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Cabbage        

Cabbage - A genus of plants, called in botany Brassica, of several species; some of which are cultivated for food. The leaves are large and fleshy, the pods long and slender, and the seeds globular. The kinds most cultivated are the common cabbage, called with us the drum-head, the Savoy, the broccoli, the cauliflower, the sugar-loaf, and the cole-wort.

"…He puts Beet roots bruised into Wine, it will be Vinegar when three hours are over.  But if he would restore it again as it was, he puts in Cabbage roots…"

"…Then wash it with Lye made of Cabbage stalks, ashes, and Barley straw…"

Cachryl   

"… Alisander or Parsley may be made greater …you must dig the Alisander around the root, and cover it with Cachryl, and then heap earth upon it…"

Cackrels / Cackerel   

Cackerel - A fish which is said to void excrements when pursued. Others say, a fish which eaten produces lax bowels.

"…There is a kind of these fishes, called Mullet-Groundlings, which is generated of mud and sand, as has been tried in many marsh places, among the rest in Hindus, where in the Dog-days, the lakes, being dried up, so that the mud was hard, as soon as ever they began to be full of rain water again, were generated little fishes, a kind of Mullet, about the bigness of little Cackrels, which had neither seed nor egg in them…"

Cackrel-groundling  

"…And as the Mullet-Groundlings comes of mud, or a sandy loam, as Aristotle writes, so it is to be thought, that the Cackrel-groundling comes thereof also…"

Caelia   

"…Beer in Egypt, called Zythum, in Spain , Caelia and Ceria, Beer in France and other provinces…"

Calamite   

Calamite - A fossil plant of the coal formation, having the general form of plants of the modern Equiseta (the Horsetail or Scouring Rush family) but sometimes attaining the height of trees, and having the stem more or less woody within.

"…Is to be made by putting Benjamin into a glass retort, and fitting it to the furnace.  Then increase the fire without any fear of combustion, and you will obtain a fragent oil, to be used in precious ointments.  So Oil of Storax, Calamite, and Labdanum, and other Gums…"

Calamus Aromaticus / Calamus         

The generic name of the Indian cane, called also rotang. It is without branches, has a crown at the top, and is beset with spines. A sort of reed, or sweet-scented cane, used by the Jews as a perfume. It is a knotty root, reddish without and white within, and filled with a spungy substance. It has an aromatic smell.

"…Then add roots of Iris, Cypress, Sanders, Cinnamon, Storax, Labdanum, Cloves, Nutmegs, Calamus Aromaticus, with a little Musk, Amber and Civit…"

"… Juice of Cherry, added to Calamus, will make a green, so also Sow-bread, a red…"

Calcanthum   

"How a dead carcass may be kept long…Then make a mixture of unquenched Lime five pounds, of burnt Alome one pound, good Salt two pound, of Aloes and Myrrh half a pound.  Of Aloes wood half a pound, of the oil of Spicknard three ounces, of the powder of Rosemary flowers five, of burnt green Brass and Calcanthum two…"

 Calcine  /  Calcined  /  Calcination                

Calcine: Heated to temperature of dissociation; for example, heat gypsum to the temperature where the water of crystallization is driven off.

"…  Calcine the Talk, and put it in an earthen pot, and set it in the hottest part of a Potters Oven, to stay there six days…"

"…Do the same three or four times, that it may be more perfectly Calcined, always having a care that it be as hot as may be, but that it melts not…"

Caldron    

Caldron - A large kettle or boiler of copper, brass, or iron.

See: Cauldron

"…Take the flesh of them and bruise it in a Mortar diligently, then put it into a Caldron glazed with tin that is full of water…"

Calends /  Calends of March  

Calends - Among the Romans, the fist day of each month. The origin of this name is differently related. Varro supposes it to have originated in the practice of notifying the time of the new moon, by a priest who called out or proclaimed the fact, to the people, and the number of the calends, or the day of the nones. Others alledge that the people be convened, the pontifex proclaimed the several feasts or holidays in the month; a custom which was discontinued in the year of Rom 450, when the fasti or calendar was set up in public places, to give notice of the festivals.

"…This if you practise before the Calends of March, or between the Nones and the Ides of March, you shall have your purpose…"

Calf     

Calf - The young of the cow, or of the bovine genus of quadrupeds.

"…Boil two Calf's feet in water.  First make them clean.  Then boil the water until half be consumed.  Put in it Rice, one pound, and boil it well. .."

"…We feed them at home with Wine of Surrentum, or else we put Calfs to two Cows, and thus being fed with abundance of Milk, that can scarce go for fat…"

Calliblephara        

"…Before we leave of to speak of hair, I shall show how to make the eyebrows black.  Because women are desirous of this as the rest.  The Greeks call them Calliblephara, that is, fair eyebrows…"

"…The Kernels of Dates burned in a new earthen pot, and the ashes washed, serve instead of Spodium.  And they are mingled with eye salves.  And they make Calliblephara adding Spikenard thereunto…."

Callimachus / Calimacus       

Callimachus - fl. c.265 B.C., Greek poet and critic. At ALEXANDRIA he drew up a catalogue constituting a full literary history. Among his over 800 hymns, epigrams, and poems is Aetia, a collection of legends.

"… Callimachus, the Architect, flying from Heliopolis, taught the Romans that thing first, and many of their Emperors did use that against their enemies afterwards..."

"…In times past, women were wont to esteem little dogs in great price, especially such as came from Malta the island situated in the Adriatic Sea, near to Ragusius. Calimacus terms them with Melitean dogs…"

Calx             

Calx - the oxide or ashy residue that is left after metals or minerals have been thoroughly roasted or burned.the oxide or ashy residue that is left after metals or minerals have been thoroughly roasted or burned. 2. another term for lime (calcium oxide, CaO).another term for lime (calcium oxide, CaO).

"…  It will more easily and perfectly dissolve into water, and if it were burned long enough, and turned into a Calx…"

"…You shall bring Silver to powder, either with Aquafortis, or Calx.  The Calx is afterwards washed in water…"

Camel               

Camel - A large quadruped used in Asia and Africa for carrying burdens, and for riders. As genus, the camel belongs to the order of Pecora. The characteristics are; it has no horns; it has six fore teeth in the under jaw; the canine teeth are wide set, three in the upper and two in the lower jaw; and there is a fissure in the upper lip. The dromedary of Arabian camel, has one bunch on the back, four callous protuberances on the fore legs and two on the hind legs. The Bactrian camel has two bunches on the back.

"…  Camel's froth, drunk with water by a drunken man, will make him mad, as possessed with a devil…"

"… Horses are frightened in battle by Elephants, and a Camel naturally hates a Horse, as Aristotle and Pliny say…"

 "…Some say that Camel's Dung will curl the hair…"

Camel Panther  

"…then, the Stag, the Ostrich, the Camel Panther, gentle creatures, and of thin spirits, have slender bodies and long necks, to show that thin, subtle spirits, have slender bodies and long narrower passage, and be elevated higher to purify them…"

Cameline    

"…Oil is made of the seed of Cameline…it is made for lights, but those of Lomardy make great plenty of a golden colored oil of a seed like to this, called Dradella.  It has plaited leaves as wild Rochet, which they sow among Pulse…"

Camphire (Camphor)                        

Camphire - An old spelling of Camphor.

Camphor - A tough, white, aromatic resin, or gum, obtained from different species of the Laurus family, esp. from Cinnamomum camphara (the Laurus camphara of Linnæus.). Camphor, C10H16O, is volatile and fragrant, and is used in medicine as a diaphoretic, a stimulant, or sedative.

 "…Take two bottles of Greek wine, half a pint of white Rose Water, of Celendine, two ounces, of Fennel, Rue, Eye-Bright, as much, of Tutty, half an ounce, of Cloves as much, Sugar-Candy of Roses, one Drachm, Camphire, half a Drachm, and as much Aloes…"

"…take Allome de Plume, Salt Gemma, one Drachm, Frankincense, one and a half, Camphire, two Drachms, Oil of Tartar, six ounces, Rosewater, one pound…"  (To make your face white)

Candle   

"… What I said of a long Needle, I say also of an Iron bar.  For if you touch it in the middle, the beams of it are spread like the beams of the Sun, or light of a Candle, from the center to the Circumference, and extreme parts…"

Candy    

 "…Some never bruise the flowers, but cut them very small with scissors, and Candy them with Sugar…"

Cancer   

Cancer - In astronomy, one of the twelve signs of the zodiac, represented by the form of a crab, and limiting the suns course northward in summer; hence, the sign of the summer solstice.

"…But the body of a Crab-fish is strangely turned into a Scorpion. Pliny says, that while the sun is in the sign Cancer, if the bodies of those fishes lie dead upon the land, they will be turned into Scorpions…"

Cane                     

Cane - . In botany, this term is applied to several species of plants belonging to several species of plants belonging to different genera, such as Arundo, Calamus, Saccharum, &c. Among these is the bamboo of the East Indies, with a strong stem, which serves for pipes, poles, and walking sticks. The sugar cane, a native of Asia, Africa and America, furnishes the juice from which are made, sugar, melasses and spirit.

"… There is likewise a wonderful enmity between Cane and Fern.  So that one destroys the other.  Hence it is that a Fern root pounded, does loose and shake out the Darts from a wounded body, that were shot or cast out of Canes…"

 "…And there let them grow for a while, and afterward when you take away the Cane or Reed, the Sperage will be whiter then ordinary…"

Canicular Star   

"…The star Arcturus, at his rising causes rain. Dogs are well acquainted with the rising of the Canicular star; for at that time they are commonly mad…"

Canker-worms   

"…some out of putrified earth and plants, as those creatures that are divided between the head and the belly, some out of the dew that lies upon leaves, as Canker-worms, some out of mud…"

Cannon   

Cannon - A large military engine for throwing balls, and other instruments of death, by the force of gun powder. Guns of this kind are made of iron or brass and of different sizes, carrying balls from three or four pounds, to forty eight pounds weight.

"…Then bind them about with cords, and dip them in Tar three or four times, that they may be well fenced about, lest being discharged by the violence of a Brass Cannon, they should break in pieces…"

Cantharides          

Can"tha*ris (?), n.; pl. Cantharides (#). [L., a kind of beetle, esp. the Spanish fly, Gr. .] (Zoöl.) A beetle (Lytta, ? Cantharis, vesicatoria), having an elongated cylindrical body of a brilliant green color, and a nauseous odor; the blister fly or blister beetle, of the apothecary; -- also called Spanish fly. Many other species of Lytta, used for the same purpose, take the same name. Also, Blister beetle.

"…Water of Cantharides smeared on, does presently cause bladders and humours…"

"… Cantharides beaten with strong water, do also raise watery blisters, and cause ruptures…"

Canvas   

Canvas - . A strong cloth made of hemp, flax, or cotton.

"… Which from the Greek word for Pears is called Apyres, and from the Latin Piery, Palladius says it was thus.  They are Bruised and put in a very course bag of Canvas, and pressed with weights, or in a press..."

Capital  / Capitel       

"…And I made a Lye of Quicklime and oak ashes, that they commonly call the Capitel.  In that I boiled Lytharge of Silver…"

"…With this write what you will on an Egg, and when the writing is dried in the Sun, put it into sharp Pickle.  Dry it, boil it, and take off the shell, and you shall read the writing.  I put it into Vinegar, and could do nothing of it.  Perhaps, he means by Pickle, Capital Lees…"

Capon             

Capon: A castrated cock.

 "…Out of three Capons, I have often Extracted an Essence in a small quantity, but of great strength and nutriment…"

"… Put a Capon well pulled, and his Guts taken out, into a Silver dish, and fill the one half of him with Broth, and put him into an oven…"

Caraplasm    

 "…Bruise Hemlock, and lay a Caraplasm thereof with Vinegar to women's breasts, and it will stay them that they shall not increase, especially in Virgins…"

Carat   

Carat - . The weight by which precious stones and pearls are weighed. &hand; The carat equals three and one fifth grains Troy, and is divided into four grains, sometimes called carat grains. Diamonds and other precious stones are estimated by carats and fractions of carats, and pearls, usually, by carat grains.

"…  Brass in the air weighs 65 Carats, and one Grain, in the waters 50 Carats and two Grains…."

Carbuncles       

Carbuncle - .) A very painful acute local inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue, esp. of the trunk or back of the neck, characterized by brawny hardness of the affected parts, sloughing of the skin and deeper tissues, and marked constitutional depression. It differs from a boil in size, tendency to spread, and the absence of a central core, and is frequently fatal. It is also called anthrax.

"…With this, morning and evening, anoint the red Carbuncles of your face, and by degrees they will vanish and be gone…"

"…For in some membranes, where the Testes are bound together, under which there are some soft Carbuncles, and tender, that are called Lions Fat…"

Carchedonius  

"…  Carchedonius was the first that taught men to cover engines and rams with green hides…"

Cardamom      

---Synonyms---Amomum Cardamomum. Alpinia Cardamomum. Matonia Cardamomum. Cardamomum minus. Amomum repens. Cardamomi Semina. Cardamom Seeds. Malabar Cardamums. Ebil. Kakelah seghar. Capalaga. Gujatatti elachi. Ilachi. Ailum. ---Description---The large perennial herb. yielding Cardamom seeds is known in its own country as 'Elattari' or 'Ilachi,' while 'Cardamomum' was the name by which some Indian spice was known in classical times.

See: Grains of Paradise

"…You shall draw out a water from the seeds of Cardamom, (which Apothecaries call Grains of Paradise) Cubebs, Indian Cloves, raspings of Brasil and Spirit of Wine Distilled…"

 "…Take the flowers of Sage, … Spikenard, Mace, Cubebs, Parsley seed, Cardamoms…"

Cardan   

Cardan (Jerômo) of Pavia (1501-1576), a great mathematician and astrologer. He professed to have a demon or familiar spirit, who revealed to him the secrets of nature.

"…  Cardan says,  that such stones have a thin moisture in them which by the force of the Vinegar, is turned into a vapor…"

Cardanus   

Cardano, Girolamo Italian astrologer and mathematician; published Tartaglia's solution of cubic equation and Ferrari's solution of quartic equation 1545 _1501-1576

"…Wherefore Cardanus said false, that the Loadstone draws where it has but a thin cover, and more in one part then another.  For it attracts only from one certain point, as it had its position before in the mines…"

"…Wherefore it is false that Cardanus says, that the Needle in the Compass declines from the Meridian line, because it inclines to the Pole Star in the Little Bears tail…"

Cardinal of Estings   

"…Nor were the labors, diligence, and wealth, of most famous nobles, potentates, great and learned men, wanting to assist me; especially whom I name for his honor the illustrious and most reverend Cardinal of Estings: All which did afford there voluntary and bountiful help to this work…"

Note:  In 1579 della Porta moved to Rome and entered the service of Luigi, cardinal d'Este, and frequented the court of Duke Alfonso II d'Este at Ferrara. He also lived in Venice while working for the Cardinal. In fact he was one of a number of dramatists who worked for the Cardinal, like Torquato Tasso, the greatest Italian poet of the late Renaissance. Della Porta, however, also undertook scientific work for the Cardinal, making optical instruments for him while in Venice.

