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Eagle - A rapacious fowl of the genus Falco. The beak is crooked and furnished with a cere at the base, and the tongue is cloven or bifid. There are several species, as, the bald or white-headed eagle, the sea eagle or ossifrage, the golden eagle, &c.

"…The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the Larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose…"

"… Hawks are exceeding hot in lust, and though there be diverse kinds of them, yet they all couple together among themselves without any difference, as Aristotle writes, they couple with Eagles, and thereby engender bastard Eagles…"


Eagle-stone - Etite, a variety of argillaceous oxyd of iron, occurring in masses varying from the size of a walnut to that of a man's head. Their form is spherical, oval or nearly reniform, or sometimes like a parallelopiped with rounded edges and angles. They have a rough surface, and are essentially composed of concentric layers. These nodules often embrace at the center a kernel or nucleus, sometimes movable, and always differing from the exterior in color, density and fracture. To these hollow nodules the ancients gave the name of eagle-stones, from an opinion that the eagle transported them to her nest to facilitate the laying of her eggs.

See:   Etite

 "…There is the Eagle stone, so called, it is as one great with child.  For shake the stone, and it rings in the belly…"


"…that if you take Quicksets, or any branches that you would plant, and get out the Pith of them with some Earpicker, or any like instrument made of bone…"


Earth - Earth, in its primary sense, signifies the particles which compose the mass of the globe, but more particularly the particles which form the fine mold on the surface of the globe; or it denotes any indefinite mass or portion of that matter. We throw up earth with a spade or plow; we fill a pit or ditch with earth; we form a rampart with earth. This substance being considered, by ancient philosophers, as simple, was called an element; and in popular language, we still hear of the four elements, fire, air,earth, and water. In chemistry, the term earth was, till lately, employed to denote a simple elementary body or substance, tasteless, inodorous, uninflammable and infusible. But it has also been applied to substances which have a very sensible alkaline taste, as lime. The primitive earths are reckoned ten in number, viz, silex, alumin, lime, magnesia, baryte, strontian, zircon, glucin, yttria and thorina. Recent experiments prove that most or all of them are compounds of oxygen with bases, some of which appear to possess the properties of metals. In this case the earths are to be considered as metallic oxyds.

"…is called the Earth; a thick and gross substance, very solid, and by no means to be pierced through; so that there is no solid and firm body but has earth in it, as also there is no vacant space that has air in it. This element of earth is situated in the middle and center of all, and is round beset with all the rest. And this only stands still and unmovable, where all the rest are carried with a circular motion round about it…"

"… Sotion has taught us the way.  If, says he, you do set Garlic, and pluck it up again, both when the Moon is underneath the Earth, it will not have any bad favor.  And Theophrastus has taught us a means…"


Earthquake - A shaking, trembling or concussion of the earth; sometimes a slight tremor; at other times a violent shaking or convulsion; at other times a rocking or heaving of the earth. Earthquakes are usually preceded by a rattling sound in the air, or by a subterraneous rumbling noise. Hence the name, earthdin, formerly given to an earthquake.

"…For Philosophy teaches, what are the effects of fire, Earth, air, and water, the principal matter of the heavens; and what is the cause of the flowing of the sea, and of the diverse colored rainbow; and the of the loud thunder, and of comets, and fiery lights that appear by night, and of Earthquakes…"


Ebony - A species of hard,heavy and durable wood, which admits of a fine polish or gloss; said to be brought from Madagascar. The most usual color is black, red or green. The best is a jet black, free from veins and rind, very heavy, astringent and of an acrid pungent taste. On burning coals it yields an agreeable perfume, and when green it readily takes fire from its abundance of fat. It is wrought into toys, and used for mosaic and inlaid work.

"…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort,… Frankincense, Aloes, powder of Ebony…"


Echo - A sound reflected or reverberated from a solid body; sound returned; repercussion of sound; as an echo from a distant hill. In fabulous history, a nymph, the daughter of the Air and Tellus, who pined into a sound, for love of Narcissus. In architecture, a vault or arch for redoubling sounds.

"…The Echo proves this, for it strikes whole against a wall, and so rebounds back, and is reflected as a beam of the sun…"


Eclipse - Literally, a defect or failure; hence in astronomy, an interception or obscuration of the light of the sun, moon or other luminous body. An eclipse of the sun is caused by the intervention of the moon, which totally or partially hides the sun's disk; an eclipse of the moon is occasioned by the shadow of the earth, which falls on it and obscures it in whole or in part, but does not entirely conceal it.

