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Fable - a short story which tells a general truth or is only partly based on fact, or literature of this type.

"…The Poets, and the ancient devisors of Fables, do speak much of that, Hydra Lernaea which was one of Hercules labors to overcome…"


Faeces - Refuse.

"…The Dregs and Faeces of of the Wine must be buried again, and the Spirits be Distilled out as before, and reserved by themselves…"

Fair Lady   

 See:  Deadly Nightshade, Belladonna, Hypnoticon, Solanum Manicon, Stramonium

"…I have done it often.  I infused in a glass of wine one drachm of the root of an herb we call Belladonna, Fair Lady, not bruising it too much…"


Falcon - A hawk; but appropriately, a hawk trained to sport, as in falconry, which see. It is said that this name is, by sportsmen, given to the female alone; for the male is smaller, weaker and less courageous, and is therefore called tircelet or tarsel.  This term, in ornithology, is applied to a division of the genus Falco, with a short hooked beak and very long wings, the strongest armed and most courageous species, and therefore used in falconry.

"…For Hawks do not only couple with their own kind, but with Falcons, Buzzards, and Eagles of diverse kinds, as also with most of those fowls that live upon the prey and spoil of other birds, and according to the diversity of those kinds , diverse kinds of Hawks are generated…"

"…The Falcon, Seagull, the Turtle, the Blackbird, the Vulture, the Nightbird, called Scopes, perish with Pomegranate kernels…"


"…For a woman and Basel agree so well, that they not only sow and plant them with great diligence in their gardens, hanging in the air.  But they frequently feed on them in meats and Fallers…"

Falling Sickness  


 "…For deafness, you must steep some Wool in it, and stop the ears with it.  Anoint the belly and back in any pain there.  Being drunk in Vinegar, it cures the Falling Sickness, and restores lost memory…"


"…  Macrobius reports, 3. Lib. Satur., that Cincius in his oration, where he persuades to put the practise Fannius his law, concerning moderation of expense, did object to the men of his age, that they brought the Trojan Hog to their tables…"


Fardel - Male cumberbun or girdle.

"…I being now old, and trussing up my fardel…"

Faries Ointment  

"…A certain Frenchman in his book called Daemonomania ( terms me a Magician, a Conjurer, and thinks this book of mine, long since printed, should be burned, because I have written of the Fairies Ointment…"


Fascination - The act of fascinating, bewhiching, or enchanting; enchantment; witchcraft; the exercise of a powerful or irresistible influence on the affections or passions; unseen, inexplicable influence.

 "…But that all things may be more distinctly explained, you must know first, that there are two kind of Fascinations mentioned by the authors.  One of love, the other of envy or malice…"

"…But if it be a Fascination of envy or malice, that has infected any person, it is very dangerous, and is found most often in old women…"


Fast - To abstain from food; to omit to take nourishment in whole or in part; to go hungry.

"…The Olive, Wild Olive, Tares, Corn in Straw, Grass, and they are all the better sprinkled in Brine, but he more effectual they will be if she Fast three days before…"


 "… Favorinus the Philosopher, the greatest searcher out of Antiquities, have written affirmatively, that the frame of a Pigeon made of wood, was formed by Archytas, by some art, and made to fly.  It was so balanced in the air by weights, and moved by an aerial Spirit within it…"


"…We shall speak of Fawkning, that most men, and especially great men, delight in.  If you will catch living creatures, they are taken by force, or by craft.  They are taken by craft and killed.  But how that may be done, shall be taught in Philosophy, that shows the Nature and manners of living creatures. .."


Feather - . One of the peculiar dermal appendages, of several kinds, belonging to birds, as contour feathers, quills, and down.

"… Also, Soot is tempered for this purpose  ( to dye the eyebrows black), with the smoke of paper, and Oil of Sesama.  The Soot being wiped off of a new vessel with a Feather…"

"…After ten days, take off the covering of the vessel, that you stopped it with.  Strike down the Ceruse that is in it with a Feather, and scrape it off…"


"… Vulnerary potions…Take Pirole, Comfrey, Aristolochy, Featherfew of each a handful.  Of Agrimony two.  Boil them in the best new Wine.  Digest them in Horse Dung…"


Feces - Dregs; lees; sediment; the matter which subsides in casks of liquor. Excrement.

See:   Foeces

"…For Wine that is pure and sincere is thin, but new Wine at first is thick, seculent, gross, clammy, because the Feces are not yet sunk down…"

"…Also more, that when the lightest part of the Wine is ascended, the heavy Feces remain, as water, or as part of the

Fecund / Fecundate   

Fecund - Fruitful in children; prolific.