Caricae   

"… Wine of figs…It is made, says   Dioscorides, of ripe Figs, and it is called Catorchites or Sycites, Chelidonian or Phaenician Figs called Caricae, are steeped in a pot with a hole in the bottom with a Pitched Reed, and the hole stopped with Flax

Carinondas    

"…were excellent Magicians: as, amongst the Persians, Zoroastres the son of Orimafius, whom we spoke of before, amongst the Romans, Numa Pompilius; Thespion, amongst the Gymnosophists; Zamolxis, amongst the Thracians: Abbarais, amongst the Hyperboreans; Hermes, amongst the Egyptians and Budda among the Babylonians. Besides these, Apuleius reckons up Carinondas, Damigeron, Hifmoses, Apollonius, and Dardanus, who all followed Zoroastres and Osthanes. .."

Cariotae   

"… Pliny says that in the East they make wine of dates, and he reckons up fifty kinds of dates, and as many different wines from them.   Cariotae are the chief, full of juice, of which are made the principal wines of the East, they are naught for the head, and thence they have their name…"

Carline   

Carline -  In botany, without a stem, having flowers resting on the ground; as the Carline thistle.

See:   Colewort

"…In the month of July, take three ounces of the seed, stamp it gently, and steep it in two glasses of the best white Wine, with Gentian, Tormentil, white Dittany, Zedoary, and Carline gathered in August…"

Carp  

Carp - A fish, a species of cyprinus, an excellent fish for ponds. These fishes breed rapidly, grow to a large size, and live to a great age.

"…A Carp is generated of Putrefaction…"  

Carrot            

The Carrot was well known to the ancients, and is mentioned by Greek and Latin writers under various names, being, however, not always distinguished from the Parsnip and Skirret, closely allied to it. The Greeks - Professor Henslow tells us - had three words: Sisaron, first occurring in the writings of Epicharmus, a comic poet (500 B.C.); Staphylinos, used by Hippocrates (430 B.C.) and Elaphoboscum, used by Dioscorides (first century A.D.), whose description of the plant applies accurately to the modern Carrot. Pliny says:  'There is one kind of wild pastinaca which grows spontaneously; by the Greeks it is known as staphylinos. Another kind is grown either from the root transplanted or else from seed, the ground being dug to a very considerable depth for the purpose. It begins to be fit for eating at the end of the year, but it is still better at the end of two; even then, however, it preserves its strong pungent flavour, which it is found impossible to get rid of.'

"…And to be short, in the same manner are extracted the oils out of the seeds of Carrot, Angelica, Marjoram, Rue, Rosemary, Parsley, Smallage and Dill, and suchlike…"

"…The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose…"

Cartel    

Cartel - a formal or informal arrangement (sometimes unlawful) among independent commercial enterprises organized for the purpose of common gain, as by limiting competition or fixing prices

"…Whence it is that this Benjamin is not for many years to be found in Cyrene, because the farmers, that hire the grounds, finding more gain by it, devour them by their Cartel. .."

Cartridge  

Cartridge - A case of pasteboard or parchment, holding the charge of powder or powder and balls, for a cannon, mortar, musket or pistol. The cartridges for small arms, prepared for battle, contain the powder and ball; those for cannon and mortars are made of paste-board, or tin. Cartridges, without balls, are called blank cartridges.

 "…Presently thrust in a sharp instrument at the vent hole, and make a hole in the Cartridge, and feed it with powder, and put fire to it again.  And in a short time it will discharge twice…"

Carvel    

Carvel - A light, round, old-fashioned ship.

"…  Leo the Emperor, burnt with this kind of fire those of the East, that sailed against Constantinople with 1800 Carvels…"

 Casar de bello civili   

"… Also there is a kind of root, found by them that were with Valerius, which is called Chara, which mingled with milk relieved a soldier that was hungry, and it was made up like to Bread…"

Casia  / Cassia   

---Synonyms---Bastard Cinnamon. Chinese Cinnamon. Cassia lignea. Cassia Bark. Cassia aromaticum. Canton Cassia.

---Description---As its name of Bastard Cinnamon implies, the product of this tree is usually regarded as a substitute for that of the Cinnarmomum zeylanicum of Ceylon, which it closely resembles. The cultivated trees are kept as coppices, and numerous shoots, which are not allowed to rise higher than 10 feet, spring from the roots. Their appearance when the flame-coloured leaves and delicate blossoms first appear is very beautiful. The fruit is about the size of a small olive. The leaves are evergreen, ovaloblong blades from 5 to 9 inches long.

"…And it will not only degenerate into Betony, but into Ballamint also.  Likewise the boughs of the shrub Casia, as Galen reports, will degenerate into Cinnamon…"

Cassianus       

"…We may learn to do it out of Cassianus, who following the authority of Varro, says, that Artichokes always bring forth fruit about the same season that they are set in, and therefore it is easy to have them all year long…"

"…  Cassianus makes it thus;  Put into a vessel old Figs, Torrefied Barley, and the internal parts of Citrons. .."

 Castianus    

See:   Geoponic.Grac

"…But because (say some) Goat blood will break the Diamond, if the Loadstone is anointed with Goat blood, it will recover.   Castianus in Geoponic.Grac…"

Cat      

Cat - A name applied to certain species of carnivorous quadrupeds, of the genus Felis. The domestic cat needs no description. It is a deceitful animal, and when enraged, extremely spiteful. It is kept in houses, chiefly for the purpose of catching rats and mice.

"…Some cannot away to look upon a Cat, a Mouse and such like, but presently they swoon…"

"…The eyes of Cats are also acquainted with the alterations of the Moon, so that they are sometimes broader as the light is less, and narrower when the light of the Moon is greater…"

Cathetus   

Cathetus - In geometry, a line or radius, falling perpendicularly on another line or surface; as the two sides of a right-angled triangle.

"…For where the Cathetus shall cut the line of reflection, there the species reflected will seem almost parted from the glass…"

Catlings   

Catling - The down or moss growing about walnut trees, resembling the hair of a cat.  Cat-gut.

"…Others cast in the dust that is on the Catlings of small Nuts, and the Spaniards cast in Gyp, to make it clear and all these we may use in waters…"

Cato                

Cato, Marcus Porcius (Cato the Elder)

Marcus Porcius Cato, or Cato the Elder, was a famous censor of ancient Rome, also known as Cato the Censor. Born at Tusculum in 234 BC, he was probably a local aristocrat, though tradition has given him peasant origins. Although opposed to Greek influences, Cato contributed much to Roman culture. He patronized the poet Quintus Ennius and stimulated Roman rhetoric by publishing his own speeches. Cato's Origins, the first history of Rome in Latin, set the pattern for Latin prose. Only his On Farming survives.

"… Cato says, that the boughs of the Fig tree whereon the Figs grow, are to be preserved together with the fruit, and those Figs that you would keep, must be gathered somewhat green and sour…"

"…Great Cato, the chief man for all commodity, and the master of all good arts, as Pliny says, in his books of husbandry, he used some charms agaist the pains of Sciatica, saying, that if anything be dislocated, you may charm it whole again by this means…"

Catoptrick glasses   

"…Now I am come to mathematical sciences, and this place requires that I show some experiments concerning Catoptrick glasses…"

Catorchites   

"… Wine of Figs…It is made, says   Dioscorides, of ripe figs, and it is called Catorchites or Sycites, Chelidonian or Phaenician figs called Caricae, are steeped in a pot with a hole in the bottom with a Pitched Reed, and the hole stopped with Flax…"

Cattle  

"…For as a Lion does with great rage and furiously kill Cattle and Sheep, so does Chokefitch all Pulse..."

Cauldron              

Cauldron - A large kettle or boiler of copper, brass, or iron.

See:   Caldron

"…now you must put in your Cauldron more Mastick in drops and bake it also rather more over the fire…"

 "…The cap after the fashion of the Limbeck, must have its pipe at the bottom running round, and let it drop forth at the nose of it.  Set this upon a Brass Cauldron, that will hold much water…"

Ceasar               

See:   Nero

 "… Ceasar sent his servant, being a milesian, named Epicrates, to those of the town, desiring them to lend him some money, which they presently sent to him…"

"…When Ceasar commanded the citizens about the Alps, to bring him in provision, those that were secure in a castle of wood, refused to obey his commands.   Ceasar bade, make bundles of wood, and to light torches, and lay these to the castle…"

Cedar    

Cedar - This name is given to different species of the juniper, and to a species of Pinus. The latter is that which is mentioned in scripture. It is an evergreen, grows to a great size, and is remarkable for its durability.

"…Oranges may be kept in Cedar dust…."

Celendine / Celandine        

Celandine - A plant, swallow-wort, horned or prickly poppy, growing on old walls, among rubbish, and in waste places. The lesser celandine is called pile-wort, a species of Ranunculus. The name is also given to the Bocconia, a plant of the West Indies, called the greater tree-celandine

 "…Take two bottles of Greek wine, half a pint of white Rose Water, of Celendine, two ounces, of Fennel, Rue, Eye-Bright, as much, of Tutty, half an ounce, of Cloves as much, Sugar-Candy of Roses, one Drachm, Camphire, half a Drachm, and as much Aloes…"

"… Then bruise the roots of Celandine, and of the greater clivers Madder, of each a like qulity.  Mingle them, being bruised, very well with oil, wherein Cummin seed,  shavings of Box, and a little Saffron, are mingled, annoint your head, and let it abide so for twenty hours…"

Celestial     

Celestial - Heavenly; belonging or relating to heaven; dwelling in heaven; as celestial spirits; celestial joys. Hence the word conveys the idea of superior excellence, delight, purity, &c. Belonging to the upper regions, or visible heaven. Descending from heaven.

"…That the Wheatmeal may be managed with the life of its heat, which is the offspring of Celestial fire.  By nature it is of such Tenuity, that being raised with its heat, it will make the lump swell so much, that it will come up to the top of the vessel…"

"…He knows that fruits, and flowers, and all other growing things that the world affords, are produced by the circuit and motion of Celestial bodies…"

Celsus   

Aulus Cornelius Celsus, 1st century AD, was a Roman encyclopedist whose most important surviving works are concerned with medicine. De medicina draws on the works of earlier writers, gives some of the history of Greek and Hellenistic medicine, and discusses such areas of medicine as surgery, nutrition, pharmacology, and mental illness, frequently citing the opinions of Hippocrates.

"…And left the divers names of weights should hinder thy working, we have used those weights and names which Cornelius Celsus used before us…"

Centifole Rose    

"…The Centifole Roses to be more odoriferous…"

Ceres   

Ceres was the Roman name of Mother-Earth, the protectress of agriculture and of all the fruits of the earth.

"… For the women in the feasts of Ceres, among the Athenians, put Willow park leaves under them, to keep them chaste when they lay in bed, for so they extinguished the desire of venery…"

Cerate    

Cerate -  A thick kind of ointment, composed of wax and oil, with other ingredients; applied externally in various diseases.

"…Also Walnuts bruised or smeared on, will take away black and blue spots.   Vinegar or Honey anointed will take away the same.  So does Garlic rubbed on.  And brings black and blue to the right color.  Or the ashes of it burnt, smeared on the same.  Or it is anointed on with Honey, or Suet, or a Cerate…"

Ceria   

"…Beer in Egypt, called Zythum, in Spain , Caelia and Ceria, Beer in France and other provinces…"

Ceruse / Ceruss /  Ceruse of Vanice                  

White-lead; a carbonate of lead, produced by exposing the metal in thin plates to the vapor of vinegar. Lead is sometimes found native in the form of ceruse.  Ceruse of antimony is a white oxyd of antimony, which separates from the water in which diaphoretic antimony has been washed.

"…It is so profitable to preserve iron from Rust, that many have labored how to do it with ease.   Pliny says, that Iron is preserved from rust, by Ceruss, Gip, and liquid Pitch…"

 "…Then you take the bulk of a handfull of white wax, matt it and then add to it the size of a musket ball of Ceruse of Vanice…"

Ceruse Tree    

"…Make the Lye of two parts of the ashes of the Ceruse tree, one of Lime, and half a Porringer of Alom…"

Cervise       

"… If you write with a sour Grape that would be black, or with Cervises, when you hold them to the fire, they are concocted, and will give the same color they would in due time give upon the tree, when they were ripe…"

"…  Pliny reports the like out of Cato.  That Cervises are put into earthen vessels well pitched. The covering being plastered over with Morter…"

Cestiana   

See:   Quince

"… Quinces are of many kinds, some called Mariana from Marius, Manliana from Manlius, Appiana Claudiana from Appius Claudius, Cestiana from Cestius…"

Cestius   

See:   Quince

"… Quinces are of many kinds, some called Mariana from Marius, Manliana from Manlius, Appiana Claudiana from Appius Claudius, Cestiana from Cestius…"

Ceterach   

Ceterach - A trivial name of a species of Asplenium, or spleen-wort.

"…Take Saxifrage, Maidenhair, Pellitory of the wall, Parsley, Pimpernel and Ceterach.  Distill them in Balneo Mariae, and let the patient drink of it every other day.  For it corrodes and eats away the Stone, though never so great…"

Chaenice   

"… There is another composition of the same, that has of Athenian Sesamum half a sextarius, of honey a half part, of oil a Cotyle, and a Chaenice of sweet almonds mundified…"

Chaff      

"…Then take a new earthen Vat, and fill it with dry Chaff well sifted, so that it will be without dust…"

"…Some preserve fruit in Chaff, which by its innate frigidity, either keeps the frosty rigor unmelted, or by its genuine dryness keeps all things from putritude.  Or by being void of all qualities keeps fruit in proper quality…"

Chamaelion  / Chamaeleon  / Chameleon            

Chameleon - An animal of the genus Lacerta, or lizard, with a naked body, a tail and four feet. The body is six or seven inches long, and the tail five inches; with this it clings to the branches of trees. The skin is cold to the touch, and contains small grains or eminences, of a bluish gray color, in the shade, but in the light of the sun, all parts of the body become of a grayish brown, or tawny color. It is a native of Africa and Asia.

