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"…The stone Galaetites, in color like milk, if you cast the dust of it upon the back of a goat, she will give milk more plentifully to her young, if you give it a nurse in her drink, it increases her milk…"


Galangal - Galanga. China Root. India Root. East India Catarrh Root. Lesser Galangal. Rhizoma Galangae. Gargaut. Colic Root. Kaempferia Galanga. ---Description---The genus Alpinia was named by Plumier after Prospero Alpino, a famous Italian botanist of the early seventeenth century. The name Galangal is derived from theArabic Khalanjan, perhaps a perversion of a Chinese word meaning 'mild ginger.'

 "…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, …   Ginger, Cloves, Nutmegs, Zedoary, Galangal…"


Galbanum - A gum resin exuding from the stems of certain Asiatic umbelliferous plants, mostly species of Ferula. The Bubon Galbanum of South Africa furnishes an inferior kind of galbanum. It has an acrid, bitter taste, a strong, unpleasant smell, and is used for medical purposes, also in the arts, as in the manufacture of varnish.

"…Yet it does come out but in a small quantity of an excellent odor, and free from the stink of the fire, as thus they deal with Opoponax, Galbanum, Storax and others…"

"… Tarentinus teaches us this for all Fish.  Take of the strong Whale, eight Drachms, yellow Butterfly's, Annis seed, Cheese of Goat milk, of each four Drachms.  Of Opoponax, two Drachms, Hog blood, four, as much Galbanum. .."


"…If you dash the stone Galcophonos, it sounds like brass. Stage-players are wont to wear it, because it makes one have an excellent voice…"


The Greek physician Galen, AD 130-200, did notable work in the field of human anatomy despite being confined to dissecting animals such as pigs, dogs, and goats. He identified numerous muscles for the first time and showed the importance of the spinal cord, noting the resulting paralysis when the cord was cut at different levels. Galen was also the first to consider the pulse a diagnostic aid. His physiological theories include concepts of blood formation, digestion, and nerve function.

"…Galen, in his book concerning the use of parts, writes, that a bitch may conceive by a he-wolf, and so the she-wolf by a dog, and retain each others seed, and ripen it to the bringing forth of both kinds…"

 "… Epicurus would fain give a reason for it, as Galen and Lucretius report.  For, say they, the Atoms that flew out of the iron, and meet in the Loadstone in one figure, so that they easily embrace one the other…"


Galley - A vessel propelled by oars, whether having masts and sails or not; as: (a) A large vessel for war and national purposes; -- common in the Middle Ages, and down to the 17th century. (b) A name given by analogy to the Greek, Roman, and other ancient vessels propelled by oars. (c) A light, open boat used on the Thames by customhouse officers, press gangs, and also for pleasure. (d) One of the small boats carried by a man-of-war.

"…And in seafights was levelled against the enemies's Galleys, and destroyed them all almost…"

"…You shall make your Mines where the enemy Galleys or ships come to ride, you shall upon a plain place fit many beams, or pieces of timber, fastened cross-wise, and thrust through…"


Gall - The gall bladder.

"…Or infuse in Oil the black leaves of the Myrtle tree, with a double quantity of Galls bruised, and use that.  I use this.   Galls are fried in Oil, and they are ground with a little Salt-Ammoniac…"

"…If you will curb soft and loose breasts…powder white earth, the white of an Egg, sour Galls, Mastick, Frankincense, and mingle them in hot Vinegar…"


Gallon - A measure of capacity, containing four quarts; -- used, for the most part, in liquid measure, but sometimes in dry measure.

"…And into five Pecks of Olives, you must put in four Gallons and two Quarts of Brine, and two Pints and a half of Vinegar. .."

"…Shut the hole up with Linen, and to forty Sextarii pour on three Gallons of water. .."


"…A Cock , and a Pea, gender the Gallo-Pavus. Which is otherwise called the Indian-hen, being mixed of a Cock and a Pea (hen), though the shape of it is more like the Pea then the Cock…"  


Ganymede - a beautiful youth in classical mythology carried off to Olympus to be the cupbearer of the gods.

"…The best means to produce this effect, is to place in the bed-chambers of great men, the images of Cupid, Adonis, and Ganymedes, or else to set them there in carved and graven works, in some solid matter, that they may always have them in their eyes…"

Gardens of Hesperides, (The)    

Hesperides - The daughters of Hesperus, or Night (brother of Atlas), and fabled possessors of a garden producing golden apples, in Africa, at the western extremity of the known world. To slay the guarding dragon and get some of these apples was one of the labors of Hercules. The garden producing the golden apples.

"…has   Pontanus set down in his book called, The Gardens of Hesperides…"

Garden Claver  

Claver (Clover) - A plant of differend species of the genus Trifolium; as the common red clover, T. pratense, the white, T. repens, and the hare's foot, T. arvense.