 "…Also, a Dog will follow you if you have a Fecundate of a Bitch close in a bag with you, and let him smell to it…"

"…If you have a Bitches's Fecund membrane, or a Hare's hairs, or Dung, or Vervain, about you…"

Fennel / Fenel                                

"", Culpeper, Nicholas, 1616-1654. --"The common Sow-Fennel hath divers branched Stalks of thick and somwhat long Leavs, three for the most part joyned together at a place, among which riseth a crested strait Stalk, less than Fennel with some Joynts theron, and Leavs growing thereat, and toward the top some Branches issuing from thence, likewise on the tops of the Stalk and Branches stand divers tufts of yellow Flowers, where after grow somwhat flat, thin, and yellowish Seed bigger than Fennel Seed: The Root groweth great and deep with many other parts and Fibres about them, of a strong scent like hot Brimstone and yielding forth a yellowish Milk, or clammy Juyce almost like Gum."

"…If you plat some dry Fennel above them ( Cervises ), to keep them under, that still the Liquor may overflow them…"

"…Serpents have caused Fennel to be very famous, for as soon as they taste of it, they become young again, and with the juice thereof repair their sight, whence it is observed, that the same is good to repair a mans sight that is dim…"

Feny-Graec  / Feny-Greek (Fenugreek)       

Fenugreek - The name comes from Foenum-graecum, meaning Greek Hay, the plant being used to scent inferior hay. The name of the genus, Trigonella, is derived from the old Greek name, denoting 'three-angled,' from the form of its corolla. The seeds of Fenugreek have been used medicinally all through the ages and were held in high repute among the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans for medicinal and culinary purposes.

"…Thus, put Barley straw into an earthen pot with a great mouth, Feny-Graec. and wild Cumin, mingle between them, Quicklime and Tobacco, made into powder…"

"…Then same may be done with Bean meal and Feny-Greek, smeared on with Honey…" ("Rub off the wan color of your cheeks…")


Ferment - That which causes fermentation, as yeast, barm, or fermenting beer.

"… Ferment it in Dung for five days, and it will yield you the scent, color and virtues of the Herbs in perfection.  A way to extract…"

"… Take Saltpeter, three ounces, Oil of bitter Almonds, two pounds, of Squils, half a pound.  One Lemon without the Pills.  Mingle them, and let them Ferment three days…"


Fern - A plant of several species constituting the tribe or family of Filices, which have their fructification on the back of the fronds or leaves, or in which the flowers are borne on footstalks which overtop the leaves. The stem is the common footstalk or rather the middle rib of the leaves, so that most ferns want the stem altogether. The ferns constitute the first order of cryptogams, in the sexual system.

"…There is likewise a wonderful enmity between Cane and Fern.  So that one destroys the other.  Hence it is that a Fern root pounded, does loose and shake out the Darts from a wounded body, that were shot or cast out of Canes…" 


Ferula:  A genus of umbelliferous plants, including ferula asafoetida, that yields pungent oils and resins used formerly as carminatives and now as cat and dog repellents. A related plant, f. Galbanum, is used similarly. F. Foetida is used as a fresh vegetable.

See:  Sagapenum

"…But in the concave part of this dart there was glue and fuel, for fire not to be extinguished, of Colophonia, Brimstone, and Saltpeter, all mingled with Oil of Bays.  Others say, with Oil of Peter, Duck's grease, and pith of the reed of Ferula, Brimstone, and as others think, with Oil, Tallow, Colophonia, Camphire, Rosin, Tow…"

"… Theophrastus writes that some are excellent against the bitings of Vipers, with Harps, Flutes, or other instruments, which instruments might be made of Juniper, Ash, Bays, the Stag's bones, Ferula, Elder, Vine-tree, and such like many more…"


Festus - (Sextus Pompeius Festus), fl. at some time between A.D. 100 and 400, Roman lexicographer. His surviving work, On the Meaning of Words, an abridgment of the lost glossary of Marcus Verrius Flaccus, is important as a primary source for Roman scholarship and antiquities.

"…And the open passages are to carry the sound form the place whence it comes.   Hares therefore have long ears standing up high.   Pollux.  But Festus calls the Hare, Auritum, because of its great ears, and quickness of hearing…"


"…And when he found much tares growing in the wheat, but very little in the barley, he put the same experiment in other grain practice, and at last found in Pulse a hard and round Fetch, and moreover, that the herb Axesceed did grow among Pulse , by a kind of degeneration of the Pulse into Axesceed…"  


"…Ficinus reports, and he had it out of Albertus, that there is a certain bird, much like a blackbird, which is generated of the putrefaction of Sage, which receives her life and quickening from the general life of the whole world…"

"…  Marsilius Ficinus says, it  ( Gold) is of a solid substance, and therefore must be Attenuated, that it may penetrate the body.  But he is ignorant of the way of it.  Only, he advises to give it in Cordial waters, being beaten out of thin leaves…"


Fiddle - A stringed instrument of music; a violin.