"…Now I have determined to show how the sun's Eclipse may be seen…"


Eel - A species of Muraena, a genus of fishes belonging to the order of apodes. The head is smooth; there are ten rays in the membrane of the gills; the eyes are covered with a common skin; the body is cylindrical and slimy. Eels, in some respects, resemble reptiles, particularly in their manner of moving by a serpentine winding of the body; and they often creep upon land and wander about at night in search of snails or other food. In winter, they lie buried in mud, being very impatient of cold. They grow to the weight of 15 or 20 pounds; and the conger eel is said to grow to a hundred pounds in weight, and to 10 feet in length.

"… Eel lie in their holes, and the mouths of their holes, being smeared in the ponds with some odoriferous things, they are called forth as other fish are…"

"…Let three or four live Eels, put into the wine, stay there till they die.  Let one drink of this wine, who is given to drunkenness, and he will loath wine, and always hate it, and will never drink it again…"


Egg - A body formed in the females of fowls and certain other animals, containing an embryo or fetus of the same species, or the substance from which a like animal is produced. The eggs of fowls when laid are covered with a shell, and within is the white or albumen, which incloses the yolk or yellow substance. The eggs of fish and some other animals are united by a viscous substance, and called spawn. Most insects are oviparous.

See:   Oil of Eggs

"…the matter of which gems are made, is either Crystal or Flint, from whence we strike fire, or round pebbles found by the river sides.  Those are the best which are taken up by the river Thames, white, clear, and of the bigness of an Egg…"

"… Aristotle teaches us, for, says he, if the Egg be exactly round, then it will yield a Cock Chicken…"


Eggshell - . The shell or exterior covering of an egg. Also used figuratively for anything resembling an eggshell.

"…That letters may be writ on the Eggshell…"


"…The beast Florus, and the bird Egithus are at such mortal enmity, that when they are dead, their blood cannot be mingled together…"


"… And Agamemnon departing from his country to go to Troy, doubting of the Chastity of Clytemnestra, left a Harper, who with Music did so incite her to Continency and Chastity, that Egystus could not enjoy her till he had killed the Harper…."


"… Diophanes shows that the Olive being Grafting into the Vine, brings forth a a fruit called Elaeo-staphylon, that is to say, an Olive-grape..."


Elder - A genus of shrubs (Sambucus) having broad umbels of white flowers, and small black or red berries. The common North American species is Sambucus Canadensis; the common European species (S. Nigra) forms a small tree. The red-berried elder is S. Pubens. The berries are diaphoretic and aperient. Box elder. See 1st Box. Dwarf elder. Danewort. Elder tree. Same as Elder. Marsh elder, the cranberry tree Viburnum Opulus).

"… Columella says, that Pomegranates are to be gathered with their stalks, and the stalks to be put into an Elder tree, because the Elder tree is full of Pitch, that it may easily entertain the Pomegranate stalks…"

"… Theophrastus writes that some are excellent against the bitings of Vipers, with Harps, Flutes, or other instruments, which instruments might be made of Juniper, Ash, Bays, the Stag's bones, Ferula, Elder, Vine-tree, and such like many more…"

Eleatic School

The Eleatic School was a group of pre-Socratic philosophers who were active in Elea, a Greek community in southern Italy. Their dominant characteristic was a denial of all change, motion, and plurality in the world.  Parmenides, the group's leading figure, held that all change and plurality are unintelligible. It is impossible to think "what is not." The object of thought is, therefore, undivided and unchanging. Being underlies everything that exists; therefore, nothing stands in contrast to it. Parmenides' followers, Zeno of Elea and Melissus of Samos, also argued for this radical Monism. Zeno attempted to reduce all possible versions of a plural universe to absurdity. In this attempt, he invented his famous, still-disputed paradoxes of motion.


Element - The first or constituent principle or minutest part or any thing; as the elements of earth, water, salt, or wood; the elements of the world; the elements of animal or vegetable bodies. So letters are called the elements of language. An ingredient; a constituent part of any composition. In a chemical sense, an atom; the minutest particle of a substance; that which cannot be divided by chimical analysis, and therefore considered as a simple substance, as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, &c.