"…Take three pounds of Damask roses, as much of Musk and red Roses, two of the flowers of Orange, as many of Myrtle, half a pound of Garden claver, an ounce and a half of Cloves, three Nutmegs, ten Lilies.  Put all these in an Alimbeck, in the nose of which you must fasten of Musk three parts, of Amber one, of Civet half a one, tied up together in a Clout…"


Garland - A wreath of chaplet made of branches, flowers, or feathers, and sometimes of precious stones, to be worn on the head like a crown; a coronal; a wreath.

"…There are also Herbs and flowers, that if you make Garlands of them, they will hinder Drunkenness, as Violets, Roses, and Ivy-berries. .."


"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"The offensivenes of the breath of him that hath eaten Garlick will leade you by the Nose to the knowledg hereof, and (instead of a description (direct you to the place wher it groweth in Gardens, which kinds are the best and most phisical."

"…So the Herb Arisaron in Egypt, and Wakerobin, and Garlic, bear seeds like a Snake's head, and so Bugloss and Orchanet bear seeds like a Viper's head, and these are good to heal their venomous bitings…"

"…And Columella reports farther, that many do strew straw Grass, and Bay-tree boughs, and heads of Garlic, and Iron nails in the Hen's nests…"


Garner - A granary; a building or place where grain is stored for preservation.

"…Varro says, that you must lay it  (wheat) up in high Garners which have a thorough air on the eastside and on the northside…"

"…Some have their Garners under the ground, as caves, as it is in Cappadocia and Thracia, and others have their Garners in pits and ditches, as it is in the nearer part of Spain…"


"…For Gato says, if you would know whether there be water put into your Wine, make a vessel of Ivy, put your Wine you think is mixed with water, into it…"


Theodorus Gaza

Gaza Teodor (ok. 1400-1480), filozof, od 1440 profesor w Ferrarze i Rzymie. Zwolennik i goracy obronca pism Arystotelesa, przeciwnik Platona i platonizmu. Stal na czele obronców perypatetyckiej filozofii, którzy pragneli oczyscic filozofie Arystotelesa z domieszek chrzescijanskich i zwalczali interpretacje tomistyczna.

"…Theodorus Gaza translates the word 'Rhinobatos' into 'Squatino-raia' in Latin, that is a Skate-ray…."

Geber (Jabir Ibn Haiyan)       

Jabir Ibn Haiyan, known by the name of the alchemist Geber of the Middle Ages, is generally known as the Father of Chemistry. His full name was Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan. He had established himself as one of the leading scientist while he practiced medicine and alchemy in Kufa (in present day Iraq) around 776 C.E. In his early days, he was under the patronage of the Barmaki Vizier during the Abbasid Caliphate of Haroon al-Rashid. Jabir died in Kufa in 803 C.E.

"…  Geber defines it thus, Distillation is the elevation of moist vapors in a proper vessel…"

 "…As I read in Geber and other writers that treat of metals…"


"…For the same quicksilver, whereby the lead was first made a subtle and pure substance, before it contracted that soil and earthiness which makes it so heavy, does still remain in the lead, as Gebrus has observed, …"

Geese \ Goose                 

Goose - Any large web-footen bird of the subfamily Anserinæ, and belonging to Anser, Branta, Chen, and several allied genera.

"…there will certain Worms breed in it, which by little and little become like Ducks , in the head, feet, wings and feathers, and at length grow to be a big as Geese…"

"… Our wise ancestors, says Pliny, who knew the goodness of a Goose liver, taught how by Cramming to make it grow great, also taken forth, it is augmented by sweet Milk. .."


"…  Gellus noct.Attic. relates, that when the Lacedemonians wrote to their generals, that their letters being intercepted by the enemies might not be read, invented this kind of writing.  yet it is referred to Archimedes to be the inventor of it..".


Gem - A precious stone of any kind, as the ruby, emerald, topaz, sapphire, beryl, spinel, etc., especially when cut and polished for ornament; a jewel.

"…There are certain leaves of metal laid under Gems, which being perspicuous, are thereby made paler or deeper, as you will…"

"…Let the plates be of Copper and Silver.  The Saphire color is made with goose feathers.  But the Emerald with Box leaves, holding them somewhat longer over the fire.  And these are the experiments which I have made concerning Gems…"


Gemini - A constellation of the zodiac, containing the two bright stars Castor and Pollux; also, the third sign of the zodiac, which the sun enters about May 20th.

"…When the sun has passed Gemini, (for this must be performed in the heat of summer only) set your form abroad in the  sun…"

Gendred / Gender   

Gender - To beget; to engender.

"…  Theophrastus says, that you may procure Grapes without any stones in them, if you rob the Vine branch of the Pith that is in it, whereof the stones are wont to be Gendred…"


Generation - The act of generating or begetting; procreation, as of animals. Origination by some process, mathematical, chemical, or vital; production; formation; as, the generation of sounds, of gases, of curves, etc. That which is generated or brought forth; progeny; offspiring.

"…How to mingle the Sheep and Goats together, by Generation…" 


Genesis - . The first book of the Old Testament; -- so called by the Greek translators, from its containing the history of the creation of the world and of the human race.