"…The gall of a Stellio beaten with water, will make weasels come together, says Pliny.  Also, the wise Plinianists write, that with the gall of a Chamaelion cast into water, weasels will be called together…"

"… Avicenna says, that the Decoction of Chamaelion put into a bath, will make him green colored that stays long in that bath.  And then by degrees he will recover his former color…"

Champion-fields    

"…The Egyptians, who first proved and found out the effects of the heavens, because they dwelt in the open Champion-fields…"

Chamomil  (Chamomile)   

Chamomile -  ---Synonyms---Manzanilla (Spanish). Maythen (Saxon). Chamomile is one of the oldest favourites amongst garden herbs and its reputation as a medicinal plant shows little signs of abatement. The Egyptians reverenced it for its virtues, and from their belief in its power to cure ague, dedicated it to their gods

See:  Oil of Hispanus

"…Take two pounds of new Wax, four ounces of Wax, as many of Linseed, two ounces of Rosemary flowers, and Bay berries, as many of Betony.  Of Chamomil flowers or the Oil of it, three ounces…"

Chap     

Chap - The upper and lower part of the mouth; the jaw. It is applied to beasts, and vulgarly to men; generally in the plural, the chaps or mouth.

"…For the morsel he takes in his mouth, he can by no means swallow down, but he must hurt his Chaps, and be in great pain, so that he can hardly drink…"

"…When he takes a bite of it, it will so burn his Chaps, and bite his mouth and tongue, and so fetch off the skin of his tongue, that he will so Mump, and draw his Chaps in and out, and gape, and make such sport, that will make people laugh…"

Chaldea    

"…The Babylonians and Assyrians call them Chaldeans, of Chaldaea, a country in Asia…"

"…But in her last quarter (the moon), when she loses all her light, then she is merely hot; and the wives of Chaldea hold that this state of heaven is best of all other…"

Chalk            

Chalk - A well known calcarious earth, of an opake white color, soft and admitting no polish. It contains a large portion of carbonic acid, and is a subspecies of carbonate of lime.

"…Therefore, when it has gained the color of Chalk, it must be taken out…"

"…therefore we will try to ripen fruit and flowers before their time, by laying warm cherishers, as Lime, or Chalk, and Nitre, and warm water, to the roots of trees and herbs…"

Chamaelaea    

"…Powder them, and make them all up with hot water.  Put some of this confection into the hole that goes into the Matrix.  Or, Galls, Sumach, Plantain, great Comfrey, Allome, Chamaelaea.  Take equal parts of them all, and boil them in rainwater, and foment the privities…"

Chanides   

"…Coelius called these dogs Chanides, being gendred of a kind of wolf called Chaos, as some suppose, whence they have that name…"

Chaos   

"… Thoes gendred of a wolf and a female hyaena, Pliny says, that this Chaos, which by the French is called Raphium, was first set forth for a show, in the games of Pompey the Great. And that it had spots like a leopard, but is fashioned like a wolf…."

"…Coelius called these dogs Chanides, being gendred of a kind of wolf called Chaos, as some suppose, whence they have that name…"

Chap     

Chap - To crack; to open in long slits; as, the earth chaps; the hands chap.

"…The time serves well to gather them, when their wrinkles be filled out with moisture, and they Chap because they have so much juice, as if they were about to break in pieces…"

"… Mago, when he would preserve any kind of fruit close, he covers them all over very carefully with Potters Chalk, and then dries it in the Sun.  And if  there happens to be any Chap in the Mould, he closes it up with Loam…"

Chapelets   

Chaplet - A string of beads used by the Roman Catholics, by which they count the number of their prayers. They are made sometimes of coral, of wood, of diamonds, &c., and are called parternosters. The invention is ascribed to Peter the hermit, who probably learnt it in the East, as the Orientals use a kind of chaplet, called a chain, rehearsing one of the perfections of God on each link, or head. The Great Mogul is said to have eighteen of these chains, all precious tones. The Turks also use a kind of chaplet in reciting their prayers.

"…They call them water chestnuts vulgarly, and the inhabitants use them in meats, as they do chestnuts.  Pilgrims make Chapelets of them…"

Chara   

Chara - A genus of flowerless plants, having articulated stems and whorled branches. They flourish in wet places.

See Wakerobin, Cuckow-pint, Arum

"…  Casar de bello civili,  Also there is a kind of root, found by them that were with Valerius, which is called Chara, which mingled with milk releived a soldier that was hungry, and it was made up like to bread…"

"…And in   Dioscorides in the false names of simples, Cuckow-pint was of old called Chara. .."

Charabe   

"…Of Charabes…I will deliver to you the way that I use.  For the Paracelsians do either conceal it, or not know it…"

 "…And when all is dissolved, mix the waters all together, and let it evaporate over a fire.  So in the bottom will remain the Magistery of Charabe.  It will take away scars in the face and cure the Vertigo…"

Charadrius  

"… The Charadrius with Brimstone..".

Charger    

Charger - A large dish.

"…Put the Gilt plate of Silver into it, and when the Quicksilver sticks to the Gold, take it out and put it into a Charger, into which the Gold, when it is cold, will fall with the Quicksilver…"

Chariclea   

"…Heliodorus begins that excellent history which he wrote, with the Queen of Ethiopia, who brought forth Chariclea a fair daughter, the cause was determined to be the fable of Andromeda pictured in that chamber, where she lay with the King…"

Chastity   

Chastity - The state of being chaste; purity of body; freedom from unlawful sexual intercourse.

"…And Agamemnon departing from his country to go to Troy, doubting of the Chastity of Clytemnestra, left a Harper, who with Music did so incite her to Continency and Chastity…"

Chawn   

"…He takes the blossoms of the tree when they begin to wither, and wraps in them every Pomegranate by itself, and then binds them about with bonds, thereby preventing their Putrefaction, and their Chawns and chops which otherwise would be in them…"

Cheese         

Cheese - The curd of milk, coagulated by rennet, separated from the serum or whey, and pressed in a vat, hoop or mold.

"… For Hippace signifies Cheese made of Mares Milk, and is no herb.   Theodorus translated it Equestrem, as it were a root like Licorice, fit to drive away hunger and thirst…"

 "…For Hippocrates says, the Scythian shepherds eat Hippace, but that is Mares Cheese…"

Chelonites  

See:   Crapodina

"…There is a stone called Chelonites, the French name it Crapodina, which they report to be found in the head of a great old Toad…."

Chemists   

"…Then let it stand a little at the fire, take it off and let it cool, and skim off the dregs on the top, and you shall find at the bottom what the Chemists call the Regulus…"

Cherisher  

Cherish - To treat with tenderness and affection; to nurture with care; to protect and aid.

"…therefore we will try to ripen fruit and flowers before their time, by laying warm Cherishers, as Lime, or Chalk, and Nitre, and warm water, to the roots of trees and Herbs. .."

Cherry           

Cherry - . The fruit of a tree, a species of Prunus, of which there are many varieties, as the red or garden cherry, the red heart, the white heart, the black cherry, the black heart, and several others. The fruit is a pulp inclosing a kernel. It is related that this fruit was brought from Cerasus in Pontus to Italy, after the defeat of Mithridates by Lucullus, A R. 680., and introduced into England by the Romans, about 120 years afterwards, A.D. 55.

"…What shall I say of Laurel Cherries, found in Pliny his time…"

 "…And you shall scarce ever have a good and a sweet Cherry, unless it be by Grafting upon some other tree, as Pamphilus reports…"

Chestnut                

Chestnut - The fruit, seed or nut of a tree belonging to the genus Fagus. It is inclosed in a prickly pericarp, which contains two or more seeds.

"…As for example, that the Fig tree may be incorporated into the Plane tree, and the Mulberry tree, and likewise the Mulberry tree into the Chestnut tree, the Turpentine tree, and the White Poplar, whereby you my procure White Mulberries, and likewise the Chestnut tree into a Hazel, and an Oak, and likewise the Pomegranate tree into all trees, for that it is like to a common whore, ready and willing for all comers, and likewise the Cherry tree into a Turpentine tree.."

"… Corellius, a nobleman of Rome, born at the city of Areste, Grafted a Chestnut upon a Chestnut branch in the country of Naples, and so produced a Chestnut called Corelliana, after his name…"

Chiches    

Chiches - Dwarf peas.

 "…After this manner it may be made of Tares and vetches, and the favour of them is dulcified with water and mingling meal with them.   Bread is made also of Peas, Chiches, Tares, Lentils, Beans, and chiefly of Acorns…"

Chicken            

Chicken - The young of fowls, particularly of the domestic hen, or gallinaceous fowls.

"…When these are hatched, you must bring up the Chickens with Barley-flour, and some leaves of Smallage shred among it…"

 "…It is nature's way, but Eggs are not only so hatched, but of their own accord in the earth, as in Egypt covered with Dung they will bring Chickens.  Diodorus Siculus de Egyptiis…"

 Chickpea      

Chickpea - chickpea, garbanzo (bean) .  A hard pale brown round bean which can be cooked and eaten. Chickpeas and lentils are pulses and are an important part of a vegetarian diet.

"…Make pellets of these as big as Chickpeas…"

"…But Sows will grow fatter by wallowing in the mire.  Figs and Chickpeas, will fat them soonest, and they desire change of meats, Varro…"

Chinches       

Chinch - A genus of insects, resembling the feather-wing moths. These insects live in the flowers of plants, and wander from flower to flower, but prefer those which are sweetest.

"…Sharp   Vinegar of new wine…and the decoctions of Chinches, and pot shards red hot, all of these put severally into vineger, will make it tart…"

"…The roots of old Grass, and Raisins, and the leaves of a wild Pear tree bruised, and the root of the Bramble, and Whey of Milk, burnt Acorns, Prunes roasted, and the decoctions of Chinches, and pot shards red hot, all of these put severally into   Vinegar, will make it tart…"

Chokefitch    

"…Because I see that there is great antipathy between Pulse and Chokefitch, that destroys and strangles them.  Some call this Lions Herb.  For as a lion does with great rage and furiously kill cattle and sheep, so does Chokefitch all Pulse. .."

Choke-weed 

See:    Strangle-tare

"…  Strangle-tare or Choke-weed desires to grow among Pulse, especially among Beans and Fetches, but it chokes them all…"

Choler  /   Cholerick        

Choler - The bile. By the superabundance of this fluid, anger was formerly supposed to be produced; or perhaps the opinion was that the bile caused the inflamed appearance of the face in anger.

"…For being a Distemper in the blood, it will cast him into a continual fever.  Whereas, if it had been a Distemper of Choler or Flegm, it would have afflicted him by intervals…"

"…They strike them through as with a sword, set their entrails on fire, and make them waste into a leaness, especially if they are of a Cholerick or Sanguine complextion…"

Cholick   

"…Galen says, that the Lark has a crested crown, of the fashion of the herb Fumitory, and that either of them is good against the Cholick…"

Chrisial   

"… Chrisial is like unto water, if one is sick of an Ague keep-it, and roll it in his mouth, it quenches his thirst…"

Christs Thorn    

 "…Dioscorides accounts Christs Thorn, wild Hemp, and Valerian, hung up in the house, an Amulet against Witchcraft…"

Chromaticum   

"… Aristotle in his Politicks, do we not read that the Lacedaemonians rejected that kind of Music called Chromaticum, because it made those that heard it too effeminate…"

Chryfippus /Chrysippus        

Chrysippus NisiChrysippus fuisset, Porticus non esset. Chrysippus of Soli was a disciple of Zeno the Stoic, and Cleanthes his successor. He did for the Stoics what St. Paul did for Christianity- that is, he explained the system, showed by plausible reasoning its truth, and how it was based on a solid foundation. Stoicism was founded by Zeno, it is true; but if Chrysippus had not advocated it, the system would never have taken root

"…Goats care not for basil-gentle, because it brings a lethargy, as Chryfippus writes…"

"…So there is one plant, called Dogs Bane.  Chrysippus says, that dogs are killed with it, if the shoots of it are given to them with water…"

Chrysocolla          

Chrysocolla - Carbonate of copper, of two subspecies, the blue and the green; formerly called blue and green chrysocolla, also mountain blue and mountain green. It occurs in crystals, stalactites and other forms.

"… Then take artificial Chrysocolla, such as Goldsmiths use to Soder with, and red Arsenic, and by degrees strew them in…"

"…Add to this, Mercury Sublimate, Verdigrease, artificial Chrysocolla, called Borax, and a good quantity of the powder of sea Cockle shells finely beaten…"

Chrysolite  

Chrysolite - A mineral, called by Hauy and Brongniart, peridote and by Jameson, prismatic chrysolite. Its prevailing color is some shade of green. It is harder than glass, but less hard than quartz; often transparent, sometimes only translucent. It occurs sometimes in crystals, sometimes in small amorphous masses or grains, and sometimes in rolled pieces.

"…When you have made a Topaz, and would have a Chrysolite, add a little more Copper, that it may have a little verdure.  For the Chrysolite differs from the Topaz in nothing, but that it has a greater luster…"

Chydeae  

"… Dioscorides teaches thus,  Put ripe Dates called Chydeae, into a pitcher with a hole at bottom, and stopt with a pitched reed…"

Cicer   

"…So likewise that kind of Pulse which is called Cicer, is preserved by its own saltiness…"

Cicero              

See: Tully

Famed for his oratory, Marcus Tullius Cicero was a political leader in ancient Rome. He was born on Jan. 3, 106 BC, to a locally prominent family connected with Gaius Marius, at Arpinum. his works on ethics--notably De amicitia, De officiis, De finibus, De senectute, Tusculanae Disputationes, and De natura deorum.

 "… Damon relates of a Poison in Ethiopia, whose sweat would bring a Consumption in all bodies it touched.  And it is manifest, that all women which have two pupils in one eye, can Bewitch with it.   Cicero writes of them…"

"…  Cicero reports, that Pythagoras made a young man more calm by a flower tune, who was a Tancomonite, and was Whitled with Wine, and mad for a Whore, and spurred forward by a Phrygian tune…"

Consumption    

Consumption - . In medicine, a wasting of flesh; a gradual decay or diminution of the body; a word of extensive signification. But particularly, the disease called phthisis pulmonalis, pulmonic consumption, a disease seated in the lungs, attended with hectic fever, cough, &c.

