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A Table Containing the General Heads of Natural Magick

"Preface To The Reader"

The Fourteenth Book of Natural Magick

"Of Cookery"

("I Shall show some choice things in the Art of Cookery.")

"The Proeme"

Chapter I - "How flesh may be made tender."

Chapter II - "How flesh may grow tender by secret propriety."

Chapter III - "How Flesh may be made tender otherwise."

Chapter IV - "How Shell Creatures may grow more tender"

Chapter V - "That living creatures may be made more fat and well tasted."

Chapter VI - "How the flesh of Animals is made sweeter."

Chapter VII - "How the Flesh of Animals may be made bitter, and not to be eaten."

Chapter VIII - "How Animals may be boiled, roasted, and baked, all at once."

Chapter IX - "Of diverse ways to dress Pullets."

Chapter X - "How Meats may be prepared in places where there is nothing to roast them with."

Chapter XI - "Of Diverse Confections of Wines."

Chapter XII - "To make men drunk, and to make them loath wine."

Chapter XIII - "How to drive Parasites and Flatterers from great mens tables."

The Proeme

The Cook's Art has some choice secrets, that may make banquets more dainty and full of admiration.  These I purpose to reveal, not that so I might invite gluttons and parasites to luxury, but that with small cost and expense, I might set forth the curiosities of Art, and may give occasion to others thereby to invent greater matters by these.  The Art consists about eating and drinking.  I shall first speak of meats, then of drinks, and by the way I shall not omit some merry pastimes, that I may recreate the guests, not only with banquets, but also with mirth and delights.

Chapter I

"How flesh may be made tender."

shall begin with flesh, and show how it may be made tender, that Gluttons much desire.  I shall do it diverse ways.  Some that proceed from the kind of their death, others from the secret properties of things.  And they will grow so tender, that they will almost resolve into broth.  Then how while the creatures are yet alive, they may be made tender.  For example,

"How to make Sheep's flesh tender."

The flesh of creatures killed by their enemies, especially such as they hate and fear, will be very tender.   Zoroaster in his Geoponics says, that Sheep killed by Wolves, and bitten, their flesh will be more tender, and so the sweeter.   Plutarch in Symposiacis gives the cause of it.   Sheep's flesh, he says, bitten by a Wolf becomes the sweeter, because the wolf by biting, makes the flesh more flaggy and tender.  for the breath of the Wolf is so hot, that the hardest of bones will consume in his stomach, and melt.  And for this cause, those things will the sooner corrupt, that the Wolf bites.  And both hunters and cooks can testify, that creatures killed diverse ways are diversely affected.  Some of these are killed  at one blow, that with one stroke they lie for dead.  Yet others are hardly killed at many blows.  And which is more wonderful, some by a wound given with the Iron weapon, have imprinted such a quality upon the creature, that it is presently corrupted, and would not keep sweet one day.  And others, have killed them as suddenly, yet no such quality remains in the flesh that was killed, and it would last some time.  Moreover, that a certain Virtue, when creatures are slain or die, comes forth to their skins, and hair and nails.   Homer was not ignorant of, who writing of skins and Thongs. A Thong, says he, of an Ox slain by force, for the skins of those creatures are tougher and stronger, when they die not by old age or of diseases, but are slain.  On the contrary, such as die by the bitings of beasts, their hoofs will grow black, and their hairs fall off, and their skins will wither and flag.  Thus far Plutarch.  But I think these things are false.  For how should flesh, he flesh grow tender by the Wolf's breath, I understand not.  For other creatures that are killed by their enemies, and flesh of a contrary nature does also grow tender, where there are no hot vapors.  But I think that the absence of blood, makes the flesh tender, for these reasons.   Quail and Pheasant killed by Hawks, are very tender, but their hearts are found full of blood, and hard within them.   Deer and Boars, killed by Dogs, are more tender, but harder if by Guns.  And about, the heart the parts are so hard, that they can scarce be boiled.  Fear of death drives the blood to the heart.  The other parts are bloodless, as shall appear by the following experiments.  

"How Geese, Ducks, Pheasant, Quail, and other birds become most tender."

This is easily done, if we hunt them and fly Hawks, and other birds of prey, at them.  For while they fight, they strive to be gone, and they are sometime held in the Falcon's Talons, and are wounded with diverse strokes.  And this makes them so tender that it is wonderful.  Wherefore, when we would eat Crammed birds, we should purposely fly a Hawk at them, and being killed by them, should grow more tender to be desired.  So,

"The Ox flesh may grow tender,"

Especially of old Oxen, for they are dry and hard, and will not easily boil.  The Butchers set hounds at them, and let them prey upon them, and they will for some hours defend themselves with their horns.  At last being overcome by multitudes of Dogs, they fall with their ears torn, and bit in their skin, these brought into the shambles, and cut out, are more tender than ordinary.  Some of them fighting openly with Bears, and sometimes killed by them, if any of the body be left, it will be so tender, it will melt in a man's mouth.  We may do the same, if we keep creatures sometime in fear of death, and the longer you keep them so, the tenderer it will be.  For,

"To make Hens tender,"

We fright them of from high towers.  So we do Turkeys, Peacocks.  And when they cannot fly away by the weight of their bodies, for fear of death, with great pains and shaking of their wings, they fall down, that they may take no hurt by falling.  That those are so killed with fear of death, grow very tender.  So old Pigeons that by chance had fallen into deep pits, when they had long labored, struggling with their stuttering wings above the waters to save themselves from drowning, with struggling and fear of death they grew very tender, and by this accident we have learned, that when we would have them very tender, we purposely drive them in.  Horace in Serm. says almost the same.