"…And then they are Kembed so often, till they become white, pure, nervous, as Fiddle or Harp strings…"

"…If Fiddle strings be made of Serpents, especially of Vipers, for being put on a Harp and played on, if women with child be present, they suffer Abortion, and Vipers are wont to do as much by meeting them, as many write…"


Fig - The fruit of the fig tree, which is of a round or oblong shape, and a dark purplish color, with a pulp of a sweet taste. But the varieties are numerous; some being blue, others red, and others of a dark brown color.

"…If it be Engraffed into a white Poplar tree.  For this will alter the color of the fruit.  But Palladius procures this effect by another means.  Not by Engraffing the Mulberry into a white Poplar, but into the Fig tree…"

"…Smear the cup's mouth with the milk of   Figs, and Gum Traganth dissolved in it.  For when they are dry, they will be clear.  But when he drinks, the cup will stick so fast to his lips, that when he is done drinking, he can hardly pull it off…"

"…  Indian Figs, which stain the hands like ripe Mulberries, if they are eaten, cause the Urine to be like blood…"

Filberd / Filbert     

Filbert - The fruit of the Corylus or hazel; an egg shaped nut, containing a kernel, that has a mild, farinaceous, oily taste, which is agreeable to the palate. The oil is said to be little inferior to the oil of almonds.

"… Filberds may be preserved within the ground…"

"…And when the Fennel has come up, cleave it, and within the Pith of it put your Filberd  without any shell upon it, and so cover it all over with earth…"


Filler - One who, or that which, fills; something used for filling.

"… and wrap about three or four times with Fillers, all the parts that are to be roasted and fried, strewing upon the one Pepper, and the Fillets must be made wet in Parsley, Saffron, Mint, Fennel, and sweet Wine, or with water and Salt, or broth, for the roasted parts, for the fried parts with Oil..."


Fillet - A piece of lean meat without bone; sometimes, a long strip rolled together and tied. &hand; A fillet of beef is the under side of the sirlom; also called tenderloin. A fillet of veal or mutton is the fleshy part of the thigh. A fillet of fish is a slice of flat fish without bone.

"… and wrap about three or four times with Fillers, all the parts that are to be roasted and fried, strewing upon the one Pepper, and the Fillets must be made wet in Parsley, Saffron, Mint, Fennel, and sweet Wine, or with water and Salt, or broth, for the roasted parts, for the fried parts with Oil..."


Filtration - The act or process of filtering; defecation by passing liquors through woolen cloth, brown paper, or other porous substance, as certain kinds of stone, which permit the liquor to pass, but retain the foreign matter.

"…  Geber defines it thus, Distillation is the elevation of moist vapors in a proper vessel.  But we will declare the true definition of it elsewhere.  He makes three sorts of it, by Ascent, by Descent, and by Filtration…"

Finus Versus   

"…Wherefore being to make a glass of a Parabolical Section, about the neck of the section, where the greatest crookedness of the Parabolical Section is made, and that may burn from its supersicies, to twenty foot distance.  Let the line A B be the Finus Versus  eighteen foot long…"

Fir Tree        

Fir - The name of several species of the genus Pinus; as the Scotch fir, the silver fir, spruce fir, hemlock fir, and oriental fir.

"…In like manner, may plants be generated of the putrified barks and boughs of old trees.  For so is, Polypody, and the herb Hyphear generated; for both these, and diverse other plants also do grow up in the Fir trees and Pine trees, and such other…"

"…Some take certain cases that are pitched all within, and when they have strewn them with the dust or dry powder of the Pitch tree, or the Fir tree, or the Black Poplar tree, or else with the dry flower of Millet, then they put in thier Grapes .  And so they last long…"


Fireball - A grenade; a ball filled with powder or other combustibles, intended to be thrown among enemies, and to injure by explosion.

"… This by a continual sending forth of Fireballs and leaden Bullets, an by the shooting off of Iron Guns, will strike through the faces of those that stand by…"

"…It is made of Turpentine, Rosin, liquid Pitch, Vernish, Frankincense and Camphire, equal parts; quick Brimstone a third part and half; two parts of Saltpeter refined, three parts of Aqua Fortis, as much of Oil of Peter and Gunpowder .  Pound them together, and make Fireballs…"


Firebrand - A piece of burning wood.