 "… Damon relates of a Poison in Ethiopia, whose sweat would bring a Consumption in all bodies it touched.  And it is manifest, that all women which have two pupils in one eye, can Bewitch with it.   Cicero writes of them…"

Cicinum   

"…Oil may be made of Ricinus, called Cicinum….  Dioscorides makes it thus.  Let ripe Ricini, as many as you please, wither in the hot sun, and be laid upon hurdles.  Let them be so long in the sun, till the outward shell break and fall off…"

Cimex   

also, bedbug

Bedbugs, family Cimicidae, order Hemiptera, are flat, broadly oval, wingless bugs about 0.6 cm (0.24 in) in length that feed by sucking blood from birds and mammals. The common bedbug that attacks humans is Cimex lectularius, which is often a pest in houses, hotels, military barracks, and other living quarters; it also attacks animals. This insect is usually nocturnal, hiding in cracks and crevices during the day. The adults may live several months and can survive long periods without food. Bedbugs inflict irritating bites; they are not known to cause disease.

"…The little Worm Cimex is good against the biting of asps, as Pliny shows by hens, who, if they eat that Worm, are all day after, free from the hurt of Asps…."

Cinnaber / Cinnabaris              

Cinnabar - Red sulphuret of mercury. Native cinnabar is an ore of quicksilver, moderately compact, very heavy, and of an elegant striated red color. It is called native vermilion, and its chief use is in painting. The intensity of its color is reduced by bruising and dividing it into small parts. It is found amorphous, or under some imitative form, or crystalized. Factitious cinnabar is a mixture of mercury and sulphur sublimed, and thus reduced into a fine red glebe.

"…Also of vinegar and Gold Litharge, there is made a decoction very good to dye the hair yellow as gold.  Some there are, that draw out a strong water with fire, out of Saltpeter, Vitriol, Salt Ammoniac, and Cinnaber, whereas the hairs dyed, will be presently yellow…"

"…To Fix Cinnaber.  He that desires it, I think he must do thus.  Break the Cinnaber into pieces as big as Walnuts…"

"…This is only for friends.  Take nine parts of burnt Tin, seven of Lead, two of Cinnabaris.  Of Spanish Soder and Tartar, one part and a half.  Of the Blood stone one part, of Painters Red a fourth part…"

Cincius  

"…  Macrobius reports, 3. Lib. Satur., that Cincius in his oration, where he persuades to put the practise Fannius his law, concerning moderation of expense, did object to the men of his age, that they brought the Trojan Hog to their tables…"

Cinder     

Cinder - Small particles of matter, remaining after combustion, in which fire is extinct; as the cinders of a forge.

"…Either with Cinders, or in Balneo Mariae, but only, observe to kindle the fire by degrees, lest they burn.  There are also in some plants, sweet leaves, as in Myrtle, Lavender, Citron, and such like, which if you mix with the flowers, will no way hinder the favour of them, but add a pleasantness to the waters…"

"… Take Aqua Vita, and if it be an odoriferous body, Fountain water, three or four times distilled.  Mix with the aforesaid Oil, and stir it about, and so let it digest for six days.  Then distil it over Cinders…."

Cinirus   

"…On the other side, there is a beast called …Cinirus, generated of a He-goat, and an Ewe, as the same Albertus writes of. .."

Cinnamon                                 

Cinnamon - The bark of two species of Laurus. The true cinnamon is the inner bark of the Laurus Cinnamomum, a native of Ceylon. The base cinnamon is from the Laurus Cassia. The true cinnamon is a most grateful aromatic, of a fragrant smell, moderately pungent taste, accompanied with some degree of sweetness and astringency. It is one of the best cordial, carminative and restorative spices.

"…And it will not only degenerate into Betony, but into Ballamint also.  Likewise the boughs of the shrub Casia, as Galen reports, will degenerate into Cinnamon…"

"…Three Drachms of Cinnamon in powder, ten of Cypress Nuts, five green Pineapples, two Drachms of Bole-Armenick and Mastick…"

Circulation         

Circulation - circulation is an operation by which the same vapor, raised by fire, falls back to be returned and distilled several times.

"…Then pour the Distilled water upon the herbs again, and Distil them in this Circulation for six days, which will make it of a more lively color…"

 "…And then breaking the vessel to reserve the unfrozen Liquor, in which you will find a great deal of virtue.  But if you desire to have it better, you may perfect it by Circulation…"

Circumference     

Circumference - The line that bounds a circle; the exterior line of a circular body; the whole exterior surface of a round body; a periphery.

"…But would we know how far the virtue has come, we must know how far reached the Circumference of the virtue as I said.  Therefore if the Circumference of it be a foot, the force will go a foot long into the Needle…"

Cisalpina    

"…He said ..PlinyGallia Cisalpina made, Oil of Acorns of the Oak to serve for lights.  But we can make very little…"

"…Oil out of grapes or rasins…The Greeks called these Gigarta.   Gallia Cisalpina makes oil of them, bruised, heated, and pressed in a press, but it is very little fit for lights, because it burns exceeding clear…"

Cistern              

Cistern - An artificial reservoir or receptacle for holding water, beer or other liquor, as in domestic uses, distilleries, and breweries.

 "…You must put your Apples, says he, into earthen vessels, well pitched and made up close.  And when you have so done, drown those vessels in a Cistern…"

"… Leo Baptista says, if you place a glazed vessel full of Salt, and well stopt with lime, putting oil under that no water may penetrate into it, that it may hang in the middle of the waters of a Cistern…"

Cithern / Cithern-wire        

Cithern - A stringed musical instrument, among the ancients, the precise form of which is not known, but it bore some resemblance to the modern guitar, the name of which is evidently from this ancient word.

"…To the extremities of these lines I fasten a pin, and I put a brass Cithern-wire upon them, and upon it I draw a line, and the parabolical line is exactly described by it…"

"…When they are dried, put them into the glasses, take some wire Cithern strings, and wind them into round clues, so that being let go, they may untwine themselves again…"

Citron                         

Citron - The fruit of the citron tree, a large species of lemon.

"…An Orange or Citron Tree bear diverse Apples of diverse relishes…"

"… Palladius does thus preserve them from the air.  He shuts up every Citron in a vessel by itself.  Plasters them up.  And sets them orderly in a fit place prepared for that purpose…"

Citron-Apple Tree   

See:   Citron

"…for he grafted an apple into the citron-tree, and that often, but it withered as soon as ever it did shoot forth.  However, at length it took fast hold, and became a Citron-apples tree…"

Citron Pill      

See:   Citron

"…Oil of Citron Pill"

"…Take therefore three handfulls of Sage, Nettles, Rosemary, Mallows, and the rind of the roots of Walnut.  Wash them well, and beat them.  Also as much of the Flowers of Sage, Rosemary, Olive and Plantaine Leaves, two handfulls of Hypocistis, Horehound, and the tops of Bramble, one pound of the Flower of Myrtle, half a pound of the seed, two handfulls of rosebuds, with their stalks, two drachms of Saunders, Coriander prepared, and Citron Pill.  Three drachms of Cinnamon in powder, ten of Cypress Nuts, five green Pine-Apples, two drachms of Bole-Armenick and Mastick.  Powder them all, and infuse them in sharp black wine…"

Citticus   

Zeno of Citium, b. Citium, Cyprus, c.336 BC, d. c.261 BC, was the founder of Stoicism. He went to Athens c.313 and was impressed both by the cynics and by the Megarian logicians. He advocated a life that "followed reason"--that was free from passion, dignified, and self-respecting. His ethical doctrine was very austere: either one was a good person (a Stoic sage) in every way or, if there were any shortcomings, one was totally without virtue. Zeno Citticus taught that the human soul was not complex but was truly only reason (logos); the rest--ambition, fear, appetite--ought to be eliminated and was not in any way part of the self.

"… Zeno Citticus holds two beginnings, God and Matter; the one of them active or efficient, the other the passive principle…"

Civet               

Civet - A substance, of the consistence of butter or honey, taken from a bag under the tail of the civet-cat. It is of a clear, yellowish, or brownish color; of a strong smell, and offensive when undiluted, but agreeable when a small portion is mixed with another substance. It is used as a perfume.

"…For there are many tenuous, oily flowers, as of Rosemary and Juniper, and other things, as Musk, Amber, Civet, Gum and suchlike out of which may be drawn oils very sweet and medicinable…"

"…They yield a fourth part, and it is a powerful antidote against poison and Witchcraft, and it is the best menstruum to extract the scent out of Musk, Civet and Amber, and to make sweet ointments of, because it does not quickly grow rank.."

Claudian  

"…And for this cause, our ancestors to signify as much, did often engrave the picture of Venus upon the Loadstone.  Hence Claudian writes…"

Claudiana   

Appiana Claudiana

See:   Quince

"… Quinces are of many kinds, some called Mariana from Marius, Manliana from Manlius, Appiana Claudiana from Appius Claudius, Cestiana from Cestius…"

Claudius, Appius   

Claudius…ancient Roman gens. Appius Claudius Sabinus Inregillenis or Regillensis was a Sabine; he came (c.504 B.C.) with his tribe to Rome. As consul (495 B.C.) he was known for his severity.

"…Quinces are of many kinds, some called Mariana from Marius, Manliana from Manlius, Appiana Claudiana from Appius Claudius, Cestiana from Cestius…"

Claudianus   

"… Claudianus says, that there is a kind of Libard, which he calls a Water-libard, that is gendered of a mingled seed, when a strong and vigorous Libard meets with a Lioness…".

Clay                            

Clay - The name of certain substances which are mixtures of silex and alumin, sometimes with lime, magnesia, alkali and metallic oxyds. A species of earths which are firmly coherent, weighty, compact, and hard when dry, but stiff, viscid and ductile when moist, and smooth to the touch; not readily diffusible in water, and when mixed, not readily subsiding in it. They contract by heat. Clays absorb water greedily, and become soft, but are so tenacious as to be molded into any shape, and hence they are the materials of bricks and various vessels, domestic and chemical.

 "…Artificers call these pots Crucibles.  They are made of Clay, which is brought from Valencia, and does very strongly endure fire…"

"…Let there be a vessel above the tower, either of Brass, Clay, or Wood…"

Clazomensus   

"…Of the same mind were Archelaus, the Athenian,  Anaxagoras, Clazomensus, and Euripides his scholar. Cleodemus, and after him Theophrastus, thought that they came of putrefied water mixed with earth, and the colder and fouler the water was, the unfitter it was for their generation…"

Clearchus   

Spartan military leader and governor of Byzantium. His rule was so severe that the people surrendered the city to the Athenians in his absence….

"…The Polypi take delight in the olive tree.  And they are often found fastened with their claws about the body of it.  Sometimes also, they are found clapping about the fig tree that grows near the sea, and eating the figs, says Clearchus…"

Cleodemus   

Abraham had taught astrology to the king of Egypt; that his and Keturah's sons had aided Heracles against the giant Antaeus; and that Moses, blithely identified both with the semi-mythical Greek poet Musaeus and with the Egyptian Thoth, had been the teacher of Orpheus (putative founder of one of the then current "mystery cults") and the inventor of navigation, architecture, and the hieroglyphic script. Leading writers in this vein were Artapanus, Eupolemus, and Cleodemus (all c. 100 BCE), but their works are known to us only from stray quotations by Eusebius and Clement of Alexandria, early Church Fathers.

"…Cleodemus, and after him Theophrastus, thought that they came of putrified water mixed with earth, and the colder and fouler the water was, the unfitter it was for their generation…"

Cleonymus    

son of Cleomenes II

 "…To this pertains the example of Cleonymus King of the Lacedaemonians.  He besieging the city Troezene, commanded many of his best archers to shoot arrows into several places.  And he wrote upon them.  I come to relieve your city…"

Cleopatra   

Egyptian queen noted for her beauty and charisma. Octavian defeated the forces led by Cleopatra and Mark Antony at Actium….

"…Then let not Cleopatra boast.  Herself in her princely tomb, seeing the Viper is interred in a nobler tomb then she…"

Cliver \ Cleaver 

Cleaver/Cliver - A species of Galium (G. Aparine), having a fruit set with hooked bristles, which adhere to whatever they come in contact with; -- called also, goose grass, catchweed, etc.

See: Madder

"…Then Bruise the roots of Celendine, and of the greater Clivers Madder, of each a like quality…"

Clot-Bur  

"…If a man cuts the herb Clot-bur small and grind it in a mill to very fine powder, and add as much or a third part of wheat-meal to it, it will make good bread, that may be eaten when there is a famine…"

Clotter  

Clotter - To concrete or gather into lumps.

"…The next day, cast it into a Hutch, and add more Meal to it, which again being raised by its heat, and coming back again by the same, and meeting with the lump as flowing back again, it joins into the Refracted Elements, and so into Clotters of Meal. .."

Clove                           

Cloves are the dried buds of a tree, Syzygium aromaticum, of the myrtle family, that is native to the Moluccas (the Spice Islands of Indonesia), but which is cultivated primarily in Zanzibar and Madagascar. The tree, which may reach a height of 12 m (39 ft), produces abundant clusters of small red flower buds that are gathered before opening, and are dried to produce the dark-brown, nail-shaped spice Clove .

"… There is a water, of no contemptible scent, drawn out of the leaves of Basil Gentle, (especially being aromartized with Citron or Cloves) by the heat of a gentle bath, heightened by degrees, and then exposing it to the sun for some time…"

"…Take a Lily   Clove or Head, and when you have opened it well, pour into it some Sinoper, or any other coloring, and the Lily flower that grows out of the Clove so dressed, will be of the same color…"

Clover       

Clover - A plant of differend species of the genus Trifolium; as the common red clover, T. pratense, the white, T. repens, and the hare's foot, T. arvense.  A perennial, but of short duration, generally abundant on meadow land of a light sandy nature, where it produces abundant blossom, forming an excellent mowing crop. Not of great value as a bee plant - the bees not working it for so long as they will the white variety.

 "…How to make sweet balls….Take one ounce of Cyprian Powder, and Benjamin of the best mixture, which is brought out of Turkey. Half an ounce of Clover.  A sufficient quantity of Illyrian Iris…."

Clout             

Clout - A patch; a piece of cloth or leather, &c., to close a breach.

"…After this, stop up all the passages of the Ox his nostrils, eyes, mouth, and necessary places of evacuation, with fine Linen Clouts besmeared with Pitch. Then cast a great deal of Honey under him…"

"…Take three pounds of Damask roses, as much of Musk and red Roses, two of the flowers of Orange, as many of Myrtle, half a pound of Garden claver, an ounce and a half of Cloves, three Nutmegs, ten Lilies.  Put all these in an Alimbeck, in the nose of which you must fasten of Musk three parts, of Amber one, of Civet half a one, tied up together in a Clout…"

Clown   

Clown - A countryman; a rustic; hence, one who has the manners of a rustic; a churl; a man of coarse manners; an ill-bred man.