"…Wherefore in Genesis, Noah sent forth a Pigeon which returned.  But the Raven returned not…"


Genitories - The organs of generation; the sexual organs; the private parts.

"…You must get a great root of Brionie, or wild Nep, and with a sharp instrument engrave in it a man or a woman, giving either of them their Genitories…"


"…How to make oil of Ben,----Which is the sweetest oil of all, used by the Genois. take an ounce of Ben, a drachm of Musk, as much Amber, half a drachm of Civit.  Put them in a glass bottle well stopt, and set it in the sun for twenty days, then you may use it…"


Gentian - Any one of a genus (Gentiana) of herbaceous plants with opposite leaves and a tubular four- or five-lobed corolla, usually blue, but sometimes white, yellow, or red.

"…Which a man may use after unclean women.  Take a Drachm of Hartwort and Gentian, two Scruples of Sanders and Lignum Aloes, half a Drachm of Powder of Coral, Spodium, and Hart horn burned…"

"…In the month of July, take three ounces of the seed, stamp it gently, and steep it in two glasses of the best white Wine, with Gentian, Tormentil, white Dittany, Zedoary, and Carline gathered in August…"


Gentile - One of a non-Jewish nation; one neither a Jew nor a Christian; a worshiper of false gods; a heathen.

"…Of the same sort was that fire, God appointed by Moses in the scriptures.  The fire shall always burn upon mine alter, which the priest shall always keep lighted, putting under wood day by day.  Wherefore, the fire was not perpetual in the temples of the gods of the Gentiles…"


Geometrician - . One skilled in geometry; a geometer; a mathematician.

"… For finding the Meridian line, as Ptolomy and other Geometricians teach how, and setting up a point on it, that the Steel Needle may turn freely upon the top of it…"


See:    Castianus

"…But because (say some) Goat blood will break the Diamond, if the Loadstone is anointed with Goat blood, it will recover.   Castianus in Geoponic.Grac…"

Geoponica / Geoponics          

See:   Zoroaster , Didymus

"…Book writtern by Zoroaster …who compiled a book called Geoponica, out of the choice writings of the ancients…"

 "… Zoroaster in his Geoponics says, that sheep killed by wolves, and bitten, their flesh will be more tender, and so the sweeter…"


"…Didymus, in his works called Geoponica, reports, that in certain mountains in India, boars and camels feed together, and so fall to copulation, and gender a Camel…"

Georgics  /  Georgicks        

Georgic - A rural poem; a poetical composition on husbandry, containing rules for cultivating lands, etc.; as, the Georgics of Virgil.

See:   Didymus ,   Florentinus

"…Dydimus in his Georgics says, that if we Graft an Apples into a Citron tree, it will bring forth for the most part continual fruit…"

"…But Florentinus in the eleventh book of his Georgicks, has shown the manner how to Graft the Olive into a Vine, that so it shall bring forth not only bunches or clusters of Grapes, but an Olive fruit also…"


Germander - A plant of the genus Teucrium (esp. Teucrium Chamaedrys or wall germander), mintlike herbs and low shrubs. American germander, Teucrium Canadense. Germander chickweed, Veronica agrestis. Water germander, Teucrium Scordium. Wood germander, Teucrium Scorodonia.

"…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, …, Cinnamon, Staechados, Germander, Granes…"


Konrad von Gesner, b. Mar. 26, 1516, d. Dec. 13, 1565, was a Swiss physician and naturalist best known for his manuscript Bibliotheca Universalis (1545), which contained summaries of all the then-known books in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. He described all the known animals of his era and is believed to be the first scientist to publish illustrations of fossils.

"…Gesner says, that in the islands of Hebrides, the same; Birds are generated of putrified wood…" 


"… The Greeks called these Gigarta.  Gallia Cisalpina makes Oil of them, bruised, heated, and pressed in a press, but it is very little fit for lights, because it burns exceeding clear.  There is much in Egypt,…"

Gilliflower  / Gilli-Flower                       

Gilliflower - A name given by old writers to the clove pink (Dianthus Caryophyllus) but now to the common stock (Matthiola incana), a cruciferous plant with showy and fragrant blossoms, usually purplish, but often pink or white.

"… Then cleave that in the middle which is left growing in the gound, and plant into it a Gilliflower new plucked out of the earth, root and all…"

"…Or else, if you open a little the skin of the seed, and put within it the juice of red Roses, Clove-gilliflowers, and Blackberries that grow upon Brambles, or of any other like thing…"

Gilt / Gilded       

Gild - To overlay with a thin covering of gold; to cover with a golden color; to cause to look like gold. To make more attractive.

"…Put the Gilt plate of Silver into it, and when the Quicksilver sticks to the Gold, take it out and put it into a Charger, into which the Gold, when it is cold, will fall with the Quicksilver…"

"…And first how we may know whether a metal be pure, or mingled with other metals, as Gold and Silver, as in Gilded cups, or else in monies…"


Gilthead - A marine fish. The name is applied to two species: (a) The Pagrus, ? Chrysophrys, auratus, a valuable food fish common in the Mediterranean (so named from its golden-colored head); -- called also giltpoll. (b) The Crenilabrus melops, of the British coasts; -- called also golden maid, conner, sea partridge.