"…Even the Elements, simple and pure bodies (whereas the elements that now are, be but counterfeits and bastards to them…"

"…For whereas in the beginning of the world, the heavens, and earth, and Elements were settled in their natural places, the earth being left slimy and soft in many places, and then dried and stricken with the heat of the Sun, brought forth certain tumors and swellings in the surface and uppermost parts…"


Elephant - The largest of all quadrupeds, belonging to the order of Bruta. This animal has no foreteeth in either jaw; the canine-teeth are very long; and he has a long proboscis or trunk, by which he conveys food and drink to his mouth. The largest of these animals is about 16 feet long and 14 feet high; but smaller varieties are not more than seven feet high. The eyes are small and the feet short,round,clumsy, and distinguishable only by the toes. The trunk is a cartilaginous and muscular tube, extending from the upper jaw, and is seven or eight feet in length. The general shape of his body resembles that of swine. His skin is rugged, and his hair thin, The two large tusks are of a yellowish color,and extremely hard. The bony substance of these is called ivory. The elephant is 30 years in coming to his full growth, and he lives to 150 or 200 years of age. Elephants are natives of the warm climates of Africa and Asia, where they are employed as beasts of burden. They were formerly used in war.

"…The Elephant having by chance eaten a Chameleon, against the poison thereof, eats of the Wild Olive, whence Solinus, observes, that the same is a good remedy for men also in the same case…"

"…And you must counterfeit Stags, Boar, Rhinocerets, Elephants, Lions, and what other creatures you please…"


"…We read in Scripture, that Elizeus did this, who at Jericho in Palestine, cast in salt into a fountain, and made it potable water, which was before bitter and corrupt…"


Elk - A quadruped of the Cervine genus, with palmated horns, and a fleshy protuberance on the throat. The neck is short, with a short, thick, upright mane; the eyes are small; the ears long, broad and slouching; and the upper lip hangs over the under lip. It is the largest of the deer kind, being seventeen hands high and weighing twelve hundred pounds. It is found in the northern regions of Europe, Asia and America. In the latter country it is usually called Moose, from the Indian name musu.

 "…The Vertigo, I have seen it cured also, by applying the hoof of an Elk, and by a ring of it worn on the finger…"


Elm - A tree of the genus Ulmus. The common elm is one of the largest and most majestic trees of the forest, and is cultivated for shade and ornament. Another species, the fulva, is called slippery elm, from the quality of its inner bark. One species seems to have been used to support vines

"…So the Olive tree, the Sallow, the Linden tree, the Elm, the White poplar tree, they declare the times of the suns standing, when it turns back again from the poles, for then they hide their leaves, and show only their hoar-white backs…"

"…This is also made of the fruit Sebesten in Syria, and likewise it may be made of ordinary Birdlime.  But the best of all is made of the rinds of Elm roots stamped together, for this has a special quality, both to fasten and also to cherish…"


Elixir - In medicine, a compound tincture, extracted from two or more ingredients. A tincture is drawn from one ingredient; an elixir from several. But tincture is also applied to a composition of many ingredients. An elixir is a liquid medicine made by a strong infusion, where the ingredients are almost dissolved in the menstruum, and give it a thicker consistence than that of a tincture. A liquor for transmuting metals into gold. Quintessence; refined spirit. Any cordial; that substance which invigorates.

( Ab eliquesco)

"… Elixirs are the conservators of bodies in the same condition wherein they find them.  For thier virtue is to preserve from corruption, not by meliorating their state, but by continuing it.  And if by accident, they cure any diseases, it is by reason of their tenuity.  They have a double virtue to preserve from sickness, and continue health, not only in men, but to preserve plants also…"  

"…An Elixir differs from Essences, Tinctures, and rest, because it is compounded of many things void of fatness.  Therefore it cannot be an Oil, because it wants perspicuity and clearness.  Not an Essence, because it is a Compound.  Not a Tincture, but a mean between all, and of a consistency most like to water.  Whence it had its name Ab eliquesco, to be dissolved or liquefied…"


Emerald - A mineral and a precious stone, whose colors are a pure, lively green, varying to a pale,yellowish, bluish, or grass green. It is always crystallized, and almost always appears in regular, hexahedral prisms, more or less perfect, and sometimes slightly modified by truncations on the edges, or on the solid angles. It is a little harder than quartz, becomes electric by friction, is often transparent, sometimes only translucent, and before the blowpipe is fusible into a whitish enamel or glass. The finest emeralds have been found in Peru. The subspecies of emerald are the precious emerald and the beryl.