"How a Cock may grow Tender"

If you must suddenly set him before your friends, and cannot help it.  If that a guest does come by chance at night, and if the Cock be tough, not fit to eat, drowned him alive in Muscadel outright, and he will soon come to be tender meat.  We use to hang up Turkeys alive by the bills, at the Saddlebow, when we ride.  And these being thus Racked and Toffed with great pains, at the journeys end you shall find them dead, and very tender.

Chapter II

"How flesh may grow tender by secret propriety."

Some things there are, that by secret propriety make flesh tender.  I shall record two prodigious miracles of nature.  One, that hung on a Fig tree,

"Cocks flesh grows tender,"

and so short, that it is wonderful. Another, that wild Cocks bound to a Fig tree, will grow tame, and stand immovable.   Plutarch in his Symposiacis, gives the reason, why the sacrifices of Cocks hung to a Fig tree did presently grow tender and short, when the Cook of Aristian, among other meats, offered to Hercules a tender Dunghill Cock, newly slain, that was extremely short.   Aristio gives the reason of this tenderness to be the Fig tree.  And he maintained, that these killed, though they be hard, will grow tender, if they be hanged up on a Fig tree.  It is certain, as we may judge by sight, that the Fig tree sends forth a vehement and strong vapor.  This also confirms that which is commonly spoken of Bulls, that the fiercest of them bound to a Fig tree, will grow tame presently, and will endure to be touched with your hand, and to bear a yoke, and they puff out all their anger, and lay aside their courage that thus fails them.  For so forcible is the acrimony of the vapor of that tree, that though the Bull rage never so much, yet this will tame him.  For the Fig tree is more full of milky juice, then other trees are.  So that the wood, boughs, Figs, are almost all full of it.  Wherefore, when it is burnt, the smoke it sends forth, does bite and tear one very much.  And a Lixivium made of them burned, is very Detergent and cleansing.  Also Cheese is Curdled with Fig tree  Milk, that comes forth of the tree, if you cut the bark.  Some would have the heat to be the cause, that the Milk Curds, by the juice of the Fig tree cast in, which melts the watery substance of the Humour;  Wherefore the Fig tree sends forth a hot and sharp vapor, and that is digesting, and dries and concocts the flesh of birds, so that they grow tender.  So,

"Ox flesh may be made tender."

If you put the stalks of wild Fig trees into the pot, where Ox flesh is boiled, they will be boiled much the sooner, by reason of the wood.   Pliny.  I gave you the reason of it before from Antipathy.  The Egyptians alluding to this, when they would describe a man that was punished to the height, they painted a Bull tied to a wild Fig tree.  For when he roars, if he be bound to a wild Fig tree, he will presently grow tame.  If we will have,

"Pulse grow tender,"

Because I see that there is great Antipathy between Pulse and Chokefitch, that destroys and strangles them.  Some call this Lions Herb.  For as a Lion does with great rage and furiously kill Cattle and Sheep, so does Chokefitch all Pulse.  Wherefore this Herb put to Pulse, when they boil, will make them boil the sooner.  But,

"To make meats boil the sooner,"

All kinds of Docks, though they be dry and juiceless, will do it, that all flesh will grow tender, and become fit to eat.  Wherefore the Ancients always fed on it, that it might digest the meat in their stomachs, and loose their bellies.  Also the root of wild Nettles boiled with flesh, will make them tender. Pliny.

Chapter III

"How Flesh may be made tender otherwise."

There be other ways to make flesh tender.  First, if flesh killed be hung in the open air, for they will grow tender, as beginning to corrupt, but they must not stay there so long till they corrupt indeed.  Wherefore you must know their quality, which will keep longest, and which not.  For example,

"Peacocks, Partridge, Pheasants to be made tender."

Isaac says, that a Peacock killed will be kept two days, and three in winter, that the hard flesh of it may grow soft.   Haliabas hangs them up three days, hanging stones to their feet.   Savanrola hangs them up ten days without weights.  Simeon Sethi says, that Partridge newly killed are not to be ate, but after a day or two, that they may lose their hardness.   Pheasants in summer hung up two days, and three days in winter, will be fit meat,   Arnoleus.  And to avoid tediousness, the same must be done with other flesh.  The like,

"That birds may grow tender."

If you hang those in Moonlight, that were killed in the night, they will grow more tender by boiling.  For the Moon has great virtue to make flesh tender, for it is but a kind of Corruption.  Therefore wood, cut by Moonlight, will sooner grow rotten, and fruit sooner grow ripe.   Daphnis the Physition in Athenaus.

Chapter IV

"How Shell Creatures may grow more tender"

Before I end to speak of ways to make flesh more tender, it will not be amiss to make Crabs tender, and by another way then I have shown before.  How we may make,

"Crab Fish tender shelled."

At Rome they do so, and it becomes pleasant and excellent meat for noblemen's tables.  I speak of those Crabs bred in fresh waters.  For at Venice I have eaten them that breed naturally tender in salt waters, they call them commonly Mollecas.  But they are not so sweet, as they are made at Rome, and they ask a Julius apiece.  The way is, in the months of June, July, August, and September, the Crabs use to cast their shells, and put off their old coat.  At that time Fishermen search about the banks of the rivers, where they find their holes and caves half stopped, and by that they know the time is come to cast their shells.  For the more their shells grow tender, the more they shut up their holes.  They grow tender first about the feet, and by degrees it ascends over their whole bodies.  When they have taken them, they bring them home, and put them every one in several earthen pots, and they put in water, that it may cover half their bodies, and so they let them remain eight or ten days, changing the water every day, and their shells will grow more tender every day.  When it is all soft, that it is transparent as crystal, they fry them with Butter and Milk, and bring them to the table.  So,

"Squils grow tender."