"…It is like that jest in Aristophanes, of a Clown that rode upon an Ass, and carried his Coulter at his back, that he might not load the Ass too much…"

Clyssus   

"…A Clyssus is the Extraction of the spirits of every part of a plant, united in one common entity.  There are in a plant, the root, leaf, flower, fruit and seed, and in every one of these parts, there is a peculiar nature…"

 "…Extract the Spirits or Essences out of all these by Distillation, Maceration or Calcination, or any other of the former ways.  But when they are all Extracted severally, on in the form of Oil, another of Salt or Liquor.  Then mix them all together, so that they may be joined and united in one body, which is called a Clyssus…"

Clysters   

"…The Egyptians say, they never learned of men to minister Clysters, but the bird Ibis, which uses it to herself or the looseness of her body…"

Clytemnestra   

Clytemnestra (also spelled "Clytaemnestra") is the daughter of Leda and Tyndareus and the half sister of Helen. Clytemnestra and Helen are half sisters because Zeus appeared to Leda in the form of a swan and raped her. On the same night, Tyndareus also had sex with Leda and Leda became pregnant. Leda gave birth to four children or in some versions, laid four eggs. Clytemnestra and Castor was Tyndareus' children therefore they are mortal. Helen and Polydeuces was Zeus' therefor they are immortal

"…And Agamemnon departing from his country to go to Troy, doubting of the Chastity of Clytemnestra, left a Harper, who with Music did so incite her to Continency and Chastity, that Egystus could not enjoy her till he had killed the Harper…"

Coagulate     

Coagulate - To concrete; to curdle; to congeal; to change from a fluid into a fixed substance, or solid mass; as, to coagulate blood; rennet coagulates milk. This word is generally applied to the change of fluids into substances like curd or butter, of a moderate consistence, but not hard or impenetrable.

"…And from hence you shall see it Coagulate, and when it is Coagulated put Leaven to it. .."

"…But it must first grow cold, lest the force of the Coagulation should be hindered…"

Coal      

Coal - In the language of chemists, any substance containing oil, which has been exposed to a fire in a close vessel, so that its volatile matter is expelled, and it can sustain a red heat without further decomposition. In mineralogy, a solid, opake, inflammable substance, found in the earth, and by way of distinction called fossil coal. It is divided by recent mineralogists into three species, anthracite or glance coal, black or bituminous coal, and brown coal or lignite; under which are included many varieties, such as cannel coal, bovey coal, jet, &c.

"…  Stibium that Druggists call Antimony, is ground small in handmills.  Then let a new Crucible of earth be made red hot in a Coal fire…"

"…Mix the Storax, Benjamin, and Labdanum in a Brass Mortar with an Iron Pestle heated.  And put to them the Coal and Lingnum Aloes powdered…"

Cochinele  / Cochineal     

Cochineal -  An insect, the Coccus cacti, of the genus Coccus, a native of the warmer climates of America, particularly of Oaxaca, in Mexico. It is found on a plant called nopal or Indian fig-tree. The female, which alone is valued for its color, is ill-shaped, tardy and stupid; the male is small, slender and active. It is of the size of a tick. At a suitable time, these insects are gathered and put in a pot, where they are confined for some time, and then killed by the application of heat. These insects thus killed form a mass or drug, which is the proper cochineal of the shops. It is used in giving red colors, especially crimson and scarlet, and for making carmine. It has been used in medicine, as a cardiac, sudorific, alexipharmic and febrifuge; but is now used only to give a color to tinctures, &c.

"… Also, with red Coral, Cuttle Bone, Harts Horn, and such like, whereof everyone will well polish and wipe the teeth clean.  So does also the grains of Cochinele…"

Cock                           

Cock - The male of birds, particularly of gallinaceous or domestic fowls, which having no appropriate or distinctive name, are called dunghill fowls or barn-door fowls.

"…If you would have a man become bold or impudent, let him carry about him the skin or eyes of a Lion or a Cock, and he will be fearless of his enemies, nay, he will be very terrible unto them…"

 "…But if you turn the Cock beneath, the water will first run forth, and the Wine will last…"

Cockatrice        

See:  Basilisk

In Greek and Roman mythology, the Basilisk, or Cockatrice, was a serpent with the head and wings of a cock and the tail of a dragon. Its glance killed whatever it encountered. A Cockatrice was often known as the offspring of a chicken Hen and a marauding Basilisk.

"…The Sea-Lamprey stayeth a ship, not principally with any one part, but with her whole body. And there be many like examples. On the other side, many things work by some of their parts, as the Cockatrice and the Basilisk, by their eyes…" 

"…So the Cockatrice kills, who poisons with looking on, and gives venomous wounds with the beams of his eyes…"

Cockle        

Cockle - A small testaceous shell; or rather a genus of shells, the Cardium. The general characteristics are; shells nearly equilateral and equivalvular; hinge with two small teeth, one on each side near the beak, and two larger remote lateral teeth, one on each side; prominent ribs running from the hinge to the edge of the valve. A plant or weed that grows among corn, the cornrose, a species of Agrostemma. It is also applied to the Lolium or darnel.

"…Of the herb called Tobacco, namely of the juice thereof, and the ashes of Cockle shells they make little balls and dry them in the shade…"

"…Add to this, Mercury Sublimate, Verdigrease, artificial Chrysocolla, called Borax, and a good quantity of the powder of sea Cockle shells finely beaten…"

Cod            

"...Beans to bring forth great Cods…"

"…you may do the Cods and testicles…"

Coelius   

"…And these are strong Dogs, and good hunters. Pollux says, that Arcadian dogs first came of a Dog and a Lion, and called Lion-Dogs. And Coelius writes the same. And Oppianus commends the Arcadian dogs, and those of Tegea, which is a town of Acadia…"

"…Coelius called these dogs Chanides, being gendred of a kind of wolf called Chaos, as some suppose, whence they have that name…"

Coffer   

Coffer - A chest or trunk.

"…But when you have disposed of your Apples that they are set in good order, then shut up the lids of the Coffer or cell upon them…"

"… Nuts be long preserved, if you shut them up close in Coffers.  But the Coffers must be made of Nut tree…"

Coffin   

Coffin - The chest or box in which a dead human body is buried, or deposited in a vault.  A container.

"…Sew them up in Coffins  ( Fireballs ) made of thick cloth in the fashion of balls, and put them into hollow half circles made of wood, and strike them with a wooden hammer that they may be hard as stones…"

Cogging     

Cog - To seduce, or draw away, by adulation, artifice, or falsehood; to wheedle; to cozen; to cheat. To obtrude or thrust in, by falsehood or deception; as, to cog in a word; to palm off.

"…It is an easy matter to drive away from out tables, and great men's tables, all Smell-feast, and Cogging Foisting fellows, and this will make our guests very cheerful and glad, to see such Cormorants and parasites driven away, and derided by all men…"

Cold    

Cold - A disease; indisposition occasioned by cold; catarrh.

"…The juice of this herb ( Tobacco)does also presently take away and assuage the pain in Colds, which happen to them who swimming do chance to touch their Cods…"

Coleworts            

Colewort (Brassica oleracea, Acephala group), headless form of cabbage (q.v.) of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). It bears the same botanical name as kale, from which it differs only in leaf characters; collard leaves are much broader, are not frilled, and resemble the rosette leaves of head cabbage"…there is deadly hatred, and open enimity between Coleworts and the Vine…")

"…Old seed is of so great force in some things, that it quite changes the nature, for the old seed of Coleworts being sown, brings forth Rape, and contrariwise, old Rape-seed degenerates into Coleworts , by labour also and dressing…"

"… The Tibarita, says Simaus, before they drank, fenced themselves by feeding on Coleworts.   Alexis…"

Colic  /  Colick   

Colic - In general, a severe pain in the bowels, of which there are several varieties; as bilious colic, hysteric colic, nervous colic and many others.

"…Against the Colick.Civet is most excellent in this disease.  For the quantity of a Pea, applied to the navel, and a hot loaf out of the oven clapped over it, presently eases the pain…"

Collers    

"…  Collers of Brawn, and the Trojan Hog, were forbidden by the law of regulating expense…"

Collyriums    

Collyrium - Eye-salve; eye-wash; a topical remedy for disorders of the eyes.

"…  Avicenna says, that the filings of it helps Melancholy, and is used also in Medicines for the shedding of the hair.  In liquid Medicines , or reduced into very fine powder, it is used in Collyriums, or Medicines for the eyes, for the pain and trembling of the heart, and other passions of the mind…"

Colophonia / Colophony         

Colophony - In pharmacy, black resin or turpentine boiled in water and dried; or the residuum, after distillation of the etherial oil of turpentine, being further urged by a more intense and long continued fire. It is so named from Colophon in Ionia, whence the best was formerly brought.

"…To seven parts of this, add two parts of Colophonia, three of Saltpeter , one of Brimstone.  Pound them all together, and mingle them, sprinkling on of Naphtha…"

"…The ball is marked with the Emril-stone round, and is so cut into many small circles.  They are brought to venice.  Here with a handle of wood are they glued on, by Colophonia melted…"

Coloquintida                   

Coloquintida or Colocynth. Bitterapple or colocynth. (Greek, kolokunthis. )  

See:  .Oil of Coloquintida

"… If you rub the edge of the knife, and the Napkin he wipes his mouth with, with the juice of Coloquintida, or flesh of it, and lay it before him…"

"…The wild Cucumber, and Coloquintida, kill Mice…"

Colt   

Colt - The young of the equine genus of animals or horse kind. In America, colt is equally applied to the male or female, and this is unquestionable correct. The male is called a house-colt, and the female is called a filly.

"…In Mysia, when Horses back Mares, a man sings to them as it were a marriage song, and the mares are so taken with the Music, that they become great with foal, and they bring forth most gallant Colts…"

Coltsfoot   

Coltsfoot - also called Horsehoof and coughwort, is a traditional herbal remedy employed around the world in the treatment of coughs and respiratory problems. Made from the flowers and hoof-shaped leaves of the plant Tussilago farfara, coltsfoot has been employed by traditional herbalists in the form of a tea to treat the persistent cough associated with bronchitis, silicosis and emphysema. Other practitioners have used the herb in blends intended to be smoked to relieve coughs, though the logic behind this use is highly questionable, and could lead to more respiratory irritation

"… Put your fuel nearer, or dry matter made of dry toadstools, or leaves that are very fine, found about the roots of Coltsfoot, for they will soon take fire, and retain it…"

Columella                      

Columella, Lucius Junius Moderatus - (b. 1st century AD, Gades, Spain), Roman soldier and farmer who wrote extensively on agriculture and kindred subjects in the hope of arousing a love for farming and a simple life. He became in early life a tribune of the legion stationed in Syria, but neither an army career nor the law attracted him, and he took up farming in Italy.

"…as Columella says, that this star is pacified with the blood and entrails of a sucking Whelp, and Ovid likewise says, that a Dog bred on the earth, is sacrificed to the Dog-Star  in heaven…"

"…So that they ordained a Dog to be offered in sacrifice to it, as Columella says, that this star is pacified with the blood and entrails of a sucking Whelp…"

Comet   

"…The Flying Dragon…Or the Comet.  It is made thus…"

Comfrey            

This well-known showy plant is a member of the Borage and Forget-me-not tribe, Boraginaceae. The plant is erect in habit and rough and hairy all over. There is a branched rootstock, the roots are fibrous and fleshy spindle-shaped, an inch or less in diameter and up to a foot long, smooth, blackish externally, and internally white, fleshy and juicy. ---Synonyms---Common Comfrey. Knitbone. Knitback. Consound. Blackwort. Bruisewort. Slippery Root. Boneset. Yalluc (Saxon). Gum Plant. Consolida. Ass Ear.

"… Vulnerary potions…Take Pirole, Comfrey, Aristolochy, Featherfew of each a handful.  Of Agrimony two.  Boil them in the best new Wine.  Digest them in Horse Dung…"

"…The eagle is killed with Comfrey…"

Commixtion  

Commixtion - Commixture; mingling.

"…But now, as we did in our tract of the Commixtion of diverse kinds of living creatures…"

Compass      

Compass - Compass or compasses, [or a pair of compasses, so named from its legs, but pair is superfluous or improper, and the singular number compass is the preferable name,] an instrument for describing circles, measuring figures, &c., consisting of two pointed legs or branches, made of iron, steel or brass, joined at the top by a rivet, on which they move. There are also compasses of three legs or triangular compasses, cylindrical and spherical compasses with four branches, and various other kinds.

"…The next Element to this is the Air, which is somewhat more weighty then the fire, and it is spread abroad in a large and huge Compass; and passing through all places, does make men's bodies framable to her temperature…"

"…I have described a Parabolical Section, which might be made by the rule and Compass, because we may use it at a short distance…"

Compass   (Mariner's)    

Compass - An instrument for directing or ascertaining the course of ships at sea, consisting of a circular box, containing a paper card marked with the thirty two points of direction, fixed on a magnetic needle, that always points to the north, the variation excepted. The needle with the card turns on a pin in the center of the box. In the center of the needle is fixed a brass conical socket or cap, by which the card hanging on the pin turns freely round the center. The box is covered with glass, to prevent the motion of the card from being disturbed by the wind.

See:   Mariners Compass

Compound               

Compound - To mix or unite two or more ingredients in one mass or body; as, to compound drugs.

"…I  taught formerly in my book of plants, that with white clear silver colored herbs, shellfish, and stones, the face might be made white, polished and silver colored.  I shall now set down some examples, by which you may invent many more.  I shall first speak of Simples, then of Compounds…"

"…An Elixir differs from Essences, Tinctures, and rest, because it is compounded of many things void of fatness.  Therefore it cannot be an Oil, because it wants perspicuity and clearness.  Not an Essence, because it is a Compound.  Not a Tincture, but a mean between all, and of a consistency most like to water.  Whence it had its name Ab eliquesco, to be dissolved or liquefied…"

Concave-glass   

Concave - Hollow, and arched or rounded, as the inner surface of a spherical body; opposed to convex; as a concave glass.

"…But the operations of Concave-glasses are far more curious and admirable, and will afford us more commodities…"

"… Wherefore, first proving where the Concave-glass must be placed, that it may fire the fuel cast in.  the next day, at the hour appointed, let the glass, cast in the beams upon the Concave-glass , that will unite them…"

Concave Lenticular  

Lenticular - Having the form of a lens; lentiform.

"… Concave Lenticulars will make one see most clearly things that are afar off…"

Concavity    

Concavity - A concave surface, or the space bounded by it; the state of being concave.