"…Let a man eat Sugar Candy, for as he breaks it with his teeth, sparkles will seem to fly out of his mouth, as if one should rub a Firebrand…"


"… Ammianus Marcellinus described Firedarts, a kind of weapon made after such a fashion.  It is an arrow of cane, joined with many irons between the shaft and the head, and they are make hollow after the fashion of a womans distaff…"


Firestick - A lighted stick or brand.

"…Then bruise Myrrh, and mingle it with the white of an Egg, and burn it on hot Firesticks, or red hot tiles, and receive the fume by a Tunnel…"


Firestone - A fossil, the pyrite. A kind of freestone which bears a high degree of heat.

See Saltpeter

"…The Marchasite or Fire-stone, the Lees of wine, that kind of Salt which is found in Africa under the sand, when the Moon is full, which is commonly called by the name of Al-hali, Saltpeter, and lastly Alome…"

"…Then take a little Verdigrease, Tin calcined, and of the Firestone, powder all these with Sal Gemma, and common salt, and Salt Ammoniac.  Distill them, and pour the distilled liquor again upon the foeces, and distill it again, and do it again the third time. .."


Fireworks - Preparations of gun-powder, sulphur and other inflammable materials, used for making explosions in the air, on occasions of public rejoicing; pyrotechnical exhibitions. This word is applied also to various combustible preparations used in war.

"…I have shown you terrible and monstrous Fireworks…"


Firkin - A varying measure of capacity, usually being the fourth part of a barrel; specifically, a measure equal to nine imperial gallons. A small wooden vessel or cask of indeterminate size, used for butter, lard, etc.

"… Put it into a Brass Cauldron and boil it, pouring in for every pound of Soda, a Firkin of water. .."


"…Which does quicken the virtue of it,that is, its own Salt, being dissolved and Macerated in Balneo, or in Fimo, for a month…"

"…Wherefore, it this seems too violent, take nine pounds of the former Salts, being dissolved in water, and two ounces of Sal Ammoniacum.  When they are melted, set them two days in Fimo, and with hot ashes you may distil a water that will corrode Gold…"


Fish - An animal that lives in water. Fish is a general name for a class of animals subsisting in water, which were distributed by Linne into six orders. They breathe by means of gills, swim by the aid of fins, and are oviparous. Some of them have the skeleton bony, and others cartilaginous. Most of the former have the opening of the gills closed by a peculiar covering, called the gill-lid; many of the latter have no gill-lid, and are hence said to breathe through apertures. Cetaceous animals, as the whale and dolphin, are, in popular language, called fishes, and have been so classed by some naturalists; but they breathe by lungs, and are viviparous, like quadrupeds. The term fish has been also extended to other aquatic animals, such as shell-fish, lobsters, &c

"… Pliny reports, that in Paphlagonia, they dig out of deep ditches, certain earthly Fishes very good to be eaten…"

"…At Rome, I saw a Fish that was drenched in the water Distilled out of the Vine…"

Fishermen /  Fisherman          

Fisherman - One whose occupation is to catch fish.

"…Wherefore the Fisherman wets his paste in Goat blood, and casts it into that part of the sea where they haunt.

"…Wherefore Fishermen, let down an Olive bough into the sea, where Polypi use to be…"


Fishwife - A woman that cries fish for sale.

"…And Fishwives are insatiably lecherous, and always full of children.  Hence the poets assigned Venus to be born of Salt or the sea…"

Fistulula  / Fistula  

Fistula - A surgery, a deep, narrow and callous ulcer, generally arising from abscesses. It differs from a sinus, in being callous.

"…In inflammations, blood-shots and Fistulula's…"


Fix - To set or make firm, so as to bear a high degree of heat without evaporating; to deprive of volatility. Gold, diamonds, silver, platina, are among the most fixed bodies.

"…To Cinnaber.  He that desires it, I think he must do thus.  Break the Cinnaber into pieces as big as Walnuts…"

"…Which speculation is useful not only for Bankers, but also for Smiths, when they desire to try metals in Fixing of Silver, or other operations, which I will attempt to declare plainly…"


Flagon - A vessel with a narrow mouth, used for holding and conveying liquors.

"…You may make them to grow like a Flagon, like a Pear, great at one end, and small at the other, if you would tie it hard in that part which you would have to be the less…"

 "…Also there is a vessel that no man can drink from, but he who knows the art.  Make an earthen or metal vessel, in form of a bottle or Flagon, and make it full of holes from the neck to the middle of the belly…"


Flagging - Growing languid, weak, or spiritless; weakening; delaying.

"…The Dregs of Linseed Oil is good.  Or Lees of Oil in Olives.  Putting unto it a little Gum Arabick, Mastick and Champire.  It is good also for Flagging breasts..."