We must do as we did to Crabs, for they cast their shells as Crabs do.  And nature did this for some end, for when their shells are grown too thick and weighty, they can scarce crawl.  Wherefore by the Excrements that go into it, that are consumed to make a new shell within, the former that was made is broken, and falls off.

Chapter V

"That living creatures may be made more fat and well tasted."

I shall endeavour to show how living creatures may be made more fat and well tasted, that we may set more savory meats before our guests.  The Ancients were not negligent in this matter.  Wherefore you shall find many ways, not only among cooks, but such as write concerning Husbandry.   Liccorish Gluttons found out the ways to fat Cattle, that they might feed on them more plentifully and daintily.  Hence they called them Cram'd, because they were well fed, and had gross bellies.  Those were called Birdpens, where they fatted all sorts of birds.  M. Lelius Strabo, was the first that appointed this, and he appointed Crammers to take care of them, and ordered how much every Crammed bird should eat.  They will fat better in winter than in summer, because birds at that time of the year are best, being not so much wasted with young.  And Cocks will fat better then Hens, and such as never Trod nor made Eggs.  In summer, when it is at an end, and the sour Grapes hang yet upon the vines, they are at the best.  I shall therefore teach,

"How Hens and other Birds must be Crammed."

Choose a place that is hot and obscure.  Shut them all up apart, and so close in their pens, that they cannot come together, nor turn.  And make two holes, one for their heads to put forth, and the other for their tails, that, that they may both eat their meat and Shit it out again when it is digested.  Lay soft Hay under them, for if they lie hard, they will never fat.  Pull off all the feathers from their heads, thighs, and from under their wings, there, that it may breed no Lice, here, that the Dung corrupt it not.  For meat, give them Gobbets of Barleymeal, made up with water.  At the first for some time, more sparingly, then after give them as much as they can digest, and you must give them no new meat, till you feel their Crops that all the old is digested.  When the bird is full, let him go awhile, not to wander abroad.  But if there be anything that urges him, he may pick it off with his bill.  Let him not be set to fatting before five, or after twenty months old.  Young Pigeons or Chickens, will fat better with their dams,if you pull off a few of their feathers, and bruise their legs, that they may stay in their places, and if you give meat plentifully to their Dams, that they may feed themselves, and their young ones more sufficiently.   Turtles are best fatted in summer.  Give them nothing but meat, especially Millet seed, for they much delight to eat that.  But Geese in winter.  They must be put up to fat four months, you need give them nothing else but Barleymeal and Wheat meal three times a day. So that you give them water enough to drink, and no liberty to walk about, thus they will fat in two months.  But tender Pullets will not be made fat in forty days.   Ducks will grow fat with all nutriment, if it be in abundance, especially with Wheat, Millet seed, Barly, and with Water-squils, Locusts, and creatures found in lakes, Columella.    Pheasants, Partridges, Heathcocks, and Turkyhens, will fat being shut up.  And the first day they eat meat, the next set them water or good strong Wine to drink.  Let their meat be raw Barleymeal, made up with water, giving them it by degrees.  Or else, broken and ground Beans and Barly Sod with water, and whole Millet seed, Linseed boiled and dry, mingled with Barleymeal.  To these you may add Oil, and make Gobbets of them, and give them to eat to the full, and they will grow fat a longest in sixty days.  Now I shall show how,

"Four-footed Beasts are fatted."

The Sow will soonest fat, for in sixty days she will be fat.  First keep hungry three days, as the rest must be.  She grows fat with Barly, Millet, Acorns, Figs, Pears, Cucumbers.  Rest, and not wandering.  But Sows will grow fatter by wallowing in the mire.  Figs and Chickpeas, will fat them soonest, and they desire change of meats, Varro.  The Sow is fed with Beans, Barly, and other grain.  For these will not only fat them, but give them a good relish.  The Olive, Wild Olive, Tares, Corn in Straw, Grass, and they are all the better sprinkled in Brine, but he more effectual they will be if she Fast three days before.  Aristotle.   Beanhusks, and Coleworts are pleasant meat for them.   Salt put to them, will make them have a stomach, which in the summer put into their troughs will season their meat, and make them eat it up.  And by that seasoning of it, they will drink and eat the more.   Columella.   Oxen will grow fat with Corn, Grass and Tares, ground Beans, and Beanstalks.  Also with Barly, whole or broken, and parted from the hulls.  Also by sweet things, as pressed Figs, Wine, Elm boughs, and with a lotion of hot water.  Aristotle.  We feed them at home with Wine of Surrentum, or else we put Calfs to two Cows, and thus being fed with abundance of Milk, that can scarce go for fat.  Also in their cratches we strew Salt stones, that they may lick them, and do drink.  And they will grow exceeding fat and tender.

Chapter VI

"How the flesh of Animals is made sweeter."

Now shall I show with some meats, and arts, how not only the parts of animals, but their whole bodies are made fat, tender, and more delicate.  And first,

"How to fat the Livers of Geese."