 "…There is a stone also brought out of the West Indies, called in Spanish, Della Hijada.  Much like an Emerald.  Which being worn in Silver, upon the arm, is accounted a preservative against this disease… ( Pleurisie)…"

 "…Then rub them with fine sand, and Pumice stone.  Afterwards glaze them with a wheel, and polish them with a plate of Lead, and powder of Emerald. .."


"…Then he took Wool, and sometimes green leaves of the Vine, or of the Plane tree, and wrapped it about the Kernel .  Lest he should have set it without any covering about it, the Emots or such like Vermin should have gnawn it…"

Empedocles Agrigentinus       

Empedocles, c.484-c.424 BC, was a Greek doctor, poet, and philosopher. To account for real change, he assumed that there must be more than one kind of matter, and he postulated four roots as elements: earth, air, fire, and water. Love and hate were considered principles of attraction and repulsion that alternately dominated the universe in a recurring cycle. Empedocles presented a kind of biological theory of natural selection in an imaginative poem, On Nature. He also played an important role in the development of the Western or Sicilian school of Greek medicine. He cured a plague at the Sicilian city of Selinus and claimed he was a god. One legend, which forms the basis of Matthew Arnold's poem Empedocles on Etna, held that Empedocles, tired of life and wanting people to believe that the gods had taken him with them, committed suicide by leaping into the crater of Mt. Etna.

"…The most noble Philosophers that ever were, Pythagorus, Empedocles, Democritus, and Plato, forsook their own countries, and lived abroad as exiles and banished men, rather than as strangers; and all to search out and to attain this knowledge; and when they came home again, this was the science which they professed, and this they esteemed a profound mystery…" 

"…But Empedocles, having forecast all scruples and doubts within himself, seems to have attained the truth in this case. For he says, that the causes of the generation of monstrous creatures, are these, either if the seed be too much, or if it be too little, or if it light not in the right place, or if it be scattered into many parts, or if the congredients be not rightly affected to procreate according to the ordinary course of nature…"


See:   Plaster

"…and so Emplaister them into the tree, as we spoke of before, the fruit thereof will be a Fig half white and half black…"


Emplaster - To plaster over; to cover over so as to present a good appearance

See:   Grafting

"…This is to be done by a kind of Grafting which they call Emplastering…"

"…these are very fit to be Grafted by Emplastering, and these kinds of compound Oranges and Lemons are very commonly to be seen in many orchards in Naples…"


"…Heretofore, being much troubled with sore eyes, and becoming almost blind, when I was given over by physitians of best account, a certain Empyrick undertook me, who, putting this water into my eye, cured me the very same day…"

Emril  Powder        

"…When it comes to be violet, put all int the liquor, till it grows cold.  Yet I will not conceal, that it may be done by a brass wire bent like a bow, and with Powder of Emril and Oil.  For you shall cut iron like wood…"

"…When it is come to temper it should be, cast upon it two ounces of Borax, and let it alone till it dissolve into smoke.  Then cast it into your mold, and let it cool.  When it is cool, rub it with a Pumice-stone, then with powder of Emril.  When you see that the supersicies is perfectly polished and equal, rub it over with Tripolis…"


"…The ball is marked with the Emril-stone round, and is so cut into many small circles.  They are brought to venice.  Here with a handle of wood are they glued on, by Colophonia melted…"

Enamael / Enamel  / Enamelling    

Enamel - In mineralogy, a substance imperfectly vitrified, or matter in which the granular appearance is destroyed, and having a vitreous gloss. In the arts, a substance of the nature of glass, differing from it by a greater degree of fusibility or opacity. Enamels have for their basis a pure crystal glass or frit, ground with a fine oxyd of lead and tin. These baked together are the matter of enamels, and the color is varied by adding other substances, Oxyd of gold gives a red color; that of copper, a green; manganese, a violet; cobalt, a blue; and iron, a fine black. That which is enameled; a smooth, glossy surface of various colors, resembling enamel.