See:   Perwincle

"…Take Perwincle, an herb of an intolerable sharpness, that is worthily named Flammula; bruise it, and make it into a plaster, and it will in a short space ulcerate, and make blisters arise…"


See: Mariners Compass

"…  Flavius says, an Italian found it out first, whose name was Amalphus, born in our Campania.  But he knew not the Mariners Card, but stuck the Needle in a reed, or a piece of wood, cross over…"


Flax - A plant of the genus Linum, consisting of a single slender stalk, the skin or herl of which is used for making thread and cloth, called linen, cambric, lawn, lace, &c. The skin consists of fine fibers, which may be so separated as to be spun into threads as fine as silk. The skin or fibrous part of the plant when broken and cleaned by hatcheling or combing.

See:   Line

"…called Dradella.  It has plaited leaves as wild Rochet, which they sow among Pulse.  The same may be said of the seeds of Nettles, Mustard, Flax, and Rice…"

"…Now shall I speak of many sorts of Yarn, because this may much help the household.  For the housewife has always need of it.  Our ancestors used Hemp and Flax…"


See:   Flax

 "…Then being dried, they are bruised on with a Flax-hammer.  That which was next the rind is called hard, or the worst Flax…"


Flea - An insect belonging to the genus Pulex, of the order Aphaniptera. Fleas are destitute of wings, but have the power of leaping energetically. The bite is poisonous to most persons.

"…The fat of a Hedgehog boiled in water, and taken off as it swims on the top, if you anoint a staff with it, and set it in the house, or under your bed, all the Fleas will come to it.   Rhasis…"


Fleabane - ---This species is a native of most parts of Europe, in moist meadows, watery places, by the sides of ditches, brooks and rivers, growing in masses and frequently overrunning large tracts of land on account of its creeping underground stems.

"… Nardum kills sheep.   Dioscorides.  Cattle and goats, if they drink the water where Rhododendron is steeped, will die.  Pliny and Ononymus, an author nameless.    Fleabane kills Goats and Sheep.  So does Savin…."


Fleece - The coat of wool shorn from a sheep at one time.

"…Cause the Fleeces and hides of cattle to be of diverse colors…"

"…Take a little Silver, and dissolve it with Aqua Fortis.  Then pour some fountain water into it, and your Copper Rays.  Presently the water will be troubled, and will stick upon the Copper like Silver Fleeces…"

Flegm  (Phelm)      

Phelm - Cold animal fluid; water matter; one of the four humors of which the ancients supposed the blood to be composed. In common usage, bronchial mucus; the thick viscid matter secreted in the throat. Among chemists, water, or the water of distillation.

"…For being a Distemper in the blood, it will cast him into a continual fever.  Whereas, if it had been a Distemper of Choler or Flegm, it would have afflicted him by intervals…"

"…Yet there are very artificial vessels invented, by the help of which, all the water may be drawn off, and the Flegm, only pure oil will remain…"


Flint - In natural history, a sub-species of quartz, of a yellowish or bluish gray, or grayish black color. It is amorphous, interspersed in other stones, or in nodules or rounded lumps. Its surface is generally uneven, and covered with a rind or crust, either calcarious or argillaceous. It is very hard, strikes fire with steel, and is an ingredient in glass.

"…the matter of which gems are made, is either Crystal or Flint, from whence we strike fire, or round pebbles found by the river sides.  Those are the best which are taken up by the river Thames, white, clear, and of the bigness of an Egg…"

 "…Likewise Pearl, as hard as Flint, which neither Iron or fire can dissolve of themselves, when they are heat by fire, and things done before our eyes, we may infer by the same reasons, that the Stone may naturally be dissolved by acid things…"


Saint Florentinus (?) - "Tradition has it that the saints Cassius and Florentinus were martyred on the site of the cathedral in Bonn."

"…Florentinus the Grecian says, that basil chewed and laid in the sun, will engender serpents…"

"… Florentinus the Grecian says, that Jubas King of Africa, taught how to make Bees in a wooden Ark.."


Flour - The edible part of corn; meal. In the United States, the modern practice is to make a distinction between flour and meal; the word flour being more usually applied to the finer part of meal, separated from the bran, as wheat flour, rye flour. This is a just and useful distinction.

"…put Honey, Cheese or Flour amongst it, that so it may be fitter to be eaten…"

"…Then boil Spelt.  And when it is boiled, take the fume of it by a Tunnel.  Then rub your face with a course Linen cloth.  Others wash their face with water, wherein fine Flour is boiled…"

Flourus/ Florus   

"…The beast Florus, and the bird Egithus are at such mortal enmity, that when they are dead, their blood cannot be mingled together…"


Flower-gentle - A species of amaranth (Amarantus melancholicus).