Our wise ancestors, says Pliny, who knew the goodness of a Goose liver, taught how by Cramming to make it grow great, also taken forth, it is augmented by sweet Milk.  And it is not without cause demanded, who was the first man that found out so profitable a thing.  Whether it was Scipio Metellus, that was Consul, or Mar. Sejus, that in the same age was a gentleman of Rome.   Palladius taught the way how.  When geese have been fatting thirty days, if you desire to have their livers tender, you shall bruise old Figs, and steep them in water, and make Gobbets of them, and feed the Geese with them twenty days together.  But Quintilius ways is, when they grow fat, you shall break dry wild Radish in small pieces, and tempering them with water, give them this to drink for twenty days.  Some, that the liver may be made great, and the Geese fat, feed them thus.  They shut up the Goose, and cast to him Wine steeped in water, or Barley the same way.   Wheat makes him fat quickly, but Barley makes the flesh white.  Let her be fed with the said grain, but severally with them both, for twenty days, giving to her twice a day a moist medicament made thereof.  So that seven of those meats, may be given her for the first five days, and by degrees the days following, increase the number of these meats, until twentyfive days be past, that the days in the whole may be thirty.  And when they are over, heat Mallows, and in the Decoction thereof, being yet hot, give her Leaven moistened therewith.  Do so for four days, and in the same days give her water and Honey.  Changing it thrice every day, not using the same again.  And do this the days following, till sixty days.  Mingle dry Figs, bruised all this time with the said Leaven, and after sixty days you may eat the Goose, and its liver, that will be white and tender.  Which being taken forth, must be put into a large vessel, wherein there is hot water, that must be changed again and again.  But the bodies and livers of the females are best, but let them be Geese not of one year, but from two years old to four.   Horace in Serm. speaks of this,

"Fat Figs do make the Goose white, Liver great."

And Juvenal, Satyr 5.

"A Goose's Liver fed before him stood,

As big as a Goose, and to eat as good."

And Martial,

"The Liver's greater then the Goose, that's true,

But now you'l wonder where this liver grew."

Athenaus writes, that this was of great account in Rome.  When you kill the Goose, take out the liver quickly and cast it into cold water, that it may be solid.  Then fry it in Goose Grease, in a frying pan, and season it with spices.  It is a dish for a prince, and highly commended by many.  So is,

"A Sows Liver fatted."

Pliny.  There is art used for Sows livers, as well as for Geese.  It was the invention of Marcus Apicius, when they are fat with dry Figs, give them sweet Wine to drink, and kill them presently.  Add to the liver of a Sow fatted with Figs, Winepickle, Pepper, Thyme, Lovage, Suet, and a little Wine and Oil.   Aetius.  If, says he, any man feed that creature with dry Figs, the sows liver is preferred before all meat.  I said out of Aristotle, that Figs and Chickpeas will fat a Sow best.   Galen.  As while sows are living, their livers are fed for delight with dry Figs.  So for Geese.  I see their meats are moistened with  Milk, that their livers may be not only most pleasant meat, but may be fed exceedingly, and be most delicate.  If you will,

"That Cattle may be more excellent to eat."

Cattle that use to feed on Masterwort, and to be first cleansed, will grow very fat, and their flesh will be exceeding sweet. Pliny.  Whence it is that this Benjamin is not for many years to be found in Cyrene, because the farmers, that hire the grounds, finding more gain by it, devour them by their Cartel.  Moreover, in India, and chiefly in the country of the Prarsi, it rains liquid Honey.  Which falling down on the Grass, and the tops of Reeds in the lakes, is admirable food for the Sheep and Oxen.  And the Shepherds drive them thither, where most of this sweet dew falls from the air, and they are feasted with it, as with pleasant banquets.  And they recompense their Shepherds with a pleasant reward.  For they  Milk very sweet  Milk from them, and they have no need, as the Grecians do, to temper Honey with it.   Aelian.  But,

"How Pullets are made most white, tender, and delicate,"

Such as I use to set before my friends.  The way is, I shut them up five days in chambers or cellars, and I give them a dish full of Chippins of Bread, wet with  Milk, and sometimes with Honey.  Fed thus, they will grow as fat as great Sappers in Fig time, and so tender, that they will melt in your mouth, and they taste better by far then Pheasants, Heathcocks, or Thrushes.  And it seems the Ancients knew this.  For says Pliny, when a Crammed Hen was forbid to eat at supper, by the laws of the Ancients, they found out this evasion, to feed Hens with meats wet in  Milk, and so they were far more delicate to set on the table.  And Columella.  They that will make birds not only fat, but tender, they sprinkle the foresaid meal with water and Honey new made, and so they fat them.  Some to three parts of water, put one of good Wine, and wet Wheat Bread, and fat the bird.  Which beginning to be fatted the first day of the month, will be very fat on the twentieth day.

Chapter VII

"How the Flesh of Animals may be made bitter, and not to be eaten."

Again, if we will that flesh shall be rejected for the bitterness, and ill taste of it, we must do contrary to what has been said.  Or if we will not take the pains, we must wait the times that these creatures feed on such meats, as will do it, whereby sometimes they become Venomous also.  As if we would have,

"Deer flesh become Venomous,"

Simon Sethi says, that Deer flesh, that is caught in summer, is Poison, because then they feed on Adders and Serpents.  These are Venomous creatures, and by eating of them they grow thirsty.  And this they know naturally, for if they drink before they have digested them, they are killed by them.  Wherefore they will abstain from water, though they burn with thirst.  Wherefore Stag flesh, eaten at that time, is Venomous, and very dangerous.  Sometimes also,

" Partridge are nought,"

Namely, when they eat Garlic.  The Chyrrhaei will eat no Partridge, by reason of their food.  For when they have eaten Garlic they stink, and their flesh is stinking meat, that the Fowler will not eat them.  So also,

"Quail, and Stares, are rejected,"

At that time of the year, that Black Hellebour is the meat they like only.  Wherefore, when Quail feed on Black Hellebour, they put those that feed on them into so great danger of their lives, that they swell and suffer convulsions, and are subject to Vertigo.  Wherefore Millet seed must be boiled with them.  Also,

 "Birds are not to be eaten,"

When the Gooseberries are ripe.  For their feathers will grow black thereby, and men that eat them, fall into Scowrings.  Dioscorides.

