonna,   Nightshade

"…With Stramonium, or Solanum Manicum. - The seeds of which, being dried and macerated in wine, the space of a night, and a drachm of it drank n a glass of wine, (but rightly given, lest it hurt the man) after a few hours will make one mad, and present strange visions, both pleasant and horrible…"

 Strangle-tare  

See:   Tare

"…  Strangle-tare or Choke-weed desires to grow among Pulse, especially among Beans and Fetches, but it chokes them all…"

Stratagems   

"… Here we will relate the pleasant stories of the Mandrake out of authors of Stratagems…"

Straton   

"…And Straton assigns many reasons, why such monsters are generated, as, because some new seed is cast upon the former, or some of the former seed is diminished, or some parts transposed, or the womb puffed up with wind…"

Straw                            

Straw - The stalk or stem of certain species of grain, pulse, &c. Chiefly of wheat, rye, oats, barley, buckwheat and peas. When used of single stalks, it admits of a plural, straws.  A mass of the stalks of certain species of grain when cut, and after being thrashed; as a bundle or a load of straw. In this sense, the word admits not the plural number.

"…The clusters should be severally laid along the pavement, so that they touch not each other, with Lupin Straw under them if possible.  For it is dryer and hardest, and an enemy to Mice.  But if not then Bean Straw, or such Pulse…"

"…For a Needle rubbed on a Diamond, and stuck in Straw, and put in the water, that it may turn freely, being turned with your finger, with it stands still, it will turn North, and point exactly…"

Strawberry        

"… Strawberries in the winter or spring…"

 "…If you Distil Strawberries, and wash yourself with the water, you shall make your face red as a Rose…"

Stones  

"…The fruit of the Foeminipara is like the moss of an Olive tree, the fruit of the Maripara is double like a man's Stones…"

"…As, to make a woman fruitful, you must give her the womb and Curd of an Hare, an to the man, the Stones of an Hare…"

Struthio-camelus  

"…If the wolf sees us, his eyes make us dumb, the eyes of the Cockatrice and Basilisk will kill us forth-right, the Sea-lamprey stays the course of a ship, the Struthio-camelus can digest iron…"

Sturgeon  

"… Sturgeons or whales are allured with the lungs of a bull, roasted, hung upon a line with a hook and cast into the sea. The Sturgeon presently smells it, and being greedy of it, presently swallows it down, and is caught with the hook.."

Styptical  

"…Flesh hung on a Brass nail will keep long…for Brass is so Styptical and Exiccative, that the flesh it passes through putrifies not…"

Sublimate  / Sublimation               

Sublimation: The process by which a solid substance vaporizes without passing through a liquid stage.

Sublimate: A coating or deposit formed in a glass tube or on charcoal as a result of heating certain minerals. The product of sublimation.

 "…Let Sublimate Quicksilver boil in Distilled Vinegar, then mingle Quicksilver, and in a Glass Retort, let the Quicksilver evaporate in a hot fire, and fall into the Receiver…"

 "…Then add Rosin of Turpentine, four ounces, white Mercury Sublimate, two ounces, Boxan, half an ounce, ten whites of Eggs made hard at the fire.  And mingle all these together.  Let them stay one night…"

"…But how to extract these Essences is a very difficult work.  For they may be either Oil, or Salt, or water, or of Extraction.  Some, by Sublimation, others, by Calcination…"

Sublime        

Sublime: Change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase.

"…Afterwards, separate the oil from the water, Sublime and purify it in another vessel…"

"…the nature of things being diverse, does require divers ways of distilling Oil out of them.  For some being urged by fire, are Sublimed, and will not dissolve into Liquor…"

Succory           

See:   Verrucaria

"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"The Garden Succory hath longer and narrower Leaves than Endive, and more cut in or torn on the edges, and the Root abideth many yeers: It beareth also blew Flowers like Endive, and the Seed is hardly distinguished from the Seed of the smooth or ordinary Endive. The wild Succory hath diverse long Leaves lying on the ground very much cut in or torn on the edges, on both sides even to the middle rib ending in a point; somtimes it hath a red Rib down the middle of the Leaves, from among which riseth up a hard, round, woody stalk spreading into many Branches, set with smaller and lesser devided Leaves on them up to the tops where stand the Flowers, which are like the Garden kind as the Seed is also (only take notice that the Flowers of the Garden kind are gone in one Sunny day, they being so cold that they are not able to endure the Beams of the Sun; and therfore most delight in the shadow.) The Root is white, but more hard and woody than the Garden kind: The whol Plant is exceeding bitter.