"…Let every Concavity divided with boards have a little door thereto…"

"…And when that is soaked in also, then open the Concavity wider, and let the Vine grow…"

Conceit   

Conceit - . A fanciful, odd, or extravagant notion; a quant fancy; an unnatural or affected conception; a witty thought or turn of expression; a fanciful device; a whim; a quip.

"…I have thus far spoken to please and Palate.  Now I shall represent some merry Conceits to delight the guests.."

Conception    

Conception - The act of conceiving; the first formation of the embryo or fetus of an animal.

"… Trotula says, we may honestly speak of this, because Conception is sometimes hindered by it, if the Matrix be too open…"

Concoct  \ Concoction      

"… By renting or scarifying the body of the tree, that the milky juice may there swell and issue out of it, that when the superfluous Humor is gone forth, that which is left behind, may be the more easily Concocted, and so the fruit will be sooner ripened..."

"…because there they hasten the Concoction and ripening of them, by cherishing the roots thereof with fire and heat within the earth…"

Concubine  

Concubine - A woman who cohabits with a man, without the authority of a legal marriage; a woman kept for lewd purposes; a kept mistress. A wife of inferior condition; a lawful wife, but not united to the man by the usual ceremonies, and of inferior condition. Such were Hagar and Keturah, the concubines of Abraham; and such concubines were allowed by the Roman laws.

"… There was a certain young man in Sybaris, who was called Crachis, a luster after Goats. And being over-ruled by his lust, coupled himself with a fair Goat, the fairest he could light upon, and lived with her as his love and Concubine, bestowing many gifts upon her, as Ivy and Rushes to eat, and kept her mouth very sweet, that he might kiss her. …"

Condite      

Condite - To prepare and preserve with sugar, salt, spices, or the like; to pickle; as, to condite peras, plums, quinces, mushrooms, &c.

"… Didymus teaches to make Condite or preserved Olives in this manner…"

"… Columella, Palladius and diverse others do cast the Olives into Seawater, and there steep them seven days together, and when they have taken them forth, they Condite them with Brine, and so put them up into some other vessel…"

Coney  / Cony      

Cony - A rabbit; a quadruped of the genus Lepus, which has a short tail and naked ears. In a wild state the fur is brown, but the color of the domestic rabbit is various.

"…Therefore to consider of animals, that have the quickest hearing, we must think of those that are the most fearful.  Nor nature takes care for their safety, that as they have no great strength.  Yet they might exceed others in hearing, and save themselves by flight.  As the Hare, Coney, Hart, the Ass, Ox, and the like…"

"…For examples sake, if you would make a woman fruitful, you must consider with your self the most fertile living creatures, and among the rest, an Hare, a Cony, or a Mouse…"

Confection     

Confection - A composition of different materials.  A composition of different drugs.

"…And surely I would counsel that these kinds of Confections should be ministered to those that are timorous and uneasy in the taking of medicinal Receipts..."

"…Put some of this Confection into the hole that goes into the Matrix…"

Conglaciate / Conglaciation        

Conglaciation -  The act of changing into ice, or the state of being converted to ice; a freezing; congelation.

 "…Let it ferment in Fimo, Conglaciate it, as I shall show you…"

 "…In the winter set it out in the frost for a month, and let it freeze.  The Spirit or Magistery will retire into the center, because its firery essence makes it incapable of Conglaciation…"

Coniza   

"… Tarentinus would have it imposed upon dry Wormwood and Semper-vive.  But dry Quince leaves and small sand are better.  Which must be layed in layers among the grain.  It is best to cover the store with Coniza, add after ten measures of grain, to lay another layer of Coniza till all be deposed…"

Conjecture      

Conjecture - An opinion, or judgment, formed on defective or presumptive evidence; probable inference; surmise; guess; suspicion.

"… Wherefore, if you put into a Hogshead full of Wine, a long necked glass full of water, in a short time the vessel turned downwards will be full of Wine, and the water will go down into the Hogshead.  By this any man may easily Conjecture..."

"…But first there must be a vessel that can receive all the Wine, that is mingled in the other vessel.  And if we know not the quantity, we must Conjecture at it, how much it may be, of something less…"

Conjurer        

Conjurer - . One who practices conjuration; one who pretends to the secret art of performing things supernatural or extraordinary, by the aid of superior powers; an impostor who pretends, by unknown means, to discover stolen goods, &c. Hence ironically, a man of shrewd conjecture; a man of sagacity.

"…Now will I open cheats and impostors, whereby Jugglers and impostors, who fain themselves to be Conjurers, and thereby delude fools, knaves, and simple women…"

"…if I had no care to retell the calumnies of detractors and envious men, that most immodestly wound me, calling me a Sorcerer, a Conjurer, which name from my tender youth I have abhorred…"

Consul     

Consul - The chief magistrate of the Ancient Roman Republic, invested with regal authority for one year. There were two consuls, annually chosen in the campus Martius. In the first ages of Tome, they were elected from Patrician families or noblemen; but in the year of Rome 388, the people obtained the privilege of electing one of the consuls from their own body, and sometimes both were plebeians.

"…  Hircius being Consul, as Frontinus testifies, sent forth Pigeons from the nearest place he could from the walls, which had been long shut up in the dark, and half famished, to Decius Brutus, who was besieged at Matina by Anthony…"

"…Whether it was Scipio Metellus, that was Consul, or Mar. Sejus, that in the same age was a gentleman of Rome…"

Consumption          

Consumption - pulmonary tuberculosis, consumption, phthisis, wasting disease, white plague -- (involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body)

 "… Damon relates of a Poison in Ethiopia, whose sweat would bring a Consumption in all bodies it touched.  And it is manifest, that all women which have two pupils in one eye, can Bewitch with it.   Cicero writes of them…"

 "…Many eat Spiders and wild Olives and care not for the biting of Serpents, nor suffer any Wasting or Consumption, if they be of such a nature, that their looks or breath will not only blast men…"

Continency    

Continence - The restraint which a person imposes upon his desires and passions; the act or power of refraining from indulgence of the sexual appetite, esp. from unlawful indulgence; sometimes, moderation in sexual indulgence.

"…And Agamemnon departing from his country to go to Troy, doubting of the Chastity of Clytemnestra, left a Harper, who with Music did so incite her to Continency and Chastity…"

Contryes   

"…The storks drive out the Contryes where they are, lizards, and the sundry kinds of serpents, and other noisome things in the fields; and the entrails of them all are good against the Storks…"

Convex-glass   

Convex - Rising or swelling on the exterior surface into a spherical or round form; gibbous; opposed to concave, which expresses a round form of the interior surface; as a convex mirror or lens.

 "…But thus you may optain your desire.  Put against the hole a Convex-glass.  From thence let the image reflect on a Concave-glass…"

"…But this I thought fit to let you understand, lest you fail in the work, that the Convex and Concave-glasses be proportionable circles…"

Convex Lenticular   

"…A Convex Lenticular kindles fire most violently, and sooner, and more forcibly than a Concave-glass…"

Convulsion    

Convulsion - A preternatural, violent and involuntary contraction of the muscular parts of an animal body.

"… Oil of Herns is excellent to allay and remove all cold aches.  The Gout, Sciatica, Griefs of the sinews, Convulsions, pain in the joints, cold Defluctions, and other diseases of moisture and cold…"

Cony-catchers   

See:  Cony

"…Those counterfeit kind of Mandrake, which Couzeners and Cony-catchers carry about, and sell to many instead of true Mandrakes…"

Cook of Aristian   

"…  Plutarch in his Symposiacis, gives the reason, why the sacrifices of cocks hung to a Fig tree did presently grow tender and short, when the Cook of Aristian, among other meats, offered to Hercules a tender Dunghill Cock, newly slain, that was extremely short…"

Cope of the Moon   

Cope - Any thing spread or extended over the head; the arch or concave of the sky; the roof or covering of a house; the arch over a door, &c.

"…The philosophers hold, that the temperature of the air being exceeding variable by reason the the variety of celetial influences which work upon it, is also of that force, that it causes every thing which it comes at, even whatsoever is contained under the Cope of the Moon, to hasten towards an end, and by little and little to decay continually…"

Coppel  / Cupel  

cupel - A small bone-ash cup used in gold or silver assaying with lead. The hearth of a small furnace used in refining metals.

"…Take equal parts of the ashes resulting from vine branches, mutton bones and harts horns burnt and calcined.  Moisten them with a little common water then press them in a mold called Coppel…"

"… Purge it in a Coppel.  Wherein the other things being consumed by the fire, the Silver only will remain.  But if you do not boil your Stibium in Wine Lees, as I said, part of the Silver will be lost, and the Coppel will draw the Silver to it…"

Copper                      

Copper - supposed to be so called from Cyprus, an isle in the Mediterranean. This opinion is probable, as the Greeks called it Cyprian brass, brass of Cyprus. In this case copper was originally an adjective.] A metal, of a pale red color, tinged with yellow. Next to gold, silver and platina, it is the most ductile and malleable of the metals, and it is more elastic than any metal, except steel, and the most sonorous of all the metals. It is found native in lamins or fibers, in a gangue almost always quartzous; it is also found crystalized, and in grains or superficial lamins on stones or iron. It is not altered by water, but is tarnished by exposure to the air, and is at last covered with a green carbonated oxyd. Copper in sheets is much used for covering the bottoms of ships, for boilers and other utensils; mixed with tin and zink, it is used in enamel-painting, dyeing, &c. : mixed with tin, it forms bell-metal; with a smaller proportion, bronze; and with zink, it forms brass, pinchbeck, &c. When taken into the body it operates as a violent emetic, and all its preparations are violent poisons.

See:   Banda Mediolanensis

 "..After this, take three pounds of Copper, that which is commonly called Banda Mediolanensis…"

"…When you have made a Topaz, and would have a Chrysolite, add a little more Copper, that it may have a little verdure.  For the Chrysolite differs from the Topaz in nothing, but that it has a greater luster…"

Copras \  Coppras      

"…If the lamp be green glass and transparent, that the rays coming through may be dyed by the color of the medium (which is of great consequence in this) and green Coppras be mingled with the oil…"

"…Take Aqua fortis, that is it that parts Gold from Silver.  With a pencil wipe some of this upon the letters, it will presently wipe off letters, written with Gall and Copras…"

Coppress / Coppresse   

"…Beat Camphire very small, and put it into common Aqua Fortis, made of Saltpeter, and Coppress Distilled and clarified…"

"…So that no part of the gross and earthly substance shall remain int it, he may easily obtain his purpose by Coppresse or Vitriol…"

Copulation    

Copulation - The act of coupling; the embrace of the sexes in the act of generation; coition.

"…The Egyptians, when their Dogs are backward in Copulation, make them more eager by giving them Salt-meats…"

"...Copulation was but of one kind, here it is almost infinite, and not only every tree can be engrafted into every tree, but one tree may be adulterated with them all. .."

Coracini  

"… Coracini, blackfish, whose heads shine like gold, allure the Aulopii, when they observe some such dainty food, and they come to it rejoicing…"

Coral          

Coral - In zoology, a genus belonging to the order of vermes zoophyta. The trunk is radicated, jointed and calcarious. The species are distinguished by the form of their branches, and are found in the ocean adhering to stones, bones, shells, &c. Coral was formerly supposed to be a vegetable substance, but is now known to be composed of a congeries of animals. Coral is red, white and black. It is properly the shells of marine animals of the polype kind, consisting of calcarious earth combined with gelatine and other animal matter. In the South Sea, the isles are mostly coral rocks covered with earth. Corals seem to consist of carbonate of lime and animal matter, in equal proportions.

"…Which a man may use after unclean women.  Take a Drachm of Hartwort and Gentian, two Scruples of Sanders and Lignum Aloes, half a Drachm of Powder of Coral, Spodium, and Harts Horn burned…"

"…Also, with red Coral, Cuttle Bone, Harts Horn, and such like, whereof everyone will well polish and wipe the teeth clean…"

Cordial    

Cordial - In medicine, that which suddenly excites the system, and increases the action of the heart or circulation when languid; any medicine which increases strength, raises the spirits, and gives life and cheerfulness to a person when weak and depressed.

 "… Astrologers, seeing it  ( Gold) contend with the Sun in beams, brightness and glory.  And to have a prerogative of majesty among metals, like the Sun among the stars.  Do therefore set it down for a Cordial, and a destroyer of Melancholy, and all the ill companions of it…"

"…  Marsilius Ficinus says, it  ( Gold) is of a solid substance, and therefore must be Attenuated, that it may penetrate the body.  But he is ignorant of the way of it.  Only, he advises to give it in Cordial waters, being beaten out of thin leaves…"

Corelliana   

See Corellius

"…There is one rare example hereof not to be omitted.   Corellius, a nobleman of Rome, born at the city of areste, grafted a chestnut upon a chestnut branch in the Country of Naples, and so produced a chestnut called Corelliana, after his name…"

Corellius   

"…  Corellius, a nobleman of Rome, born at the city of Areste, Grafted a Chestnut upon a Chestnut branch in the country of Naples, and so produced a Chestnut called Corelliana, after his name…"

"…We brought an example hereof out of Pliny, that Corellius took a Scion of a Chestnut tree, and grafted the same into the tree again, and thereby produced a greater and better Chestnut…"

Corinthian   

Corinthian - Pertaining to Corinth, a celebrated city of Greece; as Corinthian column; Corinthian order; Corinthian brass. The Corinthian order, in architecture, is the most delicate of all the orders, and enriched with a profusion of ornaments. The capital is usually adorned with olive leaves or acanthus.

 "…Hence, by the reciprocal reflection of the glasses, you shall see so many pillars, bases, and varieties, keeping the right order of architecture, that nothing can be more pleasant, or more wonderful to behold.  Let the perspective be the Dorick and Corinthian, adorned with gold, silver, pearls, jewels, images, pictures, and such like…"

Cork           

Cork - A glandiferous tree, a species of Quercus, growing in Spain and Portugal, having a thick, rough, fungous, cleft bark. The outer bark of the tree, or epidermis, of which stopples for bottles and casks are made. This outer bark is taken off, and a new epidermis is formed, which, in six or seven years, becomes fit for use. This bark is also burnt to make a kind of light black, called Spanish black. A stopple for a bottle or cask, cut out of cork.

"…Take a little piece of Cork, or Fennel-giant, or some other light wood, and make it like a boat, that it may serve to bear up the weight of the stone ( Loadstone)…"

"…Or if you will let the still fastened to a Cork swim on the top of the water, and that will show the hours marked on the outside of the vessel…"

Cormorants   

Cormorant - . A voracious eater; a glutton, or gluttonous servant.