The Eggs of the Barbel, or Spawn, not to be eaten."

In May, because they are dangerous.  But the Eggs are not dangerous of themselves, nor do they breed such mischiefs.  For they do not do it always.  For often you may eat them without danger.  But they are only then hurtful, when they feed on Willow flowers, that fall into the water.  So are,

"Snails to be rejected,"

When they stick fast to Briars and shrubs, for they trouble the belly and the stomach, and cause Vomiting.    Dioscorides..  And not only these animals themselves cause this mischief, but their Excrements, as  Milk, Honey, and the like.  For,

" Milk must not be eaten,"

When Goats and Sheep feed on green food, because it will loosen the belly the more.  But Goat  Milk does not try the belly so much, because these Cattle feed on Binding meats, as on the Oak, Mastick, Olive boughs, and Turpentine tree.  But in such places where Cattle eat Scammony, Black Hellebour, Perwincle, or Mercury, all their  Milk subverts the belly and stomach, such as is reported to be in the mountains of Justinum.  For Goats eat Black Hellebour, that is given them when the young leaves come first out, their Milk drank will make one Vomit, and causes loathing and nauseating of the stomach.    Dioscorides.  Also there is found,

" Honey that is Venomous,"

That which is made in Sardinia, for there the Bees feed on Wormwood.  At Heraclia in Pontus, sometimes of the year, by a property of the flowers there, Honey is made, that they which eat it grow mad, and sweat exceedingly.     Dioscorides.  There are,

" Eggs laid that stink."

When there are not fruits nor Herbs to be seen, then Hens feed on Dung, and so do other birds that lay Eggs.  But then those taste best that feed on fat things, and eat Wheat, Millet, and Panick.  But such as eat Wormwood, their Eggs are bitter.

Chapter VIII

"How Animals may be boiled, roasted, and baked, all at once."

I have thus far spoken to please and Palate.  Now I shall represent some merry Conceits to delight the guests, namely,

"How a Hog may be roasted, and boiled, all at once."

Athenaus in his ninth book of Dipnosophist ( Dalachampius translates it more elegantly) saying;  There was a Hog brought to us, that was half of it well roasted, and half of it was soft boiled in water.  And the cook had used great industry to provide it, that it should not be seen in what part he was stuck.  For he was killed with a small wound under his shoulder, and the blood was so let out.  All his intestines were well washed with Wine, and hanging him by the heels, he again poured Wine on him, and roasted him with much Pepper.  He filled half the Hog with much Barley Flour, Kneaded together with Wine and Barley.  And he put him into an oven, setting a Brass platter under him.  And he took care to roast him leisurely, that he should neigher burn, nor be taken up raw.  For when his skin seemed somewhat dry, he conjectured the rest was roasted.  He took away the Barleymeal, and set him on the table.  So,

"A Capon may be boiled, and roasted."

Put a Capon well pulled, and his Guts taken out, into a Silver dish, and fill the one half of him with Broth, and put him into an oven.  For the upper part will be roasted by the heat of the oven, and the under part will be boiled.  Nor will it be less pleasant to behold,

"A Lamprey fried, boiled, and roasted all at once."

Before you boil your Lamprey, take out his bones, to make it more graceful, for his flesh is full of bones, which you shall do with two little sticks held in both hands.  Fastening the Lamprey in the middle, you shall cut his backbone in the middle.  Then his head and end of his tail, about which the bones are heaped, by reason of the bones pulled out, being cut off, and his entrails taken forth, put him on a spit, and wrap about three or four times with Fillers, all the parts that are to be roasted and fried, strewing upon the one Pepper, and the Fillets must be made wet in Parsley, Saffron, Mint, Fennel, and sweet Wine, or with water and Salt, or broth, for the roasted parts, for the fried parts with Oil.  And so let him be turned, always moistening the Fillets with strewing on the Decoction of Origanum.  When part of it is roasted, take it from the fire, and it will be gallant meat.  Set it before your guests.

Chapter IX

"Of diverse ways to dress Pullets."

I shall here set down ways to dress Chickens, that will be very pleasant for the guests.  So that,

"A boiled Peacock may seem to be alive."

Kill a Peacock, either by thrusting a Quill into his brain from above, or else cut his throat, as you do for young Kids, that the blood may come forth.  Then cut his skin gently from his throat unto his tail, and being cut, pull it off with his feathers from his whole body to his head.  Cut off that with the skin, and legs, and keep it.  Roast the Peacock on a spit.  His body being stuffed with spices and sweet Herbs, sticking first on his breast Cloves, and wrapping his neck in a white Linen cloth.  Wet it always with water, that it may never dry.  When the Peacock is roasted, and taken from the spit, put him into his own skin again, and that he may seem to stand upon his feet, you shall thrust small Iron wires, made on purpose, through his legs, and set fast on a board, that they may not be discerned, and through his body to his head and tail.  Some put Camphire in his mouth, and when he is set upon the table, they cast in fire.   Platira shows that the same may be done with Pheasants, Geese, Capons, and other birds.  And we observe these things among our guests.  But it will be a more rare sight to see,

"A Goose roasted alive."