"…So do the flowers of Succory and of Mallows. Likewise the pulse called Lupines, still looks after the Sun, that it may not writhe his stalk; and this watches the Sun's motion so duly…"

 "…There is also a kind of Succory, called Verrucaria from the effect.  For if one eats it but once in Sallets, all the Warts will be gone from any  part of the body…"

Sudinus  

"…For Sudinus the Soothsayer, being to offer sacrifice, prayed unto the gods, and cuts the sacrifice in two…"

Suet          

Suet - The fat and fatty tissues of an animal, especially the harder fat about the kidneys and loins in beef and mutton, which, when melted and freed from the membranes, forms tallow.

"…Add to the liver of a Sow fatted with Figs, Winepickle, Pepper, Thyme, Lovage, Suet, and a little Wine and oil.   Aetius…"

"…Also Walnuts bruised or smeared on, will take away black and blue spots.   Vinegar or Honey anointed will take away the same.  So does Garlic rubbed on.  And brings black and blue to the right color.  Or the ashes of it burnt, smeared on the same.  Or it is anointed on with Honey, or Suet, or a Cerate…"

Sugar              

Sugar - A sweet white (or brownish yellow) crystalline substance, of a sandy or granular consistency, obtained by crystallizing the evaporated juice of certain plants, as the sugar cane, sorghum, beet root, sugar maple, etc. It is used for seasoning and preserving many kinds of food and drink. Ordinary sugar is essentially sucrose. The term sugar includes several commercial grades, as the white or refined, granulated, loaf or lump, and the raw brown or muscovado. In a more general sense, it includes several distinct chemical compounds, as the glucoses, or grape sugars (including glucose proper, dextrose, and levulose), and the sucroses, or true sugars (as cane sugar). All sugars are carbohydrates.

"…For seasoned with Sugar, and prepared for men's pallets, and to quench feverish heats, they are carried about everywhere to be sold…"

"…Then beat them in a Marble Mortar with a wooden Pestle, until they become so fine as they may hardly be felt.  In the mean while, take three pounds of Sugar for one of the flowers…"

Sugar-Candy         

"…If the Pearl be above or beneath the cornea, make a powder of Sugar-Candy of Roses, burnt Allome, and the bone of a Cuttle Fish, very finely beat and searched exactly, and the patient goes to bed, sprinkle a little of this powder upon his eye, and by and by drop some of this water into it, and let him shut his eyes and sleep…"

"…Beat about ten whites of Eggs till they come to water.  Put them in a glazed vessel, adding one ounce of Sugar-Candy to them.  And when you go to bed, anoint your face, and in the morning wash it off with fountain water…"

Suidas   

"… Suidas says, that when Nicomedes, King of Bithynia, longed for some of these fish, and living far from the sea, could get none.    Apicius the glutton, made the pictures of these fish, and set them on the table, so like, as if they had been the same…"

Sulfur  / Sulphur      

See:   Brimstone, Oil of Sulphur, Salt of Sulphur

Sulfur is a naturally occurring, yellow, water-insoluble solid element. Its chemical symbol is S, its atomic number 16, and its atomic weight 32.064. Sulfur is a nonmetal and a member of the oxygen family of elements .  The name is derived from the Latin sulphur. The discovery of sulfur predates recorded history, and the element has been used since ancient times. The early medical books of Dioscorides and Pliny mention Sulfur, and fumes from burning sulfur were used in religious ceremonies and for fumigation. Alchemists recognized sulfur as a mineral substance that can be melted and burned. 

"…Then let them boil three hours with equal parts of Brimstone, Saltpeter, and Salt, that it may hang in the middle of them, and not touch the sides of the vessel.  Take it out, and rub it with sand, till the fume of the Sulfur is removed again…"

"…Grind live Sulphur into a small powder, and mix it with an equal quantity of the former Oil of Tartar…."

SumachSumac        

Sumac - Any plant of the genus Rhus, shrubs or small trees with usually compound leaves and clusters of small flowers. Some of the species are used in tanning, some in dyeing, and some in medicine.

"…Of old, they made a decoction of Sage leaves, the green husks of Walnuts, Sumac, Myrtle berries, Blackberries, Cypress nuts, rinds of the roots of the Halm tree, and such-like…" ("How the hairs are dyed black…")

"…If you want salt for your meats, the seed of Sumach strewed in with Benjamin, will season anything.   Pliny…"

Summer-whitings   

"…A Bait for Summer-whitings…."