"…and this will make our guests very cheerful and glad, to see such Cormorants and parasites driven away, and derided by all men.  When therefore he sits down at the table…"

Cornels  / Corneile       

Cornel - The cornelian cherry or dog-wood, a genus of plants of several species. The mascula, or cornelian cherry tree, has a stem of twenty feet high, branching and forming a large head, garnished with oblong leaves and small umbels of yellowish-green flowers, succeeded by small, red, acid, eatable, cherry-like fruit.

 "…Also provide for that unripe Medlars, Cornels, Mulberries and Plums…"

"…Corneile, or Hamberry may be kept in Lees.  And if it be well preserved so, it will serve to be used in the stead of Olives.   Ovid declares this in the eighth book of his Metamorphosis…"

Corn                            

Corn - The seeds of certain plants in general, in bulk or quantity; as, corn is dear or scarce. In this sense, the word comprehends all the kinds of grain which constitute the food of men and horses. In Great Britain, corn is generally applied to wheat, rye, oats and barley.

See:   Siligo

"…In the Country beyond the River Po, that part which is called Monsterax, there is a kind of Corn called Siligo, which being thrice sown, makes good bread-corn…"

"…Aelianus says, that a little rain in Egypt, engenders many Mice , which being scattered everywhere in their fields, eat down their Corn, and devour it…"

"…Add to them the quantity of two Corns of Wheat, of Mercury Sublimate, finely powdered…"

Corn Typha  

"…The Corn Typha, and Spelt, are changed into Wheat, and Wheat into them…"

Cornet   

Cornet - An instrument of music, in the nature of a trumpet, sounded by blowing with the mouth. It was of a winding shape like a horn; used in armies and on occasions of joy.

"… The hunter must come with his hunting pole, nets, arrows, and other necessaries, that may represent hunting.  Let there be horns, Cornets, and trumpets sounded.  Those that are in the chamber shall see trees, animals, hunters faces, anll the rest so plainly, that they cannot tell wether they be true or delusions…"

Corpulent     

Corpulent - . Very fat; obese. Solid; gross; opaque. Stout; fleshy; bulky.

"…For water is the thinnest of all Liquors, because it is simple, but Wine being colored, and color comes from the mixture of the Elements, it is more Corpulent…"

"…For the water will drain forth through the pores of the matter, that is opened by a mingled and Corpulent body…"

Corriander           

Coriander:   An umbelliferous plant indigenous to southern Europe, is found occasionally in Britain in fields and waste places, and by the sides of rivers. It is frequently found in a semi-wild state in the east of England, having escaped from cultivation.

"…When this star rises, the Basil-gentle waxes whitherish, and Coriander waxes dry, as Theophrastus writes…"

Corrival   

Corrival - . A fellow rival; a competitor.

"…  Cicero reports, that Pythagoras made a young man more calm by a flower tune, who was a Tancomonite, and was whitled with wine, and mad for a whore, and spurred forward by a Phrygian tune.  For being a Corrival, he fought to set the house on fire where the whore was…"

Corrosive  / Corroding  

Corrosive - That which has the quality of eating or wearing gradually.  Corrosive sublimate, the corrosive muriate or perchloride of mercury.

"…If the Essence of any metal is to be Extracted by Corrosives, separate the Salt from the waters, after the work is done, and use those Salts only, which will easily be taken out again…"

"… Galen, that it was eaten as Rape-roots, and in some countries it grows more Corroding…"

Corruda   

See:  Sperage

"…The herb Corruda, whereof Sperage comes, is most fitly planted where reed grows, because they are of such likeness and nearness; and both of them are inciters to lust. The vine and the olive tree do joy in each other company, as Africarus writes both of them are commodious for men's uses…"

Corruption          

Corruption - The act of corrupting or making putrid, or state of being corrupt or putrid; decomposition or disorganization, in the process of putrefaction; putrefaction; deterioration.

See:   Putrefaction, Putretude

"…For where as the Amber may be seen through, it does therefore represent unto the eye the perfect semblance of that which is within it, as if it were living.  And so shows it to be sound and without Corruption…"

"…For the Moon has great virtue to make flesh tender, for it is but a kind of Corruption…"

Cosmographer   

Cosmographer - one who describes the world or universe, including the heavens and the earth.

 "…Munster says, there are certain trees which bring forth a fruit covered over with leaves, which, if it fall into the water under it, at the right season, it lives, and becomes a quick bird, which is called Avis arborea. Neither is this any new tale, for the ancient Cosmographers, especially Saxo Grammaticus, mentions the same tree…"

Cosumella   

"…Therefore we know that Ape's blood is good against an Ague. The griping of the belly and guts, is healed by looking upon Geese and Ducks, and Vegetius writes, and Cosumella says, that if a Duck does but look upon a sick Horse, she heals him…"

Cotton      

Cotton - A soft downy substance, resembling fine wool, growing in the capsules or pods of a shrub, called the cotton-plant. It is the material of a large proportion of cloth for apparel and furniture.

"…Ropes of   Hemp are preferred when they are dry, but Broom is preserved wet to make good the dryness of the ground it grows on.  The upper part of Egypt toward Arabia, makes Linen of Cotton…"

"…Boil wicks of Hemp or Cotton in water, with Saltpeter …"

Cotyle   

Cotyle - The cavity of a bone which receives the end of another in articulation.

"… There is another composition of the same, that has of Athenian Sesamum half a sextarius, of honey a half part, of oil a Cotyle, and a Chaenice of sweet almonds mundified…"

Coughs   

"…There is a kind of Spider which destroys the Hart, except presently they eat Wild Ivy, and whensoever they light upon any poisonous food, they cure themselves with the Artichoke, and against Serpents they prepare and arm them selves with Wild Parsnip, so do the Ring-doves, Coughs, and Blackbirds use Bay leaves…"

Coulter    

Coulter - an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called "ploughshare" .   It was the facing-piece of a plough, analogous to the modern coulter.

"…It is like that jest in Aristophanes, of a Clown that rode upon an Ass, and carried his Coulter at his back, that he might not load the Ass too much…"

Counterfeit         

Counterfeit - To forge; to copy or imitate, without authority or right, and with a view to deceive or defraud, by passing the copy or thing forged, for that which is original or genuine; as, to counterfeit coin, bank notes, a seal, a bond, a deed or other instrument in writing, the hand writing or signature of another, &c. To make a likeness or resemblance of any thing with a view to defraud.

"…If the Counterfeit or case which you make, be of wood, then you must first make it hollow within.  If it be of clay, you may clap it on, as it is, so that it be somewhat dry…"

"…And that Counterfeit will fashion the fruit into any form.  And when it is taken out, it will resemble any image that you have carved with the Counterfeit…"

Courses    

Courses - Catamenia; menstrual flux.

"… Do not women in the time of their Courses, infect Cucumbers and Melons, by touching or looking on them, so that they wither…"

Cozner  /  Couzeners       

"…The greater part of Cozners, when they are themselves very poor and most miserable of all men, they profess themselves able to find our treasures, and they promise to other men what they want themselves…"

"…Those counterfeit kind of Mandrake, which Couzeners and Cony-catchers carry about, and sell to many instead of true Mandrakes…"

Cow               

Cow - The female of the bovine genus of animals; a quadruped with cloven hoofs, whose milk furnishes an abundance of food and profit to the farmer.

 "…A Bull, as soon as he has rid a   Cow, gives evident signs to any man to conjecture whether he has begotten a Cow-calf or a Bulchin.  For if he lept off by the right side, it is certain that he has begotten a Bulchin..  If by the left side, then a Cow-calf…"

"…  Cows have great hairy ears.  She can hear a Bull roar when he seeks to Bull a   Cow, thirty Furlongs off, as giving this token of his love.   Aelian…"

Cozen\ CozenedCozener     

Cozen - To cheat; to defrand; to beguile; to deceive, usually by small arts, or in a pitiful way.

"… Partridge love Deer exceedingly, and are Cozened by their skin…"

Crab / Crab-fish       

Crab - A crustaceous fish, the cray-fish, Cancer, a genus containing numerous species. They have usually ten feet, two of which are furnished with claws; two eyes, pedunculated, elongated and movable. To this genus belong the lobster, the shrimp, &c.

"…For when she  ( Moon) is at the full, as Lucilius says, she feeds Oysters, Crabs, shellfish, and such like…"

"…And some say, that if you stamp a handful of Basil, together with ten Crabs or Crevices, all the Scorpions thereabouts will come unto it…"

"…But the body of a Crab-fish is strangely turned into a Scorpion. Pliny says, that while the sun is in the sign Cancer, if the bodies of those fishes lie dead upon the land, they will be turned into Scorpions…"

Cracker 

Cracker - A rocket; a quantity of gunpowder confined so as to explode with noise.

Others put a Cracker of paper, wherein Gunpowder is rolled, and when it is in the air, by the cord there is send a light match, by a ring or something that will abide

Crachis   

"… There was a certain young man in Sybaris, who was called Crachis, a luster after Goats. And being over-ruled by his lust, coupled himself with a fair Goat, the fairest he could light upon, and lived with her as his love and Concubine, bestowing many gifts upon her, as Ivy and Rushes to eat, and kept her mouth very sweet, that he might kiss her. …"

Crammed \ Crammers \ Cramming       

Cramming - Driving in; stuffing; crowding; eating beyond satiety of sufficiency.

"…  M. Lelius Strabo, was the first that appointed this, and he appointed Crammers to take care of them, and ordered how much every crammed bird should eat. .."

"…Wherefore, when we would eat Crammed birds, we should purposely fly a Hawk at them, and being killed by them, should grow more tender to be desired…"

"… Our wise ancestors, says Pliny, who knew the goodness of a Goose liver, taught how by Cramming to make it grow great, also taken forth, it is augmented by sweet Milk. .."

Crane   

Crane - A migratory fowl of the genus Ardea, belonging to the grallic order. The bill is straight, sharp and long, with a furrow from the nostrils towards the point; the nostrils are linear, and the feet have four toes. These fowls have long legs, and a long neck, being destined to wade and seek their food among grass and reeds in marshy grounds. The common crane is about four feet in length, of a slender body, with ash-coloured feathers.

"…The Crane by Vine juice…"

Crapodina  

See: Chelonites

"…There is a stone called Chelonites, the French name it Crapodina, which they report to be found in the head of a great old Toad…."

Cream   

Cream - The rich, oily, and yellowish part of milk, which, when the milk stands unagitated, rises, and collects on the surface. It is the part of milk from which butter is obtained. The part of any liquor that rises, and collects on the surface.

"…Press the Cream out of Lemon seeds…"

Creek   

Creek - A small inlet, bay or cove; a recess in the shore of the sea, or of a river.

"…The qualities of it are heating.  By anointing the neck, it cures all Creeks that are bred by cold…"

Cretians   

Cretians - People of Crete.

"…When the Hart  is wounded by the Cretians, they seek out the Herb Dittany, and presently the Darts fallout of their bodies…."

Cress / Cresses   

Cress - The name of several species of plants, most of them of the class tetradynamia. Watercresses, of the genus Sisymbrium, are used as a salad, and are valued in medicine for their antiscorbutic qualities. The leaves have a moderately pungent taste. They grow on the brinks of rivulets and in other moist grounds.

"…If you take, says he, a Truttle of Goats Dung , and bore it through, and make it hollow cunningly with a Bodkin, and then fill it up with the seed of Lettuce, Cresses, Basil, Rotchet, and Radish, and when you have so done, lap them up in more of the same Dung…"

Crevices   

"…And some say, that if you stamp a handful of Basil, together with ten Crabs or Crevices, all the Scorpions thereabouts will come unto it…"

Christianity    

"…For God the first cause and beginner of things, as Macrobious says, of his own fruitfulness has created and brought forth a Spirit, the Spirit brought forth a soul, (but the truth of Christianity, says otherwise) …"

Critias   

"…But Hippon and Critias held that the vapors of the elements were the first beginnings; Parmenides held that their qualities were the principles; for all things (said he) consist of cold and heat. .."

Crocus /  Crocus of Iron  

Crocus - In chemistry, a yellow powder; any metal calcined to a red or deep yellow color.

"…In the bottom there will remain a filmy dirty matter, mixed with kind of a fatness of the iron, which the fire by continuance will catch hold of.  Let it burn, and the remaining dust will be Crocus of iron..."

 "…You may put to every pound of Crystal a little Crocus Martis, and tree ounces of Jalloline, as they call it, which engravers use…"

Crocuta   

Crocuta - Spotted hyena, laughing hyena, Crocuta crocuta -- (African hyena noted for its distinctive howl)

"…For Pliny writes, and Solinus writes the same, that the Hyena and the Lioness of Ethiopia, gender the beast Crocuta …"

"… Diodorus says, that the dog which the Ethiopian calls Crocuta, is a compound of the Nature of a dog and wolf. When Niphus was hunting, one of his dogs eagerly pursued a she-wolf, and overtaking her, began to line her, changing his fierceness into lust…"

Crook    

Crook - A shepherd staff, curving at the end; a pastoral staff. When used by a bishop or abbot, it is called a crosier.

"…For it is reported that he found it by his hobnailed shoes, and his shepherds Crook that it stuck to, when he fed his flocks in Ida, where he was a shepard…"

Crop     

Crop - To cut off the ends of any thing; to eat off; to pull off; to pluck; to mow; to reap; as, to crop flowers, trees, or grass. Man crops trees or plants with an instrument, or with his fingers; a beast crops with his teeth.

Crop - The pouchlike enlargement of the gullet of birds, serving as a receptacle for food; the craw.

"…There is another sleight in Husbanding of Pot Herbs, whereby they may be produced fitter to be eaten.  And this is by Cropping the stalks of them…"

"… Theophrastus says, that the sweetest Lettuce springs up after the Cropping of the first tops…"

"… till you feel their Crops that all the old is digested. .."

Crow          

Crow - A large black fowl, of the genus Corvus; the beak is convex and cultrated, the nostrils are covered with bristly feathers, the tongue is forked and cartilaginous.

"…The Doves, for a preservative against enchantments, first gather some little Bay tree boughs, and then lay them upon their nests, to preserve their young, so do the Kites use White Brambles, the turtles Swordgrass, the Crows Withy, the Lapwings Venus-hair, the Ravens Ivy, the hens Carrot, the Partridges Reed-leaves, the Blackbirds Myrtle, the larks grass, the Swans Park-leaves, the Eagle uses Maidenhair, or the stone Etites for the same purpose…"

"…And then they bind the tree about with a kind of Broom Withes, that the Daws or Crows, or other kinds of birds may not come at the fruit to gnaw it…"

Crown        

Crown - A coin anciently stamped with the figure of a crown. The English crown is five shillings sterling. The French crown is a hundred and nine cents. Other coins bear the same name.