A little before our times, a Goose was wont to be brought to the table of the King of Arragon, that was roasted alive, as I have heard by old men of credit.  And when I went to try it, my company were so hasty, that we ate him up before he was quite roasted.  He was alive, and the upper part of him, on the outside, was excellent well roasted.  The rule to do it is thus.  Take a Duck, or a Goose, or some such lusty creature, but he Goose is best for this purpose.  Pull all the Feathers from his body, leaving his head and his neck.  Then make a fire round about him, not too narrow, lest the smoke choke him, or the fire should roast him too soon.  Not too wide, lest he escape unroasted.  Inside set everywhere little pots full of water, and put Salt and Meum to them.  Let the Goose be smeared all over with Suet, and well Larded, that he may be the better meat, and roast the better.  Put the fire about, but make not too much haste.  When he begins to roast, he will walk about, and cannot get forth, for the fire stops him.  When he is weary, he quenches his thirst by drinking the water, by cooling his heart, and the rest of his internal parts.  The force of the Medicament loosens and cleans his belly, so that he grows empty.  And when he his very hot, it roasts his inner parts.  Continually moisten his head and heart with a Sponge.  But when you see him run mad up and down, and to stumble (his heart then wants moisture, wherefore you take him away, and set him on the table to your guests, who will cry as you pull off his parts.  And you shall eat him up before he is dead.  If you would set on the table,

"A young Pigeon with his bones pulled out."

You shall take out his bones thus.  Put a young Pigeon, his Entrails taken forth and well washed, for to lie a night in strong Vinegar.  Then wash him well, and fill him with spices and Herbs, and roast him or boil him, as you please.  Either way you shall find him without bones.  Of old, they brought to the table,

"The Trojan Hog."

The ancient Gluttons invented, how a whole Ox or Camel should be set on the table, and diverse other creatures.  Hence the people had a tale concerning the Trojan Hog.  So called, because he covered in his belly, many kinds of living creatures, as the ancient Trojan Hog concealed many armed men.   Macrobius reports, 3. Lib. Satur., that Cincius in his oration, where he persuades to put the practise Fannius his law, concerning moderation of expense, did object to the men of his age, that they brought the Trojan Hog to their tables.   Collers  of Brawn and the Trojan Hog, were forbidden by the law of regulating expense.  The Hog was killed, as Dalachampas translates it, with a small wound under his shoulder.  When much blood was run forth, all his Entrails were taken out, and cut off where they began.  And after that he was often well washed with Wine, and hung up by his heels, and again washed with Wine.  He is rolled in Musk, Pepper.  The the foresaid dainties, namely Thrushes, Udders, Gnatsnappers, and many Eggs poured unto them, Oysters, Scallops, were thrust into his belly at his mouth.  He is washed with plenty of excellent Liquor, and half the Hog is filled with Polenta, that is, with Barleymeal, Wine, Oil, kneaded together.  And so he his put into the oven, with a Brass pan set under.  And care must be had to roast him so leisurely, that he neither burns, nor continue raw.  For when the skin seems Crup, it is a sign all is roasted, and the Polenta is taken away.  Then a Silver platter is brought in, only Gilded, but not very thick, big enough to contain the roasted Hog, that must lie on his back in it, and his belly sticking forth, that is stuffed with a diversity of goods.  And so is he set on the table.   Athenaus Lib.9.   Dipnosophist.  But,

Chapter X

"How Meats may be prepared in places where there is nothing to roast them with."

Sometimes it falls out that men are in places where there want many things fit to provide supper, but where convenience wants, wit may do it.  If you want a fry pan, you shall know,

"How to fry Fish on a paper."

Make a frying pan with plain paper, put in Oil and Fishes.  Then set this on burning coals, without flame, and it will be done sooner and better.  But if you will,

"Roast a Chicken without a fire."

That Chickens may roast while we are in our voyage.  Put a piece of Steel into the fire, put this into a Chicken that is pulled and his Guts taken forth, and cover him well with cloths, that the heat breath not out, and if he do smell ill, yet the meat is good.  If you want servants to turn the spit, and you would have,

"A bird to roast himself."

Do thus.  For the bird will turn himself.   Albertus writes, that a bird called a Ren, that is the smallest of birds, if you put him on a spit, made of Hazelwood, and put the fire under, he will turn as if he turned himself.  Which comes from the property of the wood, not the bird.  And that is false the Philosopher said.  For if you put fire under a Hazel rod, it will twist, and seem to turn itself.  And what flesh you put on it, if it be not too weighty, will turn about with it.  So,

"Eggs are roasted without fire."

Eggs laid in Quicklime, and sprinkled with water, are roasted.  For the Lime will grow as hot as fire.  The Babylonians have their invention, when they are in the wilderness, and cannot have an opportunity to boil Eggs.  They put raw Eggs into a Sling, and turn them about till they be roasted.  But if you,

"Want Salt,"

for your meats, the seed of Sumach strewed in with Benjamin, will season anything.   Pliny.  If you want Salt, and would,

"Keep flesh without Salt,"

Cover what flesh you will with Honey, when they are fresh.  But hang up the vessel you put it into, longer in winter, a less time in summer.  If you would have,

"That Salt-flesh should be made fresh."

First boil your salted flesh in Milk, and then in water, and it will be fresh.   Apicius.  You shall learn thus,

"To wash spots from linen clothes."

If you want Soap, for red Wine will so stain them, that you can hardly wash them out without it.  But when it does fall down and stain them, cast Salt upon them, and it will take out the spots.  If there want,

"Groundlings, how to make them."

Suidas says, that when Nicomedes, King of Bithynia, longed for some of these Fish, and living far from the sea, could get none.    Apicius the Glutton, made the pictures of these Fish, and set them on the table, so like, as if they had been the same.  They were prepared thus. He cut the female Rape root into long thin pieces, like to these Fish, which he boiled in Oil, and strewed with Salt and Pepper, and so he freed him from his longing.  As Aetheneus says, in Cuphron, Comic.  If there want fire, I have shown already how to make divers sorts of artificial fires.

Chapter XI

"Of Diverse Confections of Wines."