See:  ( Scarus)

"…To catch a Scarus or Gilthead…the Scarus of all fish is the most lascivious.  His insatiable desire of the female is the cause he is taken.  Cunning fishermen that know this…"


Ginger - A plant of the genus Zingiber, of the East and West Indies. The species most known is Z. officinale.

"…And withal put into a bag, that hangs and may be put into the Liquor, and not touch the bottom, of Cinnamon, Granes of Paradise, Pepper, Ginger, Cloves two drams, one handful of Elder flowers…"

"…Awhile after, let her arise, and at night renew the plaster.  But when she goes to sleep, let her hold Ginger in her mouth.  This she must do nine days…"


Ginko - The ginkgo, or maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba, is the only living species of the family Ginkgoaceae, which were Gymnosperms  that thrived 175 to 200 million years ago. It is a medium-sized, deciduous tree, growing up to 36 m (120 ft) in height. Its fan-shaped leaves have two lobes and parallel veins.

Male ginkgo trees bear cones and female trees bear pairs of ovules, or seeds, at the end of each flower stalk; when ripe, the fleshy seeds fall to the ground and emit a strong, unpleasant odor.


Girdle - . That which girds, encircles, or incloses; a circumference; a belt; esp., a belt, sash, or article of dress encircling the body usually at the waist; a cestus.

"… They sent a man that seemed to run from them, with a letter concealed in his Girdle…"


Gith - The corn cockle; also anciently applied to the Nigella, or fennel flower.

"…Also with the decoction of Ivory, one may make the face like Ivory.   Melanthium makes the face beautiful.   Dioscorides.  But it shows its excellency when it is thus prepared.  Pound it, and sift out the finest of it, take the juice of Lemon, and let the meal of Gith lie wet in it twentyfour hours…"

Glans / Glans Unguentaria       

Glans - The acorn or mast of the oak and similar fruits.

See:   Ben, Benjamin, Oil of Ben , Glans Unguentaria, Morobolane

"… Ben, called in latin, Glans Unguentaria, is used in precious ointments instead of oil.   Pliny called it Morobolane.  So also Martial…"

"…Or thus may you restrain that part of common Whores, with Galls, Gums, whites of Eggs, Dragon's blood, Acacia, Plantain, Hypocistis, Balanstia, Mastick, Cypress nuts, Grape skins, Acorn cups.  Or in that hollow part where the Glans breaks forth, and gaping, shows the Nucleus, with Mastick and Terra Lemnia…"


Glass - A hard, brittle, translucent, and commonly transparent substance, white or colored, having a conchoidal fracture, and made by fusing together sand or silica with lime, potash, soda, or lead oxide. It is used for window panes and mirrors, for articles of table and culinary use, for lenses, and various articles of ornament.

 "…First, for the terminating of Looking-glasses, that are made of Crystal and Glass, then of other mixtures, and polishings, that a knowing artificer may know, and know how to make them…"

 "…When this vitrified matter has stood so for two days, some, to make it more fine and bright, lest it should be specked with certain little bubbles (to which Glass is very subject) put into the Crucible some White Lead, which presently grows red, when melts with the Glass and becomes clear and perspicuous…"


"…The most skillful Glassmakers do labor very much, in coloring Smalt of a rose color, which is commonly called Rossiclere…"


Glaze - The vitreous coating of pottery or porcelain; anything used as a coating or color in glazing.

"…Put it into a pot that is Glazed, and cast into it six whites of Eggs, so beaten, that they are turned into water..."

"…Set it in a Glazed vessel close covered, in the Sun. .."

Glew  / Glue    

Glue - A hard brittle brownish gelatin, obtained by boiling to a jelly the skins, hoofs, etc., of animals. When gently heated with water, it becomes viscid and tenaceous, and is used as a cement for uniting substances. The name is also given to other adhesive or viscous substances.

"…He must make weak the Saltpeter, but with some fat substance; which is done by the Glew and Butter of Gold, by mingling them according to a certain and due proportion…"


Glutton - . One who eats voraciously, or to excess; a gormandizer.

"…I shall begin with flesh, and show how it may be made tender, that Gluttons much desire..."

"… Liccorish Gluttons found out the ways to fat Cattle, that they might feed on them more plentifully and daintily…"


"…The the foresaid dainties, namely Thrushes, Udders, Gnatsnappers, and many Eggs poured unto them, Oysters, Scallops, were thrust into his belly at his mouth…"  (see Trogan Hog)


Gnomon - A style or column erected perpendicularly to the horizon, formerly used in astronomocal observations. Its principal use was to find the altitude of the sun by measuring the length of its shadow.