"…you must raise around it a border of Wax to prevent the Aquafortis which you are to pour on it from running off and which is to be separating Aquafortis with which you cover the plate with the thickness of a Crown piece…"

"…  Crown Gold of Tartary weighs 16 in the air, and 14 under water…"

Crowsfoot   

Crowsfoot ---Synonym---Marsh Crowfoot. ---Description---The root is annual. The plant itself is of a pale, shining, yellowishgreen colour, juicy and very glabrous except the flower-stalks and upper part of the stem, which are occasionally hairy. The flowers are numerous, small and of a palish yellow.

"…You may draw a scent with this way, out of those flowers, from whom you cannot draw sweet water.  Oil of Lilies, Jasmine, Musk Roses, Crowsfoot, Gilliflowers, Roses, and Orange flowers, and of others, being made this way, smell most fragrantly…"

Crows-Toes   

"… And so you will have a most odoriferous water of Musk Roses.  The same I advise to be done with Jasmine, Gilliflowers, Lilies, and Violets, and Crows-toes, and the like.  But if you are not willing to macerate them in their own waters, the same may be done in Rosewater…"

Crucible \ Crucibles          

Crucible - A chemical vessel or melting pot, made of earth, and so tempered and baked, as to endure extreme heat without melting. It is used for melting ores, metals, &c. A hollow place at the bottom of a chemical furnace.

"…Make a vessel of Potters Earth, that will endure the fire, of which Crucibles are made six foot long, and of a foot diameter…"

 "…Artificers call these pots Crucibles.  They are made of Clay, which is brought from Valencia, and does very strongly endure fire…"

Crumb    

Crumb - . A small fragment or piece; especially, a small piece of bread or other food, broken or cut off.

"… Steep Crumbs of Bread in Whey or in Milk.  Then press it out, and with that water wash your face.  For it will wonderfully white your face, and make the skin fair. .."

"…take six glasses of Milk, steep Crumbs of Bread in it five hours…"

Crup   

Crup - Short; brittle.

"…For when the skin seems Crup, it is a sign all is roasted, and the Polenta is taken away…"

Crystal                 

Crystal - In chemistry and mineralogy, an inorganic body, which, by the operation of affinity, has assumed the form of a regular solid, terminated by a certain number of plane and smooth surfaces.

"…  Crystal must be clear, transparent, and exactly made plain on both sides…"

 "…First, for the terminating of Looking-glasses, that are made of Crystal and Glass, then of other mixtures, and polishings, that a knowing artificer may know, and know how to make them…"

Crystal Pillar   

"…Nor shall the operations of a Crystal Pillar go unspoken of, for in it there are some speculations not to be despised…"

Ctefias /   Ctesias          

"..There are some place of the earth that are full of great fires, as Aetna in Sicily, the Hill Chimaera in Phaselis, the fire whereof Ctefias writes, will be kindled with water, and quenched with earth.."

"…The mountain Chimaera burns always in Phaselis, both night and day.   Gnidius Ctefias says, the fire of it is kindled by water, and is put out with earth or hay…"

Cubebs        

Cubebs---Synonym---Tailed Pepper. ---Description---A climbing perennial plant, with dioecious flowers in spikes. The fruit is a globose, pedicelled drupe. It is extensively grown in the coffee plantations, well shaded and supported by the coffee trees. Odour aromatic and characteristic- taste strongly aromatic and pungent and somewhat bitter.

"…You shall draw out a water from the seeds of Cardamom, (which Apothecaries call Grains of Paradise) Cubebs, Indian Cloves, raspings of Brasil and Spirit of Wine distilled…"

 "…Take the flowers of Sage, … Spikenard, Mace, Cubebs, Parsley seed, Cardamoms…"

CuckooCuckow    

Cuckoo - A bird of the genus Cuculus, whose name is supposed to be called from its note. The note is a call to love, and continued only during the amorous season. It is said the cuckoo lays its eggs in a nest formed by another bird, by which they are hatched.

"…For I have seen Hens sit on Geese, Ducks, and Peacock Eggs.  And Pigeons sit on Hen Eggs, and a Cuckow to sit upon any of them…"

Cuckow-pint  (Cuckoo-pint)        

See:   ArumWake-robin,   Chara

Cuckoo-pint - ---Synonyms---Lords and Ladies. Arum. Starchwort. Adder's Root. Bobbins. Friar's Cowl. Kings and Queens. Parson and Clerk. Ramp. Quaker. Wake Robin. The Arum family, Aroidae, which numbers nearly 1,000 members, mostly tropical, and many of them marsh or water plants, is represented in this country by a sole species, Arum maculatum (Linn.), familiarly known as Lords and Ladies, or Cuckoo-pint.

"…How to make bread of the Roots of Cuckow-pint,the root of Wakerobin, when it is not too acrimonious is eaten and desired in meats.   Dioscorides says, the decoction was drank, as not being over sharp…."

"…And in   Dioscorides in the false names of simples, Cuckow-pint was of old called Chara. .."

Cucumber                             

Cucumber - In the East this trailing annual plant has been extensively cultivated from some 3,000 years and spread westward. It was known to the Greeks (the Greek name being sikuos) and to the Romans. According to Pliny, the Emperor Tiberius had it on his table daily, summer and winter. Pliny describes the Italian fruit as very small, probably like our gherkin; the same form is figured in Herbals of the sixteenth century, but states, 'if hung in a tube while in blossom, the Cucumber will grow to a most surprising length

"…For as we may shape young fruits as they grow, into the fashion of any vessel or case that we make for them to grow into, as we may make a Quince like a mans head, a Cucumber  like a snake, by making a case of that fashion for them to grow in, so also we may do ty the births of living creatures…"

"…The wild Cucumber, and Coloquintida, kill Mice…"

Cull  

Cull - To separate, select, or pick out; to choose and gather or collect.

"…They are Culled, and the naughty ones serve for lights, but the Oil that comes from the best, is for to eat…"

Culters / Colter     

Colter - The fore iron of a plow, with a sharp edge, that cuts the earth or sod.

"… But thus shall you make steel extreme hard, that with that only, and no other mixture, you may make Culters very hard.."

Cumin  /  Cumine  / Cummin               

Cumin is an annual herb, Cuminum cyminum, in the family Umbelliferae, cultivated for its small fragrant fruit, cumin seeds. Ground cumin is added to curries, chili powders, and chutneys and is used to flavor meats, pickles, cheese, and sausages. Its essential oil is used in seasonings, pickles, and meat sauces, as an aromatic in perfumes, and as a flavoring in liqueurs.

See:   Latro

"…The Hind  purges herself with large Cumin, before she brings forth, that her birth may come the more easily from her…"

"… Then bruise the roots of Celandine, and of the greater clivers Madder, of each a like qulity.  Mingle them, being bruised, very well with oil, wherein Cummin seed,  shavings of Box, and a little Saffron, are mingled, annoint your head, and let it abide so for twenty hours…"

Cupid        

Cupid - the ancient Roman god of love, represented by a naked baby boy who has wings and shoots arrows at people to make them start to love each other.

"…The best means to produce this effect, is to place in the bed-chambers of great men, the images of Cupid, Adonis, and Ganymedes, or else to set them there in carved and graven works, in some solid matter, that they may always have them in their eyes…"

"…The other parts are scarce any cause of Love, but provoke and entice the beholder to stay, and gaze a while upon thier beauty, while the eyes wound him.  For there they say, Cupid lies in ambush with his bow, ready to shoot his arrows into the beholder's eyes, and set his heart on fire…"

Cupito  

( Pollard)

"… Aelian says, that in the Grecian Gulf, the sharp sighted Cupito is, but I have seen them taken in the Adriatic Sea by the fury of love…"

Curcuma   

"… Mingle together the feces of Aquafortis one ounce, Pickle and Curcuma, of each one Drachm, with oil to the form of an unguent, and anoint your face, it will make it black…"

Curd \ Curdled \ Curdle         

Curd - The coagulated or thickened part of milk, which is formed into cheese, or, in some countries, eaten as common food. The word may sometimes perhaps be used for the coagulated part of any liquor.

"…As, to make a woman fruitful, you must give her the womb and Curd of an Hare, an to the man, the Stones of an Hare…"

"…Also Cheese is Curdled with Fig tree  Milk, that comes forth of the tree, if you cut the bark..."

Currant    

Currant ---Synonyms---Quinsy Berries. Squinancy Berries. ---Description---The Black Currant is occasionally found wild in damp woods as far north as the middle of Scotland, but is considered to be a true native only in Yorkshire and the Lake District - when found apparently wild in other parts of the country, its presence is due to the agency of birds. It is easily distinguished at all seasons by the strong perfume of its buds and leaves.

 "…Take the flowers of Sage, Origanum, Mugwort, Savory, Elder, Sage leaves, White Mint, Rosemary, Basil, Marjoram, Pennyroyal, Rosebuds, the roots of Betony, Pellitory, Snake-weed, White Thistle, Aristolochy, Elder, Cretan Dittany, Currants…"

Cuttle Fish  / Cutles / Cuttle           

Cuttle - A genus of mollusca, called Sepia. They have small arms, with serrated cups, by which they lay fast hold of any thing. They have also two tentacula longer than the arms; the mouth is int he center of the arms, and is horny, and hooked like the bill of a hawk. They feed on sprats, lobsters and other shell-fish. They have a little bladder under the throat, [near the liver, Cuvier,] from which, when pursued, they throw out a black liquor that darkens the water, by which means they escape. Hence cuttle is used for a foul-mouthed fellow; one who blackens the character of another.

"…If the Pearl be above or beneath the cornea, make a powder of Sugar-Candy of Roses, burnt Allome, and the bone of a Cuttle Fish, very finely beat and searched exactly, and the patient goes to bed, sprinkle a little of this powder upon his eye, and by and by drop some of this water into it, and let him shut his eyes and sleep…"

"…  Simeon Sethi says, that if any man shall dip a wick in Cutles Ink, and Verdigrease, those that stand by will seem partly brass color, partly black, by reason of the mixture…"

Cuttle Bone    

See:   Cuttle Fish

"…Also, with red Coral, Cuttle Bone, Harts Horn, and such like, whereof everyone will well polish and wipe the teeth clean…"

Curmi   

"…Drink is made of Corn.   Dioscorides teaches to make beer of barley, also a drink is made of barley called Curmi, they use that drink often for wine…"

Curry Comb    

"…The dust which falls from the Curry combs, while the Ostler dresses Horses, or such kind of beasts, cures them ( Crab Lice) without any pain.  Or the powder of Lithargy, Aloes, Frankincense, Verdegreese, and Alome, beaten and mixed together with Oil of Mastic, and annointing the place.  The powder of Mercury precipitate, is best by far being applied…"

Cyanus  

"…Color Cyanus,or sea-water, another kind of Sapphire…"

Cyclamen  / Cyclamine  

See:   Sowbread

Cyclamen: A genus of plants of the Primrose family, having depressed rounded corms, and pretty nodding flowers with the petals so reflexed as to point upwards, whence it is called rabbits' ears. It is also called Sowbread, because hogs are said to eat the corms.

"…And this Herb is at enmity with Cyclamine or Sowbread.  For when they are put together, if either of them be green, it will dry up the other…."

Cyfer / Cipher  

Cipher - In arithmetic, an Arabian or Oriental character, of this form 0, which, standing by itself, expresses nothing, but increases or diminishes the value of other figures, according to its position. In whole numbers, when placed at the right hand of a figure, it increases its value ten fold; but in decimal fractions, placed at the left hand of a figure, it diminishes the value of that figure ten fold. A character in general. An intertexture of letters, as the initials of a name, engraved on a seal, box, plate, coach or tomb; a device; an enigmatical character. Anciently, merchants and tradesmen, not being permitted to bear family arms, bore, in lieu of them, their cyphers, or initials of their names, artfully interwoven about a cross.  A secret or disguised manner of writing; certain characters arbitrarily invented and agreed on by two or more persons, to stand for letters or words, and understood only by the persons who invent, or agree to use them. This is a mode of communicating information by letters, in time of war, with a view to conceal facts from an enemy, in case the letters should be intercepted. This art has given rise to another art, that of decyphering; and hence cipher is used for a key to unravel the characters. To have, or to learn a cipher, is to be able to interpret it.

"… Wherefore let us begin from A C sixty parts, to which I always add four Cyfers 0000.  For this purpose, that when numbers come forth, whose roots cannot be extracted, those that are taken may be the least loss…"

Cylindrical Section   

 "…To avoid this, make it of a Cylindrical Section, for it is the mean, and let it be set for the axis of the small and of the greater diflection, which may pass through the middle parallels…"

Cynamolgi   

"…Ctefias in his book of Indian matters, writes, that the people called Cynamolgi, do nourish and feed many Dogs with Bulls blood, which afterward being let loose at the Bulls of India…"

Cynocephalus /   Cynocephali      

Cynocephalus, genus Cynocephalus -- (type genus of the family Cynocephalidae)

"…The beast Cynocephalus rejoices at the rising of the moon, for then he stands up, lifting his fore-feet toward heaven, and wears a Royal Ensign upon his head…"

Cypress                      

Cypress - A genus of plants or trees. The most remarkable are the sempervirens or common cypress, the evergreen American cypress or white cedar, and the disticha or deciduous American cypress. The wood of these trees is remarkable for its durability. The coffins in which the Athenian heroes and the mummies of Egypt were deposited, are said to have been made of the first species.

"…Three Drachms of Cinnamon in powder, ten of Cypress Nuts, five green Pineapples, two Drachms of Bole-Armenick and Mastick…"

 "…In the Isle Creta, the ground is of that nature, that if it be stirred anywhere, and no other thing, sown or planted in it, it will of itself bring forth a Cypress Tree…"

Cyprian Powder      

"…How to make Cyprian Powder"

 "…How to make sweet balls….Take one ounce of Cyprian Powder, and Benjamin of the best mixture, which is brought out of Turkey. Half an ounce of Clover.  A sufficient quantity of Illyrian Iris…."

Cyrenian juice   

"…Then take some Cyrenian juice, as the Greeks call it, and pour it into the place that is hollow…"

Cyrus       

"… Herodotus says, that Harpagus sent letters to Cyrus, put into the belly of a Hart whose entrails were taken out, by one that counterfeited a shepherd hunting.  So,…"

"…The like was done by Harpagus.  He, as Herodotus says, being to discover to Cyrus some secrets, when the ways were stopped, that he could do it by no other means, he delivered the letters to a faithful servant, who went like a hunter, that had caught a Hare…"

"C"

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