 "…But I draw a Quintessence from Clove-gilliflowers, Roses, Flower-gentle, with Spirit of Wine.  Then I add Allom, and the juice of Citron, and I made an excellent color to beautify the face…"

Flower of Venus    

"…To counterfeit a Chrysolite…Cram the Cock, and for every ounce give him to eat two grains of the beloved Flower of Venus.  Stroke him, and in due time you shall see…"


Flute - A musical wind instrument, consisting of a hollow cylinder or pipe, with holes along its length, stopped by the fingers or by keys which are opened by the fingers. The modern flute is closed at the upper end, and blown with the mouth at a lateral hole.

"…The sick, though he want all sense, so soon as he hears the Flute play, as if he rose from a dead sleep, arises from the earth, and dances with the Music…"

"…when the wind is very tempestuous set your instruments just against it as Harps, Flutes, Dulcimers, Pipes.  The wind will run violently into them, and play low upon them, and will run into the holes of the Reeds…"


Flux - A fluid discharge from the bowels or other part; especially, an excessive and morbid discharge; as, the bloody flux or dysentery.

 "…Therefore, when he went to stool, the Pirates thought he was fallen in a bloody Flux, and took off his irons lest he should die…"


Fly - Any winged insect; esp., one with transparent wings; as, the Spanish fly; firefly; gall fly; dragon fly. (b) Any dipterous insect; as, the house fly; flesh fly; black fly.

 "…The Ancients made their hair grow again with these remedies.  With the ashes of a land Hedgehog, or of burnt Bees or Flies, or the powder of them dried, also with man's Dung burnt, and anointed on with Honey…"

Fly Beetle   

See:   Beetle

"…Many men have written of Holy-wort. It has a Fly Beetle in the stalk, that runs up and down in it, making a noise like a Kid, (where it receives the name), and this herb is passing good for the voice…"


Flytrap - A trap for catching flies.

"…But he that would read those letters, must set the book that way as it was, and the letters will be read.  So may we write on Fly-traps, that are made with wrinkles, and then draw them forth…"

Flying Dragon   

See:   Fireworks

"…The Flying Dragon…Or the Comet.  It is made thus…"


See:   Feces

"…The Ancients used the decoction of the Lote Tree rasp, which we call Melo Fiocco.  And so they made their hair Red.  Or else, by burning the Foeces of the old Wine, as I said, they added Oil of Mastick thereto, which they provided thus to the purpose…"

 "…The same must be done with seeds.  Then put them in an Alimbeck, and daw out the water and Oil, until the Foeces remain dry…"


"…Some Herbs are good for procreation of a male, and some of a female, as the Herb which is called Marisica, and Foeminipara, both are like each other…"

"…The fruit of the Foeminipara is like the moss of an Olive tree, the fruit of the Maripara is double like a man's Stones…"


Foil - A leaf or very thin sheet of metal; as, brass foil; tin foil; gold foil.

"…For if Crystal or Glass had no Foil of Lead behind it, by its strength and thickness it could never terminate our sight, nor stay the image printed on it, but it would let it slip away…"

"… As we have in the summer, we must take them while they are white, before they are grown to their reddish color, and put them leaves and all into Reeds or Canes, stopping up the mouth thereof with some fat Foil…"


Foist - To insert surreptitiously, wrongfully, or without warrant; to interpolate; to pass off (something spurious or counterfeit) as genuine, true, or worthy.

"…It is an easy matter to drive away from out tables, and great men's tables, all Smell-feast, and Cogging Foisting fellows, and this will make our guests very cheerful and glad, to see such Cormorants and parasites driven away, and derided by all men…"


"…In Nonacris, a country of Arcady, there flow very cold waters out of a stone, which are called the Water of Styx, which break to pieces all vessels of Silver and Brass, and nothing can hold them but a mules foot, wherein it was brought from Antipater, into the country where Alexander was, and there his son Folla killed the King with it…"


Foment - To apply a warm lotion to; to bathe with a cloth or sponge wet with warm water or medicated liquid.

"…Or the root mingled with equal quantities of Frankincense and Wax, (but let it stay on but two hours at most) then Foment the place with Sea-water hot…"

"…Change it every six hours, always Fomenting the place with rain or cistern water…"

Fore Travel    

 "…And if a women with a child meets a Serpent, her fruit becomes abortive.  Hence it is, that when a woman is in very Fore Travel, if she does but smell the fume of an Adder's Hackle, it will presently either drive out, or destroy her child. .."