"…the use of the Loadstone upon the Needle, is well known in Sun-dials.  For when the Needle stands still over the line that is made form North to South, we are so directed by it, to know the hours by the shadow falling from the Gnomon…"


Gnosticism was a religious philosophical dualism that professed salvation through secret knowledge, or gnosis. The movement reached a high point of development during the 2d century AD in the Roman and Alexandrian schools founded by Valentius. Scholars have attributed the origins of gnosticism to a number of sources: the Greek mystery cults; Zoroastrianism; the KABBALAH of Judaism; and Egyptian religion. The early Christians considered Simon Magus (Acts 8:9-24) the founder of gnosticism. His doctrine, like that of other gnostic teachers, had nothing in common with the knowledge of the mysteries of God that Saint Paul called wisdom (1 Cor. 2:7).


Goat - A hollow-horned ruminant of the genus Capra, of several species and varieties, esp. the domestic goat (C. hircus), which is raised for its milk, flesh, and skin.

  "…Among four-footed beasts, a Dog, a Goat, a Swine, an Ass, be most lascivious, among birds, Partridge, Quails, Dove, Sparrows…"

"…Aelianus writes, that the keeper of Sheep, and Goats, and Mares, do besmear their hands with Salt and Nitre, and then rub the generative parts of them in the time of their coition, for their more lustful and eager performance of that action…"

Goat's Bane   

Goats Bane - Goat's bane (Bot.), a poisonous plant (Aconitum Lucoctonum), bearing pale yellow flowers, introduced from Switzerland into England; wolfsbane.

See: Bane

"…There is an herb, that from killing beasts, but especially, Goats, is called Aegolethros.  The flowers of it, in a watery springtime, are venom when they wither, so that this mischief is not found every year…"

Goats Rue    

Goat's Rue - Goat's Rue, known in the old Herbals as Herba rutae caprariae, is a leguminous plant that in former times was much employed on account of its diaphoretic properties in malignant fevers and the plague, hence one of its German popular names of Pestilenzkraut.

See:   Rue

"… In April gather Goats Rue.  Dry them in the shade, and make them into powder.  One Drachm of it being drank in Wine, is excellent against infectious diseases…"

Gobbet / Gobbets    

Gobbet - A mouthful; a lump; a small piece.

"…For meat, give them Gobbets of Barlymeal, made up with water…"

"…To these you may add Oil, and make Gobbets of them, and give them to eat to the full, and they will grow fat a longest in sixty days. .." 


God - . The Supreme Being; the eternal and infinite Spirit, the Creator, and the Sovereign of the universe; Allah.

"…We must know that all grains that grow within the ear or husk, are not prolific, that is, they are not all fit to yield increase.  For God has appointed some of them of them for the food and sustenance of living creatures, and others for feed…"

"…So wonderful is God in all his works..."


Gold - A metallic element, constituting the most precious metal used as a common commercial medium of exchange. It has a characteristic yellow colour, is one of the heaviest substances known (specific gravity 19.32), is soft, and very malleable and ductile. It is quite unalterable by heat, moisture, and most corrosive agents, and therefore well suited for its use in coin and jewelry. Symbol Au (Aurum). Atomic weight 196.7.

"…That is called a Parabolical Section, that more forcibly farther off and in shorter time, will set matter on fire.  That is opposite to it.  It will melt Lead and Tin.  My friends related to me, that Gold and Silver also…"

"…There is a well where the Cicones inhabit, that turns into stones all that touches it, or drinks of it. Crathis and Sybaris make hair show like Amber and Gold, the water of Salmax, and the Ethiopian lakes, make them mad or in a trance that drink of it…"


Goldsmith - . An artisan who manufactures vessels and ornaments, etc., of gold.

"… Then take artificial Chrysocolla, such as Goldsmiths use to Soder with, and red Arsenic, and by degrees strew them in…"

"…Such as Goldsmiths use.  To every pot allow two roles of Sal Soda, and some sand, of which Glass is made, and it will be much more perfect…"

Gold Litharge   

Litharge - Lead monoxide; a yellowish red substance, obtained as an amorphous powder, or crystallized in fine scales, by heating lead moderately in a current of air or by calcining lead nitrate or carbonate. It is used in making flint glass, in glazing earthenware, in making red lead minium, etc. Called also massicot.

See:  Litharge

"…Also of Vinegar and Gold Litharge, there is made a Decoction very good to dye the hair yellow as Gold…"


Gooseberry - Any thorny shrub of the genus Ribes; also, the edible berries of such shrub. There are several species, of which Ribes Grossularia is the one commonly cultivated.

 "…Birds are not to be eaten when the Gooseberries are ripe.  For their feathers will grow black thereby, and men that eat them, fall into scowrings.  Dioscorides…"


Gourd - A fleshy, three-celled, many-seeded fruit, as the melon, pumpkin, cucumber, etc., of the order Cucurbitaceæ; and especially the bottle gourd (Lagenaria vulgaris) which occurs in a great variety of forms, and, when the interior part is removed, serves for bottles, dippers, cups, and other dishes.