"…After gems we will endevour to make Smalt or Enamael.  It is a work almost of the same nature, and of the same mixture and colors;  this only difference is between them, that in gems the glass is transparent, in this it is more dense and solid.  In ancient times they made their Checker or mosaique work of it…"

"…When this is done, add moreover three ounces of Vitrified Tin.  Beat them together without any intermission, and you will see a most lively rose color in the Glass, which you may use in Enamelling Gold…"

Enchanters / Enchantment        

Enchantment - The act of producing certain wonderful effects by the invocation or aid of demons, or the agency of certain supposed spirits; the use of magic arts, spells or charms; incantation.

"…Now I will discourse of Enchantment.  Neither will I pass over in silence, who they are whom we call Enchanters.  For if we please to look over the monuments of antiquity, we shall find a great many things of that kind delivered down to posterity…"

 "…So does Plutarch and   Philarchus mention the Paletheobri, a nation inhabiting in part of the Pontic Sea, where are Enchanters who are hurtful, not only to children that are tender and weak, but not men of full growth, who are of a strong and firm body…"


Endive - A species of plant, of the genus Cichorium or succory; used as a salad.

"…And therefore if we would have sweet Endive, Theophrastus wills us, to water it with some Salt Liquor, or else to set it in some Salt places…"

"…You must cut off (somewhat near the root) a stalk of Endive or Blue-bottle, or Bugloss, but the old wild Endive is best for this purpose…"


See:   Grafting

"…for indeed this is the chief privilege that Engraffing has, to procure larger fruit…"

"…The Pomegranate tree and the Myrtle tree are each delighted with others company, as Didymus writes in his Georgicks.  Where he says plainly, that the Pomegranate tree being Engraffed into the Myrtle tree, and likewise the Myrtle tree into the Pomegranate tree…"


Entrails - The internal parts of animal bodies; the bowels; the guts; viscera; intestines.

"… You shall take out his bones thus.  Put a young Pigeon, his Entrails taken forth and well washed, for to lie a night in strong Vinegar…"

"…When much blood was run forth, all his Entrails were taken out, and cut off where they began.  And after that he was often well washed with Wine, and hung up by his heels, and again washed with Wine…"

Ephesius, Aristonymus  

"…for Aristonymus Ephesius, the son of Demonstratus, could not away with a woman's company, but made choice of an ass to lie with; and she brought him forth after a certain time, a very comely maiden, and was exceeding beautiful. She was called Onoscelis, that is to say, one having ass's thighs…"

… Plato sent Aristonymus to the Arcadians, Phormion to Elis, Menedemus to Pyrrha. Eudoxus and Aristotle wrote laws for Cnidus and Stagirus…. 


"…Wherefore Epicarmus said very well, that men purchase all things at God's hands by the price of their labor.."


 "… Ceasar sent his servant, being a milesian, named Epicrates, to those of the town, desiring them to lend him some money, which they presently sent to him…"


 "… Epicurus would fain give a reason for it, as Galen and Lucretius report.  For, say they, the Atoms that flew out of the iron, and meet in the Loadstone in one figure, so that they easily embrace one the other…"

Epimenidian Composition   


"…a Medicament that nourishes much, and abates thirst, and this was the food the besiegers of cities and the besieged also lived on.  It was called Epimenidian Composition, from the Sea-onion called Epimenidium, that is one of the ingredients of that composition…"


(Epirus - See Pyrrhus


"…The same author (Thales) in his ' Parallels,' reports out of Agesilaus, his third book of Italian matters, that Fulvius Stella loathing the company of a woman, coupled himself with a Mare, of whom he begot a very beautiful maiden-child, and she was called by a fit name, Epona…"



"…Among other properties, it quenches thirst also, if it be held in the mouth.  for which cause both with that, and the other called Equestris, men say, the Scythians will endure hunger and thirst twelve days…"

"… For Hippace signifies Cheese made of Mares Milk, and is no herb.   Theodorus translated it Equestrem, as it were a root like Licorice, fit to drive away hunger and thirst…"


Equinoctial - Pertaining to the equinoxes; designating an equal length of day and night; as the equinoctial line. Pertaining to the regions or climate of the equinoctial line or equator; in or near that line; as equinoctial heat; an equinoctial sun; equinoctial wind. Pertaining to the time when the sun enters the equinoctial points; as an equinoctial gale or storm, which happens at or near the equinox, in any part of the world.