Sun                                                      

"… What I said of a long Needle, I say also of an Iron bar.  For if you touch it in the middle, the beams of it are spread like the beams of the Sun, or light of a Candle, from the center to the Circumference, and extreme parts…"

"…The Sun is the Governor of time, and the rule of life…"

Sun-dials    

"…the use of the Loadstone upon the Needle, is well known in Sun-dials.  For when the Needle stands still over the line that is made form North to South, we are so directed by it, to know the hours by the shadow falling from the Gnomon…"

Sun-followers   

"…For when should we suppose it to be that the plants called Sun-followers, should still follow the suns motions? And likewise the Moon-followers, the Moon's motion…"

Supped    

Supped - Ate.

"…So Eudemus drank two and twenty cups, at last into a bath, and did not Vomit.  And Supped, so as if he had drank nothing…"

Superficies  

"…that is, the leaves of Lilies, Jasmine, Musk Roses, and the rest, hanging them on a thread, that when the water has sucked out their odor, we may pluck them out, because their odor lies only on their Superficies…"

Surrentum   

"…We feed them at home with wine of Surrentum, or else we put calfs to two cows, and thus being fed with abundance of milk, that can scarce go for fat…"

Swallow   

Swallow - Any one of numerous species of passerine birds of the family Hirundinidæ, especially one of those species in which the tail is deeply forked. They have long, pointed wings, and are noted for the swiftness and gracefulness of their flight.

"…We may use birds for messengers.  As Pigeons, Swallows, Quail and others…"

Swan        

Swan - Any one of numerous species of large aquatic birds belonging to Cygnus, Olor, and allied genera of the subfamily Cygninæ. They have a large and strong beak and a long neck, and are noted for their graceful movements when swimming.

"…The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the Larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose…"

"…The Swans under the north wind are conquered by the Harp and musical tunes…"

Swine          

"…Among four-footed beasts, a Dog, a Goat, a Swine, an Ass, be most lascivious, among birds, Partridge, Quails, Dove, Sparrows…"

"…Likewise the Pomegranate may be produced without any Kernels within it, if you lay good store of Swine Dung about the root of the Pomegranate tree…"

Swordgrass   

"…The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the Larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose…"

Sycamore    

See:   Bastard Sycamore

"…In Caria and Rhodes there is a great Fig of Egypt, or increase of the Sycamore tree…"

Sycites    

"…Wine of figs…It is made, says   Dioscorides, of ripe Figs, and it is called Catorchites or Sycites, Chelidonian or Phaenician Figs called Caricae, are steeped in a pot with a hole in the bottom with a Pitched Reed, and the hole stopped with Flax…"

Syfers  

"…I make two sorts of secret marks, which they vulgarly call Syfers. .."

Sylla   

"…  Archelaus the General, for Mithridates made trial of it in a wooden tower against Sylla, which he attempted in vain to set on fire…"

Sympathy      

"…By reason of the hidden and secret properties of things, there is in all kinds of creatures a certain compassion, as I may call it, which the Greeks call Sympathy and Antipathy.  But we term it more familiarly, their consent, and their disagreement…"

"…we have shown before, the operations of celestial bodies into these inferiors, as also the Antipathy and Sympathy of things…"

Symposiacis   

"… Zoroaster in his Geoponics says, that sheep killed by wolves, and bitten, their flesh will be more tender, and so the sweeter.   Plutarch in Symposiacis gives the cause of it…"

Plutarch in his Symposiacis, gives the reason, why the sacrifices of Cocks hung to a Fig tree did presently grow tender and short, when the Cook of Aristian, among other meats, offered to Hercules a tender Dunghill Cock, newly slain, that was extremely short…

Synefius   

"...Plotinus and Synefius say, "Great is nature everywhere, she lays certain baits whereby to catch certain things in all places. As she draws down heavy things by the center of the earth, as by a bait, so she draws light things upward by the concavity of the moon. By heat, leaves, by moisture, roots, by one bait or another, all things…"

Syrens/ Sirens   

 "…It is healthful, in these diseases, to apply bitter things to kill these Worms, called Tiners or Syrens.  Take the flowers of Myrtle trees, Broom-clary, boil them in Vinegar , till the Vinegar is consumed, then rub the ends of the hair continually with it…"

"S"

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