"…If they be used after the like manner, namely, if you set them in hampers or earthen vessels, and carefully look unto them, and use them as you would use Gourds and Cucumbers, to make them ripe before their ordinary season…"

"…One should take the seed out of the middle of the Gourd, and set it with the top downward.  This course Columella prescribes, in his Hortulus…"


Gout - A constitutional disease, occurring by paroxysms. It constists in an inflammation of the fibrous and ligamentous parts of the joints, and almost always attacks first the great toe, next the smaller joints, after which, it may attack the greater articulations. It is attended with various sympathettic phenomena, particularly in the digestive organs.

"… Oil of Herns is excellent to allay and remove all cold aches.  The Gout, Sciatica, Griefs of the sinews, Convulsions, pain in the joints, cold Defluctions, and other diseases of moisture and cold…"

"…The virtues of TobaccoOut of the seeds of it is expressed an Oil, three ounces of a pound, which allays the cruel tortures of the Gout…."


Marcus Gracchus - "Marcus Graecus"

"…I shall speak of diverse compositons for fire to be used for diverse uses.  But men say M. Gracchus was the author of this invention.   "To make a fiery composition, that the Sun may kindle…."


Grain - The unit of the English system of weights; -- so called because considered equal to the average of grains taken from the middle of the ears of wheat. 7,000 grains constitute the pound avoirdupois, and 5,760 grains the pound troy. A grain is equal to .0648 gram.

"…  Brass in the air weighs 65 Carats, and one Grain, in the waters 50 Carats and two Grains…."

"…And in the mean while they chew four Grains of Mastick in their mouths, and they spit the clammy Spittle out of their mouths into the Mortar, until  it is white…"


Graft - To insert (a graft) in a branch or stem of another tree; to propagate by insertion in another stock; also, to insert a graft upon.

See:   Engraffing

"… For these likewise degenerate, as the same Theophrastus reports to have seen in Antandrus, for the Myrtle is not sown by seed, but planted by a Grafting.."

"…This is to be done by a kind of Grafting which they call Emplastering…"

Grains of Paradise       

See: Cardamom, Granes of Paradise

"… Hippocras Wine…Take the sweetest wine, we call it commonly, Mangiaguerra, and into four vials full of that, pour in two pounds of beaten sugar, four ounces of Cinnamon , Pepper, and Grains of Paradise, one ounce and a half.  Let them infuse one day. …"

"…You shall draw out a water from the seeds of Cardamom, (which Apothecaries call Grains of Paradise) Cubebs, Indian Cloves, raspings of Brasil and Spirit of Wine distilled…"


Saxo Grammaticus - "ancient Cosmographer." Saxo Grammaticus (1150?-1220?), most famous of early Danish chroniclers; his 'Gesta Danorum' gives history of Denmark from early heathen times to 1185; first part largely taken from old songs, runic inscriptions and tradition.

 "…Munster says, there are certain trees which bring forth a fruit covered over with leaves, which, if it fall into the water under it, at the right season, it lives, and becomes a quick bird, which is called Avis arborea. Neither is this any new tale, for the ancient Cosmographers, especially Saxo Grammaticus, mentions the same tree…"


Grample - A crab-fish.

See:   Fish

"…Fishermen catch Grampels by music. .."


Grape - A well-known edible berry growing in pendent clusters or bunches on the grapevine. The berries are smooth-skinned, have a juicy pulp, and are cultivated in great quantities for table use and for making wine and raisins.

"…A Grape that has a kernel or stone half black, and diversely colored…"

"… Columella teaches us to do this thing on this manner.  There is, says he, a kind of Grafting, whereby such kind of Grapes are produced, as have stones of divers kinds, and sundry colors, which is to be done by this means…"


"…Gratius writes of this kind of dog, thus generated of a bitch and a tygre…"

Granes of Paradise        

See:   Grains of Paradise

"…And withal put into a bag, that hangs and may be put into the Liquor, and not touch the bottom, of Cinnamon, Granes of Paradise, Pepper, Ginger, Cloves two drams, one handful of Elder flowers…"

"…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, …, Cinnamon, Staechados, Germander, Granes…"


Grass - An endogenous plant having simple leaves, a stem generally jointed and tubular, the husks or glumes in pairs, and the seed single.

"…a cunning Husbandman plants an old Grass into a young stock…"

"…The roots of old Grass, and Raisins, and the leaves of a wild Pear tree bruised, and the root of the Bramble, and Whey of Milk, burnt Acorns, Prunes roasted, and the decoctions of Chinches, and pot shards red hot, all of these put severally into   Vinegar, will make it tart…"


Grasshopper - Any jumping, orthopterous insect, of the families Acrididæ and Locustidæ. The species and genera are very numerous.

"…Others cast in a Locust.  Others a Grasshopper.  And if they swim, it is pure Wine.  But if they sink, it is mingled with water…"


Graver - An ergraving or cutting tool; a burin.

"…Make your Graver of the best steel, let it be red hot in the fire, till it be red or rose colored…"


Gravity - The tendency of a mass of matter toward a center of attraction; esp., the tendency of a body toward the center of the earth; terrestrial gravitation.

"… For should the Wine descend, either Vacuum ust needs be in the body A, or a heavy body must ascend out of the vessel C D, which would be against the nature of Gravity…"

"…I can do this another way, not by Levity and Gravity, as I said, but by thinness and thickness..."