See:   Fish

"…Draw out a Frogs tongue, take away from the Ray or Fork-fish his dart, the eyes or stones out of any creatures head, or any such operative thing, not after they are dead, but while they are yet alive, and throw them into the water again, that if it be possible they may live still, left their virtue should decay, but rather that by their living, they might quicken those their natural properties, and so you may work better thereby…"


"…So then, seeing that forms come from heaven, they must needs be counted divine and heavenly things, for such is the pattern and the most excellent cause of them, which Plato, that chief philosopher, calls the Soul of the World, and Aristotle, Universal Nature, and Avicenna calls it Form-giver…"

Fornace  (Furnace)       

Furnace - . An inclosed place in which heat is produced by the combustion of fuel, as for reducing ores or melting metals, for warming a house, for baking pottery, etc.; as, an iron furnace; a hot-air furnace; a glass furnace; a boiler furnace, etc.

"… When they are dried out put them in a Glass Fornace, and let them stand within for a week, to burn exactly…"

"…Now the Fornace is to be built, which is like to that of Glass makers, but less according to the proportion of the work.  Let your Fornace be eight foot high, and consist of two vaults, the roof the the lower must be a handful and a half thick.  The vault itself must have a little door, by which you may cast in wood to feed the fire there…"

Fountain Clitorius   

 "…Now if you would refrain, and abhor wine and strong drink, because the Fountain Clitorius is too far off…"

Fountain water        

"… Take Aqua Vita, and if it be an odoriferous body, Fountain water, three or four times distilled.  Mix with the aforesaid Oil, and stir it about, and so let it digest for six days.  Then distil it over Cinders…."

"… When at night you go to bed, wash your hands in Fountain water.  Dry them, and anoint them with this Liniment, and put on your gloves…"


Fowler - A sportsman who pursues wild fowl, or takes or kills for food.

"…The subtile Fowler, says he, that gives himself to take and to bring up birds, is well acquainted with, and is often found to practice such experiments, and very artificially procures fine colors in young Pigeons…"

"… The female Nightingale is shut in a cage, the Fowler Counterfeits their note.  The males come when they hear it, and seeing the female, the males flies about till he fall into the net…"


Fox - A carnivorous animal of the genus Vulpes, family Canidæ, of many species. The European fox (V. vulgaris or V. vulpes), the American red fox (V. fulvus), the American gray fox (V. Virginianus), and the arctic, white, or blue, fox (V. lagopus) are well-known species. &hand; The black or silver-gray fox is a variety of the American red fox, producing a fur of great value; the cross-gray and woods-gray foxes are other varieties of the same species, of less value. The common foxes of Europe and America are very similar; both are celebrated for their craftiness. They feed on wild birds, poultry, and various small animals.

"…Thus we see, how to generate a Dog as stomachful as a Lion, as fierce as a Tygre, as crafty as a Fox, as spotted as a Leopard, and as ravenous as a Wolf…"

Fox Dogs   

See:  Dog-foxes

"…Pollux says, these are called Alopecidae, Fox-dogs, as Xenophon also writes of them, and makes them to be hunting dogs…"


Frankincense - is an aromatic gum resin from trees of the genus Boswellia, in the family Burseraceae, which grow in Somalia and in the southern Arabian peninsula. It was used in the ancient world for religious and medicinal purposes; today, it is an ingredient of incense, fumigants, and perfumes. Frankincense is obtained by making a deep incision in the trunk of the tree, which exudes a milky juice that on exposure to air hardens into semi-opaque lumps. From ancient times through the Middle Ages, frankincense was a principal Arabian trading commodity.

"… It is made of Turpentine, Rosin, liquid Pitch, Vernish, Frankincense and Camphire, equal parts; quick Brimstone a third part and half; two parts of Saltpeter refined, three parts of Aqua Fortis, as much of Oil of Peter and Gunpowder …"

"…If one ground did not differ from another, then we should have odoriferous reeds, ruses, grass, Frankincense, Pepper, and Myrrh, not only in Syria and Arabia, but in all other countries also…"


Freckle - A small yellowish or brownish spot in the skin, particularly on the face, neck, or hands. Any small spot or discoloration.

"…It  (Oil of paper and rags…) is excellent to drive away Freckles and Pimples in womens faces, being applied…"

Frederick the Emperor    

"…Wherefore Albertus very ignorantly told Frederick the Emperor, that a friend of his showed a Loadstone, that did not attract Iron, but was attracted by it…"

French Beans   

See:  Bean

"…To make dark and troublesome dreams, we eat beans, and therefore they are abhorred by the Pythagoreans, because they cause such dreams.   Phaseoli, or French Beans, cause the same…"

French Pox        

Pox:  A disease by pustules or eruptions of any kind, but chiefly or wholly restricted to three or four diseases, the smallpox, the chicken pox, and the vaccine and the venereal diseases.