Now I come to drink, for I have spoken of meat sufficiently.  And I will teach you to make many sorts of Wine, and that they may be pleasant and Odoriferous.  For I have said already what ways it may be made without pains.  I you will,

"That your Wine shall smell of Musk,"

Take a Glass Vial, and wash it, and fill it with Aqua Vita, and put into it a little Musk.  Stop the mouth close, that it vent not.  Set it in the summer sun two weeks, always stirring the water.  The use is, if you put a drop of this into a gallon of Wine, all the Wine will smell of Musk.  And so for Cinnamon or other spices.  

"Hippocras Wine,"

Take the sweetest Wine, we call it commonly, Mangiaguerra, and into four Vials full of that, pour in two pounds of beaten Sugar, four ounces of Cinnamon , Pepper, and Grains of Paradise, one ounce and a half.  Let them Infuse one day.  Then strain them.  Add in the end in a knot a little Musk, and it will be excellent Wine.  Or to powdered Sugar we put a little Aqua Vita, wherein Cinnamon, Pepper, Grains of Paradise, and musk have been infused, as I said, and is presently provided, for it draws forth the Quintessence.  I shall show how,

" Wine may freeze in Glasses."

Because of the chief thing desired at feasts, is that Wine cold as ice may be drunk, especially in summer.  I will teach you how Wine shall presently, not only grow cold, but freeze, that you cannot drink it but by sucking, and drawing in of your breath.  Put Wine into a Vial, and put a little water to it, that it may turn to ice the sooner.  Then cast snow into a wooden vessel, and strew into it Saltpeter, powdered, or the cleansing of Saltpeter, called vulgarly Salazzo.  Turn the Vial in the snow, and it will congeal by degrees.  Some keep snow all the summer.  Let water boil in Brass kettles, and pour it into great bowls, and set them in the frosty cold air.  It will freeze, and grow harder than snow, and last longer.

Chapter XII

"To make men drunk, and to make them loath Wine."

Now we are come to speak of Wine.  Before we pass from it, I will show you how to make your guests Drunk.  For Drunkenness at feasts, increases mirth.  And then how to keep them safe from Drunkenness, when they are often provoked to drink healths, and to strive who shall drink most.  You may with these fruits,

"Make men drunk."

The fruits of the Arbute, and the Lote tree, being eaten, will make men as though they were Drunk.  Also dates eaten in too great a quantity, cause Drunkenness, and the pain to the head.   Sowbread with Wine, makes a man Drunk.   Amber-greese, or Musk, put in Wine, exasperates Drunkenness.  The filth of a dogs ear mingled with Wine, makes one Drunk, as Albertus says.  But Rhases, out of whom he took it, says, that Wine, wherein the seeds of Ricinus are Infused, if anyone drink it, it will inebriate them.   Camel's froth, drunk with water by a drunken man, will make him mad, as possessed with a Devil.  Let these suffice, for I said in my description of plants.  But on the contrary, these things will,

"Take away Drunkenness."

Because Hemlock, with Wine, is the cause of death by its Venom, it has been invented and found true, that Hemlock is the cause of life to others.   Pliny seems to intimate as much.  Also, Venoms are prepared to drink, some taking Hemlock before, that they may drink, and die.  If a man has drunk too much Wine, that does him hurt, he shall relieve it thus;   Cato bids, that at the beginning and middle of supper, a man should eat four or five tops of raw Coleworts, and it will take off his Drunkenness, and remove the hurt that is comes from Wine, and will make a man as though he had neither eat nor drink.  The Egyptians, before all meat, did eat boiled Coleworts, and so provided themselves for drink.  Many to keep themselves sober, take Colewort seeds first.  The Tibarita, says Simaus, before they drank, fenced themselves by feeding on Coleworts.   Alexis.

Yesterday thou drank'st too much,

And now thy head doth ake:  but such

Distemper fasting cures; then

Eat boil'd Coleworts, drink agen.

There is no means can half so well

As sudden trouble drink dispel.

For that will wonderfully cure:

Eat else Radish, that's as sure.

They were wont in a vessel of Amethyst, to make another remedy for Drunkenness, that they might drink Wine without danger.   Athenaus.  If you would otherwise hinder the Vapors of the Wine, drink it well tempered with water.  For they are soonest drunk that drink strongest Wines.   Africanus says, if you have drunk too much, eat before meat three or four bitter Almonds.  They are drying, and will drink up the moisture, and drive away Drunkenness.   Plutarch relates, that there was a Physician with Drufus, who when he had first eaten five or six bitter Almonds, he always conquered at the Duel of Drunkenness.  The powder Purflex-stone will do as much, if the drinker takes that first.   Theophrastus says it is dangerous, unless he drink abundantly.  So Eudemus drank two and twenty cups, at last into a bath, and did not Vomit.  And Supped, so as if he had drank nothing.  For by its drying quality, it consumes all the moisture.  And being cast into a vessel of new Wine that works, the heat of the Wine is straight allayed.  There are other things prepared by the Ancients, to extinguish Drunkenness, as to eat Lettuce at the end of supper, for they are very cold.  We eat it now first, to procure appetite.  Whence Martial writes,

Why do we first our Lettuce eat?

Our Fathers made it their last meat.