"…About August, choose, says he, the sweetest apples, such as be not overripe, and they will be kept long.   Pliny counsels us to gather them after the Equinoctial in Autumn, but never before the moon is fifteen days old, nor yet before one of the clock…"


Esau - the elder son of Isaac and Rebekah who sold his birthright to his twin brother Jacob

"…It is written in Genesis, chap. 36. v. 24 that Anah, Esau's kinsman, feeding his fathers asses in the wilderness, found out mules…"


Essence:  The constituent quality or qualities which belong to any object, or class of objects, or on which they depend for being what they are (distinguished as real essence); the real being, divested of all logical accidents; that quality which constitutes or marks the true nature of anything; distinctive character; hence, virtue or quality of a thing, separated from its grosser parts.

"…So the Essence of Juniper, is reckoned the first degree of operation, because it cures the Leprosy by purging the blood only…"

 "…For Essences ought not to be compounded, mixed, or polluted with anything, be pure, simple and immaculate…"


"… I , at Venice,  made a Tympanum with pipes of Glass, and when the water was cast forth very far, the Lord Estens much admired it, to see the water fly so high, and no visible thing to force it…"

Ethiopian Wolves  

See:  Wolf

"…as Aristotle writes, is in all his entrails like a wolfs, and is a strong beast, swift, and is wont to encounter a lion. Pliny says, it is kind of wolf, Hesychius says, it is like a wolf, Herodotus, that it is gendered in Africa. Solinus called them Ethiopian Wolves…"

Ethiopic stone    

Ethiopian, Ethiopic - Of or relating to Ethiopia or the Ethiopians.

"…The Ethiopian is highly commended, and it costs the weight in Silver.  It is found in Ethiopia at Zimirum, for so is the sandy country called.  It is a token of  an Ethiopic stone, if it will draw another Loadstone to it…"

Etites  / Etite   

Etite - Eagle-stone, a variety of bog iron.

See Eaglestone.

"…The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the Larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose…"


"…  Grapes thus preserved in Wine, have been a great request among the ancients.   Athenaus makes mention of them out of Eubulus in Agglutinato…"

Euclid  /   Euclide   

Euclid, fl. c.300 BC, is the most famous mathematician of all time despite the fact that little is known of his life, save that he taught at Alexandria, Egypt. Euclid's Elements, an introductory work on elementary geometry and other topics, superseded other works of its kind to such an extent that they are now known only by indirect reference. The Elements begins with definitions, postulates, and axioms, including the famous fifth, or parallel, postulate that one and only one line can be drawn through a point parallel to a given line. Euclid's decision to make this an indemonstrable assumption led to Euclidean geometry.  

"…I proceed to Burning Glasses, which being opposed against the sunbeams, will kindle fire upon matter laid under them.  In these also are the greatest secrets of nature known.  I shall describe what is found out by Euclide, Ptolomy, and Archimedes…"


"…The powder Purflex-stone will do as much, if the drinker takes that first.   Theophrastus says it is dangerous, unless he drink abundantly.  So Eudemus drank two and twenty cups, at last he went into a bath, and did not vomit. .."


"…And Theophrastus says, that the flower of the herb Lotum, is not only open and shut, but also sometimes hides, and sometimes shows here stalk for sunset to midnight, and this, says he, is done about the river Euphrates…"


Euripides, youngest of the three great Greek tragedians, was born c.485 BC, possibly on Salamis, and died in Macedonia in 406. Though he was scarcely a generation younger than  Sophocles, his world view better reflects the political, social, and intellectual crises of late 5th-century Athens. All but one of his surviving tragedies were written during the Peloponnesian War, which eventually destroyed Athens.

"…Porphyry thought that living creatures were begotten of the bowels of the earth soaked in water, and quickened by the heat of the sun. Of the same mind were Archelaus, the Athenian, Anaxagoras Clazomensus, and Euripides his scholar…"

 "… Euripides says, that shepherds provoke mares to take horse, by playing on a pipe, and the horses are so provoked to back the mares…"


A former bishop of Antioch. 

"… as Diodorus and Eustathius write. The people Autharidae in Thespratia, were driven out of their country, by certain imperfect frogs that fell from heaven…" 


 "…It is reported by the Ancients of Eutelides, that he bewitched himself by reflection in the water, Looking-glasses, or fountains, which returned his own shadow upon him…"


Evan - The Etruscan goddess who personifies personal immortality. Evan belongs to the Lasa.