See:  Pox

"…Let it stand a day, and then let the patient drink it at meals, and at his pleasure.  For it purges away by degrees all maladies, beside the French Pox…"

"…There may be a Salt also extracted out of the filings of Lingnum Guaiacum, which is excellent in the French Pox, being taken as the former…"


Frog - An amphibious animal of the genus Rana and related genera, of many species.

"…Draw out a Frogs tongue, take away from the Ray or Fork-fish his dart, the eyes or stones out of any creatures head…"

"…a summer shower lighting upon the putrefied sands of the shore, and dust of the highways, engenders Frogs. Aelianus…"

Frontinus, Junius            


"…  Junius Frontinus reports, that Hannibal being sent by the Charthagenians, against some rebels in Africa, and knowing they were a nation greedy of wine, mixed a great quantity of Mandrake with his wines…"

"… Frontinus bids us do thus.  Cast three whites of egges into a large earthen dish and beat them, that they may froth.  Put some white salt to them, that they may be exceeding white, and pour them into a vessel full of wine…"


Fructify - To make fruitful; to render productive; to fertilize.

"…For growing in another body, look what time the tree wherein it is set, will Fructify, and the same time will the Rose open itself, yielding a very excellent favor, and besides will be very pleasant to behold…"

"…There are some grains in an ear, which are as it were abortives, such as Degenerate from their natural kind, and will not Fructify at all, but rot and waste away into Putrefaction. .."

Fruit Safe    

Safe - A ventilated or refrigerated chest or closet for securing provisions from noxious animals or insects.

"…we will speak of Fruit Safes, or artificial places, whereby the danger of heat may be avoided…"

"…But generally for all Fruit Safes, it is the judgment and counsel of all the best and most learned Husbandman, that they must be so situated, that they may have windows towards the north…"


Fucus - disguise, deceit.

"…A Fucus that cannot be detected…"

"…The famous Oil of Talk is extracted only by the vehement heat of fire. Yet I know not at first what it was useful for. But I perceive it is much accounted of by women in their Fucus…"

Fucus Quafi Fagos   

"…And the Drone is called Fucus quafi Fagos, because he eats that which he never labored for. But others hold that the Locusts, and not Drones, are generated of Mule's flesh.."

Fugitive \ Fugacious      

Fugitive - Unstable; unsteady; fleeting; not fixed or durable.

"…To Bind this Fugitive servant fast, add so much Wheat-meal as may fasten it well together, till you see there is enough, and you shall find it increased to the weight desired…"

"…But always provided that they are not laid near tender and Fugacious fruit, for they will Vitiate them by their Acid vapor, and Putrify Grapes if they are near them…"

Fuller's Earth   

Fuller's earth - A variety of clay, used in scouring and cleansing cloth, to imbibe grease.

"…For the rind of the root of Halm tree, boiled till it be soft, and consumed, and then smeered on all night, blacks the hair, first made clean with Fullers Earth…"


Fume - To expose to the action of fumes; to treat with vapors, smoke, etc.; as, to bleach straw by fuming it with sulphur; to fill with fumes, vapors, odors, etc., as a room.

"…Or else powder all these, and cast them in through a Reed, or make a Fume under them…"

"…The hairs will wash excellently with this.  Hold them in the sun, then cast Brimstone on the coals, and Fume the hairs…"


Fumitory - The common uame of several species of the genus Fumaria, annual herbs of the Old World, with finely dissected leaves and small flowers in dense racemes or spikes. F. officinalis is a common species, and was formerly used as an antiscorbutic.

"…Galen says, that the Lark has a crested crown, of the fashion of the Herb Fumitory, and that either of them is good against the Colick…"


Funnel - . A vessel of the shape of an inverted hollow cone, terminating below in a pipe, and used for conveying liquids into a close vessel; a tunnel.

"…That must come half a foot above the second story, and so in the lower most, but in the bottom the Orifice must be wider, like a Pyramis or Funnel…"


Furlong - A measure of length; the eighth part of a mile; forty rods; two hundred and twenty yards.

"…  Cows have great hairy ears.  She can hear a Bull roar when he seeks to Bull a   Cow, thirty Furlongs off, as giving this token of his love.   Aelian…"


Fuschius - The Willow-herbs (Epilobium), nine species of which are natives of Great Britain, belong to the order Onagraceae, to which belong also the familiar garden flowers the Fuchsia, Clarkia and Godetia, and the Evening Primrose (Cenothera biennis) (a native of North America, which, as a garden escape, is sometimes found apparently wild). The insignificant wild plant Circaea lutetiana, the Enchanter's Nightshade, also belongs to the same family. Many of the members of the order, being rich in tannin, find considerable domestic use as astringents.

"…  Fuschius his Stramonium, and the herb commonly called Belladonna whose qualities are wonderfully Dormitive…"


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