Grease - . Animal fat, as tallow or lard, especially when in a soft state; oily or unctuous matter of any kind.

"….When you kill the Goose, take out the liver quickly and cast it into cold water, that it may be solid.  Then fry it in Goose Grease, in a frying pan, and season it with spices.…"

"… Bruise Marsh-Mallow roots with Hog Grease, and let them boil long in Wine. .."

Greek Fire   

"…A Fire, called the Greek Fire…"

Greek Wine                   

See:   Wine

"…Take strong rich wine growing in dry places, as on Viseuvius, commonly called Greek Wine, or the tears or first running of the Grape…"

"… Pour into a large glass very old wine or Greek Wine, and cast a handful of Salt into it…"


Greyhound - A slender, graceful breed of dogs, remarkable for keen sight and swiftness. It is one of the oldest varieties known, and is figured on the Egyptian monuments.

"…we must make a medley of sundry kinds of Dogs together; as a Mastive and a Greyhound gender a swift, and withall a strong Dog, as Aristotle writes…"


Grief - . Pain of mind on account of something in the past; mental suffering arising from any cause, as misfortune, loss of friends, misconduct of one's self or others, etc.; sorrow; sadness.

"… Oil of Herns is excellent to allay and remove all cold aches.  The Gout, Sciatica, Griefs of the sinews, Convulsions, pain in the joints, cold Defluctions, and other diseases of moisture and cold…"


Grindstone - A flat, circular stone, revolving on an axle, for grinding or sharpening tools, or shaping or smoothing objects.

"…When this work is to be done, the hammer and Anvil must be as smooth and polished, and bright, as a Looking-glass which you may effect in this manner.  First of all, hold them to the Grindstone, where they grind knives, until they are smoothed and planed…"


Groundling - A fish that keeps at the bottom of the water, as the loach.

"…. Athenaus says, this fish is consecrated to Venus, because she also comes of the froth of the sea, whence she is called Aphrodite.  Aelianus says, these fish neither do beget, nor are begotten, but only come of the mud. For when dirt is clotted together in the sea, it waxes very black and filmy, and then receives heat and life after a wonderful manner, and so is changed into very many living creatures, and namely into Groundlings …."

"…Because the Julides are a bait almost for all fish, or your Groundlings or little Sea-squils, therefore they are part of all baits…"


Guado - A genus of herbs, some species of which, especially the Isatis tinctoria, yield a blue dye similar to indigo; woad.

See: Isatis

"… But the Ancients dyed their bodies of diverse colors.  Partly, for ornament, partly, for terror.  As Ceasar writes of the Britans going to war.  For they pained themselves with wood.   Theophrastus calls it Isatis, and we call it Guado…"


Guaiacum:  The heart wood or the resin of the Guaiacum offinale or lignum-vitae, a large tree of the West Indies and Central America.

See: Lingnum Guaiacum

"…Or make a lye of oak ashes, put in the quantity of a Bean of Rhubarb, as much as Tobacco, a handful of barley straw and Feny-Graec.  Shells of oranges, the raspings of Guaiacum, a good deal of wild Saffron and Liquorish…"

"…a handful of Sowthistle, Scordium, Betony, Scabious, and a half of Mercury precipitate.  A pint of Malmetry, a quart of the waters of Sowthistle, and Scabious.  Mix the Wine and waters, and lay the Guaiacum in it a day, and then the rest…"  ("A preservation against the Pox,")


"…The Gullie-gut, when he is full of meat, he pitches himself between two trees, so to force out excrements…"


Gunpowder - A black, granular, explosive substance, consisting of an intimate mechanical mixture of niter, charcoal, and sulphur. It is used in gunnery and blasting. &hand; Gunpowder consists of from 70 to 80 per cent of niter, with 10 to 15 per cent of each of the other ingredients. Its explosive energy is due to the fact that it contains the necessary amount of oxygen for its own combustion, and liberates gases (chiefly nitrogen and carbon dioxide), which occupy a thousand or fifteen hundred times more space than the powder which generated them.

"…Yet I have seen water cast upon Quicklime, and by putting Brimstone to it, it took fire, and fired Gunpowder. .."

"…Some place a Lanthorn upon it, that it may show like a comet.  Others put a cracker of paper, wherein Gunpowder is rolled, and when it is in the air…"


Gum - A vegetable secretion of many trees or plants that hardens when it exudes, but is soluble in water; as, gum arabic; gum tragacanth; the gum of the cherry tree. Also, with less propriety, exudations that are not soluble in water; as, gum copal and gum sandarac, which are really resins.

 "…For there are many tenuous, oily flowers, as of Rosemary and Juniper, and other things, as Musk, Amber, Civet, Gum and suchlike out of which may be drawn oils very sweet and medicinable…"

"…Is to be made by putting Benjamin into a glass retort, and fitting it to the furnace.  Then increase the fire without any fear of combustion, and you will obtain a fragent oil, to be used in precious ointments.  So Oil of Storax, Calamite, and Labdanum, and other Gums…"

Gum Arabick           

Gum arabic - a gum yielded mostly by several species of Acacia (chiefly A. vera and A. Arabica) growing in Africa and Southern Asia; -- called also gum acacia.