"…and Evan that had a diadem of vine-leaves about his head, and goodly hair hanging down under it…"


Ewe - A female sheep; the female of the ovine race of animals.

"…that the bitter Piths of Citrons may be made sweet, if you take the Citron seeds, and steep them in Honeywater, or else in Ewes  Milk, (for this is better) for the space of three days before you set them…"


Excrement - Matter excreted and ejected; that which is excreted or cast out of the animal body by any of the natural emunctories; especially, alvine, discharges; dung; ordure.

"…Wherefore by the Excrements that go into it, that are consumed to make a new shell within, the former that was made is broken, and falls off…"

"…And not only these animals themselves cause this mischief, but their Excrements, as  Milk, Honey, and the like…"


Exenterate - To take out the bowels or entrails; to embowel.

"…First let the side of the body be opened, and the carcass Exenterated …"


"…Flesh hung on a Brass nail will keep long…for Brass is so Styptical and Exiccative, that the flesh it passes through putrifies not…"


Expression - The act of expressing; the act of forcing out by pressure, as juices and oils from plants.

"…So that the whole art of Distillation depends on this.  The chiefest means is by Expression, which, though it be different from the art of Distillation, yet because it is necessary to do it…"

"…Strain them, and lay a Linen cloth soaking in the Expression a whole night.  Then dry it in the shade.  Do this thrice, and after copulation, wash your Yard in it, and lay some of the Linen on and keep it close…." ("A preservation against the Pox,")


 "…Of the Indian Mais, heavy bread is made and not pleasant at all, very dry and earthy next to millet.  Like to this is bread called Exsergo, that is also void of nutrimental juice…"


An inodourous exudation, usually in the form of yellow tears, produced chiefly by the African Euphorbia resinifrea. It was formerly employed medicinally, but was found so violent in its effects that its use is nearly abandoned.

"… Let there be measure made like Lanthorns, so that they may go in at the mouths of the Brass Guns.  Fill them with powder of Euphorbium, Pepper, Quicklime, Vine ashes, and Arsnick Sublimate…"


"…When he ( Archimedes) considered the reason of it, he leaped forth for joy, running home and crying Eureka, Eureka, that is, I have found it, I have found it…."


 "…It is reported by the ancients of Eutelides, that he bewitched himself by reflection in the water, Looking-glasses, or fountains, which returned his own shadow upon him…"


Evaporate - To pass off in vapor, as a fluid; to escape and be dissipated, either in visible vapor, or in practice too minute to be visible.

"…Let Litharge of Silver, half an ounce, boil in a glazed earthen pot, with strong Vinegar, until the thinner part be Evaporated…"


Excoriate - to wear off the skin of.

"… If Almonds cannot be easily Excoriated, cover them with Chaff and Straw, and you may effect it..."


Express - To press or squeeze out; to force out by pressure; as, to express the juice of grapes or of apples.

"…Wherefore the Wine that is Expressed out of several kinds of Grapes, is not so firm as the simple and sincere…"

"… Express and strain the juice of Lemon…"

Extract / Extraction          

See:   Distillation

Extract:  A concentrated preparation of a vegetable or animal drug obtained by removing the active constituents therefrom with a suitable menstruum, evaporating all or nearly all the solvent and adjusting the residual mass or powder to a prescribed standard.

"…If you would Extract sweet waters out of hot plants, and such as are earthy, and retain a sweet favour in their very substance, these being cast into a Stillatory, without any art, and a fire made under them, yield their odors.  As you may draw sweet waters out of…"

"…Others cannot endure the fire, but are presently burned.  From which variety of tempers, there must arise also a variety in the manner of Extraction.  I will set down some examples of these, that ingenious artists may not despair to draw Oils out of anything whatever…"


Eyebright - A genus of plants, the Euphrasia, of several species. It is an elegant little plant, 2 to 8 inches high, an annual, common on heaths and other dry pastures, especially on a chalky soil, and flowering from July to September, with deeply-cut leaves and numerous, small, white or purplish flowers variegated with yellow.

 "…Take two bottles of Greek wine, half a pint of white Rose Water, of Celendine, two ounces, of Fennel, Rue, Eye-Bright, as much, of Tutty, half an ounce, of Cloves as much, Sugar-Candy of Roses, one Drachm, Camphire, half a Drachm, and as much Aloes…"


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