Dioscorides seems to call it Acrepula, because it hinders Drunkenness.   Leeks discusses Drunkenness.  And he that takes Saffron before, shall feel no Drunkenness.  There are also Herbs and flowers, that if you make Garlands of them, they will hinder Drunkenness, as Violets, Roses, and Ivy-berries.  The ashes of the Bill of a Swallow, powdered with Myrrhe, and strewn into the Wine you drink, will keep you secure from being Drunk.   Horus, the King of Assyria, found out this invention.   Pliny.  I have said how Drunkenness may be disposed.  Now I shall show how men shall abstain,

"That love Wine, to refrain it,"

There are many who when they have drank much Wine, that is the worst thing in the world for them, fall sick, and die of it.  Now if you would refrain, and abhor Wine and strong drink, because the Fountain Clitorius is too far off.  Let three or four live Eels, put into the Wine, stay there till they die.  Let one drink of this Wine, who is given to Drunkenness, and he will loath Wine, and always hate it, and will never drink it again.  Or if he do, he will frink but little, and with much Sobriety.  Another way.  Wash a Tortoise with Wine a good while, and give one of that Wine to drink privately, half a cupful every morning for three days, and you shall see a wonderful virtue.   Myrepsus.  When one complained before the King of the Indians, that he had sons born to him, but when once they began to drink a little Wine, they all died.   Jarchus answered him thus.  It is better for them that they died, for had they lived, they would have all run mad, because they were begot of seed that was too cold.  Therefore your children must abstain from Wine, so that they may not so much desire it.  Wherefore if you have any more sons born, observe this rule.  See where an Owl lays her Eggs, and boil her Eggs rare, and give them your child to eat.  For if the child eats them before he drinks Wine, he will always hate it, and live sober, because his natural heat is made more temperate. Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius.   Democritus says, the desire of Wine is abolished, with the watery juice that runs from vines pruned, if you give it a Drunkard to drink, who knows not of it.

Chapter XIII

"How to drive Parasites and Flatterers from great mens tables."

It is an easy matter to drive away from out tables, and great men's tables, all Smell-feast, and Cogging Foisting fellows, and this will make our guests very cheerful and glad, to see such Cormorants and parasites driven away, and derided by all men.  When therefore he sits down at the table,

"That his hands may grow black when he wipes of the Napkin,"

Beat Vitriol and Galls in a Mortar.  Put them in a narrow close sieve, that the powder may come forth very fine.  With this wipe the Napkin, and shake it.  That what sticks not, may fall off.  Then rub it with your hands, till you find that it sticks very fast.  Then wiping and shaking off what stays not within.  When the Parasite has new washed his hands and face, cast to him the towel to wipe himself.  And when it is wet, it will make his hands and face as black as Coal, that will very hardly be washed out with many washings.  Being now washed and wiped,

"That he may not swallow the meat he chews."

And we shall make him feel the more pain, if he be anything dainty.  I find in writing, that if you stick under the table a needle, that has often sowed the winding Sheer of the dead.  And you do this privately before supper, the guests cannot eat, that they will rather loath the meat, than eat it.  But experience proves this to be false and superstitious.   Florentinus says, that Basil is an enemy to women, and that so such, that if it be put under the dish, and the woman knows not of it, she will never put her hand to the dish, before it is taken away.  But this is a most fearful lie.  For a woman and Basil agree so well, that they not only sow and plant them with great diligence in their gardens, hanging in the air.  But they frequently feed on them in meats and Fallers.  I have done it often.  I Infused in a glass of Wine one Drachm of the root of an Herb we call Belladonna, Fair Lady, not bruising it too much.  And after twelve hours, or a little more, pour out this Wine into another cup, and give him that must eat with you, in the morning a cup of it to drink.  Then detain him with you three hours, then call him to your table.  For the morsel he takes in his mouth, he can by no means swallow down, but he must hurt his Chaps, and be in great pain, so that he can hardly drink.  If you would have him eat or drink, let him gargle a great quantity of Milk or Vinegar in his mouth, and he will be as if he had suffered nothing at all.  If we will,

"Drive Parasites from great mens tables."

We can easily do it thus.  If we strew some of the dry roots of Wakerobin on the daintiest meats, like Cinnamon or Pepper, in powder.  When he takes a bite of it, it will so burn his Chaps, and bite his mouth and tongue, and so fetch off the skin of his tongue, that he will so Mump, and draw his Chaps in and out, and gape, and make such sport, that will make people laugh.  And the pain will not abate, until he has anointed his Chaps with butter and Milk.  Moreover, if you cut the leaves of Cuckowpint small, and mingle them with Sallets.  Those that eat of them, will have their mouths and tongues to drivel so much, with thick Spittle, that they cannot eat till they have washed it off.  And it will be as good sport, if you like not your guest.

"That all things the Smell-feast eats, may taste bitter,"

If you rub the edge of the knife, and the Napkin he wipes his mouth with, with the juice of Coloquintida, or flesh of it, and lay it before him.  For when he cuts Bread with the knife, or anything else, and shall touch his lips with the Napkin, it will give him such a filthy and abominable taste, that whatever he touches, tastes, or licks, will have a most horrible Smack with it.  And the more often he wipes his mouth, that he may wipe away this bitter taste, the more will his mouth, palate, and jaws, be tormented, that he will be forced to forsake the table.  We can also delude him so,

"That when he drinks, the cup shall stick to his mouth, that he can hardly pull it off."

Smear the cup's mouth with the Milk of   Figs, and Gum Traganth dissolved in it.  For when they are dry, they will be clear.  But when he drinks, the cup will stick so fast to his lips, that when he is done drinking, he can hardly pull it off.  We shall do thus,

"That flesh may look bloody and full of Worms, and so be rejected."

By Smell-feasts.  Boil Hares blood, and dry it, and powder it.  Cast the powder upon the meats that are boiled, which will melt by the heat and moisture of the meat, that they will seem all bloody, and he will loath and refuse them.  Any man may eat them without any rising of his stomach.  If you cut Harp strings small, and strew them on hot flesh, the heat will twist them, and they will move like Worms.

The End of The Fourteenth Book of Natural Magick

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