See:   Gum

"…Dissolve Gum Arabick in water, or Gum Traganth, that it may be clear, and when it is well dissolved, it will not foul the crystal, if you write upon it, or upon a cup or glass, for when the letters are dry, they are invisible…"

"…Others Bray one ounce of Gum Arabick, and being well passed through a sieve, they mingle it with the decoction of Honey…"

Gum Traganth  / Gum Tragacanth                   

See:   Gum

Gum Tragacanth. Syrian Tragacanth. Gum Dragon (known in commerce as Syrian Tragacanth). ---Description---The plant is a small branching thorny shrub, the stem of which exudes a gum, vertical slits giving flat ribbon-shaped pieces and punctures giving tears; these have a horny appearance, are nearly colourless or faintly yellow, marked with numerous concentric ridges; the flakes break with a short fracture, are odourless and nearly tasteless; soaked in cold water, they swell and form a gelatinous mass 8 or 10 per cent only dissolving.

"…Dissolve Gum Arabick in water, or Gum Traganth, that it may be clear, and when it is well dissolved, it will not foul the crystal, if you write upon it, or upon a cup or glass, for when the letters are dry, they are invisible…"

"…Smear the cup's mouth with the milk of   Figs, and Gum Traganth dissolved in it.  For when they are dry, they will be clear.  But when he drinks, the cup will stick so fast to his lips, that when he is done drinking, he can hardly pull it off…"


Gun - A weapon which throws or propels a missile to a distance; any firearm or instrument for throwing projectiles by the explosion of gunpowder, consisting of a tube or barrel closed at one end, in which the projectile is placed, with an explosive charge behind, which is ignited by various means. Muskets, rifles, carbines, and fowling pieces are smaller guns, for hand use, and are called small arms. Larger guns are called cannon, ordnance, fieldpieces, carronades, howitzers, etc.

"…Some there are also that compass in the Rocket. with Brass or Iron Guns, and at the open passage of the Rocket, they put in Gunpowder. .."

"…It was full of Fireballs, stones, and other matters, and put into a Gun, and bound to the lower part of the crossyard of a ship, which was transported every way with cords, as the soldiers would have it…"


Gunstick - A stick to ram down the charge of a musket, etc.; a rammer or ramrod.

See:   Rammer

 "…It is thus:  Wrap a paper three or four times about the Rammer that is put into the hollow mouth of the Gun, and drawing out the Gunstick…"


Gut - . An intenstine; a bowel; the whole alimentary canal; the enteron; (pl.) bowels; entrails. One of the prepared entrails of an animal, esp. of a sheep, used for various purposes.

"… Put a Capon well pulled, and his Guts taken out, into a Silver dish, and fill the one half of him with Broth, and put him into an oven…"

"…put a piece of Steel into the fire, put this into a Chicken that is pulled and his Guts taken forth, and cover him well with cloths, that the heat breath not out…"


Gymnosophist - One of a sect of philosophers, said to have been found in India by Alexander the Great, who went almost naked, denied themselves the use of flesh, renounced bodily pleasures, and employed themselves in the contemplation of nature.

"…as Diogenes writes; "the Indians call them Brackmans ( Brahmans), in their own tongue; but in Greek they call them Gymnosophists, as much to say as naked philosophers;" The Babylonians and Assyrians call them Chaldeans, of Chaldea a country in Asia…"

"…But we find that the greatest part of those who were best seen into the nature of things, were excellent Magicians: as, amongst the Persians, Zoroastres the son of Orimafius, whom we spoke of before, amongst the Romans, Numa Pompilius; Thespion, amongst the Gymnosophists; Zamolxis…"

 Gyp /  Gypsum  / Gip                  

Gyp - Gypsum, a hydrated calcium Sulfate Mineral, is used as a raw material in plaster of Paris, as fertilizer, as an ornamental stone (alabaster and satin spar), and as optical material (selenite). Common gypsum is found as prismatic, curved, or twisting monoclinic crystals of vitreous luster and as earthy, foliated, or granular masses; alabaster as fine-grained masses; selenite as colorless, transparent crystals or foliated masses; and satin spar as pearly, fibrous masses. Gypsum is soft (hardness 2), clear, white, or tinted, and has a specific gravity of 2.3 and perfect cleavage in one direction. It occurs with halite and other evaporite minerals in extensive beds, often alternating with limestone and shale, deposited in seas or playa lakes.

"…but put under the fire for ashes, Gip Calcined, and wet with water.  For without Gip, when you hammer it, it will swell into bubbles, and will fly and come to be dross and refuse…"

"…The stone Selenites, (as much as to say the moonbeam) called by others Aphroselinon, contains in it the image of the moon, and shows waxing and waning of it every day in the same image…" 

"…To polish plain glasses…they fasten it upon a plain table with Gyp…"


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